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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements
PART IV

Table of Contents


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549



Form 10-K

ý   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018

o

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from            to         

Commission File Number 001-33625

VIRTUSA CORPORATION
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)



Delaware
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
  04-3512883
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)



132 Turnpike Rd
Southborough, Massachusetts 01772
(Address of principal executive office)

(508) 389-7300
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)



Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share
(Title of each class)
  The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
(Name of exchange on which registered)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None



          Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý    No o

          Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No ý

          Note—Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act from their obligations under those Sections.

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). ý Yes    o No

          Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ý

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer ý   Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a
smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o
Emerging growth company o

          If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o    No ý

          The aggregate market value of the registrant's voting and non-voting shares of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on September 29, 2017, based on $37.78 per share, the last reported sale price on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on that date, was $795,742,157.

          The number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer's class of common stock as of May 22, 2018:

Class   Number of Shares
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share   29,681,942

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

          The registrant intends to file a definitive Proxy Statement for its 2018 annual meeting of stockholders pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K. With the exception of the portions of the Proxy Statement expressly incorporated by reference, such document shall not be deemed filed with this Form 10-K.

   


Table of Contents


VIRTUSA CORPORATION
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
   
  Page  
 

PART I

 

 

       
 

Item 1.

 

Business

    3  
 

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

    24  
 

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

    50  
 

Item 2.

 

Properties

    50  
 

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

    51  
 

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

    51  
 

PART II

 

 

       
 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

    52  
 

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

    53  
 

Item 7.

 

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

    55  
 

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

    88  
 

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

    90  
 

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

    154  
 

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

    154  
 

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

    155  
 

PART III

 

 

       
 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

    156  
 

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

    156  
 

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

    156  
 

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

    156  
 

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

    156  
 

PART IV

 

 

       
 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

    157  
 

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

    163  
 

Signatures

    164  
 

Exhibit Index

    159  

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Part I

        This Annual Report on Form 10-K (the "Annual Report") contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and are subject to the "safe harbor" created by those sections. These statements relate to, among other things, our expectations concerning the growth of our business, the ability of our clients to realize benefits from the use of our IT services; projections of financial results, the results of our operations and our financial condition; our competitive landscape; the impact of new accounting pronouncements; future capital requirements and capital expenditures; market risk exposures; customer contracts; our service delivery mix and our plans, strategies and objectives for our company and our future operations. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions, future events or performance or similar subjects are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. Some of the forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terms such as "believes," "expects," "may," "will," "should," "seek," "intends," "plans," "estimates," "projects," "anticipates," or other comparable terms. These forward-looking statements involve risk and uncertainties. We cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our actual results may differ significantly from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, those set forth in "Item 1A. Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this Annual Report. Our forward- looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or strategic investments. Except as may be required by law, we have no plans to update these forward- looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this report. We caution readers not to place undue reliance upon any such forward- looking statements, which speak only as of the date made. You are advised, however, to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects in our Form 10-Q and Form 8-K reports to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC").

Item 1.    Business.

Overview

        Virtusa Corporation (the "Company", "Virtusa", "we", "us" or "our") is a global provider of digital engineering and information technology ("IT") outsourcing services that accelerate business outcomes for our clients. We support Forbes Global 2000 clients across large, consumer facing industries like banking, financial services insurance healthcare, communications, and media and entertainment, as these clients seek to improve their business performance through accelerating revenue growth, delivering compelling consumer experiences, improving operational efficiencies, and lowering overall IT costs. We provide services across the entire spectrum of the IT services lifecycle, from strategy and consulting, to technology and user experience ("UX") design, development of IT applications, systems integration, testing and business assurance, and maintenance and support services, including infrastructure and managed services. We help our clients solve critical business problems by leveraging a combination of our distinctive consulting approach, unique platforming methodology, and deep domain and technology expertise.

        Our services enable our clients to accelerate business outcomes by consolidating, rationalizing and modernizing their core customer-facing processes into one or more core systems. We deliver cost-effective solutions through a global delivery model, applying advanced methods such as Agile, an industry standard technique designed to accelerate application development. We also use our consulting methodology, which we refer to as Accelerated Solution Design ("ASD"), which is a collaborative decision-making and design process performed with the client to ensure our solutions meet the client's specifications and requirements. Our industry leading business transformational solutions combine deep domain expertise with our strengths in software engineering and business consulting to support our clients' business imperative initiatives across business growth and IT operations.

        Headquartered in Massachusetts, we have offices in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, the United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Japan,

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Australia and New Zealand, with global delivery centers in India, Sri Lanka, Hungary, Singapore and Malaysia, as well as multiple near shore delivery centers in the United States.

        We support the chief executive officers ("CXOs") at our client organizations, including the chief information officers ("CIOs"), chief technology officers ("CTOs"), chief operating officers ("COOs"), and chief digital/ marketing officers ("CDOs/ CMOs") in solving their most critical issues, including reducing total cost of ownership, accelerating time-to-market, increasing productivity, improving innovation velocity, expanding into adjacent markets and/or new revenue segments, and enhancing the customer experience delivered by their organizations. Virtusa's newly formed Digital Business Strategy Group ("DBSG") helps clients reimagine their business and develop strategies to digitally transform their business, and retain and strengthen their competitive advantage in the markets they serve. Our digital engineering services ("DES") support our clients' business growth imperative by delivering targeted and differentiated solutions that help our clients expand their addressable markets, as well as develop go-to-market strategies supporting new revenue streams. To improve IT efficiencies and reduce the cost of IT operations, we use our operational excellence services ("OES") to help our clients consolidate applications into platforms, rationalize IT infrastructure, and deliver transformational, industry-focused solutions, thereby enabling our clients to deliver modern, efficient and agile enterprise application platforms. Our deep expertise in core technology services allows us to help our clients to lower total cost of ownership of their overall IT investments. We also combine industry specialization with our core services to deliver high-impact solutions in critical business functions that help our clients transform their business performance and gain competitive advantage in the markets in which they operate.

        We are on the cusp of the fourth industrial revolution ("4IR"), driven by the convergence of technology innovation, changing consumer expectations, supply chain expansion, and emergence of disruptive start-ups, that is fundamentally changing the way businesses operate. We operate in markets and industries where the combination of a growing millennial population and rapid advances in key technologies, like mobility, big data analytics, social media and cloud computing, are providing disruptive opportunities for progressive business leaders to break down barriers and expand market-share. We enable our clients to leverage technology innovations to provide the distinctive millennial customer experiences demanded by digital consumers who are increasingly looking for services that are available 24×7 without interruption, location aware and highly customized to their social likes and dislikes. Our DBSG services help our clients understand business threats and opportunities in their industries and develop strategies to mitigate these threats and capitalize on the emerging opportunities, while preparing the business to digitally transform and position itself better in the emerging digital business environment. As part of our DES solutions, we provide end-to-end consulting, user experience design, technology selection, and implementation and support services, which allow our clients to understand emerging consumer demand in their markets of operation and develop, and execute to, a roadmap to transform their business and enhance their competitive differentiators. Commoditization of IT services and the emergence of as-a-service models are putting tremendous pressure on our clients' IT organizations to improve the way they manage IT operations and lower the overall cost of IT. Our OES solutions enable our clients to improve operational and IT efficiencies through the innovative use of automation, effort compression and IT simplification.

        New advances in areas like internet of things ("IoT"), artificial intelligence ("AI"), machine learning ("ML"), and robotics process automation ("RPA") are now pushing the boundaries of how technology can disrupt traditional business models and deliver significant value in several areas, including delivering new products and services, enhancing consumer experience, and improving operational efficiencies of the business. We have invested in developing deep capabilities in these new areas, fostering a strong partner ecosystem and building a rich platform for nurturing innovation and rapidly constructing prototypes that use IoT, AI and/or RPA to solve specific business problems for our clients. We have created innovation centers focused on certain technologies like IoT, AI, and ML, which offer a robust ecosystem for clients to participate and innovate in creating new solutions to their business challenges. Through these innovation

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centers, we have been able to deliver award winning solutions to some of our marquee clients in healthcare, communications and insurance sectors.

        Virtusa's xLabs, an important initiative we began two years ago, is our focus on tapping into the disruptive startup ecosystem and the innovative, cutting-edge technologies driving these businesses. Our xLabs, which began as a banking and financial services—focused FinTech Lab, has expanded its scope to focus on delivering digital innovation for our clients across banking and financial services, insurance, healthcare, media and telecommunications industries. We have built our xLabs solution as a cloud-based platform that offers our clients discrete technology solutions that enable them to accelerate time to market, and provides them with an experimentation sandbox that they can use to test and evaluate new products and services targeted at millennial consumers. Today, our xLabs team has built and delivered innovative solutions using open API platforms, micro services frameworks, and block-chain. We expect to continue this trend of investing in emerging technologies and solutions to accelerate digital business outcomes for our clients.

        We deliver our services using our enhanced global delivery model which leverages a highly efficient onsite-to-offshore service delivery mix and proprietary tools and processes to manage and accelerate delivery, foster innovation, and promote continual improvement of outcomes delivered to our clients. Our global service delivery teams work seamlessly at our client locations and at our global delivery centers to provide value-added services rapidly and cost-effectively. Our teams do this by using our enhanced global delivery model, which we manage to a targeted 25% to 75% onsite-to-offshore service delivery mix, although such delivery mix may be impacted by several factors, including our new and existing client delivery requirements.

        We apply our innovative platforming approach across all of our services. Through our platforming approach, we help our clients combine common business processes and rules, technology frameworks and data into reusable application platforms that can be leveraged across the enterprise to build, maintain and enhance existing and future applications. Our platforming approach enables our clients to continually improve their software platforms and applications in response to changing business needs and evolving technologies, while also allowing them to improve business agility, realize long-term and ongoing cost savings and improve their ROI. Our platforming methodology also reduces the effort and cost required to develop and maintain IT applications by streamlining and consolidating our clients' applications on an ongoing basis. We believe that our solutions provide our clients with the consultative and high-value services associated with large consulting and systems integration firms, the cost-effectiveness associated with offshore IT outsourcing firms, and the ongoing benefits of our innovative platforming approach.

        To strengthen our digital engineering capabilities, and establish a solid base in Silicon Valley, on March 12, 2018, we entered into an equity purchase agreement by and among the Company, eTouch Systems Corp. ("eTouch US") and each of the equityholders of eTouch US to acquire all of the outstanding shares of eTouch US, and certain of the Company's Indian subsidiaries entered into an share purchase agreement by and among those Company subsidiaries, eTouch Systems (India) Pvt. Ltd ("eTouch India," together with eTouch US, "eTouch") and the equityholders of eTouch India to acquire all of the outstanding shares of eTouch India.

        Under the terms of the equity purchase agreement and the share purchase agreement, on March 12, 2018, we acquired all of the outstanding shares of eTouch US and eTouch India for approximately $140.0 million in cash, subject to certain adjustments, with up to an additional $15.0 million set aside for retention bonuses to be paid to eTouch management and key employees, in equal installments on the first and second anniversary of the transaction. The purchase price will be paid in three tranches with $80.0 million paid at closing, $42.5 million on the 12-month anniversary of the close of the transaction, and $17.5 million on the 18-month anniversary of the close of the transaction, subject in each case to certain adjustments.

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        On March 3, 2016, to create a unique, fully integrated provider of comprehensive solutions and services across the banking and financial services industry, expand our addressable market, and enable us to pursue larger consulting and outsourcing contracts, our Indian subsidiary acquired approximately 51.7% of the fully diluted shares of Polaris Consulting & Services Limited ("Polaris") for approximately $168.3 million in cash (the "Polaris Transaction") pursuant to a share purchase agreement dated as of November 5, 2015, by and among our Indian subsidiary, Polaris and the promoter sellers named therein. On April 6, 2016, in connection with the Polaris Transaction, we completed an unconditional mandatory open offer (the "Mandatory Tender Offer") to purchase an additional 26% of the fully diluted outstanding shares of Polaris from Polaris' public shareholders for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $89.1 million (Indian rupees 5,935 million). Upon the closing of the Mandatory Tender Offer, our ownership interest in Polaris increased from approximately 51.7% to 77.7% of Polaris' fully diluted shares outstanding, and from approximately 52.9% to 78.8% of Polaris' basic shares outstanding. In order to comply with the applicable Indian rules on takeovers, during the three months ended December 31, 2016, we sold 3.7% of our shares of Polaris common stock through a public offering for approximately $7.6 million in proceeds, net of $0.2 million in brokerage fees and taxes, which reduced our ownership interest in Polaris from 78.6% to 74.9% of Polaris' basic shares of common stock outstanding.

        In connection with our acquisition of Polaris, on October 26, 2017, we announced our intention to commence through our Indian subsidiary, a process that could lead to the delisting of our Indian subsidiary, Polaris, from all stock exchanges on which Polaris' common shares are listed. On February 12, 2018, we consummated the Polaris delisting offer to all public shareholders of Polaris in accordance with the provisions of the SEBI Delisting Regulations, which resulted in an accepted exit price of INR 480 per share ("Exit Price"), for an aggregate consideration of approximately $145.0 million, exclusive of transaction and closing costs, resulting in Virtusa India increasing its ownership interest in Polaris from approximately 74% to approximately 93% of the share capital of Polaris. Upon receipt of final approvals from the stock exchanges on which Polaris is traded, the common shares of Polaris will be delisted from all public exchanges on which the Polaris shares are traded. For a period of one year following the date of the delisting from all stock exchanges on which Polaris common shares are listed, Virtusa India will permit, in compliance with SEBI Delisting Regulations, the public shareholders of Polaris to tender their shares for sale to Virtusa India at the Exit Price. If all the remaining shares of Polaris are tendered at the Exit Price, we would pay an additional consideration of approximately $56.0 million.

        In connection with, and as part of the Polaris acquisition, on November 5, 2015, we entered into an amendment with Citigroup Technology, Inc. ("Citi") and Polaris, which became effective upon the closing of the Polaris Transaction, pursuant to which, (i) Citi agreed to appoint the Company and Polaris as a preferred vendor for Global Technology Resource Strategy ("GTRS") for the provision of IT services to Citi on an enterprise wide basis ("GTRS Preferred Vendor"), (ii) the Company agreed to certain productivity savings and associated reduced spend commitments for a period of two years, which, if not achieved, would require the Company to provide certain minimum discounts to Citi (which is now satisfied), (iii) the parties amended Polaris' master services agreement with Citi such that the Company would also be deemed a contracting party and the Company would assume, and agree to perform, or cause Polaris to perform, all applicable obligations under the master services agreement, as amended by the amendment (the "Citi/Virtusa MSA"), and (iv) Virtusa agreed to terminate Virtusa's existing master services agreement with Citi, and have the Citi/Virtusa MSA be the sole surviving agreement.

        In support of the delisting transaction and the eTouch acquisition, on February 6, 2018, we entered into a $450.0 million credit agreement ("Credit Agreement") with a syndicated bank group jointly lead by JP Morgan Chase Bank, N.A. and Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated, which amends and restates our prior $300.0 million credit agreement (which we had originally entered into on February 25, 2016 ("Prior Credit Agreement") to fund the Polaris acquisition and Mandatory Tender Offer) and provides for a $200.0 million revolving credit facility, a $180.0 million term loan facility, and a $70.0 million delayed-draw term loan. We drew down $180.0 million under the term loan of the Credit Agreement and

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$55.0 million under the revolving credit facility under the Credit Agreement to repay in full the amount outstanding under the Prior Credit Agreement and fund the Polaris delisting transaction. On March 12, 2018, we drew down the $70 million delayed draw to fund the eTouch acquisition. Interest under this new credit facility accrues at a rate per annum of LIBOR plus 3.0%, subject to step-downs based on the Company's ratio of debt to EBITDA. We intend to enter into an interest rate swap agreement to minimize interest rate exposure. The Credit Agreement includes maximum debt to EBITDA and minimum fixed charge coverage covenants. The term of the Credit Agreement is five years, ending February 6, 2023 (see Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information). At March 31, 2018, the outstanding amount under the Credit Agreement was $305.0 million.

        On May 3, 2017, we entered into an investment agreement with The Orogen Group ("Orogen") pursuant to which Orogen purchased 108,000 shares of the Company's newly issued Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, initially convertible into 3,000,000 shares of common stock, for an aggregate purchase price of $108 million with an initial conversion price of $36.00 (the "Orogen Preferred Stock Financing"). In connection with the investment, Vikram S. Pandit, the former CEO of Citigroup, was appointed to Virtusa's Board of Directors. Orogen is a new operating company that was created by Vikram Pandit and Atairos Group, Inc., an independent private company focused on supporting growth-oriented businesses, to leverage the opportunities created by the evolution of the financial services landscape and to identify and invest in financial services companies and related businesses with proven business models.

        Under the terms of the investment, the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock has a 3.875% dividend per annum, payable quarterly in additional shares of common stock and/or cash at our option. If any shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock have not been converted into common stock prior to May 3, 2024, the Company will be required to repurchase such shares at a repurchase price equal to the liquidation preference of the repurchased shares plus the amount of accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon. If we fail to effect such repurchase, the dividend rate on the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock will increase by 1% per annum and an additional 1% per annum on each anniversary of May 3, 2024 during the period in which such failure to effect the repurchase is continuing, except that the dividend rate will not increase to more than 6.875% per annum.

        In connection with the investment, we repaid $81 million of our outstanding term loan under our Prior Credit Agreement, and our board of directors approved the repurchase of approximately $30 million of our common stock.

        On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Acts (the "Tax Act"). The Tax Act contains several key tax provisions that will impact the Company, including the reduction of the corporate income tax rate to 21% effective January 1, 2018. The Tax Act also includes a variety of other changes, such as a one-time repatriation tax on accumulated foreign earnings, a limitation on the tax deductibility of interest expense, acceleration of business asset expensing, and reduction in the amount of executive pay that could qualify as a tax deduction, among others. (See Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information)

        We provide our IT services primarily to enterprises engaged in the following industries: communications and technology ("C&T"); banking, financial services and insurance ("BFSI"); and media and information ("M&I"). Our current clients include leading global enterprises such as Citi, JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. ("JPMC") and British Telecommunications plc ("BT"), and leading enterprise software developers. We have a high level of repeat business among our clients. For instance, during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, 96% of our revenue came from clients to whom we had been providing services for at least one year. Our top ten clients accounted for approximately 50%, 45%, 47% of our total revenue in the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 respectively. Our largest client for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, Citi, accounted for 19% of our total revenue with no other client accounting for 10% or more of our revenues. For the fiscal years ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, Citi accounted for 17% and 3% respectively.

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Our approach to global IT services

        Our expertise in supporting a broad range of IT services, ability to engage through a global delivery model that optimizes outcomes and use of proprietary methodologies like platforming to improve IT efficiencies, allow us to be a trusted partner to our clients for their end-to-end IT services requirements.

        Broad range of IT services.    We provide a broad range of IT services, either individually or as part of an end-to-end solution, from business and IT consulting, customer experience and UX design, technology implementation, and platform assurance to application & infrastructure management. We have significant domain expertise in large consumer facing industries, such as C&T, BFSI and M&I. Our recent acquisition of Polaris has significantly enhanced our domain strengths in BFSI, allowing us to deliver distinctive solutions across the complete spectrum of end-to-end banking and financial services requirements. Over the past several years, our investments in building deep capabilities in industry focused solutions has helped us develop very strong domain-specific capabilities across insurance, healthcare and telecommunications industries as well. We have designed our portfolio of IT services and solutions to enable our clients to improve business performance, use IT assets more efficiently and optimize IT costs.

        Enhanced global delivery model.    We provide our services through our enhanced global delivery model that leverages a highly-efficient onsite-to-offshore service delivery mix and proprietary tools and processes to manage and accelerate delivery, foster innovation and promote continual improvement of outcomes delivered to our clients.

        Platforming approach.    We apply our innovative platforming approach across our IT consulting, technology implementation and application outsourcing services to rationalize IT application portfolios and reduce costs, increase productivity and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of our clients' IT application environments.

Our services

        Business and IT consulting services.    We provide business and IT consulting services to assist our clients in more effectively managing their continually-changing business and IT environments, and aligning their IT investments to better support current and future business requirements. Our business consulting services allow clients to mitigate risks and execute successful IT programs by enabling stakeholder alignment, formulating the business case and ROI, and defining agreed-upon end outcomes using innovative techniques, such as persona development, DILO (Day-in-the-life-of) journeys and rapid prototyping for each project. We also assist clients in assessing new approaches to improve revenue opportunities within existing markets, developing new products/solutions for existing and new markets and improving retention and share-of-wallet through a better understanding of customer behavior and engagement. We have enhanced our business consulting services portfolio with solutions specific to digital enabling our clients' businesses, allowing them to effectively assess and deploy the right kinds of digital technologies and drive the appropriate outcomes from their digital initiatives.

        The goal of our IT consulting group is to help our clients continually improve the performance of their IT application environments by adopting and evolving towards re-useable software platforms. We help clients analyze business and/or technology problems and identify and design platform-based solutions. We also assist our clients in planning and executing their IT initiatives and transition plans.

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        Our consulting services allow our clients to critically look at business processes, IT environments and their customer facing application systems, and execute targeted programs that improve performance of business critical systems, processes and services:

    Business Transformation Services       Customer Experience Transformation Services       IT Transformation Services    

 

 

 

 

 

 

Strategic Research services

 

 

 

 

 

 
   

Advisory/Target Operating Model

Business Process Re-engineering/Business management(BPM)

Transformational Solution Consulting

Business/Technology Alignment Analysis

     

Omni-channel Digital Strategy

Experience Design ASD

Employee Engagement

     

Application Portfolio Rationalization

SDLC Transformation

BA Competency Transformation

   
    Strategic Roadmap, Conceptual Design, Solution Selection & Solution Design ASD    

        During our consulting engagements, we often leverage proprietary frameworks and tools to differentiate our services from our competitors and to accelerate delivery. Examples of our unique frameworks and tools include our strategic enterprise information roadmap framework, which is a structured service offering for recommending the right IT platform, solution architecture, transition strategy and approach to meet current and future business requirements, our business process visualization tools, which enable us to analyze, design and optimize enterprise business processes, and ASD. We have also invested in our consulting services to help our clients effectively manage large, complex IT programs, and evaluate and develop strategies to millennial-enable their enterprises for the digital consumer, and support the development of new, differentiated customer experience improvement programs.

        We believe that our consulting services are further differentiated by our ability to leverage our global delivery model across our engagements. Our onsite teams work directly with our clients to understand and analyze the current-state problems and to design conceptual solutions. Our offshore teams work seamlessly with our onsite teams to design and expand the conceptual solution, research alternatives, perform detailed analyses, develop prototypes and proofs- of-concept and produce detailed reports. We believe that this approach reduces cost, allows us to explore more alternatives in the same amount of time and improves the quality of our deliverables.

        Technology implementation services.    Our technology implementation services involve building, testing, deploying, maintaining and supporting IT applications, and consolidating and rationalizing our clients' existing IT applications and environments into platforms. Leveraging our deep skills in software engineering and our expertise in the innovative use of technology to solve business problems, we help our clients' CIOs to make the right decisions on technology platform selection, support the implementation of core application systems and help solve critical business problems, while ensuring that the CIO's IT asset estate remains optimized, cost-effective and supports current and future business requirements.

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        Our technology implementation services include the following development, legacy asset management, information management and testing services:

    Application Development
Services
      Legacy Asset Management
Services
      Information Management
Services
      Testing and Application
Assurance Services
   
   

Application Development

Software Product Engineering

CRM Implementations

SAP Implementations

Content Management Services

Enterprise Mobility Services

Cloud Computing

Social Media Solutions

     

Systems Consolidation and Rationalization

Technology Migration and Porting

Web-enablement of Legacy Applications

     

Data Management Services

Business Intelligence, Reporting and Decision Support

Master Data Management

Data Integration

Big Data Analytics

     

Software Quality Assurance

Testing Frameworks

Test Automation

Performance Testing

Mobility Testing

Continuous Testing Services

Test Data Management

Managed testing services

   

        Our technology implementation services span a variety of capabilities, including custom application development, testing, maintenance and support services, and packaged software implementation services. We have extensive and deep partnerships with leading technology platform vendors. We have incorporated rapid, iterative development techniques into our approach, extensively employing prototyping, solution demonstration labs and other collaboration tools that enable us to work closely with our clients to understand and deliver to their most challenging business requirements. Leveraging our business consulting services with advanced techniques like our ASD workshops, we are able to develop and deploy applications quickly, often within solution delivery cycles of less than three months.

        Application outsourcing services.    We provide a broad set of IT application outsourcing services that enable us to provide comprehensive support for our clients' needs to manage and maintain their software applications and platforms cost-effectively. We endeavor to continually improve the applications under our management and to evolve our clients' IT applications into platforms. We combine a deep understanding of software engineering with an innovation mindset to provide targeted outsourcing services that not only help reduce the cost of existing IT operations, but also improve the quality of applications over time.

        Our outsourcing services leverage innovative techniques and methodologies to significantly improve IT efficiencies by reducing cycle time and compressing the work required to achieve specific outcomes. We help our clients reduce the cost of business operations by preemptively identifying and resolving issues in application support and maintenance. We make extensive use of Agile development methodology to reduce and minimize business disruptions due to IT issues and support the CIO organization in improving the business experience by leveraging RPA to drive automation and process efficiencies.

        Our application outsourcing services include the following application and platform management, infrastructure management and IT efficiency improvement services:

    Application & Platform Management
Services
      Infrastructure Management Services       IT Efficiency Improvement Services    
 
    

Application Maintenance and Support

Maintenance and Enhancement of Applications

Cloud-environment Management & Support

     

Managed Infrastructure Services

Remote Application Monitoring & support

     

Code Quality Assurance

Gamified development environments

Agile DevOps

Gamified Continuous Integration/ Continuous Deployment

   

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        We believe that our application outsourcing services are differentiated because they are based on the principle of migrating installed applications to flexible platforms that can sustain further growth and business change. We do this by:

    developing a roadmap for the evolution of applications into platforms

    establishing an ongoing planning and governance process for managing change

    analyzing applications for common patterns and services

    identifying application components that can be extended or enhanced as core components

    integrating new functions, features and technologies into the target architecture

        We continue to strengthen our ability to deliver infrastructure management services ("IMS") and IT support related services to our clients, helping them manage their IT operations effectively through an offshore outsourced model. We have expanded our investments into the capabilities that we obtained through our acquisition of Apparatus, Inc. in April 2015 and are now able to deliver seamless infrastructure management services to our clients around the clock, but also to perform these services in an automated, cost-effective manner. Further, we have invested in building out strong capabilities in improving efficiencies in the developer environment. Our solutions around gamified Continuous Integration/ Continuous Deployment ("gamified CICD") and Agile DevOps have helped us create a highly agile development environment that allows our clients to accelerate development cycles, improve time-to-market, and become more responsive to changes in markets in which they operate.

        Global delivery model.    We have developed an enhanced global delivery model that allows us to provide innovative IT services to our clients in a flexible, cost-effective and timely manner by leveraging an efficient onsite-to-offshore service delivery mix and our proprietary global innovation process ("GIP"), and also enables us to manage and accelerate delivery, foster innovation and promote continual improvement. We manage to a targeted 25% to 75% onsite-to-offshore service delivery mix, which allows us to provide value-added services rapidly and cost-effectively. During the past four fiscal years, we performed at least 74% of our total annual billable hours at our offshore global delivery centers. However, for the fiscal year ending March 31, 2019, we anticipate the onsite ratio to slightly increase due to new client engagements and existing work on larger, more complex programs requiring a larger onsite presence. Our delivery mix may also fluctuate from time to time due to several other factors, including new and existing client delivery requirements, as well as the impact of any acquisitions. Using our global delivery model, we generally maintain onsite teams at our clients' locations and offshore teams at one or more of our global delivery centers. Our onsite teams are generally composed of program and project managers, industry experts and senior business and technical consultants. Our offshore teams are generally composed of project managers, technical architects, business analysts and technical consultants. These teams are typically linked together through common processes and collaboration tools and a communications infrastructure that features secure, redundant paths enabling seamless global collaboration. Our global delivery model enables us to provide around the clock, world class execution capabilities that span multiple time zones.

        All of our major delivery centers, located in Hyderabad, Chennai and Bangalore in India and Colombo in Sri Lanka have been reassessed at CMMI Level 5 maturity. During our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we launched a Global CMMI Program to re-assess all of our delivery centers in Hyderabad, Chennai and Bangalore, India, and Colombo, Sri Lanka against CMMI-DEV v1.3 ML5 & CMMI-SVC v1.3 ML3. This would the first of the initiatives to cover multi-locations and multi-models (CMMI-DEV & CMMI-SVC). We expect the re-assessment to be completed by within our 2019 fiscal year. CMMI is a process improvement model used to improve a company's ability to manage project deliveries to ensure predictable results. CMMI's process levels are regarded as the standard in the industry for evolutionary paths in software and systems development and management.

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        Our enhanced global delivery model is built around our proprietary GIP, which is a software lifecycle methodology that combines our experience building platform-based solutions for global clients with leading industry standards such as rational unified process, eXtreme programming, capability maturity model and product line engineering. By leveraging GIP templates, tools and artifacts across diverse disciplines such as requirements management, architecture, design, construction, testing, application outsourcing and production support, each team member is able to leverage software engineering and platforming best practices and extend these benefits to clients.

        During the initial phase of an engagement, we work with the client to define the specific approach and tools that will be used for the engagement. This process tailoring takes into consideration the client's business objectives, technology environment and currently-established development approach. We believe our innovative approach to adapting proven techniques into a custom process has been an important differentiator that allows us to deliver substantially greater value to our clients in a cost effective and timely manner.

        The backbone of GIP is our global delivery operations infrastructure. This infrastructure combines enabling tools and specialized teams that assist our project teams with important enabling services such as workforce planning, knowledge management, integrated process and program management and operational reporting and analysis.

        Two important aspects of our global delivery model are innovation and continuous improvement. A dedicated process group provides three important functions: they continually monitor, test and incorporate new approaches, techniques, tools and frameworks into GIP; they advise project teams, particularly during the process-tailoring phase; and they monitor and audit projects to ensure compliance. New and innovative ideas and approaches are broadly shared throughout the organization, selectively incorporated into GIP and deployed through training. Clients also contribute to innovation and improvement as their ideas and experiences are incorporated into our body of knowledge. We also seek regular informal and formal client feedback. Our global leadership and executive team regularly interact with client leadership and each client is typically given a formal feedback survey on a quarterly basis. Client feedback is qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and forms an important component of our teams' performance assessments and our continual improvement plans.

        Platforming approach.    We apply our innovative platforming approach across our business and IT consulting, technology implementation and application outsourcing services to rationalize IT application portfolios and reduce costs, increase productivity and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of our clients' IT application environments. As part of our platforming approach, we assess our clients' application environments to identify common elements, such as business processes and rules, technology frameworks and data. We incorporate those common elements into one or more application platforms that can be leveraged across the enterprise to build, enhance and maintain existing and future applications in a leaner environment. Our platforming approach enables our clients to continually improve their software platforms and applications in response to changing business needs and evolving technologies while also realizing long-term and ongoing cost savings.

        Our platforming approach is embodied in a set of proprietary processes, tools and frameworks that address the fundamental challenges confronting IT executives. These challenges include managing the rising costs of technology ownership, while simultaneously supporting business demands to foster innovation, accelerate time-to-market, improve service and enhance productivity. Our platforming approach draws from analogs in industries that standardize on platforms composed of common components and assemblies used across multiple product lines. Similarly, we work with our clients to evolve their diverse software assets into unified, rationalized software platforms. Our platforming approach leads to simplified and standardized software components and assemblies that work together harmoniously and readily adapt to support new business applications. For example, a software platform for trading, once developed within an investment bank, can be the foundation for the bank's diverse trading

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applications in equities, bonds and currencies. Our platforming approach stands in contrast to traditional enterprise application development projects, where different applications remain separate and isolated from each other, replicating business logic, technology frameworks and enterprise data.

        At the center of our platforming approach is a five-level maturity framework that allows us to adapt our service offerings to meet our clients' unique needs. Level 1 maturity in our platforming approach represents traditional applications where every line of code is embedded and unique to the application and every application is monolithic. Level 2 applications are less monolithic and more flexible and demonstrate characteristics such as configurability and customizability. Level 3 applications are advanced applications where the common code components and software assets are leveraged across multiple application families and product lines. Level 4 applications are framework-driven where the core business logic is reused with appropriate custom logic built around it. At the highest level of maturity are Level 5 applications, where platforms are greatly leveraged to simplify and accelerate application development and maintenance. At lower levels of maturity, few assets are created and reused. Consequently, agility, total cost of ownership and ability to quickly meet business needs are suboptimal. As organizations mature along this continuum, from Level 1 to Level 5, substantial intellectual property is created and embodied in software platforms that enable steady gains in agility, reduce overall cost of ownership and accelerate time-to-market for business applications and services.

        Our platforming approach improves software quality and IT productivity. Software assets within platforms are reused across applications, their robustness and quality improve with time and our clients are able to develop software with fewer defects. A library of ready-made building blocks significantly enhances productivity and reduces software development risks compared to traditional methods. This establishes a cycle of continual improvement in that the more an enterprise embraces platform-based solutions, the better the quality of its applications will be, and the less the effort required to build, enhance and maintain them.

Our IT solutions

        Our go-to-market strategy is to support our clients in accelerating business growth, while reducing the cost of IT operations. Our DTi solutions help our clients to support business growth initiatives, while our OE solutions allow our clients to improve IT efficiencies and reduce costs. Underlying these two broad solution areas is a set of transformational solution capabilities that support and augment our ability to add value through DTi and OE capabilities.

        Digital Engineering Services-based solutions.    Our DES solutions are designed to enable our clients to accelerate business growth by capitalizing on market adjacencies, developing new, complementary market segments, creating compelling digital storefronts, and delivering engaging digital consumer experiences. Our DES solutions harness innovative technology advances in mobility, social media, cloud computing and big data analytics to help our clients modernize their IT application environments and enable their businesses to capitalize on the new wave of millennial consumer demand and expectations.

        We have made significant investments in building out and expanding our digital capabilities including investments in UX and digital consulting. Over the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we not only developed a comprehensive framework to assess our clients' digital maturity, but also invested in a substantive market survey that helps us benchmark our clients' survey results against the best in their industry. We use this to help our clients develop a roadmap to digitally transform their businesses, leveraging our learning from what the best organizations in the industry are doing.

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        We offer the following solutions which enable our clients to address or serve the growing needs of the millennial generation:

 
  Strategy & Innovation
   
  Design & Engineering
   
  Optimization & Automation
   
 
    

Innovation Consulting

Mobile Strategy

Omni-channel Strategy

Content Strategy

Data Management Strategy

Cloud Strategy

Cyber Security

     

User experience Design

Mobile & Wearable Apps

Responsive Web Development

Portal Simplification

Digital Marketing & Commerce

Employee Engagement

Enterprise Data Hubs

     

Internet of Things

Artificial Intelligence & Cognitive Computing

Big Data & Analytics

Enterprise Mobile Management

Cloud Deployment & Migration

Robotics Process Automation

   

        We have invested in creating digital technology labs and innovation hubs within our global delivery centers to foster the development of emerging technology solutions and enable our clients to become digital enterprises. Our acquisition of eTouch Systems Corp., in March 2018, has helped strengthen our digital engineering capabilities, and establish a solid base in Silicon Valley, the hub of high-tech engineering companies. This acquisition will improve the digital engineering services we provide our clients, and help reinforce Virtusa's leadership position as a go-to partner for digital business transformation programs.

        Operational Excellence Services—based solutions.    Our OES solutions enable our clients to use innovative approaches to effort compression, IT simplification and automation to generate significant improvements in IT efficiencies in their organizations, including significant cost savings, improved ability to manage and deploy high quality, robust applications, accelerate time to market and reduce risks to business from IT inefficiencies. Our OES solutions use our proprietary Platforming approach, pre-emptive application management techniques, test automation, Agile DevOps, gamified CICD, cloud migration and hosting, and Robotics Process Automation ("RPA") to support our client CIOs and COOs reduce technical debt, lower total cost of ownership of IT assets, improve operational efficiencies and accelerate time to market. We use proprietary business consulting methodologies, like ASD, to help clients improve accuracy and scope of the solution being delivered, align organizational stakeholders on common, shared objectives, and accelerate the solution development process. Our unique platforming methodology helps clients rationalize their IT application infrastructure and develop lean, optimized enterprise application platforms that significantly lower the cost of maintenance, while improving the agility of the business to respond to emerging market demands.

        We provide a set of OES solutions across the IT lifecycle:

 
  IT & Business Consulting
   
  Platforming
   
  Solutions
   
  Application Outsourcing
   
 
    

Accelerated Solution Design ("ASD")

Business Process Re-engineering

     

Lean Outcomes

Platforming

     

Business Process Management

Robotics Process Automation

Cloud Migration

     

Pre-emptive Application Management

IT managed services

   

        Over the past two years, we have increased our investments in areas like cloud computing, RPA, and gamified CICD through the establishment of innovation labs to support solution development and co-create proofs-of-concept and minimum viable products with our clients.

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        Transformational solutions.    We act as trusted advisors to our clients, combining our core services with deep industry specialization to deliver transformational solutions that help position our clients' businesses for competitive advantage in their chosen markets.

        Our transformational solutions across IT and business consulting, platforming, technology and application outsourcing areas include:

 
  IT & Business Consulting
   
  Platforming
   
  Solutions
   
  Application Outsourcing
   
 
    

Domain solutions

Business process re-engineering

Large program management

     

Large global platforms

     

Claims management

Policy administration

Client lifecycle management

Know your customer

Regulatory & compliance

Billing systems

Customer experience management

Provider lifecycle management

Pharmaco-vigilance

     

Application support & maintenance platforms

   

        We leverage our business consulting expertise to manage large, complex programs and deliver critical business process re-engineering advice to our clients. We have recently expanded our platforming expertise to cover large programs impacting global business platforms and multi-country implementations. The industry and domain expertise we have developed over the past decade has helped us develop business solutions like claims management and policy administration solutions for insurance companies; client lifecycle management, know your customer, and regulatory and compliance solutions for banks; member reach and care management solutions for healthcare providers; billing solutions for telecommunication providers; and customer experience management solutions for leisure and hospitality businesses.

Sales and marketing

        Our global sales, marketing and business development teams seek to develop strong relationships with IT and business executives at prospective and existing clients to establish long-term business relationships that continue to grow in size and strategic value. At March 31, 2018 and 2017, we had 314 and 298 marketing and business development full time equivalents, respectively, including sales managers, sales representatives, client service partners, account managers, telemarketers, sales support personnel and marketing professionals.

        The sales cycle for our services often includes initiating contact with a prospective client, understanding the prospective client's business challenges and opportunities, performing discovery or assessment activities, submitting proposals, providing client case studies and references and developing proofs-of-concept or solution prototypes. We organize our sales teams in strategic business units by geography and with professionals who have specialized industry knowledge. This industry focus enables our sales teams to better understand the prospective client's business and technology needs and to offer appropriate industry-focused solutions.

        Sales and sales support.    Our sales and sales support teams focus primarily on identifying, targeting and building relationships with prospective clients. These teams are supported in their efforts by industry specialists, technology consultants and solution architects, who work together to design client-specific solution proposals. Our sales and sales support teams are based in offices throughout the United States, Europe and Asia.

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        Account management.    We assign experienced account managers who build and regularly update detailed account development plans for each of our clients. These managers are responsible for developing strong working relationships across the client organization, working day-to-day with the client and our service delivery teams to understand and address the client's needs. Our account managers work closely with our clients to develop a detailed understanding of their business objectives and technology environments. We use this knowledge to identify and target additional consulting engagements and other outsourcing opportunities.

        Marketing.    We maintain a marketing presence in the United States, Europe (including the United Kingdom), India, and Sri Lanka. Our marketing team seeks to build our brand awareness and generate target lists and sales leads through industry events, press releases, thought leadership publications, direct marketing campaigns and referrals from clients, strategic alliances and industry analysts. The marketing team maintains frequent contact with industry analysts and experts to understand market trends and dynamics.

        Strategic alliances.    We have strategic alliances with software companies, some of which are also our clients, to provide services to their customers. We believe these alliances differentiate us from our competition. Our extensive engineering, quality assurance and technology implementation and support services to software companies enable us to compete more effectively for the technology implementation and support services required by their customers. In addition, our strategic alliances with software companies allow us to share sales leads, develop joint account plans and engage in joint marketing activities.

Clients and industry expertise

        We market and provide our services to companies in North America, Europe and Asia. For additional discussion regarding geographic information, see note 21 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report. A majority of our revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 was generated from Forbes Global 2000 firms or their subsidiaries. We believe that our regular, direct interaction with senior executives at these clients, the breadth of our client relationships and our reputation within these clients as a thought leader differentiate us from our competitors. The strength of our relationships has resulted in significant recurring revenue from existing clients. For instance, our largest client for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, Citi, accounted for 19% of our total revenue, and for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, accounted for 17% and 3%, respectively.

        We focus primarily on three industries: C&T, BFSI and M&I. We build expertise in these industries through our customer experience and industry alliances by hiring industry specialists and by training our business analysts and other team members in industry-specific topics. Drawing on this expertise, we strive to develop industry-specific perspectives and services.

        Communications and technology.    For our communications clients, we focus on customer service, sales and billing functions, and regulatory compliance, helping them improve service levels, reduce time-to-market and modernize their IT environments. For our technology clients, which include hardware manufacturers and software companies, we provide a wide range of industry-specific service offerings, including product management services, product architecture, engineering and quality assurance services, and professional services to support product implementation and integration. These clients often employ cutting-edge technology and generally require strong technical skills and a deep understanding of the software product lifecycle.

        Banking, financial services and insurance.    We provide services to clients in the retail, wholesale and investment banking areas; financial transaction processors; and insurance companies encompassing life, property and casualty and health insurance. For our BFSI clients, we have developed industry specific services for each of these sectors, such as an account opening framework for banks, compliance services for

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financial institutions, and customer self-service solutions for insurance companies. The need to rationalize and consolidate legacy applications is pervasive across these industries and we have tailored our platforming approach to address these challenges.

        Media and information.    We focus primarily on solutions involving electronic publishing, online learning, content management, information workflow and mobile content delivery as well as personalization, search technology and digital rights management. Many M&I providers are focused on building common platforms that provide customized content from multiple sources, customized and delivered to many consumers using numerous delivery mechanisms. We believe our platforming approach is ideally suited to these opportunities.

Competition

        The IT services market in which we operate is highly competitive, rapidly evolving and subject to shifting client needs and expectations. This market includes a large number of participants from a variety of market segments, including:

    offshore IT outsourcing firms, such as Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation, HCL Technologies Limited, Infosys Technologies Limited, Capgemini Service SAS, Tata Consultancy Services Limited, Tech Mahindra Limited and Wipro Limited

    consulting and systems integration firms, such as Accenture PLC., Capgemini Service SAS, Computer Sciences Corporation, Deloitte Consulting LLP and IBM Global Services

        We also occasionally compete with in-house IT departments, smaller vertically-focused IT service providers and local IT service providers based in the geographic areas where we compete. For instance on the millennial enablement side, we often compete with established digital services firms like SapientNitro or EPAM systems, as well as smaller vendors that compete on the basis of local presence, pricing and niche solutions/capabilities.

        We expect additional competition from offshore IT outsourcing firms in emerging locations such as Eastern Europe, Latin America and China, offshore IT service providers with facilities in less expensive geographies within India and lower cost, near shore centers established by our competitors to provide accelerated staffing alternatives at competitive pricing.

        We believe that the principal competitive factors in our business include technical expertise and industry knowledge, a breadth of service offerings to provide one-stop solutions to clients, a well-developed recruiting, training and retention model, responsiveness to clients' business needs, and quality of services. We believe that we compete favorably with respect to these factors. Many of our competitors, however, have significantly greater financial, technical and marketing resources and a greater number of IT professionals than we do. We cannot assure you that we will continue to compete favorably or that we will be successful in the face of increasing competition.

Human resources

        We thrive to bring "human" to all our "resources." We achieve this through cultivating a culture of empowering our team members at all levels and equipping them to nurture the teams below them. Our success lies in our ability to attract, develop, motivate and retain highly-skilled and multi-dimensional team members. We are able to accomplish this by focusing our people management strategy on six key components: recruiting, performance management, training and development, employee engagement and communication, compensation and retention. Our people management strategy also includes engaging subcontractors at all of our locations, especially in niche or hard to hire skills, on an as needed basis for specific client engagements.

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        Recruiting.    To satisfy our clients needs, we need to ensure that we hire the best in market. Our global recruiting and hiring process addresses our need for a large number of highly-skilled, talented team members via a rigorous and efficient interview process involving technical, industry and analytics screening.

        In 2017 we won Candidate Experience Awards for delivering outstanding experiences to candidates throughout the recruitment process in geographies like North American (NA) and APAC.

        Over the years our campus hiring program has become very robust both in India and Sri Lanka. We started with an initiative called COE (Centre of Excellence) where we partner with colleges to develop IT curriculum, and support and train their faculty and award sponsorships. Our COE initiative in India commenced in the year 2014 and has grown from five colleges to sixteen colleges during our 2018 fiscal year. We have established eighteen COEs in sixteen colleges spread across the country. These COEs focus on current and futuristic skills like Java, data science, big data, Talend, cloud, CRM, specialized testing, BPM, front end engineering and Adobe CQ. This has resulted in a reduction of in-house training days post-hiring. These programs have helped us in improving the quality of hires, and ensuring our team members are project-ready faster.

        Performance management.    In our 2018 fiscal year, we took a step to move away from the traditional way of measuring employee performance and adopted a new platform called REPS (Real-time Engagement and Performance Score) for 40% for our team members. REPS is developed internally by our team and captures most of the performance areas on a real-time basis. The platform focuses on the need of having a transparent and gamified performance system for the millennial workforce. The platform also captures the engagement level of our team members, not just by measuring them on 4-5 key performance areas, but also on how they contribute to their self-development, teamwork and impact on the overall organization and its initiatives. Real-time performance data is visible to everyone, which enables a continuous feedback mechanism, which fosters trust, and empowers employees to be accountable for their performance in real time and not semi-annually as in the earlier framework. We have a roadmap for scaling up for larger population in the coming years. We won the Silver International Stevie Award for HR Department of the Year for innovation in employee empowerment.

        Training and development.    While we focus on hiring the best talent, our bigger focus is on development and reskilling our team members so that they remain relevant from a technology standpoint. We also focus on social learning through digital platforms wherein team members can collaborate and mentor each other to develop in technical field and behavioral space. We were able to deliver an average of 43.9 hours of training to our team members, resulting in higher deployment and higher retention as compared to the previous year. Virtusa has been recognized by ATD (Association for Talent Development) for the successful implementation of our Employee Learning week that we conducted in December 2017.

        Employee engagement and communication.    We strongly believe that open communication is essential to our team-oriented culture. Through regular company-wide updates from senior management, complemented by team member sessions at the regional, local and account levels, as well as regular town hall sessions, we ensure that we engage and interact with all our employees to optimize individual career paths while fostering a team culture. We use a digital platform called RAVE for acknowledging each other on a real-time basis on good work performed by our team members. We also use the platform to promote the pursuit of excellence, integrity, respect and leadership (PIRL) which are our core values. Yammer is another social digital business platform that we widely use to interact and share ideas and information with your colleagues. This strengthens collaboration and facilitates knowledge sharing, while driving transparency. We have been certified as one of UK's Top Employers for the 7th consecutive year, providing excellent employee conditions, nurturing talent, and striving to continuously improve employment practices.

        Compensation.    The best team members demand best remuneration. We consistently benchmark our compensation and benefits with relevant market data and make adjustments based on market trends and individual performance. Our compensation philosophy rewards performance by linking both variable compensation and salary increases to performance.

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        Retention.    To attract, retain and motivate our team members, we seek to provide an environment that rewards entrepreneurial initiatives, adaptive leadership and performance. During the twelve months ended March 31, 2018, we experienced voluntary team member attrition at a rate of 11.8% and involuntary team member attrition at a rate of 7%, which includes 3.4% related to implementation of certain cost saving and restructuring initiatives. We remain committed to improving and sustaining our voluntary attrition levels consistent with our long-term stated goals.

        We define attrition as the ratio of the number of team members who have left us during a defined period to the total number of team members that were on our payroll at the end of the period. Our human resources team, along with the business units, have been able to successfully bring down the voluntary attrition percentage from 14.5% in fiscal year 2017 to 11.8% in fiscal year 2018. We ensure retention of the right talent in the organization through various initiatives like:

    providing re-skilling and development opportunities to our team members

    sharing clear career paths with the team members and doing timely rotations so that team members get better exposure

    providing team members opportunities to interact with our clients in their transformational journey

    creating a transparent performance management system where team members can see each other's achievements through leader boards, thus inducing a competitive yet healthy work culture

    providing digital tools to ensure that team members are able to share their views cutting across all levels of the organization on a non-moderated platform

    ensuring that team members own their performance by focusing on self-development, knowing how to contribute to the team, and being aware of how they can make an impact on the overall organization

    adopting a system to manage our people-related transactions in a more efficient way based mainly on self-service modules, hence empowering our leaders and their team members to take faster and informed decisions related to people matters

        At March 31, 2018, we had 20,491 team members worldwide. We also engage outside contractors from time to time to supplement our services on an as needed basis. None of our team members are covered by a collective bargaining agreement or represented by a labor union. We consider our relations with our team members to be good.

Network and infrastructure

        Our global IT infrastructure is designed to provide uninterrupted service to our clients. Through a combination of targeted investments and a strong understanding of the emerging cybersecurity trends, we currently have a mature capability that can support any specific security and compliance requirements that our clients may have, in addition to the industry best-in-class safeguards that we already use to protect the client's network and infrastructure.

        We use a secure, high-performance communications network to enable our clients' systems to connect seamlessly to each of our offshore global delivery centers. We provide flexibility for our clients to operate their engagements from any of our offshore global delivery centers by using mainstream network topologies, including site-to-site virtual private networks, international private leased circuits and multiprotocol label switching. We also provide videoconferencing, voice conferencing and Voice over Internet Protocol capabilities to our global delivery teams and clients to enable clear and uninterrupted communication in our engagements, be it intra-company or with our clients.

        We monitor our network performance on a 24×7 basis to ensure high levels of network availability and periodically upgrade our network to enhance and optimize network efficiency across all operating

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locations. We use leased telecommunication lines to provide redundant data and voice communication with our clients' facilities and among all of our facilities in Asia, the United States and Europe. We also maintain multiple sites across our global delivery centers in Asia, particularly our largest centers in India and Sri Lanka, and the United States back-up centers to provide for continuity of infrastructure and resources in the case of natural disasters or other events that may cause a business interruption.

        Our network infrastructure and access is secured using two factor authentication, mobile data management, data leakage prevention, advanced malware protection and periodically subjected external vulnerability audits. We are ISO 27001 and ISO 22301 certified in all our major Asia centers to safeguard clients' and Virtusa's own information assets, and believe that we meet all our clients' stringent security requirements for ongoing business with them.

Intellectual property

        We believe that our continued success depends in part on the skills of our team members, the ability of our team members to continue to innovate and our intellectual property rights. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and design laws, trade secrets, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property rights and proprietary methodologies. It is our policy to enter into confidentiality agreements with our team members and consultants that generally provide that any confidential or proprietary information developed by us or on our behalf be kept confidential. We have also designed procedures to generally control access to and distribution of our proprietary information. We pursue the registration of certain of our trademarks and service marks in the United States and other countries. We have registered the mark "Virtusa" in the United States, the European Community and India and have filed for registration of "Virtusa" in Sri Lanka. We have registered in the United States the service marks "BPM Test Drive" which we use to describe our consulting service offering involving business process management or BPM project implementation and "ACCELERATING BUSINESS OUTCOMES," which we use to describe the benefits of our services. We have no issued patents.

        Our business involves the development of IT applications and other technology deliverables for our clients. Our clients usually own the intellectual property in the software applications that we develop for them. We generally implement safeguards designed to protect our clients' intellectual property in accordance with their needs and specifications. Our means of protecting our and our clients' proprietary rights, however, may not be adequate. Despite our efforts, we may be unable to prevent or deter infringement or other unauthorized use of our and our clients' intellectual property. Legal protections afford only limited protection for intellectual property rights and the laws of India and Sri Lanka do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as those of the United States and the United Kingdom. Time-consuming and expensive litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce these intellectual property rights.

        In addition, we cannot assure you that our intellectual property or the intellectual property that we develop for our clients does not or will not infringe the intellectual property rights of others. Defending against such claims, even if they are not meritorious, could be expensive and divert our attention from operating our company. If we become liable to third parties for infringing upon their intellectual property rights, we could be required to indemnify our client(s), pay substantial damage awards and be forced to develop non-infringing technology, obtain licenses, or cease delivery of the applications that contain the infringing technology.

Virtusa Sustainability Program

        During the fiscal year ending March 31, 2018, we continued to strengthen our sustainability program. The goal of our sustainability program is to help reduce our environmental footprint, with ethical maturity, respect and dignity to all. Our sustainability program is an extension of our core corporate values of PIRL. We believe in doing more, and better, with less to help reduce the environmental footprint of our operations.

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        Our sustainability program is based on the following core elements.

 
  Area
   
  Framework
   
  Current Status
   
 

  

 

Health & Safety

      OSHAS 18001:2007       Eleven technology centers in India and Sri Lanka are certified.    

 

 

Environment (Code Green)

     

ISO 14001:2004 (EMS)

     

Eleven technology centers in India and Sri Lanka are certified for ISO 14001.

   

 

         

ISO 50001:2011 Guidance (Energy)

     

Encompasses climate change, emissions, energy, water and waste management.

We report our GHG emissions to the Carbon Disclosure Project.

   

 

         

ISO 14064 Guidance (Climate Change)

           

 

 

Business Continuity Management

      ISO 22301:2012       Nine technology centers in India, Sri Lanka, UK, USA and Hungary are certified.    

 

 

Information Security

      ISO 27001:2013       Seventeen technology centers in India, Sri Lanka, UK, USA, Singapore and Hungary are certified.    

 

 

Labor Standards and Diversity

     

SA 8000 Guidance

Modern Slavery Act 2015 (UK)

Equality Act 2010 (UK)

United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD)

United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs)

      Policies formulated under SA 8000 guidance since July 2016.    

 

 

Anti-Bribery and Corruption

     

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 1977

Bribery Act 2010 (UK)

      Policy signed in line with framework.    

 

 

Management Engagement, Social Impact

     

ISO 26000 Guidance Companies Act 2013 section 135 (India)

      Create social impact through the following:

Digital Reach—Creating a digitally inclusive society.

Campus Reach—Supporting the next generation of IT professionals to be workforce ready.

Tech Reach—Using technology for good.

CSR Operating Committee for pan-India formed in 2015.

   

        In our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we mapped each of these core elements in the framework with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in order to identify business priorities. As a result, the following SDGs were identified as high priority: Gender Equality; Decent Work and Economic Growth; Responsible Consumption and Production; Climate Action; Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions. The following SFDs were identified as medium priority: Quality Education; Clean Water and Sanitation; Industry Innovation and Infrastructure; Partnerships for the Goals.

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        Our sustainability program is backed by relevant certification, policies and employee training for the core areas. During our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we obtained ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certification for heritage Polaris Consulting technology centers in India. Under our Social Responsibility Program and related policies, we prohibit the use of forced labor, slavery or human trafficking and comply with all aspects of the Modern Slavery Act 2015 (UK)..

        Engagement, transparency and reporting enable us to continuously improve our sustainability program. While we have been a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) since 2008, in 2017 we chose to strengthen our commitment by selecting the participant engagement level. We have also been responding to the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) Supply Chain program since 2011 and the Climate Change program since 2016. Our 2017 performance band was "B" and we received a "B" for the Supplier Engagement Rating. Our CDP response can be accessed at: https://www.cdp.net/en/responses/20186. Our Communication on Progress (COP) to the UNGC can be accessed at: https://www.unglobalcompact.org/participation/report/cop/create-and-submit/active/392881.

        With regards to corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities, we focus on strategic projects where we can provide long term value. CSR projects are administered under three pillars: Campus Reach, Tech Reach and Digital Reach.

        Campus Reach—Our Campus Reach initiative is an industry-academia partnership designed to support the next generation of IT professionals to be workforce ready and thereby contribute to the growth of the IT/BPO industry. Campus Reach includes support on curriculum development, an internship program, mentoring for final year projects and Academic Excellence Awards.

        Tech Reach—Through Tech Reach, we use our software development and consulting expertise to contribute to projects of social benefit. Details of current Tech Reach projects are given below:

    Sahana: 80+ employees built the coordination portal for the Government of Sri Lanka (CNO) within two weeks of the 2004 tsunami. "Sahana" has since been donated for public good and has been used around the world, including in the United States, Japan, Pakistan and Philippines for disaster management.

    Àkura: The "Àkura" open source school management system was developed to help schools manage their administrative tasks more efficiently.

    Rehabilitation Management System (RMS): RMS was developed as a solution to expedite the re-integration of war rehabilitees in Sri Lanka and manage their vocational training needs. The software was a nominee at Computerworld Honors Program Laureate in 2011 and was selected as a case study by the UN Global Compact for its Responsible Business Advancing Peace program in 2013.

    Clean Chennai Mobile App: Our employees created a scalable application for the Clean Chennai initiative, which aims to manage waste in a sustainable manner and create public awareness to reduce litter. The application was developed in collaboration with the SWM and EDP team of Corporation of Chennai.

    117 App: We developed an online solution for the Disaster Management Center (DMC) of Sri Lanka to facilitate better tracking and responsiveness to aid requests in the aftermath of the 2016 floods. Overall, more than 73,000 people were supported through the app.

        Digital Reach—Through Digital Reach, we aim to create a digitally inclusive society by IT-enabling communities. We helped set up a Digital Learning Center (DLC) for war rehabilitees in Sri Lanka, and also set up over 70 IT labs in rural schools.

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        In India, we carried out the following corporate social responsibility activities during our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018:

    Virtusa sponsored the "Carbon Zero—Renewable Energy Innovation Challenge" hosted by the Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT Madras) jointly with IWMA (Industrial Waste Management Association), in collaboration with the U.S. Consulate General, Chennai. "Carbon Zero Challenge" aimed to accelerate innovations that address climate change and help achieve the larger goal of fostering a sustainable ecosystem.

    Support for Computer Shiksha, a nonprofit organization that works towards computer literacy among underprivileged children. The goal of Computer Shiksha is to reach a million children by 2020. Training is done through practical classroom learning as well as online videos.

    Virtusa extended support for Ullas Trust, which was started in 1997 by Polaris Consulting to recognize academic excellence in students from economically challenged areas and focuses on students from Class (Grade) 9 to 12. Over the two decades, Ullas has awarded merit scholarships to more than 52,000 students. In addition, the SUMMIT weekend enrichment programs provide five interventions of three hours each per year over the four year period of the child's association with Ullas.

Business segments and geographic information

        We view our operations and manage our business as one operating segment. For information regarding net revenue by geographic regions for each of the last three fiscal years, see note 21 to our consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 contained in this Annual Report.

Our corporate and available information

        We were originally incorporated in Massachusetts in November 1996 as Technology Providers, Inc. We reincorporated in Delaware as eRunway, Inc. in May 2000 and subsequently changed our name to Virtusa Corporation in April 2002. Our principal executive offices are located at 132 Turnpike Road, Suite 300, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772, and our telephone number at this location is (508) 389-7300. Our website address is www.virtusa.com. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of, or incorporated by reference into, this Annual Report. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are available free of charge through the investor relations page of our internet website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission. In addition, we make available our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics free of charge through our website. We intend to disclose any amendments to, or waivers from, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that are required to be publicly disclosed pursuant to rules of the SEC and the NASDAQ Stock Market by filing such amendment or waiver with the SEC and posting it on our website.

        No information on our Internet website is incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors.

        We operate in a rapidly changing environment that involves a number of risks, some of which are beyond our control. This discussion highlights some of the risks which may affect future operating results. These are the risks and uncertainties we believe are most important for you to consider. Our operating results and financial condition have varied in the past and may vary significantly in the future depending on a number of factors. We cannot be certain that we will successfully address these risks. If we are unable to address these risks, our business may not grow, our stock price may suffer and/or we may be unable to stay in business. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, which we currently deem immaterial or which are similar to those faced by other companies in our industry or business in general, may also impair our business operations.

        Except for the historical information in this Annual Report, various matters contained in this Annual Report include forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. The following factors, among others, could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report and presented elsewhere by management from time to time. Such factors, among others, may have a material adverse effect upon our business, results of operations and financial condition. You should consider carefully the following risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report. Each of these risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our common stock.

Risks relating to our business

Our revenue is highly dependent on a small number of clients, and the loss of, or material reduction in, revenue from any one of our major clients could significantly harm our results of operations and financial condition.

        We have historically earned, and believe that over the next few fiscal years we will continue to earn, a significant portion of our revenue from a limited number of clients. For our fiscal years ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, our top three clients collectively generated approximately 31% and 27% of our revenue, respectively. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, Citi accounted for 19% of our total revenue. The loss of, or material reduction in revenue from any one of our major clients could materially reduce our total revenue, harm our reputation in the industry and/or reduce our ability to accurately predict our revenue, net income and cash flow. The loss of, or material reduction in revenue from any one of our major clients could also adversely affect our gross profit and utilization as we seek to redeploy resources previously dedicated to that client. Generally, our clients retain us on a non-exclusive, engagement-by-engagement basis, rather than under exclusive long-term contracts and may typically terminate or reduce our engagements without termination related penalties. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that revenue from our major clients will not be significantly reduced in the future, including from factors unrelated to our performance or work product such as consolidation by or among our clients, or the acquisition of a client or cost savings initiatives of our clients which may result in immediate lower external spend by our clients. Further, the loss of, or material reduction in, revenue from any one of our major clients has required us, and could in the future require us, to increase involuntary attrition. This could have a material adverse effect on our attrition rate and make it more difficult for us to attract and retain IT professionals in the future.

        We may not be able to maintain our client relationships with our major clients on existing or on continued favorable terms and our clients may not renew their agreements with us, in which case our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected. Our client concentration may also subject us to perceived or actual leverage that our clients may have, given their relative size and importance to us. If our clients seek to negotiate their agreements on terms less favorable to us and we accept such unfavorable terms, such unfavorable terms may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Accordingly, unless and until we diversify and

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expand our client base, our future success will significantly depend upon the timing and volume of business from our largest clients and the financial and operational success of these clients. If we were to lose one of our major clients or have a major client cancel substantial projects or otherwise significantly reduce its volume of business with us, our revenue and profitability would be materially reduced and our business and operating results would be seriously harmed.

We depend on clients concentrated in specific industries, such as BFSI, and with the Polaris acquisition, our BFS client concentration increased materially; we are therefore subject to enhanced risks relating to developments affecting these clients and industries that may cause them to reduce or postpone their IT spending.

        In our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we derived substantially all of our revenue from clients in three industries: BFSI, C&T, and M&I. During our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we earned approximately 67% of our revenue from clients in the BFSI industries and our revenue from this industry vertical grew by approximately 25% from the prior fiscal year. Due to the Polaris acquisition, we have increased our industry concentration, most particularly in BFS. If any decline in the growth of the BFSI industries or large clients in such industries, particularly in the BFS or insurance industry, occurs, or if there is a significant consolidation in these industries or a decrease in growth or consolidation in other industry verticals on which we focus or impact of large clients in such industries, such events could materially reduce the demand for our services and negatively affect our revenue and profitability. If economic conditions weaken or slow, particularly in the industries in which we focus, our clients may significantly reduce or postpone their IT spending. Reductions in IT budgets, increased consolidation, or increased competition in these industries could result in an erosion of our client base and a reduction in our target market. Any reductions in the IT spending of companies in any one of these industries may reduce the demand for our services and negatively affect our revenue and profitability.

Restrictions on immigration may affect our ability to compete for and provide services to clients in the United States, Europe (particularly, the United Kingdom), or other countries, which could result in lost revenue, lower gross margins, delays in or losses of client engagements and otherwise adversely affect our ability to meet our growth, revenue and profit projections.

        The vast majority of our team members are Indian and Sri Lankan nationals. The ability of our IT professionals to work in the United States, the United Kingdom and other countries depends on our ability to obtain the necessary visas and entry permits, including the H-1(B) visa. The Government conducts a random lottery to determine which H-1(B) applications will be adjudicated that year. Increasing demand for H-1(B) visas, or changes in how the annual limit is administered, could limit the company's ability to access those visas. In recent years, the United States has increased the level of scrutiny in granting H-1(B), L-1 and other business visas. The H-1(B) visa classification enables U.S. employers to hire qualified foreign workers in positions that require an education at least equal to a four-year bachelor degree in the United States in specialty occupations such as IT systems engineering and systems analysis. The H-1(B) visa usually permits an individual to work and live in the United States for a period of up to six years. Under certain circumstances, H-1(B) visa extensions after the six-year period may be available. H-1(B) visa holders are required to be paid the higher of the actual wage or the prevailing wage for their position at the site of their employment.

        In addition, there are strict labor regulations associated with the H-1(B) visa classification, including disclosure, attestations and document retention. Employers who are H-1(B) dependent (i.e. those with fifteen percent (15%) or more of their workforce on H-1(B) visas are potentially subject to additional disclosures, attestations and subject to specific affirmative recruitment requirements if the employees they sponsor for H-1(B) visa do not qualify as "exempt" employees. An exempt employee is one who is either (a) paid an annual salary of at least $60,000 or b) one who holds a masters or higher degree in a specialty occupation related to their employment. In September 2014, we became an "H-1(B) Dependent Employer." To avoid being subject to additional attestations, disclosures, and affirmative recruitment

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requirements, we do not sponsor employees for H-1(B) visas who make less than $60,000 per year. As a "H-1(B) Dependent Employer" our petitions are subject to greater scrutiny at the time of adjudication. All users of the H-1(B) program are subject to periodic site visits from the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, or USCIS, to verify their compliance with immigration and Labor Regulations. In addition, the Wage and Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor may also conduct H-1(B) audits to verify compliance with labor regulations. A finding by the United States Department of Labor of willful or substantial failure by us to comply with existing regulations on the H-1(B) classification may result in back-pay liability, substantial fines, and/or a ban on future use of the H-1(B) program and other immigration benefits. We are users of the H-1(B) visa classification with respect to some of our key offshore workers who have relocated onsite to perform services for our clients. As a result of our H-1(B) Dependent Employer status, we are likely subjected to more site visits and a higher level of scrutiny by USCIS and the US Department of Labor than Non-Dependent Employers.

        We also regularly transfer employees from our global subsidiaries, primarily those from India and Sri Lanka, to the United States to work on projects and at client sites using the L-1 visa classification. The L-1 visa allows companies abroad to transfer certain managers, executives and employees with specialized company knowledge to related United States companies such as a parent, subsidiary, affiliate, joint venture, or branch office. We have an approved "Blanket L Program," under which the corporate relationships of our transferring and receiving entities have been pre-approved by the USCIS, thus enabling individual L-1 visa applications to be presented directly to a visa-issuing United States consular post abroad rather than undergoing the individual petition pre-approval process through USCIS in the United States. In recent years, both the United States consular posts that review initial L-1 applications and USCIS, which adjudicates individual petitions for initial grants and extensions of L-1 status, have become increasingly restrictive with respect to their interpretation of the regulations governing this category and all applications are subject to increased scrutiny. As a result, the rate of refusals of both individual and blanket L-1 petitions and of extensions has materially increased. In addition, even where L-1 visas are ultimately granted and issued, security measures undertaken by United States consular posts around the world have substantially delayed visa issuances as they are allowed the right to further scrutinize the visa and request for additional supporting documentation. Any inability to bring, or delays in bringing, qualified technical personnel into the United States to staff on-site customer locations would have a material adverse effect on our client engagements, our business, results of operations and financial condition. Due to these immigration delays, we may also be required to hire or subcontract resources locally to perform the work onsite, thus negatively impacting our gross margins and overall profitability.

        Since 2010 US, immigration law has imposed enhanced filing fees on employers who are significantly dependent upon H-1(B) and L-1 visa holders. An employer whose overall count of full-time employee equivalents consists of 50% or more of individuals holding H-1(B) or L-1 visas are subject to an enhanced filing fee. That enhanced fee is $4,000 and $4,500 for each new H-1B or L-1 petition filed respectively. We have been required to pay these enhanced fees, as the percentage of our overall US based workforce holding H-1(B) and L-1 visa status remains above the 50% mark. While we closely monitor the visa makeup of our workforce in an attempt to minimize our exposure to such enhanced fees and make efforts to recoup these costs either directly from our clients or indirectly through our billing rates, these enhanced fees have had a negative impact on our gross profit and overall cost of operations. Further growth and increased demand for our services will likely make it increasingly difficult for us to avoid the payment of these fees, thus impacting our gross margins and overall profitability.

        We also process immigrant visas for lawful permanent residence (green cards) in the United States for employees to fill positions for which there are an insufficient number of able, willing, and qualified United States workers available to fill the positions. Compliance with existing United States immigration and labor laws, or changes in those laws making it more difficult to hire foreign nationals or limiting our ability to successfully obtain permanent residence for our foreign employees in the United States, could require us to incur additional unexpected labor costs and expenses or could restrain our ability to retain the skilled

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professionals we need for our operations in the United States. Any of these restrictions or limitations on our hiring practices could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

        In response to terrorist attacks and global unrest, U.S. and U.K. immigration authorities, as well as other countries, have not only increased the level of scrutiny and conditions to granting visas, but have also introduced new security procedures, which include extensive background checks, personal interviews and the use of biometrics, as conditions to granting visas and work permits. A number of European countries are considering changes in immigration policies as well. The inability of key project personnel to obtain necessary visas or work permits could delay or prevent our fulfillment of client projects, which could hamper our growth and cause our revenue to decline. These restrictions and additional procedures may delay, or even prevent the issuance of a visa or work permit to our IT professionals and affect our ability to staff projects in a timely manner. Any delays in staffing a project can result in project postponement, delays or cancellation, which could result in lost revenue and decreased profitability and have a material adverse effect on our business, revenue, profitability and utilization rates.

        Immigration laws in countries in which we seek to obtain visas or work permits may require us to meet certain other legal requirements as conditions to obtaining or maintaining entry visas. These immigration laws are subject to legislative change and varying standards of application and enforcement due to political forces, economic conditions or other events, including terrorist attacks.

        To the extent we experience delays due to immigration restrictions, we may encounter client dissatisfaction, project and staffing delays in new and existing engagements, project cancellations, project losses, higher project costs and loss of revenue, resulting in decreases in profits and a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Due to these immigration delays, we may also need to perform more work onsite, or hire more resources locally, thus reducing our gross margins and overall profitability.

Changes in U.S. immigration law, if approved into law, may increase our cost of revenue and may substantially restrict or eliminate our ability to obtain visas to use offshore resources onsite, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, revenue, profitability and utilization rates.

        The issue of companies outsourcing services to organizations operating in other countries is a topic of political discussion in many countries, including the United States, which is our largest market. The U.S. Congress has been actively considering various proposals that would make extensive changes to U.S. immigration laws regarding the admission of high-skilled temporary and permanent workers. Further, the current U.S. administration or Congress may seek to limit the admission of high-skilled temporary and permanent workers and has issued and may continue to issue executive orders designed to limit immigration. Any such provisions may increase our cost of doing business in the United States and may discourage customers from seeking our services. Our international expansion strategy and our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially adversely affected if changes in immigration and work permit laws and regulations or the administration or enforcement of such laws or regulations impair our ability to staff projects with professionals who are not citizens of the country where the work is to be performed

        The potential risks and impact to our business if changes are made to immigration laws relating to use of H-1(B) and L-1 visas are approved could include:

    Reduced ability to bring in foreign workers on an L-1 or H-1(B) visa

    Increased scrutiny and requests for proof of eligibility on the use of L-1 and H-1(B) visas

    Higher costs, including wages and benefits, for H-1(B) and L-1 visa holders

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    Elimination of the company's ability to pay the living expenses of an L-1 visa holder on a tax-free basis

    Increased oversight by the Department of Labor ("DOL") over issuance, use and administration of L-1 visas, just as the DOL currently oversees H-1(B) visas

        Even if we are able to apply for, or obtain, such visas, we could incur substantial delays and costs in processing any such requests and our costs of operations could materially rise, thus materially and negatively impacting our gross margins and our statement of income. Any inability to obtain, or extended delays in obtaining, these visas, or any delays or inability to hire resources for existing or future client projects could materially delay or prevent our commencement or fulfillment of client projects, which could hamper our growth and cause our revenue to decline. In addition, we may have to hire or use local onsite resources at substantially higher wage levels, rather than using existing offshore resources to staff onsite engagements which would materially reduce our gross margins. Even if we use our offshore resources, we may have to put offshore resources on U.S. payroll at U.S. prevailing wage levels and full benefits, rather than the existing practice of being able to provide a per diem reimbursement to the offshore resource on a tax-free basis to cover living expenses while onsite. Our costs of revenue could then substantially increase and our gross profit and our gross margins could then be materially and adversely affected. Any such delays or inability to staff needed resources on client engagements may cause client dissatisfaction, project and staffing delays in new and existing engagements, project cancellations, higher project costs and loss of revenue, resulting in decreases in profits and a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

The international nature of our business exposes us to many complex risks, which may be beyond our control.

        We have operations in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, India, Sri Lanka, Germany, Singapore, Austria, Hungary, Malaysia, Switzerland and Sweden and we serve clients across North America, Europe and Asia, and with the Polaris acquisition, added operations in Hong Kong, United Arab Emirates, New Zealand, Japan, Australia and Canada. For the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, revenue generated outside of the United States accounted for 35%, 35% and 30% of total revenue, respectively. Our corporate structure also spans multiple jurisdictions, with Virtusa Corporation incorporated in Delaware and its operating subsidiaries organized in India, Sri Lanka, the United Kingdom, Hungary, Germany, Singapore, Austria, Malaysia, Sweden, Switzerland and the Netherlands, as well as Polaris and its operating subsidiaries which are incorporated in Australia, China, the United Arab Emirates, Japan and Canada. As a result, our international revenue and operations are exposed to risks typically associated with conducting business internationally, many of which are beyond our control. These risks include:

    negative currency fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and the currencies in which we conduct transactions, including most significantly, the U.K. pound sterling, the euro, the Indian rupee, the Swedish Krona, the Singapore dollar, the Canadian dollar and the Australian dollar (each in which our foreign revenues are principally denominated) and the Indian and Sri Lankan rupees (in which our foreign costs are primarily denominated)

    adverse income tax consequences resulting from foreign income tax examination, such as challenges to our transfer pricing arrangements and challenges to our ability to claim tax holiday benefits in the countries in which we operate

    difficulties in staffing, managing and supporting operations in multiple countries

    potential fluctuation or decline in foreign economies

    unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, including immigration restrictions, potential tariffs and other trade barriers

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    legal uncertainty owing to the overlap of different legal regimes and problems in asserting contractual or other rights across international borders, including compliance with local laws of which we may be unaware

    government currency control and restrictions on repatriation of earnings

    the burden and expense of complying with the laws and regulations of various jurisdictions

    domestic and international economic or political changes, hostilities, terrorist attacks and other acts of violence or war

        Negative developments in any of these areas in one or more countries could result in a reduction in revenue or demand for our services, the cancellation or delay of client contracts, business interruption, threats to our intellectual property, difficulty in collecting receivables and a higher cost of doing business, including higher taxes, any of which could negatively affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Changes in applicable tax regulations and resolutions of tax disputes could negatively affect our financial results.

        We are subject to taxation in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions. On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act"). The changes included in the Tax Act are broad and complex. The final impacts of the Tax Act may differ from the estimates provided elsewhere in this report, possibly materially, due to, among other things, changes in interpretations of the Tax Act, any legislative action to address questions that arise because of the Tax Act, any changes in accounting standards for income taxes or related interpretations in response to the Tax Act, or any updates or changes to estimates we have utilized to calculate the impacts, including impacts from changes to current year earnings estimates and foreign exchange rates of foreign subsidiaries. It is very difficult to assess the overall effect of potential tax changes, and how they might impact our future financial results. For instance, during fiscal 2019, we expect additional guidance with respect to Base erosion tax and Global intangible low taxed income that might have an impact on our current estimates.

Our quarterly financial position, revenue, operating results and profitability are challenging to predict and may vary from quarter to quarter, which could cause our share price to decline significantly.

        Our quarterly revenue, operating results and profitability have varied in the past and are likely to vary significantly from quarter to quarter in the future. The factors that are likely to cause these variations include:

    unanticipated contract or project terminations, or reductions in scope or size of IT engagements

    the continuing financial stability and growth prospects of our clients

    our ability under US GAAP to recognize the revenue associated with the services performed in the applicable fiscal period due to many factors, including having fully signed contractual agreements with our clients for such periods or our ability to produce the deliverables or meet the project milestones in accordance with agreed upon specifications or timelines in the applicable fiscal period and achieve revenue recognition under US GAAP

    lengthening of sales cycles

    the number, timing, scope and contractual terms of IT projects in which we are engaged

    delays in project commencement or staffing delays due to immigration issues or our inability to assign appropriately skilled or experienced personnel

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    our ability to obtain visas or applicable work permits for offshore personnel to commence projects at a client site for new or existing engagements

    our ability to forecast demand for our services and thereby maintain an appropriate number of team members

    the accuracy of estimates of resources, effort, time and fees required to complete fixed-price projects and costs, effort and time incurred in the performance of each project

    changes in pricing in response to client demand and competitive pressures

    our inability to manage the optimum mix of onsite and offshore staffing or required use of subcontractors

    the mix of leadership and senior technical resources to junior engineering resources staffed on each project

    unexpected changes in the utilization rate of our IT professionals

    inability to collect our receivables from, or bill our unbilled services to, our clients due to our performance or client financial difficulties or client satisfaction with our performance, resulting in deferral of revenue recognition under US GAAP, delays in collection and/or negative impact on our cash flows

    seasonal trends, primarily our hiring cycle and the budget and work cycles of our clients

    the ratio of fixed-price contracts to time-and-materials contracts

    employee wage levels and increases in compensation costs, including timing of promotions and annual pay increases, particularly in India and Sri Lanka

    our ability to have the client reimburse us for travel and living expenses, especially the airfare and related expenses of our Indian and Sri Lankan offshore personnel traveling and working onsite in the United States or the United Kingdom

    acquisitions, including transaction-related costs and write-downs from future impairments of identified intangible assets and goodwill, and other one-time, non-recurring projects

        As a result, our revenue and our operating results for a particular period are challenging to predict and may decline in comparison to corresponding prior periods regardless of the strength of our business. Our future revenue is also challenging to predict because we derive a substantial portion of our revenue from fees for services generated from short-term contracts that may be terminated or delayed by our clients without penalty. In addition, a high percentage of our operating expenses, particularly related to salary expense, rent, depreciation expense and amortization of purchased intangible assets, are relatively fixed in advance of any particular quarter and are based, in part, on our expectations as to future revenue. If we are unable to predict the timing or amounts of future revenue accurately, we may be unable to adjust spending in a timely manner to compensate for any unexpected revenue shortfall and fail to meet our forecasts. Unexpected revenue shortfalls may also decrease our gross margins and could cause significant changes in our operating results from quarter to quarter. As a result, and in addition to the factors listed above, any of the following factors could have a significant and adverse impact on our operating results, could result in a shortfall of revenue and could result in losses to us:

    a client's decision not to pursue a new project or proceed to succeeding stages of a current project

    the completion during a quarter of several major client projects, resulting in our having to pay underutilized team members in subsequent periods

    adverse business decisions of our clients regarding the use of our services

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    our inability to transition team members quickly from completed projects to new engagements

    our inability to manage costs, including personnel, infrastructure, facility and support services costs

    exchange rate fluctuations

        Due to the foregoing factors, it is possible that in some future periods our revenue and operating results may not meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors. If this occurs, the trading price of our common stock could fall substantially either suddenly, or over time.

The results of the United Kingdom's referendum on withdrawal from the European Union may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business.

        In June 2016, a majority of voters in the United Kingdom elected to withdraw from the European Union in a national referendum, or Brexit Referendum. The Brexit Referendum was advisory, and the terms of any withdrawal are subject to a negotiation period that could last at least two years after the government of the United Kingdom formally initiates a withdrawal process, which the U.K. government initiated in March 2017. The Brexit Referendum has created political and economic uncertainty about the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union and as to whether any other European countries may similarly seek to exit the European Union. As we have material operations in the United Kingdom and Europe and our global operations serve many customers with significant operations in those regions, our financial condition and results of operation may be impacted by such uncertainty.

        For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, revenues from our customers in the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe represented 15% and 9%, respectively, of our consolidated revenues. A significant portion of our revenues from customers in the United Kingdom is generated in British pounds. This exposure subjects us to revenue risk with respect to our customers in the United Kingdom as well as to risk resulting from adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. In addition, for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, revenues from our BFSI customers represented 67% of our consolidated revenues. Uncertainty regarding future United Kingdom financial laws and regulations, the withdrawal terms of the United Kingdom from the European Union and the future trade terms between the United Kingdom and the European Union could negatively impact the financial services sector, including our customers in such sector, and as a consequence adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations. Further, it is uncertain what impact the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union will have on general economic conditions in the United Kingdom, the European Union and globally. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we cannot attract and retain highly-skilled IT professionals, our ability to obtain, manage and staff new projects and expand existing projects may result in loss of revenue and an inability to expand our business.

        Our business is labor intensive and our ability to execute and expand existing projects and obtain new clients depends largely on our ability to hire, train and retain highly-skilled IT professionals, particularly project managers, IT engineers and other senior technical personnel. The improvement in demand for global IT services has further increased the need for employees with specialized skills or significant experience in IT services, particularly at senior levels and those with special skills. Further, there is intense worldwide competition for IT professionals with the skills necessary to perform the services we offer. If we cannot hire and retain such additional qualified personnel, our ability to acquire, manage and staff new projects and to expand, manage and staff existing projects, may be materially impaired. We may then lose revenue and our ability to expand our business may be harmed. For example, in our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, our voluntary attrition rate was 11.8%. We, and the industry in which we operate, generally experience high employee attrition and we cannot assure you that we will be able to hire or retain the number and quality of technical personnel necessary to satisfy our current and future client needs. We also may not be able to hire and retain enough skilled and experienced IT professionals to replace those who leave. Additionally, if we have to replace personnel who have left our company, we will incur

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increased costs not only in hiring replacements but also in training such replacements until they can become productive and billable to our clients. In addition, we may not be able to redeploy and retrain our IT professionals in anticipation of continuing changes in technology, evolving standards and changing client preferences. Our inability to attract and retain IT professionals, or delays or inability to staff needed resources on client engagements may cause client dissatisfaction, project and staffing delays in new and existing engagements, project cancellations, project losses, higher project costs and loss of revenue, resulting in decreases in profits and a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

The IT services market is highly competitive and our competitors may have advantages that may allow them to compete more effectively than we do to secure client contracts and attract skilled IT professionals.

        The IT services market in which we operate includes a large number of participants and is highly competitive. Our primary competitors include offshore IT outsourcing firms and consulting and systems integration firms. We also occasionally compete with in-house IT departments, smaller vertically focused IT service providers and local IT service providers based in the geographic areas where we compete. We expect additional competition from offshore IT outsourcing firms in emerging locations such as Eastern Europe, Latin America and China, as well as offshore IT service providers with facilities in less expensive geographies within India.

        The IT services industry in which we compete is experiencing rapid changes in its competitive landscape. Some of the large consulting firms and offshore IT service providers with which we compete have significant resources and financial capabilities combined with a greater number of IT professionals. Many of our competitors are significantly larger and some have gained access to public and private capital or have merged or consolidated with better capitalized partners. These events have created and may in the future create, larger and better capitalized competitors. Our competitors may have superior abilities to compete for market share and compete against us for our existing and prospective clients. Our competitors may also have larger engagements with our existing or prospective clients which, due to our size and scale, may provide our competitors with significant advantages in any competitive bidding process. Our competitors may also be better able to use significant economic incentives, such as lower billing rates or non-billable resources, to secure contracts with our existing and prospective clients or gain a competitive advantage by being able to staff engagements that we are unable to staff, due to our shortage of resources, our lack of special skill sets or immigration delays. Our competitors may also be better able to compete for and retain skilled professionals by offering them more attractive compensation or other incentives. These factors may allow our competitors to have advantages over us to meet client demands in an engagement requiring large numbers and varied types of resources with specific experience or skill-sets that we may not have readily available in the short-term or the long-term. We cannot assure you that we can maintain or enhance our competitive position against current and future competitors. Our failure to compete effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our previous acquisitions, including the eTouch and Polaris acquisitions, and any future acquisitions may be difficult to integrate, could divert the attention of key management personnel, materially disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and materially adversely affect our financial results, including impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets, if we are unable to realize the expected revenue and synergy growth or efficiencies from these acquisitions.

        For the Polaris, eTouch and other recent acquisitions, as well as any future acquisitions, we may incur substantial risks, including:

    inability to generate sufficient revenue or synergy growth to offset transaction costs or to maintain previous forecasts regarding revenue growth, profit margins and earnings per share forecasts

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    underperformance of the acquired company as compared to our forecasts, resulting in lower utilization, lower gross margins and operating margins, higher operating costs and lower profits from our previous forecasts

    difficulties in integrating operations, technologies, accounting and personnel

    difficulties in supporting and transitioning clients of our acquired companies or strategic partners

    diversion of financial and management resources from existing operations

    potential loss of key team members

    assumption of responsibilities and obligations of the acquired business pursuant to the terms and conditions of services agreements that are not consistent with the terms and conditions that we typically accept and require

    unknown liabilities or liabilities for which indemnification may or may not apply and difficulties of recovering any indemnifiable losses

        Our organizational structure could also make it difficult for us to efficiently integrate acquired businesses or technologies into our ongoing operations and assimilate employees of those businesses into our culture and operations. Accordingly, we might fail to realize the expected benefits or strategic objectives of any acquisition we undertake. Acquisitions also frequently result in the recording of goodwill and other intangible assets that are subject to potential impairments in the future that could harm our financial results. We have completed eleven acquisitions from November 2009 to March 31, 2018, including the closing of the Polaris and eTouch acquisitions. If we fail to successfully integrate these acquired companies or any company that we may acquire in the future and maintain their value, or if any existing or future acquired companies materially fail to perform in a manner consistent with our valuations or forecasts, we may suffer an impairment of our assets, resulting in an immediate charge to our consolidated statement of income. Any such failure to integrate an acquired company, or any impairment of intangible assets or goodwill of any such acquired company could have a material adverse impact on our consolidated balance sheet and consolidated statements of income.

There can be no assurance that our business, results of operations and financial condition or our cash needs will not be adversely affected by our incurrence of indebtedness or obligations incurred in connection with our issuance of convertible preferred stock.

        On May 3, 2017, we issued to the Orogen Group, an independent private company focused on supporting growth-oriented businesses, 3,000,000 shares of convertible preferred stock, which requires a 3.875% dividend per annum, payable quarterly in additional shares of common stock and/or cash at our option, for an aggregate purchase price of $108 million with a maturity/redemption date of May 3, 2024 and an initial conversion price of $36.00 (the "Orogen Preferred Stock Financing"). There is no guarantee that we will be able make cash payments on our preferred stock, our stockholders will not suffer increased dilution due to terms of our outstanding convertible preferred stock or that we will realize any synergies or increases in revenue to offset any such dilution to our stockholders.

        In addition to the Orogen Preferred Stock Financing, we have also incurred substantial indebtedness under a senior secured debt facility to finance the Polaris transactions, including the delisting process of Polaris, and the eTouch acquisition. On February 6, 2018, we entered into a $450.0 million credit agreement with a syndicated bank group, which amends and restates our prior $300.0 million credit agreement under the new credit facility, we drew down $180.0 million on the new term loan and $55.0 million on the new revolving credit facility to repay in full the prior credit facility and fund the Polaris delisting transaction. We are obligated to pay certain interest and amortization payments under this new credit facility. The term of the Credit Agreement is five years, ending February 6, 2023. As of March 31, 2018, the outstanding amount under the Credit Agreement was $305.0 million.

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        There is no guarantee that we will be able to service the interest and principal payments on our debt or make cash payments on our preferred stock or that our business, results of operations and financial condition will not be adversely affected by our incurrence of indebtedness or our stockholders will not suffer increased dilution due to terms of our outstanding convertible preferred stock.

        We may incur additional indebtedness in the future, which may be significant. If we draw down from our credit facility, or if we want to pay required dividends in cash on our outstanding convertible preferred stock, we will be required to have sufficient cash available in the United States to pay scheduled installments, accrued interest and fees from time to time and at maturity on our term loan or for dividends on our preferred stock payments if we want to pay in cash and not pay our dividends in commons stock which will increase the dilutive impact of the financing. If we do not have sufficient cash available in the United States or we fail to generate sufficient cash from operations in the United States, we may be unable to service the debt or pay dividends in cash on our convertible preferred stock or we may be required to repatriate earnings held by our foreign subsidiaries. Any such repatriation would cause us to accrue the applicable amount of taxes associated with such earnings at that time, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, we may not have sufficient cash in the United States or abroad to make payments on our debt obligations or dividends in cash on our convertible preferred stock, which could cause us to seek additional debt or equity capital or restructure or refinance our existing indebtedness. We may not be able to effect any such alternative measures, if necessary, on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, those alternative actions may not allow us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations or dividend payments on our convertible preferred stock in cash or that we can avoid increased dilution to our stockholders under the terms of our convertible preferred stock.

        In addition, the credit agreement contains certain financial and other covenants, including customary minimum cash, maximum debt to EBITDA and minimum fixed charge coverage covenants. Failure to comply with these covenants or other provisions of the credit agreement could result in a default under the credit agreement, requiring us to either cure such default, receive a waiver, or in the absence of such cure or waiver, refinance any outstanding indebtedness under the credit agreement. There is no assurance that we would be able to refinance our debt on acceptable terms and conditions. Moreover, if we are unable to force conversion of the preferred stock to common stock or there is not a conversion event of the preferred stock holders to common stock prior to May 3, 2024, under the terms of our convertible preferred stock, we are required to redeem the shares of preferred stock. There is no assurance that we would be able to redeem the preferred stock or obtain financing on acceptable terms and conditions, if at all.

Despite our senior secured credit facility and the Orogen Preferred Stock Financing, we may need to raise capital in the future, although our ability to raise capital may be limited.

        In connection with the Polaris acquisition, delisting process and related transactions, as well as the eTouch acquisition, we entered into a credit facility for $450.0 million, which amends and restates our prior $300.0 million credit agreement and provides for a $200.0 million revolving credit facility, a $180.0 million term loan facility, and a $70.0 million delayed-draw term loan, of which we have drawn down $71 million in term loan and $49 million from the line of credit to buy the Polaris shares, with $145 million remaining under the revolving credit facility. On May 3, 2017, we closed the Orogen Preferred Stock Financing, amended our credit agreement primarily to issue the convertible preferred stock and pay certain dividends with respect to the convertible preferred stock and used $81 million of the convertible preferred stock proceeds to repay part of our $200 million term loan.

        If our remaining revolving credit facility, cash flows and proceeds from the preferred stock sale are not sufficient to fund our strategic investments or operations, we may seek to raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, whereby the percentage ownership of our stockholders could be significantly diluted and these newly issued securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of existing stockholders. If we seek to obtain additional debt financing, there is no assurance that existing lenders will permit additional indebtedness, and even if permitted, a substantial

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portion of our operating cash flow may be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on such indebtedness, thus limiting funds available for our business activities and increasing our costs of operations, which could have a material adverse impact on our operating margins. Any such debt financing could require us to comply with restrictive financial and operating covenants, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations or financial condition and there is no guarantee or assurance that any such credit facility will be available or if so, on reasonable terms.

        We cannot assure you that additional financing will be available on terms favorable to us, or at all or in the locations where we need the additional capital. If adequate funds are not available or are not available on acceptable terms, when we desire them, our ability to fund our operations and growth, take advantage of unanticipated opportunities or otherwise respond to competitive pressures may be significantly limited.

        Our substantial level of debt and related obligations, including interest payments, covenants and restrictions, as well as our obligations under our Orogen Preferred Stock Financing, including annual and quarterly dividend obligations and the redemption requirement, could have important consequences, including by:

    impairing our ability to invest in and successfully grow our business and make acquisitions

    making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our indebtedness, which could result in an event of default

    limiting our ability to obtain additional financing on satisfactory terms to fund our working capital requirements, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt obligations and other general corporate requirements;

    hindering our ability to raise equity capital

    increasing our vulnerability to general economic downturns, competition and industry conditions, which could place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to competitors that are less leveraged and therefore we may be unable to take advantage of opportunities that our leverage prevents us from exploiting

    imposing additional restrictions on the manner in which we conduct our business, including restrictions on our ability to pay dividends, incur additional debt and sell assets

    placing us at a possible disadvantage relative to less leveraged competitors and competitors that have better access to capital resources

        The occurrence of any one of these events could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results or cash flows and ability to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness our preferred stock holders. Insufficient funds may require us to delay, scale back or eliminate some or all of our activities.

We could be subject to strict restrictions on the movement of cash and the exchange of foreign currencies which could limit our access to cash in non-U.S. locations to fund our U.S. operations or otherwise make investments where needed.

        In some countries, we could be subject to strict restrictions on the movement of cash and the exchange of foreign currencies, which would limit our ability to use this cash across our global operations. This risk could increase as we continue our geographic expansion in emerging markets, which are more likely to impose these restrictions than more established markets. We therefore may not have ready access to cash in geographies where we need to make investments. For instance, at March 31, 2018, we had approximately $244.9 million of cash, cash equivalents, short term investments and long-term investments of which we hold approximately $191.0 million of cash, cash equivalents, short term investments and long-term investments in non-U.S. locations, particularly in India, Sri Lanka, Singapore and the United Kingdom.

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Cash in these non-U.S. locations may not otherwise be available for servicing debt obligations, potential investment or use for operations in the United States or other geographies where needed, as we have stated that this cash is indefinitely reinvested in these non-U.S. locations. Moreover, even if we were to repatriate this cash back to the United States for use in U.S. investments, this cash would be subject to additional taxes. Due to various methods by which cash could be repatriated to the United States in the future, the amount of taxes attributable to the cash is dependent on circumstances existing if and when remittance occurs. Due to the various methods by which such earnings could be repatriated in the future, it is not practicable to determine the amount of applicable taxes that would result from such repatriation. In addition, some countries could have tight restrictions on the movement and exchange of foreign currencies which could further limit our ability to use such funds for repayment of debt, global operations or capital or other strategic investments. Our inability to access our cash where and when needed could impede our ability to service our debt obligations, make investments and support our operations.

We may face damage to our professional reputation and be subject to legal claims and litigation, including high and unexpected costs as a result of any litigation or client disputes, if our services do not meet our clients' expectations or violate contractual terms with our clients.

        Many of our projects involve technology applications or systems that are critical to the operations of our clients' businesses and handle very large volumes of transactions. If we fail to perform our services correctly, we may be unable to deliver applications or systems to our clients with the promised functionality or within the promised time frame, or to satisfy the required service levels for support and maintenance. If a client is not satisfied with our services or products, including those of subcontractors we employ, we may not be able to invoice for our services, or if we do invoice, we may not be able to collect the fees due on such engagements and our business may suffer. Moreover, if we fail to meet our contractual obligations, our clients may terminate their contracts and we could face legal liabilities, and increased costs, including warranty or breach of contract claims against us. If we were not to prevail in the litigation, we may be required to refund all fees paid, reverse previously recognized revenues or pay damages suffered by the client which may exceed the value of the contract, despite limitation of liability provisions in the contract. If any adverse litigation or arbitration award were granted against us, we may not have reserved sufficiently (or at all, depending on the probability of outcome) for these losses and, as such, these losses could result in reversal of revenues or increased and unexpected financial losses which could have a material and negative impact on our statement of operations and cash position in the financial quarter and fiscal year in which the award was granted. Any failure in a client's project could also result in a claim for substantial damages, our inability to recognize all or some of the revenue for the client project, potential reversals of revenue previously recognized, non-payment of outstanding invoices, increased expenses due to increase in reserves for doubtful accounts, loss of future business with such client, increased costs due to non-billable time of our resources dedicated to address any performance or client satisfaction issues, or litigation costs and expenses, regardless of our responsibility for such failure.

We may face difficulties in providing end-to-end business solutions or delivering complex and large projects for our clients that could cause clients to discontinue their work with us, which in turn could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

        We have been expanding the nature and scope of our engagements and have added new service offerings across the industries we serve. The success of these service offerings depends, in part, upon continued demand for such services by our existing and prospective clients and our ability to meet this demand in a cost-competitive and effective manner. To obtain engagements for such end-to-end solutions, we also are more likely to compete with large, well-established international consulting firms, resulting in increased competition and pricing pressure. Accordingly, we cannot be certain that our new service offerings will effectively meet client needs or that we will be able to attract existing and prospective clients to these service offerings.

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        The increased breadth of our service offerings has resulted and may continue to result in larger and more complex projects with our clients. This requires us to establish closer relationships with our clients and achieve a thorough understanding of their operations. Our ability to establish such relationships depends on a number of factors, including the proficiency of our professionals and our management personnel. Our failure to understand our client requirements or our failure to deliver services that meet the requirements specified by our clients could result in termination of client contracts, client disputes and contractual claims against us, and we could be liable to our clients for significant penalties or damages, as well as legal and litigation costs if claims are not resolved amicably, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

        Larger projects often involve multiple engagements or stages, and there is a risk that a client may choose not to retain us for additional stages or may cancel or delay additional planned engagements. These terminations, cancellations or delays may result from factors that have little or nothing to do with the quality of our services, such as the business or financial condition of our clients or the economy generally. Such cancellations or delays make it difficult to plan for project resource requirements and inaccuracies in such resource planning and allocation may have a negative impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

New and changing corporate governance and public disclosure requirements add uncertainty to our compliance policies and increase our costs of, and time dedicated to, compliance.

        Changing laws, regulations and standards relating to accounting, corporate governance and public disclosure, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, other SEC regulations, and the Nasdaq Global Select Market rules, are creating uncertainty for companies like ours. These laws, regulations and standards may lack specificity and are subject to varying interpretations. Their application in practice may evolve over time, as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs of compliance as a result of ongoing revisions to such corporate governance standards.

        In particular, our efforts to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes- Oxley Act of 2002 and the related regulations regarding our required assessment of our internal control over financial reporting and our external auditors' audit of that assessment requires the commitment of significant financial and managerial resources. We consistently assess the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, remediate any control deficiencies that may be identified, and validate through testing that our control environment is functioning as documented. While we do not anticipate any material weaknesses, the inability of management and our independent registered public accountant to provide us with an unqualified report as to the adequacy and effectiveness, respectively, of our internal controls over financial reporting, including operations of any acquired businesses, such as Polaris or eTouch, in the applicable reporting period, for future year-ends could result in adverse consequences to us, including, but not limited to, a loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which could cause the market price of our stock to decline.

        Our management team and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives which extend to all of our subsidiaries, including Polaris and its subsidiaries. In particular, these increased obligations will require substantial attention from our senior management and divert its attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business operations.

        We are committed to maintaining high standards of corporate governance and public disclosure, and our efforts to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards in this regard have resulted in, and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. In addition, the laws, regulations and standards regarding corporate governance may make it more difficult for us to

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obtain director and officer liability insurance. Further, our board members, chief executive officer and chief financial officer could face an increased risk of personal liability in connection with their performance of duties. As a result, we may face difficulties attracting and retaining qualified board members and executive officers, which could harm our business. If we fail to comply with new or changed laws, regulations or standards of corporate governance, our business and reputation may be harmed.

Currency exchange rate fluctuations may materially and negatively affect our revenue, gross margin, operating margin, net income and cash flows.

        The exchange rates among the Indian and Sri Lankan rupees and the U.S. dollar and the U.K. pound sterling, as well as the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and the U.K. pound sterling, have changed substantially in prior periods and may continue to fluctuate substantially in the future. We expect that a majority of our revenue will continue to be generated in the U.S. dollar, U.K. pound sterling, Indian Rupee, the Australian dollar, the Canadian dollar and the Singapore dollar for the foreseeable future. Any appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the U.K. pound sterling, the euro, the Indian rupee, the Singapore dollar, the Canadian dollar and/or the Australian dollar will likely have a negative impact on our revenue, operating income and net income. For the foreseeable future, we also expect that a significant portion of our expenses, including personnel costs and operating expenditures, will continue to be denominated in Indian and Sri Lankan rupees. Accordingly, any material appreciation of the Indian rupee or the Sri Lankan rupee against the U.S. dollar or U.K. pound sterling could have a material adverse effect on our cost of revenue, gross margins and net income, which may in turn have a negative impact on our business, operating results, financial condition and results of operations.

Our operating results may be adversely affected by our use of derivative financial instruments.

        There is no guarantee that our financial results will not be adversely affected by currency exchange rate fluctuations or that any efforts by us to engage in currency hedging activities will be effective.

        Although we have adopted a six-quarter cash flow hedging program to minimize the effect of any Indian rupee fluctuation on our financial condition, these hedges may not be effective or may cause us to forego certain potential benefits, especially given the volatility of the currency. In addition, to the extent that these hedges cease to qualify for hedge accounting, we may have to recognize the derivative instruments' unrealized gains or losses in earnings prior to maturity. If we are unable to accurately forecast our Indian-rupee denominated costs, we may lose our ability to qualify for hedge accounting. We cannot guarantee our ability to accurately forecast such expenses. In addition, as part of the Polaris acquisition, we have assumed a cash flow program designed to mitigate the impact of the volatility of the translation of Polaris U.S. dollar denominated revenue into Indian rupees over a rolling 18-month period. While these hedges are achieving their designed objective for Polaris, upon consolidation they may cause volatility in our U.S. dollar denominated revenue due to variations between monthly average and contract hedge rates when converting back to U.S. dollars in consolidation. Furthermore, we are exposed to foreign currency volatility related to other currencies including, the Swedish Krona, the Canadian dollar, the euro, the Singapore dollar, the Sri Lankan rupee, and the Australian dollar, which are either not hedged or not hedged in full. Any significant change as compared to the U.S. dollar could have a negative impact on our revenue, operating profit, and net income. Finally, as we continue to leverage our global delivery model, more of our expenses will be incurred in currencies other than those in which we bill for the related services. An increase in the value of these currencies, such as the Indian rupee or Sri Lankan rupee, against the U.S. dollar or U.K. pound sterling could increase costs for delivery of services at off-shore sites by increasing labor and other costs that are denominated in the respective local currency.

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Our global operations expose us to numerous and sometimes conflicting legal and regulatory requirements, and violation of these regulations could harm our business.

        We are subject to numerous, and sometimes conflicting, legal regimes on matters as diverse as anti-corruption, import/export controls, content requirements, trade restrictions, tariffs, taxation, sanctions, immigration, internal and disclosure control obligations, securities regulation, anti-competition, data privacy and protection, employment and labor relations. Some of these legal regimes are in emerging markets where legal systems may be less developed or familiar to us. Compliance with diverse legal requirements is costly, time- consuming and requires significant resources. Violations of one or more of these regulations in the conduct of our business could result in significant fines, criminal sanctions against us or our officers, prohibitions on doing business and damage to our reputation. Violations of these regulations in connection with the performance of our obligations to our clients also could result in liability for significant monetary damages, fines and/or criminal prosecution, unfavorable publicity and other reputational damage, restrictions on our ability to process information and allegations by our clients that we have not performed our contractual obligations. Due to the varying degrees of development of the legal systems of the countries in which we operate, local laws may not be well developed or provide sufficiently clear guidance and may be insufficient to protect our rights.

        In particular, in many parts of the world, including countries in which we operate and/or seek to expand, it is possible that our employees, subcontractors or agents in the local business community might not conform to international business standards and could violate anti-corruption laws, or regulations, including the UK Bribery Act of 2010 and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA") which prohibit improper payments or offers of improper payments to foreign officials to obtain business or any other benefit. The FCPA also requires covered companies to make and keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect the transactions of the company and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. Although we have policies and procedures in place that are designed to promote legal and regulatory compliance, our employees, subcontractors and agents could take actions that violate these policies or procedures or applicable anti-corruption laws, regulations or standards. Violations of these laws or regulations by us, our employees or any of these third parties could subject us to criminal or civil enforcement actions (whether or not we participated or knew about the actions leading to the violations), including fines or penalties, disgorgement of profits and suspension or disqualification from work, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, including our results of operations and our reputation.

If we do not continue to maintain or improve our operational, financial and other internal controls and systems to manage our growth and size or if we are unable to enter, operate and compete effectively in new geographic markets, our business may suffer and the value of our stockholders' investment in our Company may be harmed.

        Our growth, including the eTouch acquisition and integration of eTouch into Virtusa, will continue to place significant demands on our management and other resources and will require us to continue to develop and improve our operational, financial and other internal controls in the United States, Europe, India, Sri Lanka and elsewhere. In particular, our continued growth will increase the challenges involved in:

    recruiting, training and retaining technical, finance, marketing and management personnel with the knowledge, skills and experience that our business model requires

    maintaining high levels of client satisfaction

    developing and improving our internal administrative infrastructure and controls, particularly our financial, operational, communications and other internal systems and controls

    preserving our culture, values and entrepreneurial environment

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    effectively managing our personnel and operations and effectively communicating to our personnel worldwide our core values, strategies and goals

    ensuring the accounting and internal controls in Polaris are at least as stringent as those in Virtusa and comply with applicable rules, regulations and requirements to which Virtusa is subject, such as compliance with Sarbanes-Oxley ("SOX") and SEC rules and regulations.

        In addition, the increasing size and scope of our operations increase the possibility that a member of our personnel will engage in unlawful or fraudulent activity, breach our contractual obligations, or otherwise expose us to unacceptable business risks, despite our efforts to train our people and maintain internal controls to prevent such instances. If we do not continue to maintain and/or develop and implement the right processes and tools to manage our enterprise, our ability to compete successfully and achieve our business objectives could be impaired.

We may not be able to obtain, develop or implement new systems, infrastructure, procedures and controls that are required to support our operations, maintain cost controls, market our services and manage our relationships with our clients.

        To manage our operations effectively, we must continue to maintain and may need to enhance our IT infrastructure, financial and accounting systems and controls and manage expanded operations in several locations. We also must attract, integrate, train and retain qualified personnel, especially in the areas of accounting, internal audit and financial disclosure. Further, we will need to manage our relationships with various clients, vendors and other third parties. We may not be able to develop and implement on a timely basis, if at all, the systems, infrastructure procedures and controls required to support our operations, including infrastructure management, and controls regarding usage and deployment of hardware and software, for performance of our services. Any failure by us to comply with these controls or our contractual obligations could result in legal liability to us, which would have a negative impact on our consolidated statements of income and consolidated balance sheets. Additionally, some factors, like changes in immigration laws or visa processing restrictions that limit our ability to engage offshore resources at client locations in the United States, the United Kingdom or other countries, are outside of our control. Our future operating results will also depend on our ability to develop and maintain a successful sales organization and processes that can ensure our ability to effectively monitor, manage and forecast our sales activities and resource needs. If we are unable to manage our operations effectively, our operating results could fluctuate from quarter to quarter and our financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

The failure to successfully and timely implement certain financial system changes to improve operating efficiency and enhance our reporting controls could harm our business.

        We have implemented and continue to install several upgrades and enhancements to our financial systems. We expect these initiatives to enable us to achieve greater operating and financial reporting efficiency and also enhance our existing control environment through increased levels of automation of certain processes. Failure to successfully implement and execute these initiatives in a timely, effective and efficient manner could significantly increase our costs, distract our management, and result in the disruption of our operations, the inability to comply with our Sarbanes-Oxley obligations and the inability to report our financial results in a timely and accurate manner.

Our share price could be adversely affected if we are unable to maintain effective internal controls.

        The accuracy of our financial reporting is dependent on the effectiveness of our internal controls. We are required to provide a report from management to our stockholders on our internal control over financial reporting that includes an assessment of the effectiveness of these controls. Internal control over financial reporting has inherent limitations, including human error, the possibility that controls could be

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circumvented or become inadequate because of changed conditions, and fraud. Because of these inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting might not prevent or detect all misstatements or fraud. If we cannot maintain and execute adequate internal control over financial reporting or implement required new or improved controls to ensure the reliability of the financial reporting and preparation of our financial statements for external use, we could suffer harm to our reputation, fail to meet our public reporting requirements on a timely basis, or be unable to properly report on our business and the results of our operations, and the market price of our securities could be materially adversely affected.

We are investing substantial cash in new facilities and our profitability could be reduced if our business does not grow proportionately.

        We intend to make increased investments in our existing global delivery centers in Asia, particularly our largest centers in India and Sri Lanka. We may face cost overruns and project delays in connection with these facilities or other facilities we may construct or seek to lease in the future. Such delays may also cause us to incur additional leasing costs to extend the terms of existing facility leases or to enter into new short-term leases if we cannot move into the new facilities in a timely manner. Such investment may also significantly increase our fixed costs, including an increase in depreciation expense. If we are unable to expand our business and revenue proportionately, our profitability would be reduced.

We may be audited by software vendors from whom we license or use their software to train our resources or serve our clients, which may result in claims for infringement, violations of license provisions, or other damages.

        From time to time, we are subject to audit by our vendors from whom we license and use software to confirm compliance with usage and deployment requirements. If, as a result of these audits or otherwise, vendors believe that we have committed usage or deployment violations, we may be required to purchase software from these vendors, and we may be subject to claims of infringement or wrongful usage which may result in legal liability to us, including damages, legal fees and expenses. In addition to legal liability and related expense of any litigation, which may include damages and the obligations to purchase software from such software vendor, we may be prevented from using the vendor's software in the future which may have a material and negative impact on our ability to service our customers, conduct training of our IT professionals and generally perform our services.

Negative public perception in the markets in which we sell services regarding offshore IT service providers and proposed anti-outsourcing legislation may adversely affect demand for our services.

        We have based our growth strategy on certain assumptions regarding our industry, services and future demand in the market for such services. However, the trend to outsource IT services may not continue and could reverse. Offshore outsourcing is a politically sensitive topic in the United States and the United Kingdom. For example, recently many organizations and public figures in the United States and the United Kingdom have publicly expressed concern about a perceived association between offshore outsourcing providers and the loss of jobs in their home countries. In addition, there has been recent publicity about the negative experience of certain companies that use offshore outsourcing, particularly in India. Current or prospective clients may elect to perform such services themselves or may be discouraged from transferring these services from onshore to offshore providers to avoid negative perceptions that may be associated with using an offshore provider. Any slowdown or reversal of existing industry trends towards offshore outsourcing would seriously harm our ability to compete effectively with competitors that operate out of facilities located in the United States or the United Kingdom. Legislation in the United States or in certain European countries may be enacted that is intended to discourage or restrict outsourcing. Any changes to existing laws or the enactment of new legislation restricting offshore outsourcing in the United States or the United Kingdom may adversely affect our ability to do business in the United States or in the United Kingdom, particularly if these changes are widespread, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

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Cyber-attacks as well as improper disclosure or control of personal information could result in liability and harm our reputation, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

        Our business is heavily dependent on the security of our IT networks and those of our clients. Internal or external attacks on any of those could disrupt the normal operations of our engagements and impede our ability to provide critical services to our clients, thereby subjecting us to liability under our contracts. Additionally, our business involves the use, storage and transmission of information about our employees, our clients and customers of our clients. While we take measures to protect the security of, and unauthorized access to, our systems, as well as the privacy of personal and proprietary information, it is possible that our security controls over our systems, as well as other security practices we follow or those systems of our clients into which we operate and rely upon, may not prevent the improper access to or disclosure of personally identifiable or proprietary information. Such disclosure could harm our reputation and subject us to liability under our contracts and laws that protect personal data, resulting in increased costs or loss of revenue.

        Further, data privacy is subject to frequently changing rules and regulations, which sometimes conflict among the various jurisdictions and countries in which we provide services and continue to develop in ways which we cannot predict, including with respect to evolving technologies such as cloud computing. This includes the Global Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the European Union-wide legal framework to govern data collection, use and sharing and related consumer privacy rights, expected to take effect in 2018. The GDPR includes significant penalties for non-compliance. Our failure to adhere to or successfully implement processes in response to changing regulatory requirements in this area could result in legal liability or impairment to our reputation in the marketplace, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may face liability if we breach our obligations related to the protection, security, nondisclosure of confidential client information or disclosure of sensitive data or failure to comply with data protection laws and regulations.

        In the course of providing services to our clients, we may have access to confidential client information, including nonpublic personal data. We are bound by certain agreements to use and disclose this information in a manner consistent with the privacy standards under regulations applicable to our clients and are subject to numerous U.S. and foreign jurisdiction laws and regulations designed to protect this information, such as the European Union Directive on Data Protection and various U.S. federal and state laws governing the protection of health or other individually identifiable information. If any person, including a team member of ours, misappropriates client confidential information, or if client confidential information is inappropriately disclosed due to a security breach of our computer systems, system failures or otherwise, or if a security breach occurs on a project on which we are engaged, we may have substantial liabilities to our clients or our clients' customers and may incur substantial liability and penalties in connection with any violation of applicable privacy laws and/or criminal prosecution. In addition, in the event of any breach or alleged breach of our confidentiality agreements with our clients, these clients may terminate their engagements with us or sue us for breach of contract, resulting in the associated loss of revenue and increased costs and damaged reputation. We may also be subject to civil or criminal liability if we are deemed to have violated applicable regulations. We cannot assure you that we will adequately address the risks created by the regulations to which we may be contractually obligated to abide.

        In addition, as a global service provider with customers in a broad range of industries, we often have access to or are required to manage, utilize, collect and store sensitive data subject to various regulatory regimes, including but not limited to U.S. federal and state laws governing the protection of personal financial and health data and the European Union Directive on Data Protection (to be superseded by the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation in May 2018). If unauthorized access to or disclosure of such data in our possession or control occurs or we otherwise fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations in this regard, we could be exposed to civil or criminal enforcement actions and penalties in connection with any violation of applicable data protection laws, as well as lawsuits brought by

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our customers, our customers' customers, their clients or others for breaching contractual confidentiality and security provisions or data protection laws. Laws and expectations relating to data protections continue to evolve in ways that may limit our access, use and disclosure of sensitive data, and may require increased expenditures by us or may dictate that we not offer certain types of services.

        In addition, many of our agreements with our clients do not include any limitation on our liability to them with respect to breaches of our obligation to keep the information we receive from them confidential. Although we have general liability insurance coverage, including coverage for errors or omissions, there can be no assurance that coverage will continue to be available on reasonable terms or will be sufficient in amount to cover one or more large claims, or that the insurer will not disclaim coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage or changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our failure to anticipate rapid changes in technology may negatively affect demand for our services in the marketplace.

        Our success will depend, in part, on our ability to develop and implement business and technology solutions that anticipate rapid and continuing changes in technology, industry standards and client preferences. We may not be successful in anticipating or responding to these developments on a timely basis, which may negatively affect demand for our solutions in the marketplace. Also, if our competitors respond faster than we do to changes in technology, industry standards and client preferences, we may lose business and our services may become less competitive or obsolete. Any one or a combination of these circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our ability to obtain and successfully complete client engagements.

Interruptions or delays in service from our third-party providers could impair our global delivery model, which could result in client dissatisfaction and a reduction of our revenue.

        We depend upon third parties to provide a high-speed network of active voice and data communications 24 hours per day and various satellite and optical links between our global delivery centers and our clients. Consequently, the occurrence of a natural disaster or other unanticipated problems with the equipment or at the facilities of these third-party providers could result in unanticipated interruptions in the delivery of our services. For example, we may not be able to maintain active voice and data communications between our global delivery centers and our clients' sites at all times due to disruptions in these networks, system failures or virus attacks. Any significant loss in our ability to communicate or any impediments to any IT professional's ability to provide services to our clients could result in a disruption to our business, which could hinder our performance or our ability to complete client projects in a timely manner. This, in turn, could lead to substantial liability to our clients, client dissatisfaction, loss of revenue and a material adverse effect on our business, our operating results and financial condition. We cannot assure you that our business interruption insurance will adequately compensate our clients or us for losses that may occur. Even if covered by insurance, any failure or breach of security of our systems could damage our reputation and cause us to lose clients.

Some of our client contracts contain restrictions or penalty provisions that, if triggered, could result in lower future revenue and decrease our profitability.

        We have entered in the past, and may in the future enter, into contracts that contain restrictions or penalty provisions that, if triggered, may adversely affect our operating results. For instance, some of our client contracts provide that, during the term of the contract and for a certain period thereafter ranging from six to twelve months, we may not use the same personnel to provide similar services to any of the client's competitors. This restriction may hamper our ability to compete for and provide services to clients in the same industry. In addition, some contracts contain provisions that would require us to pay penalties or liquidated damages to our clients if we do not meet pre-agreed service level requirements. If any of the foregoing were to occur, our future revenue and profitability under these contracts could be materially harmed.

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Our contractual limitations on liability with our clients and third parties may not be enforceable.

        Under a majority of our agreements with our clients, our liability for breach of certain of our obligations is generally limited to actual damages suffered by the client and is typically capped at the greater of an agreed amount or the fees paid or payable to us for a period of time under the relevant agreement. These limitations and caps on liability may be unenforceable or otherwise may not protect us from liability for damages. In addition, certain liabilities, such as claims of third parties for which we may be required to indemnify our clients or liability for breaches of confidentiality, are generally not limited under those agreements. Our agreements are governed by laws of multiple jurisdictions, therefore the interpretation of such provisions, and the availability of defenses to us, may vary, which may contribute to the uncertainty as to the scope of our potential liability. In addition, many of our agreements with our clients do not include any limitation on our liability to them with respect to breaches of our obligation to keep the information we receive from them confidential.

Our services may infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, which may subject us to legal liability, harm our reputation, prevent us from offering some services to our clients or distract management.

        We cannot be sure that our services or the deliverables that we develop and create for our clients do not infringe on the intellectual property rights of third parties and infringement claims may be asserted against us or our clients. As the number of patents, copyrights and other intellectual property rights in our industry increase, we believe that companies in our industry will face more frequent infringement claims. These claims may harm our reputation, distract management, increase costs and prevent us from offering some services to our clients. Historically, we have generally agreed to indemnify our clients for all expenses and liabilities resulting from infringement of intellectual property rights of third parties based on the services and deliverables that we have performed and provided to our clients. In some instances, the amount of these indemnities may be greater than the revenue we receive from the client. In addition, as a result of intellectual property litigation, we may be required to stop selling, incorporating or using products that use or incorporate the infringed intellectual property. We may be required to obtain a license or pay a royalty to make, sell or use the relevant technology from the owner of the infringed intellectual property. Such licenses or royalties may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. We may also be required to redesign our services or change our methodologies so as not to use the infringed intellectual property, which may not be technically or commercially feasible and may cause us to expend significant resources. Subject to certain limitations, under our indemnification obligations to our clients, we may also have to provide refunds to our clients to the extent that we must require them to cease using an infringing deliverable if we are unable to provide a work-around or acquire a license to permit use of the infringing deliverable that we had provided to them as part of a service engagement. If we are obligated to make any such refunds or dedicate time to provide alternatives or acquire a license to the infringing intellectual property, our business and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

The loss of key members of our senior management team may prevent us from executing our business strategy.

        Our future success depends to a significant extent on the continued service and performance of key members of our senior management team. Our growth and success depends to a significant extent on our ability to retain Kris Canekeratne, our chief executive officer, who is a founder of our company and has led the growth, operation, culture and strategic direction of our business since its inception. The loss of his services or the services of other key members of our senior management could seriously harm our ability to execute our business strategy. Although we have entered into agreements with our executive officers providing for severance and change in control benefits to them, each of our executive officers or other key employees could terminate employment with us at any time. We also may have to incur significant costs in identifying, hiring, training and retaining replacements for key employees. The loss of any member of our senior management team might significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business or

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development objectives and could materially harm our business. We do not maintain key man life insurance on any of our team members.

Risks related to our Indian and Sri Lankan operations

Political instability or changes in the central or state governments in India could result in the change of several policies relating to foreign direct investment and repatriation of capital and dividends. Further, changes in the monetary and economic policies could adversely affect economic conditions in India generally and our business in particular.

        We have subsidiaries in India and a significant portion of our business, fixed assets and human resources are located in India. As a result, our business is affected by foreign exchange rates and controls, interest rates, local regulations, changes in government policy, taxation, social and civil unrest and other political, economic or other developments in or affecting India. Since 1991, successive Indian governments have pursued policies of economic liberalization. In the past, the Indian economy has experienced many of the problems that commonly confront the economies of developing countries, including high inflation, erratic gross domestic product growth and shortages of foreign exchange. The Indian government has exercised, and continues to exercise, significant influence over many aspects of the Indian economy and Indian government actions concerning the economy could have a material adverse effect on private sector entities like us. In the past, the Indian government has provided significant tax incentives and relaxed certain regulatory restrictions in order to encourage foreign investment in specified sectors of the economy, including the software development services industry. Programs that have benefited us include, among others, tax holidays, liberalized import and export duties and preferential rules on foreign investment. Notwithstanding these benefits, as noted above, India's central and state governments remain significantly involved in the Indian economy as regulators. In recent years, the Indian government has introduced non-income related taxes, including the fringe benefit tax (which was repealed as of April 1, 2009) and General Sales Taxes ("GST"), and income-related taxes, including the Minimum Alternative Tax. In addition, a change in government leadership in India or change in policies of the existing government in India that results in the elimination of any of the benefits realized by us from our Indian operations or the imposition of new taxes applicable to such operations could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. For instance, certain changes to the application of the Minimum Alternative Tax with respect to Special Economic Zone ("SEZ") units may negatively impact our cash flows and other benefits enjoyed by us which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Changes in the policies or political stability of the government of Sri Lanka could adversely affect economic conditions in Sri Lanka, which could adversely affect our business.

        Our subsidiary in Sri Lanka has been approved as an export computer software developer by the Board of Investment ("BOI") in Sri Lanka, which is a statutory body organized to facilitate foreign investment into Sri Lanka and grant concessions and benefits to entities with which it has entered into agreements. Pursuant to our current agreement with the BOI, our Sri Lankan subsidiary is entitled to an exemption from income taxation on export revenue for a period of 12 years expiring on March 31, 2019 provided that certain job creation and retention requirements were met by March 31, 2017. We believe we have achieved the job criteria and have notified the BOI. The BOI, on review, could challenge our hiring commitments in which case we would have to forego part of the 12 year tax holiday. Further, government policies relating to taxation other than on income would also have an impact on the subsidiary, and the political, economic or social factors in Sri Lanka may affect these policies. Historically, past incumbent governments have followed policies of economic liberalization. However, we cannot assure you that the current government or future governments will continue these liberal policies.

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Regional conflicts or terrorist attacks and other acts of violence or war in the United States, the United Kingdom, India, Sri Lanka, or other regions could adversely affect financial markets, resulting in loss of client confidence and our ability to serve our clients which, in turn, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

        The Asian region has from time to time experienced instances of civil unrest and hostilities among neighboring countries, including between India and Pakistan. Since May 1999, military confrontations between India and Pakistan have occurred in Kashmir. Also, there have been military hostilities and civil unrest in Iraq and Afghanistan. Terrorist attacks, such as the ones that occurred in Brussels in March 2016, Paris in November 2015, Boston on April 15, 2013, New York and Washington, D.C., on September 11, 2001, New Delhi on December 13, 2001, Bali on October 12, 2002, London on July 7, 2005, and Mumbai on November 26, 2008, civil or political unrest and military hostilities in Sri Lanka and other acts of violence or war, including those involving India, Sri Lanka, the United States, the United Kingdom or other countries, may adversely affect U.S., U.K. and worldwide financial markets. Prospective clients may wish to visit several of our facilities, including our global delivery centers in India or Sri Lanka, prior to reaching a decision on vendor selection. Terrorist threats, attacks and international conflicts could make travel more difficult and cause potential clients to delay, postpone or cancel decisions to use our services. In addition, such attacks may have an adverse impact on our ability to operate effectively and interrupt lines of communication and restrict our offshore resources from traveling onsite to client locations, effectively curtailing our ability to deliver our services to our clients. These obstacles may increase our expenses and negatively affect our operating results. In addition, military activity, terrorist attacks, political tensions between India and Pakistan and, historically, conflicts within Sri Lanka, despite the current cessation of hostilities, could create a greater perception that the acquisition of services from companies with significant Indian or Sri Lankan operations involves a higher degree of risk that could adversely affect client confidence in India or Sri Lanka as a software development center, each of which would have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our net income may decrease if the governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, India, Sri Lanka, Germany, Singapore, Sweden or Hungary adjust the amount of our taxable income by challenging our transfer pricing policies.

        Our subsidiaries conduct intercompany transactions among themselves and with the U.S. parent company on an arm's-length basis in accordance with U.S. and local country transfer pricing regulations. The jurisdictions in which we operate could challenge our determination of arm's-length profit and issue tax assessments. Although the United States has income tax treaties with most countries in which we have operations, which should alleviate the risk of double taxation, the costs to appeal any such tax assessment and potential interest and penalties could decrease our earnings and cash flows.

        The Indian taxing authorities issued assessment orders for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2004 to March 31, 2014 of our Indian subsidiary, Virtusa (India) Private Limited, now merged with and into our affiliate, Virtusa Consulting Services Private Limited and Virtusa Software Services Private Limited (referred to as "Virtusa India"). At issue in these assessments were several matters, the most significant of which was the redetermination of the arm's-length profit related to intercompany transactions. For fiscal year ended March 31, 2004 and 2005, we contested both assessments and also filed appeals with Indian tax authorities and U.S. Competent Authorities. Although we have settled certain tax obligations for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2004 and 2005, we have appealed certain other tax related matters affecting our fiscal year ended March 31, 2004 and 2005 with the Indian tax authorities. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2005, we have appealed the redetermination of arm length pricing for transactions with our U.K. subsidiary. Although we have successfully resolved some issues we continue to appeal several other fiscal years' assessments with the Indian tax authorities. If we do not prevail in our appeals, we may incur an additional legal liability and obligations to pay additional interest, penalties and costs related to such matters.

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Our net income may decrease if the governments of India or Sri Lanka levy new taxes or reduce or withdraw tax benefits and other incentives provided to us.

        Virtusa India is an export-oriented company under the Indian Income Tax Act of 1961 and is entitled to claim tax exemption for each Software Technology Park ("STP"), which it operates. Virtusa India historically has operated STPs in Hyderabad and in Chennai. The income tax benefits of the STP in Hyderabad and Chennai expired on March 31, 2010 and 2011, respectively. Historically, however, substantially all of the earnings of both STPs qualified as tax- exempt export profits. Although we believe we have complied with and were eligible for the STP holidays, the government of India may deem us ineligible for the STP holiday or make adjustments to the profit level in previous tax years, subject to the applicable statute of limitations, which could result in additional legal liability, including obligations to pay additional taxes, penalties, interest and other costs arising out of such matter. For instance, the Indian taxing authorities issued an assessment order for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2007 against Virtusa India related to the denial of all STP benefits for our Chennai STP on the basis that the STP was formed by the splitting up or the reconstruction of our Hyderabad STP. This matter is currently pending before the High Court of Hyderabad. We have filed appeals with the appropriate Indian tax authorities to appeal other years. We may incur additional legal liability and obligations to pay additional interest, penalties and costs related to such matter. We have appealed such assessments but we can make no assurance that our appeals will be successful.

        We have located most of our Indian operations in areas designated as a SEZ, under the SEZ Act of 2005. In particular, we are continuing our build out of a facility on a 6.3 acre parcel of land in Hyderabad, India that has been designated as a SEZ. In addition, we have leased space and operate in SEZ designated locations in Bangalore, Pune and Chennai, India. Although our profits from the SEZ operations would be eligible for certain income tax exemptions for a period up to 15 years, we may not be able to take full advantage of the tax holidays in each SEZ if we are not able to grow our operations, including the hiring of IT professionals into the SEZ facilities, and there is no guarantee that we will secure SEZ status for any other future locations in India. Additionally, the government of India may deem us ineligible for a SEZ holiday or make adjustments to the transfer pricing profit levels resulting in an overall increase in our effective tax rate.

        In addition, our Sri Lankan subsidiary, Virtusa Private Ltd. ("Virtusa SL"), was approved as an export computer software developer by the BOI in 1998 and has been granted a tax holiday. Virtusa SL has negotiated various extensions and new arrangements of the original holiday period in exchange for further capital investments in Sri Lanka facilities. The most recent 12-year tax holiday agreement, which is set to expire on March 31, 2019, requires that we meet certain new job creation, retention and investment criteria. As of March 31, 2018, we believe we have met the job creation target. We have submitted the required details to BOI and are awaiting their confirmation. At March 31, 2018, we were eligible for the entire 12-year tax holiday. Further, the Sri Lankan Department of Inland Revenue has challenged the eligibility of the initial year of our granted tax holiday. This challenge was affirmed by the Tax Appeals Commission based on their judgment that we did not meet the required investment commitments. However, during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, we received notice from the BOI certifying the tax holiday for all previously claimed years, including the initial year under challenge. If any such tax assessment were ruled against us, such a ruling may materially harm our business, operating results, and financial results and materially reduce our profitability.

Wage pressures and increases in government mandated benefits in India and Sri Lanka may reduce our profit margins.

        Wage costs in India and Sri Lanka have historically been significantly lower than wage costs in the United States and Europe for comparably-skilled professionals. However, wages in India and Sri Lanka are increasing, which will result in increased costs for IT professionals, particularly project managers and other mid-level professionals. We may need to increase the levels of our team member compensation more

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rapidly than in the past to remain competitive without the ability to make corresponding increases to our billing rates. Compensation increases may reduce our profit margins, make us less competitive in pricing potential projects against those companies with lower cost resources and otherwise harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

        In addition, we contribute to benefit funds covering our employees in India and Sri Lanka as mandated by the Indian and Sri Lankan governments. Benefits are based on the team members' years of service and compensation. If the governments of India and/or Sri Lanka were to legislate increases to the benefits required under these plans or mandate additional benefits, our profitability and cash flows would be reduced.

Our facilities are at risk of damage by earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding and climate change induced natural disasters

        In December 2004, Sri Lanka and India were struck by multiple tsunamis that devastated certain areas of both countries. Our Indian and Sri Lankan facilities are also located in regions that are susceptible to tsunamis. Flooding and other natural disasters related to climate change may increase the risk of disruption of information systems and telephone services for sustained periods. In the recent past, Chennai and Sri Lanka have both been affected by floods. In December 2015, Chennai, India suffered one of the worst flooding and rains in the history of Chennai which shut down our facilities, had a negative impact on our operations and client engagements, and triggered our business continuity plans where we tried to mitigate the impact to our clients, employees and our business. In 2016 and 2017, Sri Lanka was affected by floods, which did not impact our operations directly, but did impact our employees. Damage or destruction that interrupts our ability to deliver our services could damage our relationships with our clients and may cause us to incur substantial additional expenses to repair or replace damaged equipment or facilities. Our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all such expenses. Furthermore, we may be unable to secure such insurance coverage or to secure such insurance coverage at premiums acceptable to us in the future. Prolonged disruption of our services as a result of natural disasters may cause our clients to terminate their contracts with us and may result in project delays, project cancellations and loss of substantial revenue to us. Prolonged disruptions may also harm our team members or cause them to relocate, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The laws of India and Sri Lanka do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as those of the United States and we may be unsuccessful in protecting our intellectual property rights. Unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights may result in loss of clients and increased competition.

        Our success depends, in part, upon our ability to protect our proprietary methodologies, trade secrets and other intellectual property. We rely upon a combination of trade secrets, confidentiality policies, non-disclosure agreements, other contractual arrangements and copyright, patent, and trademark laws to protect our intellectual property rights. However, existing laws of India and Sri Lanka do not provide protection of intellectual property rights to the same extent as provided in the United States. The steps we take to protect our intellectual property may not be adequate to prevent or deter infringement or other unauthorized use of our intellectual property. Thus, we may not be able to detect unauthorized use or take appropriate and timely steps to enforce our intellectual property rights. Our competitors may be able to imitate or duplicate our services or methodologies. The unauthorized use or duplication of our intellectual property could disrupt our ongoing business, distract our management and team members, reduce our revenue and increase our costs and expenses. We may need to litigate to enforce our intellectual property rights or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Any such litigation could be extremely time-consuming and costly and could materially adversely impact our business.

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Risks related to our common stock

The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly.

        The market price of our common stock has at times experienced substantial price volatility as a result of variations between our actual and anticipated financial results, announcements by us and our competitors, projections or speculation about our business or that of our competitors by the media or investment analysts or uncertainty about current global economic conditions. The stock market, as a whole, also has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected the market price of the common stock of many technology companies in ways that may have been unrelated to such companies' operating performance. Furthermore, we believe the market price of our common stock should reflect future growth and profitability expectations. If we fail to meet these expectations, the market price of our common stock may significantly decline.

        In addition, there are many other factors that may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate, including:

    actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results, including fluctuations resulting from changes in foreign exchange rates or acquisitions by us, or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us

    deterioration and decline in general economic, industry and/or market conditions

    announcements of technological innovations or new services by us or our competitors

    changes in estimates of our financial results or recommendations by market analysts

    announcements by us or our competitors of significant projects, contracts, acquisitions, strategic alliances or joint ventures

    changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt

    regulatory developments in the United States, the United Kingdom, India, Sri Lanka or other countries in which we operate or have clients

    litigation involving our company, our general industry or both

    additions or departures of key team members

    investors' general perception of us

    changes in the market valuations of other IT service providers

        If any of the foregoing occurs or continues to occur, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to securities class action litigation. Any securities class action litigation could result in substantial costs and the diversion of management's attention and resources. Many of these factors are beyond our control.

Provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law may prevent or delay a change of control of us and could also limit the market price of our common stock.

        Certain provisions of Delaware law and of our certificate of incorporation and by-laws could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or of discouraging a third party from attempting to acquire, control of us, even if such a change in control would be beneficial to our stockholders or result in a premium for your shares of our common stock. These provisions may also

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prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management. These provisions include:

    a classified board of directors

    limitations on the removal of directors

    advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and nominations

    the inability of stockholders to act by written consent or to call special meetings

    the ability of our board of directors to make, alter or repeal our by-laws

        The affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of our shares of capital stock entitled to vote is necessary to amend or repeal the above provisions that are contained in our certificate of incorporation. In addition, our board of directors has the ability to designate the terms of and issue new series of preferred stock without stockholder approval. Also, absent approval of our board of directors, our by-laws may only be amended or repealed by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of our shares of capital stock entitled to vote.

        In addition, we are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which limits business combination transactions with stockholders of 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock that our board of directors has not approved. These provisions and other similar provisions make it more difficult for stockholders or potential acquirers to acquire us without negotiation. These provisions may apply even if some stockholders may consider the transaction beneficial to them.

        These provisions could limit the price that investors are willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. These provisions might also discourage a potential acquisition proposal or tender offer, even if the acquisition proposal or tender offer is at a premium over the then current market price for our common stock.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments.

        None.

Item 2.    Properties.

        Our principal executive offices are located in Southborough, Massachusetts where we lease approximately 12,120 square feet for a term expiring July 31, 2028.

        We both own and lease facilities to support our operations. At March 31, 2018, we leased 863,567 square feet and owned 922,150 square feet in four countries to deliver services globally to our clients, as set forth in the table below:

Country
  Number of
Locations
  Square
Footage
Leased
  Square
Footage
Owned
  Total
Square
Footage
  Lease
period

India

    19     503,028     922,150     1,425,178   1 - 8 years

United states

    12     173,502         173,502   1 - 11 years

Sri Lanka

    5     176,608         176,608   1 - 5 years

Singapore

    1     10,429         10,429   1 - 5 years

Total

    37     863,567     922,150     1,785,717    

        In March 2008, we entered into a 99-year lease, as amended in August 2008, with an option for an additional 99 years for approximately 6.3 acres of land in Hyderabad, India, where we have built a campus of approximately 325,000 square feet, and in relation with the Polaris acquisition we own 597,150 square feet in India which is also listed in the above table under "Square Footage Owned".

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        We have sales and business development offices located in New York, Chicago, the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Japan, United Arab Emirates, Switzerland, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, Australia and New Zealand. We also have sales and delivery offices in Sweden, New Jersey, Indianapolis, Ohio, Tampa, Windsor, Connecticut, Canada, Hungary, and Malaysia. These leases vary in duration and have expiration dates ranging from one year to eleven years.

        We believe that our existing and planned facilities are adequate to support our existing operations and that, as needed, we will be able to obtain suitable additional facilities on commercially reasonable terms.

Item 3.    Legal Proceedings.

        We are involved in various claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business. In the opinion of our management, the outcome of such claims and legal actions, if decided adversely, is not currently expected to have a material adverse effect on our operating results, cash flows or consolidated financial position.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures.

        Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

        Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "VRTU". The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low sale prices for our common stock during our fiscal years ended March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, respectively, as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.

 
  High   Low  

Fiscal 2017:

             

First quarter

  $ 38.31   $ 27.57  

Second quarter

  $ 29.73   $ 20.74  

Third quarter

  $ 25.37   $ 18.03  

Fourth quarter

  $ 34.92   $ 24.84  

Fiscal 2018:

             

First quarter

  $ 33.06   $ 25.72  

Second quarter

  $ 38.31   $ 28.45  

Third quarter

  $ 48.71   $ 34.79  

Fourth quarter

  $ 52.88   $ 39.77  

        As of May 22, 2018, there were approximately 29,681,942 shares of our common stock outstanding held by approximately 99 stockholders of record and the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on May 22, 2018 was $48.93 per share.

Dividend Policy

        We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently expect to retain future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We intend to permanently reinvest our foreign earnings. Our line of credit with a bank could restrict, or our terms of convertible preferred stock could impair, our ability to declare or make any dividends or similar distributions.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities; Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities

        Except for sales of unregistered securities that have been previously reported by the Company in either its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K, there were no sales of unregistered securities of the Company during the period covered by this Report.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

        Under the terms of our 2007 Stock Option and Incentive Plan ("2007 Plan") and 2015 Stock Option and Incentive Plan ("2015 Plan"), we have issued shares of restricted stock to our employees. On the date that these restricted shares vest, we automatically withhold, via a net exercise provision pursuant to our applicable restricted stock agreements and the 2007 Plan and 2015 Plan, as the case may be, the number of vested shares (based on the closing price of our common stock on such vesting date) equal to tax liability owed by such grantee. The shares withheld from the grantees under the 2007 Plan or the 2015 Plan, as the case may be, to settle their tax liability are reallocated to the number of shares available for issuance under the 2015 Plan. For the three month period ended March 31, 2018, we withheld an aggregate of 92,966 shares of restricted stock at a price of $47.53 per share.

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Item 6.    Selected Financial Data.

        The selected historical financial data set forth below at March 31, 2018 and 2017 and for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 are derived from our consolidated financial statements which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected historical financial data at March 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 and for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2015 and 2014 are derived from our consolidated financial statements which are not included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements, the related notes and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any future period.

Consolidated statements of income data

 
  Fiscal Year Ended March 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016   2015   2014  
 
  (In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 

Revenue

  $ 1,020,669   $ 858,731   $ 600,302   $ 478,986   $ 396,933  

Costs of revenue

    725,445     620,950     389,310     304,422     250,533  

Gross profit

    295,224     237,781     210,992     174,564     146,400  

Operating expenses

    248,837     219,410     165,672     121,996     103,988  

Income from operations

    46,387     18,371     45,320     52,568     42,412  

Other income (expense)

    (4,551 )   447     12,349     4,832     3,512  

Income before income tax expense

    41,836     18,818     57,669     57,400     45,924  

Income tax expense

    32,888     2,561     12,649     14,954     11,549  

Net income

    8,948     16,257     45,020   $ 42,446   $ 34,375  

Less: Net income attributable to the noncontrolling interests, net of tax

    7,694     4,399     218          

Net income available to Virtusa stockholders

  $ 1,254   $ 11,858   $ 44,802   $ 42,446   $ 34,375  

Less: Series A Convertible Preferred Stock dividends and accretion

    3,963                  

Net income (loss) available to Virtusa common stockholders

  $ (2,709 ) $ 11,858   $ 44,802   $ 42,446   $ 34,375  

Basic earnings (loss) per share available to Virtusa common stockholders

  $ (0.09 ) $ 0.40   $ 1.53   $ 1.48   $ 1.32  

Diluted earnings (loss) per share available to Virtusa common stockholders

  $ (0.09 ) $ 0.39   $ 1.49   $ 1.44   $ 1.27  

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding

                               

Basic

    29,397,350     29,650,026     29,233,861     28,753,102     26,116,516  

Diluted

    29,397,350     30,215,171     30,004,982     29,555,624     26,973,001  

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Consolidated balance sheets data

 
  At March 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016   2015   2014  
 
  (In thousands)
 

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 194,897   $ 144,908   $ 148,986   $ 124,802   $ 82,761  

Working capital

  $ 332,635   $ 354,480   $ 387,515   $ 286,034   $ 193,319  

Total assets

  $ 1,113,180   $ 923,420   $ 980,012   $ 489,737   $ 449,425  

Long-term debt, less current portion

  $ 288,227   $ 176,722   $ 185,633          

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock

  $ 106,996                  

Noncontrolling interests

  $ 17,460   $ 87,984   $ 152,942          

Virtusa stockholders' equity

  $ 418,623   $ 497,032   $ 475,013   $ 423,775   $ 374,070  

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Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

        The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of our operations should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes to consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements. Actual results may differ significantly from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause future results to differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those discussed in "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Business overview

        Virtusa Corporation (the "Company", "Virtusa", "we", "us" or "our") is a global provider of digital engineering and information technology ("IT") outsourcing services that accelerate business outcomes for our clients. We support Forbes Global 2000 clients across large, consumer facing industries like banking, financial services insurance healthcare, communications, and media and entertainment, as these clients seek to improve their business performance through accelerating revenue growth, delivering compelling consumer experiences, improving operational efficiencies, and lowering overall IT costs. We provide services across the entire spectrum of the IT services lifecycle, from strategy and consulting, to technology and user experience ("UX") design, development of IT applications, systems integration, testing and business assurance, and maintenance and support services, including infrastructure and managed services. We help our clients solve critical business problems by leveraging a combination of our distinctive consulting approach, unique platforming methodology, and deep domain and technology expertise. Our services enable our clients to accelerate business outcomes by consolidating, rationalizing and modernizing their core customer-facing processes into one or more core systems. We deliver cost-effective solutions through a global delivery model, applying advanced methods such as Agile, an industry standard technique designed to accelerate application development. We also use our consulting methodology, which we refer to as Accelerated Solution Design ("ASD"), which is a collaborative decision-making and design process performed with the client, to ensure our solutions meet the client's specifications and requirements. Our industry leading business transformational solutions combine deep domain expertise with our strengths in software engineering and business consulting to support our clients' business imperative initiatives across business growth and IT operations.

        Headquartered in Massachusetts, we have offices in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, the United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Japan, Australia and New Zealand, with global delivery centers in India, Sri Lanka, Hungary, Singapore and Malaysia, as well as near shore delivery centers in the United States.

        To strengthen our digital engineering capabilities and establish a solid base in Silicon Valley, on March 12, 2018, we entered into an equity purchase agreement by and among the Company, eTouch Systems Corp. ("eTouch US") and each of the equity holders of eTouch US to acquire all of the outstanding shares of eTouch US, and certain of the Company's Indian subsidiaries entered into an share purchase agreement by and among those Company subsidiaries, eTouch Systems (India) Pvt. Ltd ("eTouch India," together with eTouch US, "eTouch") and the equityholders of eTouch India to acquire all of the outstanding shares of eTouch India.

        Under the terms of the equity purchase agreement and the share purchase agreement, on March 12, 2018, we acquired all of the outstanding shares of eTouch US and eTouch India for approximately $140.0 million in cash, subject to certain adjustments, with up to an additional $15.0 million set aside for retention bonuses to be paid to eTouch management and key employees, in equal installments on the first and second anniversary of the transaction. The purchase price will be paid in three tranches with $80.0 million paid at closing, $42.5 million on the 12-month anniversary of the close of the transaction, and

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$17.5 million on the 18-month anniversary of the close of the transaction, subject in each case to certain adjustments.

        On March 3, 2016, to create a unique, fully integrated provider of comprehensive solutions and services across the banking and financial services industry, expand our addressable market, and enable us to pursue larger consulting and outsourcing contracts, our Indian subsidiary acquired approximately 51.7% of the fully diluted shares of Polaris Consulting & Services Limited ("Polaris") for approximately $168.3 million in cash (the "Polaris Transaction") pursuant to a share purchase agreement dated as of November 5, 2015, by and among our Indian subsidiary, Polaris and the promoter sellers named therein. On April 6, 2016, in connection with the Polaris Transaction, we completed an unconditional mandatory open offer (the "Mandatory Tender Offer") to purchase an additional 26% of the fully diluted outstanding shares of Polaris from Polaris' public shareholders for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $89.1 million (Indian rupees 5,935 million). Upon the closing of the Mandatory Tender Offer, our ownership interest in Polaris increased from approximately 51.7% to 77.7% of Polaris' fully diluted shares outstanding, and from approximately 52.9% to 78.8% of Polaris' basic shares outstanding. In order to comply with the applicable Indian rules on takeovers, during the three months ended December 31, 2016, we sold 3.7% of our shares of Polaris common stock through a public offering for approximately $7.6 million in proceeds, net of $0.2 million in brokerage fees and taxes, which reduced our ownership interest in Polaris from 78.6% to 74.9% of Polaris' basic shares of common stock outstanding.

        In connection with our acquisition of Polaris, on October 26, 2017, we announced our intention to commence through our Indian subsidiary, a process that could lead to the delisting of our Indian subsidiary, Polaris, from all stock exchanges on which Polaris' common shares are listed. On February 12, 2018, we consummated the Polaris delisting offer with respect to the public shareholders of Polaris in accordance with the provisions of the SEBI Delisting Regulations, which resulted in an accepted exit price of INR 480 per share ("Exit Price"), for an aggregate consideration of approximately $145.0 million, exclusive of transaction and closing costs, resulting in Virtusa India increasing its ownership interest in Polaris from approximately 74% to approximately 93% of the share capital of Polaris. Upon receipt of final approvals from the stock exchanges on which Polaris is traded, the common shares of Polaris will be delisted from all public exchanges on which the Polaris shares are traded. For a period of one year following the date of the delisting from all stock exchanges on which Polaris common shares are listed, Virtusa India will permit, in compliance with SEBI Delisting Regulations, the public shareholders of Polaris to tender their shares for sale to Virtusa India at the Exit Price. If all the remaining shares of Polaris are tendered at the Exit Price, we would pay an additional consideration of approximately $56.0 million.

        In connection with, and as part of the Polaris acquisition, on November 5, 2015, we entered into an amendment with Citigroup Technology, Inc. ("Citi") and Polaris, which became effective upon the closing of the Polaris Transaction, pursuant to which, (i) Citi agreed to appoint the Company and Polaris as a preferred vendor for Global Technology Resource Strategy ("GTRS") for the provision of IT services to Citi on an enterprise wide basis ("GTRS Preferred Vendor"), (ii) the Company agreed to certain productivity savings and associated reduced spend commitments for a period of two years, which, if not achieved, would require the Company to provide certain minimum discounts to Citi (which is now satisfied), (iii) the parties amended Polaris' master services agreement with Citi such that the Company would also be deemed a contracting party and the Company would assume, and agree to perform, or cause Polaris to perform, all applicable obligations under the master services agreement, as amended by the amendment (the "Citi/Virtusa MSA"), and (iv) Virtusa agreed to terminate Virtusa's existing master services agreement with Citi, and have the Citi/Virtusa MSA be the sole surviving agreement.

        In support of the delisting transaction and the eTouch acquisition, on February 6, 2018, we entered into a $450.0 million credit agreement ("Credit Agreement") with a syndicated bank group jointly lead by JP Morgan Chase Bank, N.A. and Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated, which amends and restates our prior $300.0 million credit agreement (which we had originally entered into on February 25,

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2016 ("Prior Credit Agreement") to fund the Polaris acquisition and Mandatory Tender Offer) and provides for a $200.0 million revolving credit facility, a $180.0 million term loan facility, and a $70.0 million delayed-draw term loan. We drew down $180.0 million under the term loan of the Credit Agreement and $55.0 million under the revolving credit facility under the Credit Agreement to repay in full the amount outstanding under the Prior Credit Agreement and fund the Polaris delisting transaction. On March 12, 2018, we drew down the $70 million delayed draw to fund the eTouch acquisition. Interest under this new credit facility accrues at a rate per annum of LIBOR plus 3.0%, subject to step-downs based on the Company's ratio of debt to EBITDA. We intend to enter into an interest rate swap agreement to minimize interest rate exposure. The Credit Agreement includes maximum debt to EBITDA and minimum fixed charge coverage covenants. The term of the Credit Agreement is five years, ending February 6, 2023 (see Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information). As of March 31, 2018, the outstanding amount under the Credit Agreement was $305.0 million.

        On May 3, 2017, we entered into an investment agreement with The Orogen Group ("Orogen") pursuant to which Orogen purchased 108,000 shares of the Company's newly issued Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, initially convertible into 3,000,000 shares of common stock, for an aggregate purchase price of $108 million with an initial conversion price of $36.00 (the "Orogen Preferred Stock Financing"). In connection with the investment, Vikram S. Pandit, the former CEO of Citigroup, was appointed to Virtusa's Board of Directors. Orogen is a new operating company that was created by Vikram Pandit and Atairos Group, Inc., an independent private company focused on supporting growth-oriented businesses, to leverage the opportunities created by the evolution of the financial services landscape and to identify and invest in financial services companies and related businesses with proven business models.

        Under the terms of the investment, the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock has a 3.875% dividend per annum, payable quarterly in additional shares of common stock and/or cash at our option. If any shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock have not been converted into common stock prior to May 3, 2024, the Company will be required to repurchase such shares at a repurchase price equal to the liquidation preference of the repurchased shares plus the amount of accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon. If we fail to effect such repurchase, the dividend rate on the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock will increase by 1% per annum and an additional 1% per annum on each anniversary of May 3, 2024 during the period in which such failure to effect the repurchase is continuing, except that the dividend rate will not increase to more than 6.875% per annum.

        In connection with the investment, we repaid $81 million of our outstanding term loan under our Prior Credit Agreement, and our board of directors approved the repurchase of approximately $30 million of our common stock.

        On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Acts (the "Tax Act"). The Tax Act contains several key tax provisions that will impact the Company, including the reduction of the corporate income tax rate to 21% effective January 1, 2018. The Tax Act also includes a variety of other changes, such as a one-time repatriation tax on accumulated foreign earnings, a limitation on the tax deductibility of interest expense, acceleration of business asset expensing, and reduction in the amount of executive pay that could qualify as a tax deduction, among others. (See Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information)

        At March 31, 2018, we had 20,491 employees, or team members, an increase from 17,750 at March 31, 2017. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we had revenue of $1,020.7 million and income from operations of $46.4 million. In our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, our revenue increased by $161.9 million, or 18.9%, to $1,020.7 million, as compared to $858.7 million in our fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. Our net income decreased from $11.9 million in our fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 to a net loss of $(2.7) million in our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018.

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        The key drivers of the increase in revenue in our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, as compared to our fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, were as follows:

    Broad based growth, particularly in our top ten clients

    Broad revenue growth in our industry groups, particularly banking and telecommunications

    Revenue growth in all our geographies, led by Europe

        The key drivers of our decrease in net income in our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, as compared to our fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, were as follows:

    Substantial increase in income tax expense from the provisional impact of the Tax Act principally related to the repatriation tax and re-measurement of deferred tax assets;

    Substantial increase in foreign currency transaction losses, primarily due to depreciation of the Indian rupee against the U.S. dollar;

      partially offset by:

    Higher revenue, particularly in our top ten clients, including accelerated growth in banking and telecommunications;

    Increase in gross profit due to higher revenue, and higher gross margin driven by significantly higher utilization;

    Decrease in operating expense as a percentage of revenue, reflecting a larger revenue base

        High repeat business and client concentration are common in our industry. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, 96% of our revenue was derived from clients who had been using our services for more than one year. Accordingly, our global account management and service delivery teams focus on expanding client relationships and converting new engagements to long-term relationships to generate repeat revenue and expand revenue streams from existing clients. We also have a dedicated business development team focused on generating engagements with new clients to continue to expand our client base and, over time, reduce client concentration.

        For the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, we generated 56%, 59%, and 54%, respectively, of revenue from application outsourcing and 44%, 41% and 46%, respectively, of revenue from consulting services. We perform our services under both time-and-materials and fixed-price contracts. Revenue from fixed-price contracts was 41%, 43%, and 39% of total revenue for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The revenue earned from fixed-price contracts reflects our clients' preferences.

        At March 31, 2018, we had cash and cash equivalents, short-term and long-term investments, which is a non-GAAP measure, of $244.9 million, as compared to $237.0 million at March 31, 2017.

        From time to time, we have also supplemented organic revenue growth with acquisitions. These acquisitions have focused on adding domain expertise, expanding our professional services teams and expanding our client base. For instance, for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we completed the acquisition of eTouch, which expands our digital solution offerings and for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, we acquired Polaris, which expanded our banking and financial services offerings and domain expertise as described above. We expect that for our long-term growth, from time to time, we will continue to seek evolving market opportunities through a combination of organic growth and acquisitions.

        For the fiscal year ending March 31, 2019, we expect the following factors, among others, to affect our business and our operating results:

    Demand from our clients, particularly for transformational solutions and outsourcing services

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    Ability to leverage our deep domain expertise to provide digital transformational solutions across our industry groups

    Impact of an increased effective income tax rate as a result of Tax Act

    Foreign currency volatility

        For the fiscal year ending March 31, 2019, we plan to:

    Align our practices to provide digital transformation services across our core industry groups such as banking, financial services and insurance ("BFSI"), Communication and technology ("C&T") and M&I

    Invest in domain-led transformational solutions within core verticals like banking, healthcare, insurance and telecommunications

    Continue our focus on client acquisition and expansion of revenue gained from existing clients, particularly our non-top ten clients

    Leverage our expertise in customer experience management, business process management, user interface ("UI")/user experience ("UX") and SAP

    Deepen our domain expertise in our service offerings related to enterprise mobile applications, social media, gamification, big data analytics, robotics process automation, and cloud computing

    Broaden our business and IT consulting and solutions capabilities related to our service offerings

    Continue to invest in our talent base, including new onsite campus recruitment programs

    Implement resource and operating optimization initiatives to continue to improve operating efficiencies

    Deepen our solution and service offerings across the software development lifecycle, including application support and maintenance and independent software quality-assurance

    Continue to invest in new and existing offshore delivery centers, as well as new geographies

    Pursue opportunistic acquisitions that would improve or broaden our overall service delivery capabilities, domain expertise, and/or service offerings

        As an IT services company, our revenue growth has been, and will continue to be, highly dependent on our ability to attract, develop, motivate and retain skilled IT professionals. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we finished the fiscal year with a total headcount of 20,491 as compared with a total headcount of 17,750 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, which reflects voluntary and involuntary attrition. There is intense competition for IT professionals with the skills necessary to provide the type of services we offer. We closely monitor our overall attrition rates and patterns to ensure our people management strategy aligns with our growth objectives. For the last twelve months ended March 31, 2018, our attrition rate reflects voluntary attrition of 11.8% and involuntary attrition of 7.0%, which includes 3.4% related to implementation of certain cost saving and restructuring initiatives. The majority of our attrition occurs in India and Sri Lanka, and is weighted towards the more junior members of our staff. In response to higher attrition and as part of our retention strategies, we have experienced increases in compensation and benefit costs, which may continue in the future. However, we try to absorb such cost increases through price increases or cost management strategies such as managing discretionary costs, the mix of professional staff and utilization levels and achieving other operating efficiencies. If our attrition rate increases or is sustained at higher levels, our growth may slow and our cost of attracting and retaining IT professionals could increase.

        We maintain a six quarter rolling and layering hedging program, which we believe has been effective since inception at reducing the impact of fluctuations in local currencies on our operating results. In

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addition, we have a cash flow program designed to mitigate the impact of the volatility of the translation of Polaris U.S. dollar denominated revenue into Indian rupees over a rolling and layering 18 month period, although there is no assurance that this hedging program will continue to be effective. These hedges may also cause us to forego benefits of a positive currency fluctuation, especially given the volatility of these currencies. In addition, to the extent that these hedges cease to qualify for hedge accounting, any gains or losses associated with those hedges would be recorded in other comprehensive income until the occurrence of the underlying transaction and at that time the gains or losses would be recognized in the consolidated statement of income in other income (expense).

        We monitor a number of operating metrics to manage and assess our earnings, including:

    Days sales outstanding ("DSO") is a measure of the number of days our accounts receivable are outstanding based upon the last 90 days of revenue activity, which indicates the timeliness of our cash collection from clients and our overall credit terms to our clients. As of March 31, 2018, our DSO was 78 days compared to 80 days as of March 31, 2017.

    Realized billing rates are the rates we charge our clients for our services, which reflect the value our clients place on our services, market competition and the geographic location in which we perform our services. Our realized billing rates have remained relatively consistent subject to foreign currency exchange fluctuation for our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 as compared to our fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. Any increase in realized billing rates is a result of our ability to successfully preserve or increase our billing rates with existing and/or new clients.

    Average cost per IT professional is the sum of team member salaries, including variable compensation, and fringe benefits, divided by the average number of IT professionals during the period. We experienced an increase in our average cost per IT professional in our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 as compared to our fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, primarily driven by competition.

    Utilization rate indicates the efficiency of our billable IT resources. Our utilization rate is defined as the number of billable hours in a given period divided by the total number of available hours of our IT professionals in a given period, excluding trainees. We track our utilization rates to measure revenue potential and gross profit margins. Management's target for the utilization rate is in the low 80% range. Our utilization rates were 83%, 77% and 82% for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The utilization rate is affected by the rate of quarterly sequential revenue growth, as well as ability to staff existing IT professionals on billable engagements. In growth periods, utilization tends to rise as more resources are deployed to meet rising demand. Utilization rates above the targeted range may also indicate that there are insufficient IT professionals to staff existing or future engagements, which may result in loss of revenue or inability to service client engagements.

    Attrition rate is the ratio of terminated team members during the latest twelve months to the total number of team members at the end of such period, which measures team member turnover. Increased voluntary attrition rates result in increased hiring, training and on-boarding costs and productivity losses, which may adversely affect our revenue, gross margin and operating profit margin. For the last twelve months ended March 31, 2018, our attrition rate was 18.8%, which reflects voluntary attrition of 11.8% and involuntary attrition of 7.0%, which includes 3.4% related to implementation of certain cost saving and restructuring initiatives. Our attrition rate for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 was 27.4%, which reflects voluntary attrition of 14.5% and involuntary attrition of 12.9%, which includes 8.5% related to implementation of certain cost saving and restructuring initiatives.

    Operating expense efficiency is a measure of operating expenses as a percentage of revenue. If we continue to successfully grow our revenue, we anticipate that operating expenses will decrease as a

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      percentage of revenue as such expenses are absorbed across a larger revenue base. In the near term, however, any operating expense efficiency may decline if our revenue declines.

    Effective tax rate is our worldwide tax expense as a percentage of our consolidated net income before tax, which measures the impact of income taxes worldwide on our operations and net income. We monitor and assess our effective tax rate to evaluate whether our tax structure is competitive as compared to our industry. Our effective tax rate was 78.6% and 13.6% for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Our effective tax rate increased primarily due to substantial tax impact from the Tax Act offset in part by benefits claimed on operational losses in certain jurisdictions, the geographical mix of profits and increased holiday benefits during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. Increases in our effective tax rate or a high effective tax rate will also have a negative effect on our earnings in future periods.

    Onsite-to-offshore mix is the measurement of hours billed by resources located offshore to hours billed by our team members onsite over a defined period. We strive to manage both fixed-price contracts and time-and-materials engagements to a targeted 25% to 75% onsite- to-offshore service delivery team mix, although such delivery mix may be impacted by several factors including our new and existing client delivery requirements as well as the impact of any acquisitions.

Sources of revenue

        We generate revenue by providing IT services to our clients located primarily in North America and Europe. We have historically earned, and believe that over the next few fiscal years we will continue to earn a significant portion of our revenue from a limited number of clients. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, collectively, our five largest and ten largest clients accounted for 39% and 50% of our revenue, respectively. Our two largest clients accounted for 19% and 7% respectively, of our revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. The loss of any one of our major clients could reduce our revenue and operating profit and harm our reputation in the industry. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, 65% of our revenue was generated in North America, 24% in Europe and 11% in rest of the world. We provide IT services on either a time-and-materials or a fixed-price basis. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, the percentage of revenue from time-and-materials and fixed-price contracts was 59% and 41%, respectively.

        Our North America revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 increased by 20.1%, or $111.2 million, to $665.6 million, or 65.2% of total revenue, from $554.4 million, or 64.6% of total revenue in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. The increase in revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 is primarily due to revenue growth from our banking and telecommunications clients.

        Our European revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 increased by 23.4%, or $46.1 million, to $242.6 million, or 23.8% of total revenue, from $196.5 million, or 23% of total revenue in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. The increase in revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 is primarily due to revenue growth from our European banking and telecommunications clients.

        Revenue from services provided on a time-and-materials basis is derived from the number of billable hours in a period multiplied by the contractual rates at which we bill our clients. Revenue from services provided on a fixed-price basis is recognized as efforts are expended either on a percentage-of-completion method or on a straight-line method. Revenue also includes reimbursements of travel and out-of-pocket expenses with equivalent amounts of expense recorded in costs of revenue. Most of our client contracts, including those that are on a fixed-price basis, can be terminated by our clients with or without cause on 30 to 90 days prior written notice. All fees for services provided by us through the date of cancellation are generally due and payable under the contract terms.

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        Our unit pricing is driven by business need, delivery timeframes, complexity of the engagement, operating differences (such as onsite/offshore ratio), competitive environment and engagement size or volume. As a pricing strategy to encourage clients to increase the volume of services that we provide to them, we, on occasion may offer volume discounts or longer payment terms. We manage our business carefully to protect our account margins and our overall profit margins. We find that our clients generally purchase on the basis of total value, rather than on minimum cost, considering all of the factors listed above.

        While we are subject to the effects of overall market pricing pressure, we believe that there is a fairly broad range of pricing offered by different competitors for each service we provide. We believe that no one competitor, or set of competitors, sets pricing in our industry. We find that our unit pricing, as a result of our global delivery model, is generally competitive with other firms who operate with a predominately offshore operating model.

        The proportion of work performed at our offshore facilities and at onsite client locations varies from period-to-period. Effort, in terms of the percentage of hours billed to clients by onsite resources, was 26% and 24% of total hours billed in each of the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, while the revenue from resources located onsite and offshore accounted for 58% and 42% respectively in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, and 54% and 46% respectively during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. We charge higher rates and incur higher compensation costs and other expenses for work performed at client locations in the United States, the United Kingdom and Europe as compared to work performed at our global delivery centers in Asia, particularly our largest centers in India and Sri Lanka. Services performed at client locations or at our offices in the United States or the United Kingdom generate higher revenue per-capita at lower gross margins than similar services performed at our global delivery centers in Asia, particularly our largest centers in India and Sri Lanka. We manage to a targeted 25% to 75% onsite-to-offshore service delivery mix, although such delivery mix may be impacted by several factors including our new and existing client delivery requirements as well as the impact of any acquisitions.

Costs of revenue and gross profit

        Costs of revenue consist principally of payroll and related fringe benefits, reimbursable and non-reimbursable costs, immigration-related expenses, fees for subcontractors working on client engagements and share-based compensation expense for IT professionals including account management personnel. Wage costs in India and Sri Lanka have historically been significantly lower than wage costs in the United States, Europe and rest of the world for comparably-skilled IT professionals. However, wages in India and Sri Lanka are increasing in local currency, which will result in increased costs for IT professionals, particularly project managers and other mid-level professionals. We may need to increase the levels of our team member compensation more rapidly than in the past to remain competitive without the ability to make corresponding increases to our billing rates. Compensation increases may reduce our profit margins, make us less competitive in pricing potential projects against those companies with lower cost resources and otherwise harm our business, operating results and financial condition. We deploy a campus hiring philosophy and encourage internal promotions to minimize the effects of wage inflation pressure and recruiting costs. Additionally, any material appreciation in the Indian rupee or Sri Lankan rupee against the U.S. dollar or U.K. pound sterling could have a material adverse impact on our cost of services.

        Our revenue and gross profit are also affected by our ability to efficiently manage and utilize our IT professionals and fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. We define utilization rate as the total number of days billed in a given period divided by the total available days of our IT professionals during that same period, excluding trainees. We manage employee utilization by continually monitoring project requirements and timetables to efficiently staff our projects and meet our clients' needs. The number of IT professionals assigned to a project will vary according to the size, complexity, duration and demands of the

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project. An unanticipated termination or reduction of a significant project could cause us to experience a higher than expected number of unassigned IT professionals, thereby lowering our utilization rate.

        Although we have adopted a cash flow hedging program to minimize the effect of the Indian rupee movement on our financial condition, particularly our costs of revenue, these hedges may not be effective or may cause us to forego benefits, especially given the volatility of these currencies. In addition, to the extent that these hedges do not qualify for hedge accounting, any gains or losses associated with those hedges would be recorded in other comprehensive income until the occurrence of the underlying transaction and at that time the gains or losses would be recognized in the consolidated statement of income in other income (expense).

Operating expenses

        Operating expenses consist primarily of payroll and related fringe benefits, commissions, selling and marketing as well as promotion, communications, management, finance, administrative, occupancy, share-based compensation and depreciation and amortization expenses. In the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, we invested in all aspects of our business, including sales, marketing, IT infrastructure, facilities, human resources programs and financial operations. Additionally, any material appreciation in the Indian rupee or Sri Lankan rupee against the U.S. dollar or U.K. pound sterling could have a material adverse impact on our cost of operating expenses.

Other income (expense)

        Other income (expense) includes interest income, interest expense, investment gains and losses, foreign currency transaction gains and losses and disposal of fixed assets. We generate interest income by investing in time deposits, money market instruments, short-term investments and long-term investments. We incur interest expense primarily from our long-term debt and amortization of our debt issuance cost. The functional currencies of our subsidiaries are their local currencies, except for Hungary which operates in the euro and certain Netherlands entities which operate in the U.S. dollar. Foreign currency gains and losses are generated primarily by fluctuations of the Indian rupee, Sri Lankan rupee, Swedish Krona ("SEK"), euro, U.K. pound sterling and the Singapore dollar, against the U.S. dollar on intercompany transactions. This includes fluctuations on an Indian rupee denominated intercompany note in a U.S. dollar functional currency entity in the Netherlands that was put in place as part of the structuring of the Polaris acquisition. At March 31, 2018, the approximate value of the intercompany note was $307,939 (Indian rupee 20,000,000). We place our cash in liquid investments at highly-rated financial institutions, as well as in money market funds, fixed income securities, U. S. dollar denominated corporate bonds, agency bonds and government bonds based on our investment policy approved by our audit committee and board of directors. We believe that our credit policies reflect normal industry terms and business risk.

Income tax expense

        Our net income is subject to income tax in those countries in which we perform services and have operations, including the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, India, Sri Lanka, Germany, Singapore, Austria, Hungary, Malaysia and Sweden. In the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, our effective tax rate was impacted by the Tax Act, the mix of income by jurisdiction and availability and term of certain tax holidays during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. Historically, we have benefited from long-term income tax holiday arrangements in both India and Sri Lanka that are offered to certain export-oriented IT services firms. As a result of these tax holiday arrangements, our worldwide profit has been subject to a relatively low effective tax rate as compared to the statutory rates in the countries in which we generate the substantial portion of our revenue. The effect of the income tax holidays in India and Sri Lanka decreased our income tax expense in the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 by $7.7 million and $8.0 million, respectively. However, our tax expense increased by $30.3 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 compared to our tax expense for our fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. The increase in the tax expense and

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effective tax rate for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 was primarily due to the provisional net charges of $22.7 million recorded due to recently enacted Tax Act, an increase in income from operations, a change in geographical mix of profits and certain foreign currency translation losses with no corresponding tax expense offset by stock compensation deductions.

        Our effective tax rate was 78.6% and 13.6% for each of the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 respectively. Our effective tax rate in future periods will be affected by the Tax Act, the geographic distribution of our earnings, as well as the availability of tax holidays in India, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. We expect our effective tax rate to increase as a result of a higher tax rate in India, geographical mix of our profits and certain provision of the recently enacted Tax Act in the United States.

Application of critical accounting estimates and risks

        Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles, or U.S. GAAP. Preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of revenue and expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We consider an accounting estimate to be critical to the preparation of our consolidated financial statements when both of the following are present:

    the estimate is complex in nature or requires a high degree of judgment; and

    the use of different estimates and assumptions could have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.

        We have discussed the development and selection of our critical accounting estimates and related disclosures with the audit committee of our board of directors. Those estimates critical to the preparation of our consolidated financial statements are listed below.

Revenue recognition

        We derive our revenue from a variety of IT consulting, technology implementation and application outsourcing services. Contracts for these services have different terms and conditions based on the scope, deliverables, and complexity of the engagement which require management to make judgments and estimates in determining the overall cost to the customer. Fees for these contracts may be in the form of time and materials or fixed price arrangements.

        Revenue is recognized as work is performed and amounts are earned. We consider amounts to be earned once evidence of an arrangement has been obtained, services are delivered, fees are fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. Volume discounts are recorded as a reduction of revenue over the contractual period as services are performed.

        Revenue on time and material contracts is recognized as the services are performed and amounts are earned.

        Revenue from fixed price contracts related to complex design, development and customization is accounted for under the percentage of completion method. Under the percentage of completion method, management estimates the percentage of completion based upon efforts incurred as a percentage of the total estimated efforts for the specified engagement. When total cost estimates exceed revenue, we accrue for the estimated losses immediately. The use of the percentage of completion method requires significant judgment relative to estimating total contract revenue and efforts, including assumptions relative to the length of time to complete the project, the nature and complexity of the work to be performed, and anticipated changes in other engagement related costs. Our analysis of these contracts also contemplates whether contracts should be combined or segmented. We combine closely related contracts when all the applicable criteria under U.S. GAAP are met. Similarly, we may segment a project, which may consist of a single contract or a group of contracts, with varying rates of profitability, only if all the applicable criteria

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under U.S. GAAP are met. Estimates of total contract revenue and efforts are continuously monitored during the term of the contract and are subject to revision as the contract progresses. When revisions in estimated contract revenue and efforts are determined, such adjustments are recorded in the period in which they are first identified.

        Revenue from fixed-price contracts related to consulting or other IT services is accounted for using a proportional performance method. Performance is generally measured based upon the efforts incurred to date in relation to the total estimated efforts to the completion of the contract. The cumulative impact of any change in estimates of the contract revenue is reflected in the period in which the changes become known.

        Revenue from fixed-price applications management, maintenance or support engagements is recognized as earned which generally results in straight-line revenue recognition as services are performed continuously over the term of the engagement.

        We may enter into arrangements that consist of multiple elements and in these types of arrangements the transaction price is allocated to the individual units of accounting at the inception of the arrangement based on the relative selling price. The company uses a hierarchy to determine the selling prices to be used for allocating revenue: (i) vendor-specific objective, evidence of fair value (VSOE), (ii) third-party evidence of selling price (TPE), and (iii) best estimate of the selling price (ESP).

        We may enter into hosting arrangements where revenue is recognized as the service is delivered, generally on a straight-line basis, over the contractual period of performance. In these type of arrangements the company considers the rights provided to the customer in determining whether the arrangement includes the sale of a software license.

        Differences between the timing of billings and the recognition of revenue based on various methods of accounting are recorded as unbilled revenue or deferred revenue.

Valuation and impairment of investments and/or marketable securities

        We classify our marketable securities as available-for-sale or trading securities, and carry them at fair market value. Changes in fair value subsequent to the balance sheet date are recorded in the period in which they occur. The difference between amortized cost and fair market value, net of tax effect, for available-for-sale securities is recorded as a separate component of stockholders' equity. The difference between amortized cost and fair market value for trading securities is reflected in "other income, net" on our consolidated statements of income. Investments and/or marketable securities classified as available-for-sale are considered to be impaired when a decline in fair value below cost basis is determined to be other than temporary. We conduct a periodic review and evaluation of our investment securities to determine if the decline in fair value of any security is deemed to be other-than-temporary. Other-than-temporary impairment losses are recognized on securities when: (i) the holder has an intention to sell the security; (ii) it is more likely than not that the security will be required to be sold prior to recovery; or (iii) the holder does not expect to recover the entire amortized cost basis of the security. Other-than- temporary losses are reflected in earnings as a charge against gain on sale of investments to the extent the impairment is related to credit losses. The amount of the impairment related to other factors is recognized in other comprehensive income. We have no intention to sell any securities in an unrealized loss position at March 31, 2018 nor is it more likely than not that we would be required to sell such securities prior to the recovery of the unrealized losses and we expect to recover the entire amortization cost basis of the security. At March 31, 2018, we believe that all impairments of investment securities are temporary in nature.

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Derivative instruments and hedging activities

        We enter into forward foreign exchange contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in foreign exchange rates on forecasted transactions denominated in foreign currencies. The Company also enters into interest rate swaps to mitigate interest rate risk on the Company's variable rate debt. Certain of these transactions meet the criteria for hedge accounting as cash flow hedges under accounting standards codification. Changes in the fair values of these hedges are deferred and recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax, until the hedged transactions occur and are then recognized in the consolidated statements of income in the same line item as the item being hedged. The Company measures the effectiveness of these hedges at the time of inception, as well as on an ongoing basis. If any portion of the hedges is deemed ineffective, the respective portion is recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income until the occurrence of the hedged transaction and at that time, the gains or losses are recognized in the consolidated statement of income in other income (expense). For derivative contracts that are not designated as cash flow hedges, at maturity changes in the fair value, if any, are recognized in the same line item as the underlying exposure being hedged in the statements of income. We value our derivatives based on market observable inputs including both forward and spot prices for currencies. Any significant change in the forward or spot prices for currencies would have a significant impact on the value of our derivatives.

Goodwill and other intangible assets

        We account for our business combinations under the acquisition method of accounting. We allocate the cost of an acquired entity to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values at the date of acquisition. The excess of the purchase price for acquisitions over the fair value of the net assets acquired, including other intangible assets, is recorded as goodwill. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level, defined at the Company level, at least annually in the fourth quarter of each fiscal year or more frequently when events or circumstances occur that indicate that it is more likely than not that an impairment has occurred. In assessing goodwill for impairment, an entity has the option to assess qualitative factors to determine whether events or circumstances indicate that it is not more likely than not that fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carry amount. If this is the case, then performing the quantitative two-step goodwill impairment test is unnecessary. An entity can choose not to perform a qualitative assessment for any or all of its reporting units, and proceed directly to the use of the two-step impairment test. The two-step process begins with an estimation of the fair value of a reporting unit. Goodwill impairment exists when a reporting unit's carrying value of goodwill exceeds its implied fair value. Significant judgment is applied when goodwill is assessed for impairment.

        For our goodwill impairment analysis, we operate under one reporting unit. Any impairment would be measured based upon the fair value of the related assets. In performing the first step of the goodwill impairment testing and measurement process, we compare our entity-wide estimated fair value to net book value to identify potential impairment. Management estimates the entity-wide fair value utilizing our market capitalization, plus an appropriate control premium. Market capitalization is determined by multiplying the shares outstanding on the assessment date by the market price of our common stock. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the book value, the second step is performed to determine if goodwill is impaired. If we determine through the impairment evaluation process that goodwill has been impaired, an impairment charge would be recorded in the consolidated statement of income. We completed the annual impairment test required during the fourth quarter of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 and determined that there was no impairment. We continue to closely monitor our market capitalization. If our market capitalization, plus an estimated control premium, is below its carrying value for a period considered to be other- than-temporary, it is possible that we may be required to record an impairment of goodwill either as a result of the annual assessment that we conduct in the fourth quarter of each fiscal year, or in a future quarter if an indication of potential impairment is evident. The estimated fair value of the reporting unit on the assessment date significantly exceeded the carrying book value.

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        Other intangible assets acquired in a business combination are recognized at fair value using generally accepted valuation methods appropriate for the type of intangible asset and reported separately from goodwill. Intangible assets with definite lives are amortized over the estimated useful lives and tested for impairment when events or circumstances occur that indicate that it is more likely than not that an impairment has occurred. We test other intangible assets with definite lives for impairment by comparing the carrying amount to the sum of the net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. If the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its net undiscounted cash flows, then an impairment loss is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds its fair value.

Income taxes

        The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations in multiple jurisdictions where the Company has operations. We record liabilities for estimated tax obligations in the United States and other tax jurisdictions. Determining the consolidated provision for income tax expense, tax reserves, deferred tax assets and liabilities and related valuation allowance, if any, involves judgment. We calculate and provide for income taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate, and these calculations and determinations can involve complex issues which require an extended time to resolve. In the fiscal year of any such resolution, additional adjustments may need to be recorded that result in increases or decreases to income. Our overall effective tax rate fluctuates due to a variety of factors, including arm's-length prices for our intercompany transactions, changes in the geographic mix, as well as newly enacted tax legislation in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. Applicable transfer pricing regulations require that transactions between and among our subsidiaries be conducted at an arm's-length price. On an ongoing basis, we estimate appropriate arm's-length prices and use such estimates for our intercompany transactions.

        At each financial statement date, we evaluate whether a valuation allowance is needed to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. This evaluation considers the weight of all available evidence, including both future taxable income and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. In the event that we determine that we will not be able to realize a recognized deferred tax asset in the future, an adjustment to the valuation allowance would be made, resulting in a decrease in income (or equity in the case of excess stock option tax benefits) in the period such determination was made. Likewise, should we determine that we will be able to realize all or part of an unrecognized deferred tax asset in the future, an adjustment to the valuation allowance would be made, resulting in an increase to income (or equity in the case of excess stock option tax benefits). We currently have net operating loss carry forwards in the US jurisdiction that are expected to be utilized in the next several years. Net operating losses in the U.S. have an unlimited carry forward period, although there are annual limitations on their use. We expect that U.S. taxable income will recover to levels sufficient to allow for the realization of U.S. deferred tax assets. Certain provisions of the recently enacted US tax reform such as GILTI, NOL limitations, and forecasted profitability were considered in determining it is "more likely than not" that our deferred tax asset is recoverable.

        On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Acts (the "Tax Act"). The Tax Act contains several key tax provisions that will impact the Company, including the reduction of the corporate income tax rate to 21% effective January 1, 2018. The Tax Act also includes a variety of other changes, such as a one-time repatriation tax on accumulated foreign earnings, a limitation on the tax deductibility of interest expense, acceleration of business asset expensing, and reduction in the amount of executive pay that could qualify as a tax deduction, among others.

        We have benefited from long-term income tax holiday arrangements in both India and Sri Lanka. We have located new development centers in areas designated as Special Economic Zones ("SEZ") to secure tax exemptions for these operations for a period of ten years, which could extend to 15 years if we meet

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certain reinvestment requirements. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, we elected the tax holiday for our SEZ Co-developer located in Hyderabad, India for a period of 10 years. During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018 and 2016, we established new units in Bangalore and Hyderabad, respectively, in SEZ designated areas, for which it is eligible for tax holiday for up to 15 years. Our India profits ineligible for SEZ benefits are subject to corporate income tax at the current rate of 34.61%. Our Sri Lanka subsidiary has been granted an income tax holiday by the Sri Lanka Board of Investment ("BOI") which expires on March 31, 2019. The tax holiday is contingent upon a certain level of job creation by us during a given timetable. Although we believe we have met the job creation requirements, if the BOI concludes otherwise, this would jeopardize the maximum benefits from this holiday arrangement. As a result of these tax holiday arrangements, our worldwide profit has been subject to a relatively low effective tax rate, and the loss of any of these arrangements would increase our overall effective tax rate and reduce our net income.

        It is our intent to reinvest all accumulated earnings from foreign operations back into their respective businesses to fund growth. As a component of this strategy, we do not accrue incremental taxes on foreign earnings as these earnings are considered to be indefinitely reinvested outside of the United States. If such earnings were to be repatriated in the future or are no longer deemed to be indefinitely reinvested, we will accrue the applicable amount of taxes associated with such earnings, which would increase our overall effective tax rate. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we repatriated $15.8 million from Virtusa C.V., a subsidiary of the Company, organized to finance the acquisition of Polaris.

Share-based compensation

        Under the fair value recognition provisions of accounting standards, share-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the value of the award and is recognized over the vesting period. The fair value of restricted awards and deferred stock awards is determined based on the number of stock awards granted and the quoted price of our stock at date of grant. Determining the fair value of the stock option awards at the grant date requires judgment, including estimating the expected term over which stock options will be outstanding before they are exercised and the expected volatility of our stock. We changed our accounting policy from estimated forfeitures to actual forfeitures effective April 1, 2017 upon adoption of ASU 2016-09 Accounting Standard Update ("ASU") No. 2016-09, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. If actual results differ significantly from our estimates, share-based compensation expense and our results of operations could be materially impacted.

        The risk-free interest rate assumptions are based on the interpolation of various U.S. Treasury bill rates in effect during the month in which stock option awards are granted. Our volatility assumption is based on the historical volatility rates of our common stock over periods commensurate with the expected term of each grant.

        The expected term of employee share-based awards represents the weighted average period of time that awards are expected to remain outstanding. The expected term of our options is based on historical employee exercise patterns.

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Results of operations

Fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 compared to fiscal year ended March 31, 2017

        The following table presents an overview of our results of operations for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018 and 2017:

 
  Fiscal Year Ended
March 31,
   
   
 
 
  2018   2017   $ Change   % Change  
 
  (Dollars in thousands)
 

Revenue

  $ 1,020,669   $ 858,731   $ 161,938     18.9 %

Costs of revenue

    725,445     620,950     104,495     16.8 %

Gross profit

    295,224     237,781     57,443     24.2 %

Operating expenses

    248,837     219,410     29,427     13.4 %

Income from operations

    46,387     18,371     28,016     152.5 %

Other income (expense)

    (4,551 )   447     (4,998 )   –1118.1 %

Income before income tax expense

    41,836     18,818     23,018     122.3 %

Income tax expense

    32,888     2,561     30,327     1184.2 %

Net income

    8,948     16,257     (7,309 )   –45.0 %

Less: net income attributable to noncontrolling interests, net of tax

    7,694     4,399     3,295     74.9 %

Net income available to Virtusa stockholders

    1,254     11,858     (10,604 )   –89.4 %

Less: Series A Convertible Preferred Stock dividends and accretion

    3,963         3,963        

Net income (loss) attributable to Virtusa common stockholders

  $ (2,709 ) $ 11,858   $ (14,567 )   –122.8 %

Revenue

        Revenue increased by 18.9%, or $161.9 million, from $858.7 million during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 to $1,020.7 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. The increase in revenue was primarily due to broad based growth, particularly in our top ten clients and revenue growth from our banking and telecommunications clients. Revenue from North American clients increased by $111.2 million, or 20.1%, as compared to the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. Revenue from European clients in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 increased by $46.1 million, or 23.4%, as compared to the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. The growth in both North American and European clients was primarily attributable to banking and telecommunications clients in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 as compared to the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. Our number of clients increased from 191 at March 31, 2017 to 215 at March 31, 2018, inclusive of clients acquired as part of the eTouch acquisition.

Costs of revenue

        Costs of revenue increased from $621.0 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 to $725.4 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, an increase of $104.4 million, or 16.8%, which includes a foreign currency expense of $4.9 million due to the appreciation of the Indian rupee. The increase in cost of revenue was primarily due to an increase in the number of IT professionals and related compensation and benefit costs of $83.0 million, reflective of an increase in onsite effort. The increased costs of revenue are also due to an increase in subcontractor costs of $18.8 million and an increase of $3.7 million in travel expenses. At March 31, 2018, we had 18,648 IT professionals, inclusive of IT professionals acquired as part of the eTouch acquisition, as compared to 16,127 at March 31, 2017.

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Gross profit

        Our gross profit increased by $57.4 million or 24.2%, to $295.2 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 as compared to $237.8 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 primarily due to our growth in revenue, partially offset by increased cost of revenue related to increase in onsite effort and use of subcontractors. As a percentage of revenue, our gross margin was 28.9% and 27.7% in the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The increase in gross margin was primarily a result of higher utilization.

Operating expenses

        Operating expenses increased from $219.4 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 to $248.8 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, an increase of $29.4 million, which includes a foreign currency expense of $2.2 million due to the appreciation of the Indian rupee. The increase in operating expenses was due to an increase of $26.3 million in compensation related expenses and $2.1 million in facilities expenses. As a percentage of revenue, our operating expenses decreased from 25.6% in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 to 24.4% in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, primarily due to a decrease in facilities and travel expense as a percentage of revenue as well as a decrease in acquisition and integration related expenses incurred during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017.

Income from operations

        Income from operations increased from $18.4 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 to $46.4 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, an increase of $28.0 million or 152.5%. As a percentage of revenue, income from operations increased from 2.1% in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 to 4.5% in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. The increase in income from operations as a percentage of revenue primarily due to higher gross margin and operating efficiencies.

Other income (expense)

        Other income decreased from an income of $0.4 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 to an expense of $4.6 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. The decrease is primarily attributed to an increase in foreign currency transaction losses due to the depreciation of our Indian rupee denominated intercompany note when converted into U.S. dollars of $6.8 million, partially offset by an increase in investment income of $1.4 million and an increase in interest income of $0.2 million.

Income tax expense

        We had income tax expense of $32.9 million and $2.6 million for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Our effective tax rate was 78.6% and 13.6% for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The increase in the tax expense and effective tax rate for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 was primarily due to the provisional net charges of $22.7 million recorded due to recently enacted Tax Act, an increase in income from operations, a change in geographical mix of profits and certain foreign currency translation losses with no corresponding tax expense offset by income tax benefit on stock compensation deductions.

Noncontrolling interests

        In connection with the Polaris acquisition, for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we recorded a noncontrolling interest of $7.7 million, representing a weighted average of 23.2% share of profits of Polaris held by parties other than Virtusa. At March 31, 2018, our noncontrolling interest was 7.4%, which gives effect to the delisting offer that settled on February 12, 2018.

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Net income available to Virtusa stockholders

        Net income available to Virtusa stockholders for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 was $1.3 million, a decrease of 89.4% or $10.6 million compared to net income of $11.9 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. The decrease in net income in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 was primarily due to a substantial increase in income tax expense from the provisional impact of the Tax Act, principally related to the repatriation tax of $17.8 million and re-measurement of deferred tax assets of $4.9 million.

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock dividends and accretion

        In connection with the Orogen Preferred Stock Financing, we recorded dividends and accreted issuance costs of $4.0 million at a rate of 3.875% per annum for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018.

Net income (loss) attributable to Virtusa common stockholders

        Net income attributable to Virtusa common stockholders decreased by 122.8%, from an income of $11.9 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 to a net loss of $(2.7) million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. The decrease in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 was primarily due to substantial increase in income tax expense from the provisional impact of the Tax Act, principally related to the repatriation tax of $17.8 million and re-measurement of deferred tax assets of $4.9 million

Fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 compared to fiscal year ended March 31, 2016

        The following table presents an overview of our results of operations for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2017 and 2016:

 
  Fiscal Year Ended
March 31,
   
   
 
 
  2017   2016   $ Change   % Change  
 
  (Dollars in thousands)
 

Revenue

  $ 858,731   $ 600,302   $ 258,429     43.0 %

Costs of revenue

    620,950     389,310     231,640     59.5 %

Gross profit

    237,781     210,992     26,789     12.7 %

Operating expenses

    219,410     165,672     53,738     32.4 %

Income from operations

    18,371     45,320     (26,949 )   (59.5 )%

Other income

    447     12,349     (11,902 )   (96.4 )%

Income before income tax expense

    18,818     57,669     (38,851 )   (67.4 )%

Income tax expense

    2,561     12,649     (10,088 )   (79.8 )%

Net income

    16,257     45,020     (28,763 )   (63.9 )%

Less: net income attributable to noncontrolling interests

    4,399     218     4,181     1917.9 %

Net income attributable to Virtusa stockholders

  $ 11,858   $ 44,802   $ (32,944 )   (73.5 )%

Revenue

        Revenue increased by 43.0%, or $258.4 million, from $600.3 million during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 to $858.7 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, due primarily to a full year of revenue contribution from Polaris. Polaris revenue contribution was $290.4 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, compared to $19.4 million for the 29 day period ending March 31, 2016. Excluding Polaris, broad based growth, particularly in our non-top ten clients, was offset by a decline in our insurance industry group. Revenue from clients existing as of March 31, 2016, increased by $228.9 million, and revenue from new clients was $29.5 million during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, as compared to

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the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016. Revenue from North American clients increased by $133.2 million, or 31.6%, as compared to the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016. Revenue from European clients in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 increased by $61.9 million, or 46.0%, as compared to the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016. The growth in both North American and European clients was primarily attributable to Polaris. Revenue growth was led by BFS and M&I industry groups, which increased by 67.5% and 39.9% respectively, in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 as compared to the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016. Our number of clients increased from 174 at March 31, 2016 to 191 at March 31, 2017.

Costs of revenue

        Costs of revenue increased from $389.3 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 to $620.9 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, an increase of $231.6 million, or 59.5%, which includes a foreign currency benefit of $10.6 million due to the depreciation of the Indian rupee. The increase in cost of revenue was due to an increase in compensation and benefit costs of $187.4 million, primarily related to a full year of headcount associated with the Polaris acquisition completed on March 3, 2016. The increased costs of revenue are also due to an increase in subcontractor costs of $31.1 million and an increase of $8.8 million in travel expenses. At March 31, 2017, we had 16,127 IT professionals as compared to 16,321 at March 31, 2016.

Gross profit

        Our gross profit increased by $26.8 million or 12.7%, to $237.8 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 as compared to $211.0 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 primarily due to our growth in revenue, partially offset by increased cost of revenue related to increase in onsite effort and use of subcontractors. As a percentage of revenue, our gross margin was 27.7% and 35.1% in the fiscal years ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The decrease in gross margin was primarily a result of lower gross margins on our larger transformational programs that begin with higher onsite effort as well as an increase in onsite work including travel expenses and subcontractors, primarily as a result of the Polaris acquisition.

Operating expenses

        Operating expenses increased from $165.7 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 to $219.4 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, an increase of $53.8 million, which includes a foreign currency benefit of $4.5 million due to the depreciation of the Indian rupee. The increase in operating expenses was due to an increase of $31.6 million in compensation related expenses primarily related to a full year of Polaris headcount, $16.6 million in facilities expenses primarily related to a full year of Polaris facilities and an increase of $4.8 million in travel expenses. As a percentage of revenue, our operating expenses decreased from 27.6% in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 to 25.6% in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, reflecting an increase in operating efficiencies as a result of the Polaris integration.

Income from operations

        Income from operations decreased from $45.3 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 to $18.4 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, a decrease of $26.9 million or 59.5%. This decrease in income from operations was primarily driven by an increase in onsite work and the negative impact of foreign currency on non-U.S. denominated revenues, when converted in to U.S. dollars. As a percentage of revenue, income from operations decreased from 7.5% in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 to 2.1% in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. The decrease in income from operations was primarily due to higher onsite effort as a percentage of revenue, particularly higher onsite work as a result of the Polaris acquisition.

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Other income

        Other income decreased from $12.3 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 to $0.4 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. The decrease is primarily attributed to an increase in foreign currency transaction losses of $4.0 million, and an increase in net interest expense of $8.3 million primarily resulting from our term loan.

Income tax expense

        We had income tax expense of $2.6 million and $12.6 million for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Our effective tax rate was 13.6% and 21.9% for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The decrease in the effective tax rate is primarily due to tax benefits claimed on operational losses in certain jurisdictions, the geographical mix of profits and increased holiday benefits, partially offset by tax cost on repatriation of a dividend and increases in uncertain tax positions during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017.

Noncontrolling interests

        In connection with the Polaris acquisition, for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, we recorded a noncontrolling interest of $4.4 million, representing a weighted average of 22.8% share of profits of Polaris held by parties other than Virtusa.

Net income attributable to Virtusa stockholders

        Net income for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 was $11.9 million, a decrease of 73.5% or $32.9 million compared to net income of $44.8 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 driven by lower utilization, higher on-site efforts, higher operating costs, foreign currency transaction losses and interest expense related to our term loan.

Non-GAAP Measures

        We include certain non-GAAP financial measures as defined by Regulation G by the Securities and Exchange Commission. These non-GAAP financial measures are not based on any comprehensive set of accounting rules or principles and should not be considered a substitute for, or superior to, financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP, and may be different from non-GAAP measures used by other companies. In addition, these non-GAAP measures should be read in conjunction with our financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP.

        We consider the total measure of cash, cash equivalents, short-term and long-term investments to be an important indicator of our overall liquidity. All of our investments are classified as available-for-sale, including our long-term investments which consist of fixed income securities, including government agency bonds and municipal and corporate bonds, which meet the credit rating and diversification requirements of our investment policy as approved by our audit committee and board of directors.

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        The following table provides the reconciliation from cash and cash equivalents to total cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments and long-term investments:

 
  Fiscal Year Ended
March 31,
 
 
  2018   2017  

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 194,897   $ 144,908  

Short-term investments

    45,900     72,028  

Long-term investments

    4,140     20,057  

Total cash and cash equivalents, short-term and long-term investments

  $ 244,937   $ 236,993  

        We believe the following financial measures will provide additional insights to measure the operational performance of our business.

    We present the following consolidated statements of income (loss) measures that exclude, when applicable, stock-based compensation expense, acquisition-related charges, restructuring charges, foreign currency transaction gains and losses, non-recurring third party financing costs, the tax impact of dividends received from foreign subsidiaries and the impact from the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation ("Tax Act") to provide further insights into the comparison of our operating results among the periods:

    Non-GAAP income from operations: income from operations, as reported on our consolidated statements of income (loss), excluding stock-based compensation expense, and acquisition-related charges and restructuring charges

    Non-GAAP operating margin: non-GAAP income from operations as a percentage of reported revenues

    Non-GAAP net income available to Virtusa common stockholders: net income (loss) available to Virtusa common stockholders, as reported on our consolidated statements of income (loss), excluding stock-based compensation, acquisition-related charges, restructuring charges, foreign currency transaction gains and losses, non-recurring third party financing costs, the tax impact of the above items, the tax impact of dividends received from foreign subsidiaries and the impact from the Tax Act.

    Non-GAAP diluted earnings per share: diluted earnings (loss) per share, as reported on our consolidated statements of income (loss) available to Virtusa common stockholders, excluding stock-based compensation, acquisition-related charges, restructuring charges, foreign currency transaction gains and losses, non-recurring third party financing costs, the tax impact of the above items, the tax impact of dividends received from foreign subsidiaries and the impact from the Tax Act. Non-GAAP diluted earnings per share is also subject to dilutive and anti-dilutive requirements of the if-converted method related to our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock that could result in a difference between GAAP to non-GAAP diluted weighted average shares outstanding.

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        The following table presents a reconciliation of each non-GAAP financial measure to the most comparable GAAP measure for the years ended March 31:

 
  Fiscal Year Ended March 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  (in thousands, except
per share amounts)

 

GAAP income from operations

  $ 46,387   $ 18,371   $ 45,320  

Add: Stock-based compensation expense

    27,411     22,123     16,179  

Add: Acquisition-related charges and restructuring charges(1)

    13,278     15,217     18,049  

Non-GAAP income from operations

  $ 87,076   $ 55,711   $ 79,548  

GAAP operating margin

    4.5 %   2.1 %   7.6 %

Effect of above adjustments to income from operations

    4.0 %   4.4 %   5.7 %

Non-GAAP operating margin

    8.5 %   6.5 %   13.3 %

GAAP net income (loss) available to Virtusa common stockholders

  $ (2,709 ) $ 11,858   $ 44,802  

Add: Stock-based compensation expense

    27,411     22,123     16,179  

Add: Acquisition-related charges and restructuring charges(1)

    13,346     15,217     18,049  

Add: Non-recurring third party financing costs(9)

    701          

Add: Foreign currency transaction (gains) losses(2)

    3,543     (3,009 )   (7,050 )

Add: Impact from the Tax Act(8)

    22,724          

Tax adjustments (3)

    (14,037 )   (6,861 )   (10,090 )

Less: Noncontrolling interest, net of taxes(4)

    (1,469 )   (1,699 )    

Non-GAAP net income available to Virtusa common stockholders

  $ 49,510   $ 37,629   $ 61,890  

GAAP diluted earnings (loss) per share(6)

  $ (0.09 ) $ 0.39   $ 1.49  

Effect of stock-based compensation expense(7)

    0.85     0.73     0.54  

Effect of acquisition-related charges and restructuring charges(1)(7)

    0.41     0.51     0.60  

Effect of non-recurring third party financing costs(9)(8)

    0.02          

Effect of foreign currency transaction (gains) losses(2)(7)

    0.11     (0.10 )   (0.23 )

Effect of impact from the Tax Act(7)(8)

    0.70          

Tax adjustments(3)(7)

    (0.43 )   (0.22 )   (0.34 )

Effect of noncontrolling interest(4)(7)

    (0.05 )   (0.06 )    

Effect of dividend on Series A Convertible Preferred Stock(6)(7)

    0.10          

Effect of change in dilutive shares for non-GAAP(6)

    0.01          

Non-GAAP diluted earnings per share(5)(7)

  $ 1.63   $ 1.25   $ 2.06  

(1)
Acquisition-related charges include, when applicable, amortization of purchased intangibles, external deal costs, acquisition-related retention bonuses, changes in the fair value of contingent consideration liabilities, changes in fair value related to deferred acquisition payments, charges for impairment of acquired intangible assets and other acquisition-related costs including integration expenses consisting of outside professional and consulting services and direct and incremental travel costs. Restructuring charges, when applicable, include termination benefits, as well as certain professional fees related to

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    the restructuring. The following table provides the details of the acquisition-related charges and restructuring charges:

 
  Fiscal Year Ended March 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  

Amortization of intangible assets

  $ 10,089   $ 9,523   $ 5,490  

Acquisition & integration costs

    1,889     3,296     12,559  

Restructuring costs

    1,368     2,398      

Total

  $ 13,346   $ 15,217   $ 18,049  
(2)
Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are inclusive of gains and losses on related foreign exchange forward contracts not designated as hedging instruments for accounting purposes.

(3)
Tax adjustments reflect the estimated tax effect of the non-GAAP adjustments using the tax rates at which these adjustments are expected to be realized for the respective periods.

(4)
Noncontrolling interest represents the minority shareholders interest of Polaris.

(5)
Non-GAAP diluted earnings per share is subject to rounding.

(6)
During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, the weighted average shares outstanding of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock of 2,728,022 respectively, were excluded from the calculations of GAAP diluted earnings per share as their effect would have been anti-dilutive using the if-converted method.

The following table provides the non-GAAP net income available to Virtusa common stockholders and non-GAAP dilutive weighted average shares outstanding using if-converted method to calculate the non-GAAP diluted earnings per share for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016:

 
  Fiscal Year Ended March 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  

Non-GAAP net income available to Virtusa common stockholders

  $ 49,510   $ 37,629   $ 61,890  

Add: Dividends and accretion on Series A Convertible Preferred Stock

    3,262          

Non-GAAP net income available to Virtusa common stockholders and assumed conversion

  $ 52,772   $ 37,629   $ 61,890  

GAAP dilutive weighted average shares outstanding

    29,397,350     30,215,171     30,004,982  

Add: Dilutive effect of employee stock options and unvested restricted stock awards and restricted stock units

    728,820          

Add: Series A Convertible Preferred Stock as converted

    2,250,000          

Non-GAAP dilutive weighted average shares outstanding

    32,376,170     30,215,171     30,004,982  
(7)
To the extent the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock is dilutive using the if-converted method, the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock is included in the weighted average shares outstanding to determine non-GAAP diluted earnings per share.

(8)
The U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act") in December 2017. This resulted in a tax expense of $22.7 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, comprised of a provisional repatriation tax expense of $17.8 million

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    and a provisional net deferred tax expense of $4.9 million. The adjustment to GAAP net income (loss) available to Virtusa common stockholders only includes these impacts. It does not include the ongoing impacts of the lower U.S. statutory rate on current year earnings. The GAAP earnings (loss) per share impact on the Tax Act adjustment using GAAP weighted average shares outstanding was $(0.77). The non-GAAP earnings per share impact on the Tax Act adjustment using non-GAAP weighted average shares outstanding was $(0.70).

(9)
Non-recurring third party financing costs related to the new credit facility.

Liquidity and capital resources

        We have financed our operations primarily from sales of shares of common stock, cash from operations, debt financing and from sales of shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.

        We do not believe the deemed repatriation tax on accumulated foreign earnings related to the Tax Act will have a significant impact on our cash flows in any individual fiscal year.

        During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we implemented certain cost saving and restructuring initiatives. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, the Company incurred costs of $1.4 million primarily related to termination benefits, out of which we paid $1.0 million during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018.

        To strengthen our digital engineering capabilities and establish a solid base in Silicon Valley, on March 12, 2018, we entered into an equity purchase agreement by and among the Company, eTouch Systems Corp. ("eTouch US") and each of the equityholders of eTouch US to acquire all of the outstanding shares of eTouch US, and certain of the Company's Indian subsidiaries entered into an share purchase agreement by and among those Company subsidiaries, eTouch Systems (India) Pvt. Ltd ("eTouch India," together with eTouch US, "eTouch") and the equityholders of eTouch India to acquire all of the outstanding shares of eTouch India.

        Under the terms of the equity purchase agreement and the share purchase agreement, on March 12, 2018, we acquired all of the outstanding shares of eTouch US and eTouch India for approximately $140.0 million in cash, subject to certain adjustments, with up to an additional $15.0 million set aside for retention bonuses to be paid to eTouch management and key employees, in equal installments on the first and second anniversary of the transaction. The purchase price will be paid in three tranches with $80.0 million paid at closing, $42.5 million on the 12-month anniversary of the close of the transaction, and $17.5 million on the 18-month anniversary of the close of the transaction, subject in each case to certain adjustments.

        On March 3, 2016, to create a unique, fully integrated provider of comprehensive solutions and services across the banking and financial services industry, expand our addressable market, and enable us to pursue larger consulting and outsourcing contracts, our Indian subsidiary acquired approximately 51.7% of the fully diluted shares of Polaris Consulting & Services Limited ("Polaris") for approximately $168.3 million in cash (the "Polaris Transaction") pursuant to a share purchase agreement dated as of November 5, 2015, by and among our Indian subsidiary, Polaris and the promoter sellers named therein. On April 6, 2016, in connection with the Polaris Transaction, we completed an unconditional mandatory open offer (the "Mandatory Tender Offer") to purchase an additional 26% of the fully diluted outstanding shares of Polaris from Polaris' public shareholders for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $89.1 million (Indian rupees 5,935 million). Upon the closing of the Mandatory Tender Offer, our ownership interest in Polaris increased from approximately 51.7% to 77.7% of Polaris' fully diluted shares outstanding, and from approximately 52.9% to 78.8% of Polaris' basic shares outstanding. In order to comply with the applicable Indian rules on takeovers, during the three months ended December 31, 2016, we sold 3.7% of our shares of Polaris common stock through a public offering for approximately

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$7.6 million in proceeds, net of $0.2 million in brokerage fees and taxes, which reduced our ownership interest in Polaris from 78.6% to 74.9% of Polaris' basic shares of common stock outstanding.

        In connection with our acquisition of Polaris, on October 26, 2017, we announced our intention to commence through our Indian subsidiary, a process that could lead to the delisting of our Indian subsidiary, Polaris, from all stock exchanges on which Polaris' common shares are listed. On February 12, 2018, we consummated the Polaris delisting offer to all public shareholders of Polaris in accordance with the provisions of the SEBI Delisting Regulations, which resulted in an accepted exit price of INR 480 per share ("Exit Price"), for an aggregate consideration of approximately $145.0 million, exclusive of transaction and closing costs, resulting in Virtusa India increasing its ownership interest in Polaris from approximately 74% to approximately 93% of the share capital of Polaris. Upon receipt of final approvals from the stock exchanges on which Polaris is traded, the common shares of Polaris will be delisted from all public exchanges on which the Polaris shares are traded. For a period of one year following the date of the delisting from all stock exchanges on which Polaris common shares are listed, Virtusa India will permit, in compliance with SEBI Delisting Regulations, the public shareholders of Polaris to tender their shares for sale to Virtusa India at the Exit Price. If all the remaining shares of Polaris are tendered at the Exit Price, we would pay an additional consideration of approximately $56.0 million.

        In connection with, and as part of the Polaris acquisition, on November 5, 2015, we entered into an amendment with Citigroup Technology, Inc. ("Citi") and Polaris, which became effective upon the closing of the Polaris Transaction, pursuant to which, (i) Citi agreed to appoint the Company and Polaris as a preferred vendor for Global Technology Resource Strategy ("GTRS") for the provision of IT services to Citi on an enterprise wide basis ("GTRS Preferred Vendor"), (ii) the Company agreed to certain productivity savings and associated reduced spend commitments for a period of two years, which, if not achieved, would require the Company to provide certain minimum discounts to Citi (which is now satisfied), (iii) the parties amended Polaris' master services agreement with Citi such that the Company would also be deemed a contracting party and the Company would assume, and agree to perform, or cause Polaris to perform, all applicable obligations under the master services agreement, as amended by the amendment (the "Citi/Virtusa MSA"), and (iv) Virtusa agreed to terminate Virtusa's existing master services agreement with Citi, and have the Citi/Virtusa MSA be the sole surviving agreement.

        In support of the delisting transaction and the eTouch acquisition, on February 6, 2018, we entered into a $450.0 million credit agreement ("Credit Agreement") with a syndicated bank group jointly lead by JP Morgan Chase Bank, N.A. and Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated, which amends and restates our prior $300.0 million credit agreement (which we had originally entered into on February 25, 2016 ("Prior Credit Agreement") to fund the Polaris acquisition and Mandatory Tender Offer) and provides for a $200.0 million revolving credit facility, a $180.0 million term loan facility, and a $70.0 million delayed-draw term loan. We drew down $180.0 million under the term loan of the Credit Agreement and $55.0 million under the revolving credit facility under the Credit Agreement to repay in full the amount outstanding under the Prior Credit Agreement and fund the Polaris delisting transaction. On March 12, 2018, we drew down the $70 million delayed draw to fund the eTouch acquisition. Interest under this new credit facility accrues at a rate per annum of LIBOR plus 3.0%, subject to step-downs based on the Company's ratio of debt to EBITDA. We intend to enter into an interest rate swap agreement to minimize interest rate exposure. The Credit Agreement includes maximum debt to EBITDA and minimum fixed charge coverage covenants. The term of the Credit Agreement is five years, ending February 6, 2023 (see Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information). At March 31, 2018, the outstanding amount under the Credit Agreement was 305.0 million. At March 31, 2018, the interest rates on the term loan and line of credit were 4.63% and 4.45% respectively.

        The Credit Agreement has financial covenants that require that the Company maintain a Total Leverage Ratio of not more than 3.50 to 1.00 commencing with December 31, 2017 and for all quarters thereafter ending prior to December 31, 2019 and of not more than 3.25 to 1.00 commencing with December 31, 2019 and for all quarters thereafter ending prior to September 30, 2020, and 3.00 to 1.00,

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commencing with September 30, 2020 and tested for all quarters thereafter. The financial covenants also require that the Company maintain a Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio, commencing on December 31, 2017, of not less than 1.25 to 1.00, as of the last day of any Reference Period. For purposes of these covenants, "Total Leverage Ratio" means, as of the last day of any fiscal quarter, the ratio of Funded Debt to Adjusted EBITDA for the reference period ended on such date. "Funded Debt" refers generally to total indebtedness to third-parties for borrowed money, capital leases, deferred purchase price and earn-out obligations and related guarantees and "Adjusted EBITDA" is defined as consolidated net income plus (a) (i) GAAP depreciation and amortization, (ii) non-cash equity-based compensation expenses, (iii) fees and expenses incurred during such period in connection with the Credit Facility and loans made thereunder, (iv) fees and expenses incurred during such period in connection with any permitted acquisition, (v) one-time regulatory charges, (vi) other extraordinary and non-recurring losses or expenses, and (vii) all other non-cash charges, expenses and losses for such period, (viii) taxes net of tax credits, minus (b) (i) extraordinary or non-recurring income or gains for such period, and (ii) any cash payments made during such period in respect of non-cash charges, expenses or losses described in clauses (a)(ii), (a)(v) and (a)(vi) above taken in a prior period, subject to other adjustments and certain caps and limits on adjustments. The Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio is calculated under the Credit Agreement generally as the ratio of Adjusted EBITDA, excluding capital expenditures made during such period (to the extent not financed with indebtedness (other than Revolving Loans), an issuance of equity interests or capital contributions, or proceeds of asset sales, the proceeds of casualty insurance used to replace or restore assets, to fixed charges (regularly scheduled consolidated interest expense paid in cash, plus regularly scheduled dividends paid in cash for such period on or with respect to any Disqualified Equity Interests, including the Orogen Series A Preferred Stock, regularly scheduled amortization payments on indebtedness in cash, income taxes paid in cash and the interest component of capital lease obligation payments), on a consolidated basis.

        The Credit Facility is secured by substantially all of the Company's assets, including all intellectual property and all securities in domestic subsidiaries (other than certain domestic subsidiaries where the material assets of such subsidiaries are equity in foreign subsidiaries), subject to customary exceptions and exclusions from the collateral. All obligations under the Credit Agreement are unconditionally guaranteed by substantially all of the Company's material direct and indirect domestic subsidiaries, with certain exceptions. These guarantees are secured by substantially all of the present and future property and assets of the guarantors, with certain exclusions.

        At March 31, 2018, the Company is in compliance with our debt covenants and have provided a quarterly certification to our lenders to that effect. We believe that we currently meet all conditions set forth in the Credit Agreement to borrow thereunder and we are not aware of any conditions that would prevent us from borrowing part or all of the remaining available capacity under the existing revolving credit facility at March 31, 2018 and through the date of this filing.

        On May 3, 2017, we entered into an investment agreement with The Orogen Group ("Orogen") pursuant to which Orogen purchased 108,000 shares of the Company's newly issued Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, initially convertible into 3,000,000 shares of common stock, for an aggregate purchase price of $108 million with an initial conversion price of $36.00 (the "Orogen Preferred Stock Financing"). In connection with the investment, Vikram S. Pandit, the former CEO of Citigroup, was appointed to Virtusa's Board of Directors. Orogen is a new operating company that was created by Vikram Pandit and Atairos Group, Inc., an independent private company focused on supporting growth-oriented businesses, to leverage the opportunities created by the evolution of the financial services landscape and to identify and invest in financial services companies and related businesses with proven business models.

        Under the terms of the investment, the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock has a 3.875% dividend per annum, payable quarterly in additional shares of common stock and/or cash at our option. If any shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock have not been converted into common stock prior to May 3, 2024, the Company will be required to repurchase such shares at a repurchase price equal to the liquidation

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preference of the repurchased shares plus the amount of accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon. If we fail to effect such repurchase, the dividend rate on the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock will increase by 1% per annum and an additional 1% per annum on each anniversary of May 3, 2024 during the period in which such failure to effect the repurchase is continuing, except that the dividend rate will not increase to more than 6.875% per annum.

        In connection with the investment, we repaid $81 million of our outstanding term loan under our Prior Credit Agreement, and our board of directors approved the repurchase of approximately $30 million of our common stock.

        In July 2016, the Company entered into 12-month forward starting interest rate swap transactions to mitigate Company's interest rate risk on Company's variable rate debt (collectively, "The Interest Rate Swap Agreements"). The Company's objective is to limit the variability of cash flows associated with changes in LIBOR interest rate payments due on the Prior Credit Agreement by using pay-fixed, receive-variable interest rate swaps to offset the future variable rate interest payments. The Company will recognize these transactions in accordance with ASC 815 "Derivatives and Hedging," and have designated the swaps as cash flow hedges.

        The three Interest Rate Swap Agreements have an effective date of July 31, 2017 and a maturity date of July 31, 2020. As of March 31, 2018, the swaps have an aggregate notional amount of $90 million and hedge approximately 29.5% of our outstanding debt balance. The notional amount of the swaps amortizes over the remaining swap periods. The Interest Rate Swap Agreements require the Company to make monthly fixed interest rate payments based on the amortized notional amount at a blended weighted average rate of 1.025% and the Company will receive 1-month LIBOR on the same notional amounts. The unrealized gain associated with the 2016 Swap Agreement was $2.5 million at March 31, 2018, which represents the estimated amount that the Company would receive from the counterparties in the event of an early termination.

        The counterparties to the Interest Rate Swap Agreements could demand an early termination of the 2016 Swap Agreements if we are in default under the Credit Agreement, or any agreement that amends or replaces the Credit Agreement in which the counterparty is a member, and we are unable to cure the default. An event of default under the Credit Agreement includes customary events of default and failure to comply with financial covenants, including a maximum consolidated leverage ratio commencing on December 31, 2016, of not more than 3.25 to 1.00 for the first year of the Prior Credit Agreement, of not more than 3.00 to 1.00 for the second year of the Prior Credit Agreement, and 2.75 to 1.00 thereafter, each as determined for the four consecutive quarter period ending on each fiscal quarter and a minimum consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio of 1.25 to 1.00. As of March 31, 2018, we were in compliance with these covenants. The unrealized gain associated with the 2016 Swap Agreement was $2.5 million as of March 31, 2018, which represents the estimated amount that we would receive from the counterparties in the event of an early termination.

        At March 31, 2018, we had approximately $244.9 million of cash, cash equivalents, short term investments and long term investments, of which we hold approximately $191.0 million of cash, cash equivalents, short term investments and long-term investments in non-U.S. locations, particularly in India, Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Cash in these non-U.S. locations may not otherwise be available for potential investments or operations in the United States or certain other geographies where needed, as we have stated that this cash is indefinitely reinvested in these non-U.S. locations. We do not currently plan to repatriate this cash to the United States. However, if our intent were to change and we elected to repatriate this cash back to the United States, or this cash was deemed no longer permanently invested, this cash would be subject to additional taxes and the change in such intent could have an adverse effect on our cash balances as well as our overall statement of income. Due to various methods by which cash could be repatriated to the United States in the future, the amount of taxes attributable to the cash is dependent on circumstances existing if and when remittance occurs. In addition, some countries could have tight

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restrictions on the movement and exchange of foreign currencies which could further limit our ability to use such funds for global operations or capital or other strategic investments. Due to the various methods by which such earnings could be repatriated in the future, it is not practicable to determine the amount of applicable taxes that would result from such repatriation.

        At March 31, 2018, our current ratio decreased compared with the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. This was primarily driven by the deferred acquisition payments related to our eTouch acquisition. Our unbilled accounts receivable compared to total accounts receivable at March 31, 2018 of 69% was higher than the prior fiscal year ratio of 49%. During the twelve months ended March 31, 2018, we experienced fluctuations in the unbilled accounts receivable due to timing of paperwork received late in the fourth fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2018. A majority of the unbilled balance as of March 31, 2018 has subsequently been invoiced.

        Beginning in fiscal 2009, our U.K. subsidiary entered into an agreement with an unrelated financial institution to sell, without recourse, certain of its European-based accounts receivable balances from one client to such financial institution. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we sold $25.7 million of receivables under the terms of the financing agreement. Fees paid pursuant to this agreement were immaterial during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. We may elect to use this program again in future periods. However, we cannot provide any assurance that this or any other financing facilities will be available or utilized in the future.

        We expect capital expenditures made in the normal course of business during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, without regarding to any past or future acquisitions, to be consistent with our historical capital expenditures.

Cash flows

        The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods presented:

 
  Fiscal Year Ended March 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  (In thousands)
 

Net cash provided by operating activities

  $ 62,699   $ 27,610   $ 55,590  

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

    (52,827 )   67,015     (217,936 )

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities

    37,442     (96,384 )   187,667  

Effect of exchange rates on cash

    2,675     (2,319 )   (1,137 )

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents

    49,989     (4,078 )   24,184  

Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of fiscal year

    144,908     148,986     124,802  

Cash and cash equivalents, end of fiscal year

  $ 194,897   $ 144,908   $ 148,986  

Net cash provided by operating activities

        Net cash provided by operating activities increased in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 compared to the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, primarily driven by an overall increase in liabilities expected to be paid in subsequent years ($17.8 million related to taxes payable attributable to the Tax Act is expected to be paid over the next 8 years).

        Net cash provided by operating activities decreased in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 compared to the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, primarily driven by a decrease in net income during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, compared to fiscal year ended March 31, 2016.

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Net cash used for investing activities

        Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities increased from cash provided by investing activities in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 to cash used in investing activities in fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. Net cash used in investing activities is primarily due to cash used in the eTouch acquisition.

        Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities increased from cash used in investing activities in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 to cash provided by investing activities in fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. Net cash provided by investing activities is primarily due to a decrease in restricted cash related to the Polaris mandatory offering and a decrease in business acquisition payments.

Net cash provided by financing activities

        Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities increased from cash used in financing activities in fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 to cash provided by financing activities in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. Net cash provided financing activities was primarily due to the net proceeds from our credit facility and the issuance and sale of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, partially offset by the purchase of additional Polaris noncontrolling interest.

        Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities decreased from cash provided by financing activities in fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 to cash used in financing activities in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. Net cash used in financing activities was primarily due to the decrease in proceeds from debt compared to the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, acquisition of noncontrolling interest related to Polaris and payments related to our term loan, partially offset by cash proceeds from the Polaris stock sale.

Contractual obligations

        The following table sets forth our future contractual obligations and commercial commitments at March 31, 2018.

 
  Payments Due by Period  
 
  Total   Less Than
1 Year
  1 - 3 Years   3 - 5 Years   5+ Years  
 
  (In thousands)
 

Long-term debt obligation(1)

  $ 305,000   $ 12,500   $ 31,250   $ 261,250      

Interest on long-term debt(2)

    85,610     15,513     37,631     32,466      

Operating lease obligations(3)

    60,532     11,274     20,717     13,881     14,660  

Capital lease obligations(4)

    104     56     47     1      

Defined benefit plans(5)

    24,412     1,795     3,746     4,767     14,104  

Capital and other purchase commitments(6)

    1,925     1,925              

Cumulative preferred stock dividends in arrears(7)

    686     686              

Deferred acquisition payments (8)

    69,313     51,813     17,500          

Contingent Consideration (9)

    100     100              

Total

  $ 547,682   $ 95,662   $ 110,891   $ 312,365   $ 28,764  

(1)
Our obligations towards repayments of our long-term debt, please see Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

(2)
Interest on long-term debt of 4.63% was calculated using interest rates effective as of March 31, 2018.

(3)
Our obligations under our operating leases consist of future payments related to our real estate leases.

(4)
Capital lease relates to purchase of vehicles.

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(5)
We accrue and contribute to benefit funds covering our employees in India and Sri Lanka. The amounts in the table represent the expected benefits to be paid out over the next ten years. We are not able to quantify expected benefit payments beyond ten years with any certainty. We make periodic contributions to the plans such that the unfunded amounts are immaterial.

(6)
Relates to build-out of various facilities in India, and other purchase commitments, net of advances.

(7)
Relates to our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.

(8)
Relates to the eTouch acquisition.

(9)
Relates to an acquisition of a small consulting company located in India.

        At March 31, 2018, we had $7.5 million of unrecognized tax benefits. This represents the tax benefits associated with tax positions on our domestic and international tax returns that have not been recognized on our financial statements due to uncertainty regarding their resolution. Resolution of the related tax positions with the relevant tax authorities may take years to complete, since such timing is not entirely within our control. It is reasonably possible that within the next 12 months certain positions will be resolved, which could result in a decrease in unrecognized tax benefits. These decreases may be offset by increases to unrecognized tax benefits if new positions are identified. The resolution or settlement of positions with the relevant taxing authorities is at various stages and therefore it is not practical to estimate the eventual cash flows by period that may be required to settle these matters.

        In connection with our acquisition of Polaris, on October 26, 2017, we announced our intention to commence through our Indian subsidiary, a process that could lead to the delisting of our Indian subsidiary, Polaris, from all stock exchanges on which Polaris' common shares are listed. On February 12, 2018, we consummated the Polaris delisting offer to all public shareholders of Polaris in accordance with the provisions of the SEBI Delisting Regulations, which resulted in an accepted exit price of INR 480 per share ("Exit Price"), for an aggregate consideration of approximately $145.0 million, exclusive of transaction and closing costs, resulting in Virtusa India increasing our ownership interest in from approximately 74% to approximately 93% of the share capital of Polaris. Upon receipt of final approvals from the stock exchanges on which Polaris is traded, the common shares of Polaris will be delisted from all public exchanges on which the Polaris shares are traded. For a period of one year following the date of the delisting from all stock exchanges on which Polaris common shares are listed, Virtusa India will permit, in compliance with SEBI Delisting Regulations, the public shareholders of Polaris to tender their shares for sale to Virtusa India at the Exit Price. If all the remaining shares of Polaris are tendered at the Exit Price additional consideration required would be approximately $56.0 million.

Off-balance sheet arrangements

        We do not have any investments in special purpose entities or undisclosed borrowings or debt.

        We have entered into foreign currency derivative contracts with the objective of limiting our exposure to changes in the Indian rupee, the U.K. pound sterling, the euro and the Swedish Krona as described below and in "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk."

        We maintain a foreign currency cash flow hedging program designed to further mitigate the risks of volatility in the Indian rupee against the U.S. dollar and U.K. pound sterling as described below in "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk." From time to time, we may also purchase multiple foreign currency forward contracts designed to hedge fluctuation in foreign currencies, such as the U.K. pound sterling, euro and Swedish Krona against the U.S. dollar to minimize the impact of foreign currency fluctuations on foreign currency denominated revenue and expenses. Other than these foreign currency derivative contracts, we have not entered into off-balance sheet transactions, arrangements or other relationships with unconsolidated entities or other persons that are likely to affect liquidity or the availability of or requirements for capital resources.

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Recent accounting pronouncements

Adoption of new accounting pronouncements

        In March 2016, the FASB issued an update (ASU 2016-09) to the standard on Compensation—Stock Compensation, which simplifies several aspects of the accounting for employee share-based payment transactions including the accounting for income taxes, forfeitures, and statutory tax withholding requirements, as well as classification in the statement of cash flows. For public business entities, the amendments in this update are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. Upon adoption, entities will be required to apply a modified retrospective, prospective or retrospective transition method depending on the specific section of the guidance being adopted. We adopted this guidance effective April 1, 2017 and the following describe the results of adoption:

    We prospectively recognized income tax benefit of $1.5 million in the income tax expense line item of our consolidated statements of income for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, respectively, related to excess tax benefits on stock options;

    We changed our accounting policy from estimated forfeitures to actual forfeitures effective April 1, 2017. The cumulative impact of the change in the accounting policy did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements, therefore the prior period amounts have not been restated;

    We elected to adopt cash flow presentation of excess tax benefits retrospectively where these benefits are classified along with other income tax cash flows as operating cash flows. Accordingly, prior period amounts in our consolidated statement of cash flows have been restated;

    We adopted cash flow presentation of taxes paid when an employer withholds shares for tax-withholding purposes retrospectively and classified as a financing activity in the our statement of cash flows. Accordingly, prior period amounts have been restated;

    The remaining amendments to this standard, as noted above, are either not applicable, or do not change our current accounting practices and thus do not impact its consolidated financial statements.

        In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. These amendments are intended to better align a company's risk management strategies and financial reporting for hedging relationships. Under the new guidance, more hedging strategies will be eligible for hedge accounting and the application of hedge accounting is simplified. In addition, the new guidance amends presentation and disclosure requirements. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 with early adoption permitted, including the interim periods within those years. The guidance requires the use of a modified retrospective approach. We have early adopted this guidance during the three months ended March 31, 2018. The adoption of this update did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted

        In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which requires an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. The ASU will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP when it becomes effective. The new standard is effective for the Company on April 1, 2018. Early application is permitted but not before periods beginning on or after January 1, 2017. In March, April and May 2016, the FASB issued updates to the new revenue standard to clarify the implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations for reporting revenue gross versus net, identifying performance obligations, accounting for licenses of intellectual property, transition, contract modifications,

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collectability, non-cash consideration and presentation of sales and other similar taxes with the same effective date. The standard permits the use of either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. We have adopted the standard effective April 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of that date.

        We have completed our assessment of existing customer contracts and current accounting policies to identify and assess the potential differences that would result from applying the requirements of the new standard including costs to obtain and fulfill a contract. Based on the assessment procedures completed, we have recognized an immaterial adjustment to retained earnings as of April 1, 2018. We expect revenue recognition across our portfolio of services to remain largely unchanged and expect slightly longer periods of amortization for costs to fulfill after adoption. Additionally, we are in the final stages of completion on changes to our processes and controls to meet the standard's updated disclosure requirements.

        In January 2016, the FASB issued an update (ASU 2016-01) to the standard on financial instruments. The update significantly revises an entity's accounting related to (1) the classification and measurement of investments in equity securities and (2) the presentation of certain fair value changes for financial liabilities measured at fair value. The update also amends certain disclosure requirements. For public business entities, the amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Upon adoption, entities will be required to make a cumulative-effect adjustment to the statement of financial position as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. However, the specific guidance on equity securities without readily determinable fair value will apply prospectively to all equity investments that exist as of the date of adoption. Early adoption of certain sections of this update is permitted. The adoption of this guidance on April 1, 2018 did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

        In February 2016, the FASB issued as update (ASU 2016-02) to the standard on leases to increase transparency and comparability among organizations. The new standard replaces the existing guidance on leases and requires the lessee to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with lease terms equal to or greater than twelve months. For finance leases, the lessee would recognize interest expense and amortization of the right-of-use asset, and for operating leases, the lessee would recognize total lease expense on a straight-line basis. For public business entities this standard is effective for the annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption of this new standard is permitted. Entities will be required to use a modified retrospective transition which provides for certain practical expedients. We are currently evaluating the effect the new standard will have on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

        In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which modifies the measurement of expected credit losses of certain financial instruments. This standard update requires financial assets measured at amortized cost basis to be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. This update is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the effect of this new standard will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

        In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230). This update is intended to reduce diversity in practice in how certain cash receipts and payments are classified in the statement of cash flows. This standard update addresses eight specific cash flow issues, including debt prepayment or extinguishment costs, the settlement of contingent liabilities arising from a business combination, proceeds from insurance settlements, and distributions from certain equity method investees. The guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and early adoption is permitted. The guidance requires application using a retrospective transition method. The adoption of this guidance on April 1, 2018 did not have an impact on the consolidated financial statements as our current presentation of consolidated statement of cash flows is consistent with the new guidance

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        In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, an update to the standard on income taxes. This new standard requires the recognition of current and deferred income taxes when an intra-entity transfer of assets other than inventory occurs. The update is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning on or after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted in the first interim period. Upon adoption, the entities will be required to use a modified retrospective transition approach. The adoption of this guidance on April 1, 2018 did not have an impact on the consolidated financial statements.

        In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Restricted Cash (Topic 230), which is intended to reduce diversity in practice on how changes in restricted cash are classified and presented in the statement of cash flows. This ASU requires amounts generally described as restricted cash to be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and early adoption is permitted. The amendments in this update should be applied using a retrospective transition method to each period presented. The adoption of this guidance will impact our presentation of statement of our consolidated statements of cash flows. As of March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, our restricted cash was $0.3 million and $0.2 million, respectively.

        In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, an update on business combinations, which clarifies the definition of a business. The update requires a business to include at least an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create outputs. The update also states that the definition of a business is not met if substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets. The update is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after January 1, 2018. Upon adoption, entities will be required to apply the update prospectively. The adoption of this guidance on April 1, 2018 did not have an impact on our consolidated financial statements.

        In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, an update on goodwill, which eliminates the need to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill when an impairment is indicated. The update states that goodwill impairment is measured as the excess of a reporting unit's carrying value over its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. The update is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after January 1, 2020. Early adoption is permitted for any impairment tests performed after January 1, 2017. We are currently evaluating the impact of the new guidance on our consolidated financial statements.

        In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, a guidance on presentation of net periodic pension cost and net periodic postretirement benefit cost. The new standard requires that an employer disaggregate the service costs components of net benefit cost. The employer is required to report the service cost component in the same line item or items as other compensation costs arising from services rendered by the pertinent employees during the period. The other components of net benefit cost are required to be presented in the income statement separately from the service cost component, such as in other income and expense. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. The adoption of this guidance on April 1, 2018 did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. The Company's current presentation of service cost components is consistent with the requirements of the new standard. We will present the other components of net periodic pension cost within other (income) expense beginning April 1, 2018.

        In March 2017, FASB issued ASU 2017-08, "Receivables-Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (Subtopic 310-20): Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities." The amendments in this update shorten the amortization period for certain callable debt securities that are held at a premium. The amendments require the premium to be amortized to the earliest call date. The amendments do not require an accounting change for securities held at a discount, which would be amortized to maturity. This ASU is effective for fiscal years and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15,

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2018, which for us is the first quater ending December 31, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. We do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

        In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Scope of Modification Accounting, an update that provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting under ASC 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation. Under the amendments in ASU 2017-09, an entity should account for the effects of a modification unless all of the following criteria are met: 1) the fair value of the modified award is the same as the fair value of the original award immediately before the original award is modified—if the modification does not affect any of the inputs to the valuation technique that the entity uses to value the award, the entity is not required to estimate the value immediately before and after the modification; 2) the vesting conditions of the modified award are the same as the conditions of the original award immediately before the original award is modified; 3) the classification of the modified award as an equity instrument or a liability instrument is the same as the classification of the original award immediately before the original award is modified. The standard is effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in any interim period for which financial statements have not yet been issued. The adoption of this guidance on April 1, 2018 did not have an impact on our consolidated financial statements.

        In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815). The amendments in Part I of this Update change the classification analysis of certain equity-linked financial instruments (or embedded features) with down round features. When determining whether certain financial instruments should be classified as liabilities or equity instruments, a down round feature no longer precludes equity classification when assessing whether the instrument is indexed to an entity's own stock. The amendments also clarify existing disclosure requirements for equity-classified instruments. As a result, a freestanding equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded conversion option) no longer would be accounted for as a derivative liability at fair value as a result of the existence of a down round feature. For freestanding equity classified financial instruments, the amendments require entities that present earnings per share (EPS) in accordance with Topic 260 to recognize the effect of the down round feature when it is triggered. That effect is treated as a dividend and as a reduction of income available to common shareholders in basic EPS. Convertible instruments with embedded conversion options that have down round features are now subject to the specialized guidance for contingent beneficial conversion features (in Subtopic 470-20, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options), including related EPS guidance (in Topic 260). The amendments in Part II of this Update recharacterize the indefinite deferral of certain provisions of Topic 480 that now are presented as pending content in the Codification, to a scope exception. Those amendments do not have an accounting effect. For public business entities, the amendments in Part I of this Update are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted for all entities, including adoption in an interim period. If an entity early adopts the amendments in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period. We are currently evaluating the effect the new standard will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

        In February 2018, the FASB issued 2018-02, Income Statement—Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): The amendments in this Update allow a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. Consequently, the amendments eliminate the stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and will improve the usefulness of information reported to financial statement users. However, because the amendments only relate to the reclassification of the income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, the underlying guidance that requires that the effect of a change in tax laws or rates be included in income from continuing operations is not affected. The amendments in this Update also require certain disclosures about stranded tax effects. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after

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December 15, 2018 with early adoption permitted, including interim periods within those years. We are currently evaluating the effect the new standard will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

Foreign currency exchange rate risk

        We are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk in the ordinary course of business. We have historically entered into, and in the future we may enter into, foreign currency derivative contracts to minimize the impact of foreign currency fluctuations on both foreign currency denominated assets and forecasted expenses. The purpose of this foreign exchange policy is to protect us from the risk that the recognition of and eventual cash flows related to Indian rupee denominated expenses might be affected by changes in exchange rates. Some of these contracts meet the criteria for hedge accounting as cash flow hedges (See Note 20 of the notes to our financial statements included herein for a description of recent hedging activities).

        We evaluate our foreign exchange policy on an ongoing basis to assess our ability to address foreign exchange exposures on our balance sheet, statement of income and operating cash flows from all foreign currencies, including most significantly the U.K. pound sterling, the Indian rupee, and the Sri Lankan rupee.

        We have two 18 month rolling programs comprised of a series of foreign exchange forward contracts that are designated as cash flow hedges. One program is designed to mitigate the impact of volatility in the U.S. dollar equivalent of our Indian rupee denominated expenses. The second program was assumed as part of the Polaris acquisition and is intended to mitigate the volatility of the U.S. dollar denominated revenue that is translated into Indian rupees. While these hedges are achieving the designed objective, upon consolidation they may cause volatility in revenue. The U.S. dollar equivalent notional value of all outstanding foreign currency derivative contracts at March 31, 2018 was $140.3 million. The outstanding contracts at March 31, 2018 are scheduled to mature each month through June 28, 2019. At March 31, 2018, the net unrealized gain on our outstanding cash flow hedge contracts was $1.1 million. Based upon a sensitivity analysis of our cash flow hedge contracts at March 31, 2018, which estimates the fair value of the contracts based upon market exchange rate fluctuations, a 10% change in the foreign currency exchange rate against the U.S. dollar with all other variables held constant would have resulted in an increase or decrease in fair value of approximately $13.4 million.

        The U.K. pound sterling, Swedish krona and the euro exchange fluctuations can have an unpredictable impact on our U.K. pound sterling, Swedish krona and the euro revenues generated, and costs incurred. In response to this volatility, we have entered into hedging transactions designed to hedge our forecasted revenue and expenses denominated in the U.K. pound sterling, the Swedish krona as well as the euro. These derivative contracts have maximum duration of 92 days and do not meet the criteria for hedge accounting. Such hedges may not be effective in mitigating this currency volatility. These hedges are designed to reduce the negative impact of a weaker U.K. pound sterling, Swedish krona or the euro, however they also reduce the positive impact of a stronger U.K. pound sterling, Swedish krona or the euro.

Interest rate risk

        In support of the delisting transaction and the eTouch acquisition, on February 6, 2018, we entered into a $450.0 million credit agreement ("Credit Agreement") with a syndicated bank group jointly lead by JP Morgan Chase Bank, N.A. and Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated, which amends and restates our prior $300.0 million credit agreement (which we had originally entered into on February 25, 2016 ("Prior Credit Agreement") to fund the Polaris acquisition and Mandatory Tender Offer) and provides for a $200.0 million revolving credit facility, a $180.0 million term loan facility, and a $70.0 million delayed-draw term loan. Virtusa drew down $180.0 million under the term loan of the Credit Agreement

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and $55.0 million under the revolving credit facility under the Credit Agreement to repay in full the amount outstanding under the Prior Credit Agreement and fund the Polaris delisting transaction. On March 12, 2018, the Company drew down the $70 million delayed draw to fund the eTouch acquisition. Interest under this new credit facility accrues at a rate per annum of LIBOR plus 3.0%, subject to step-downs based on the Company's ratio of debt to EBITDA. We intend to enter into an interest rate swap agreement to minimize interest rate exposure. The Credit Agreement includes maximum debt to EBITDA and minimum fixed charge coverage covenants. The term of the Credit Agreement is five years, ending February 6, 2023. At March 31, 2018, the interest rate on the Credit Facility was 4.63%. At March 31, 2018, the outstanding amount under the Credit Agreement was $305.0 million.

        We do not believe we are exposed to material direct risks associated with changes in interest rates other than with respect to our Existing Credit Facility, our cash and cash equivalents, short term investments and long term investments. We performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the effect of interest rate fluctuations. At March 31, 2018, we had $305.0 million in outstanding debt, a 100 basis point increase in market interest rates would have a $$1.7 million change in our interest expense and a 100 basis point decrease in market interest rates would have a $2.7 million change in our interest expense. At March 31, 2018, we had $244.9 million in cash and cash equivalents, short term investments and long term investments, the interest income from which is affected by changes in interest rates. Our invested securities primarily consist of government sponsored entity bonds, money market mutual funds, commercial paper and corporate debts. Our investments in debt securities are classified as "available for sale" and are recorded at fair value. Our "available for sale" investments are sensitive to changes in interest rates. As interest rate changes would result in a change in the net fair value of these financial instruments due to the difference between the market interest rate and the market interest rate at the date of purchase of the financial instrument. A 100 basis point increase or decrease in market interest rates at March 31, 2018 would impact the net fair value of such interest sensitive financial instruments by $0.2 million.

        Information provided by the sensitivity analysis does not necessarily represent the actual changes that would occur under normal market conditions.

Concentration of credit risk

        Financial instruments which potentially expose us to concentrations of credit risk primarily consist of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments and long-term investments, accounts receivable, derivative contracts, other financial assets and unbilled accounts receivable. We place our operating cash, investments and derivatives in highly-rated financial institutions. We adhere to a formal investment policy with the primary objective of preservation of principal, which contains credit rating minimums and diversification requirements. We believe that our credit policies reflect normal industry terms and business risk. We do not anticipate non-performance by the counterparties as we invest with highly-rated financial institutions and, accordingly, do not require collateral. Credit losses and write-offs of accounts receivable balances have historically not been material to our consolidated financial statements and have not exceeded our expectations.

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Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

Virtusa Corporation and Subsidiaries
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
Virtusa Corporation:

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

        We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Virtusa Corporation and subsidiaries (the Company) as of March 31, 2018 and 2017, the related consolidated statements of income (loss), comprehensive income (loss), stockholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the th