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EX-32.2 - EXHIBIT 32.2 - iHeartCommunications, Inc.ihcomm2017q4exhibit322.htm
EX-32.1 - EXHIBIT 32.1 - iHeartCommunications, Inc.ihcomm2017q4exhibit321.htm
EX-31.2 - EXHIBIT 31.2 - iHeartCommunications, Inc.ihcomm2017q4exhibit312.htm
EX-31.1 - EXHIBIT 31.1 - iHeartCommunications, Inc.ihcomm2017q4exhibit311.htm
EX-21 - EXHIBIT 21 - iHeartCommunications, Inc.ihcomm2017q4exhibit21.htm


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
[X]
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, or
[  ]
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from ________ to _________.
Commission File Number 001-09645
IHEARTCOMMUNICATIONS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Texas
74-1787539
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
20880 Stone Oak Parkway
San Antonio, Texas
78258
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip code)
(210) 822-2828
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:  None
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  YES [  ]  NO  [X]
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.  YES [  ]  NO [X]
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. YES [ ] NO [X]
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).YES [X] NO [  ]
 
(Explanatory Note: The registrant is a voluntary filer and is therefore not subject to the filing requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. However, during the preceding 12 months, and pursuant to the bond indentures of iHeartCommunications, Inc., the registrant has filed all reports that it would have been required to file by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 if the registrant was subject to the filing requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during such timeframe.)
 
The registrant meets the conditions set forth in General Instructions I(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K as, among other things, all of the registrant’s equity securities are owned indirectly by iHeartMedia, Inc., which is a reporting company under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and which has filed with the SEC all materials required to be filed pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) thereof, and the registrant is therefore filing this Form 10-K with a reduced disclosure format.
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  [   ]
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  Large accelerated filer [  ] Accelerated filer [  ] Non-accelerated filer [X] Smaller reporting company [  ] Emerging growth company [  ]
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or reviews financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. [ ]
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 12b-2).  YES [  ] NO [X]
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Section 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. YES [  ] NO [  ]
 
The registrant has no voting or nonvoting equity held by non-affiliates.
 
On April 24, 2018, there were 500,000,000 outstanding shares of common stock.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE




Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III will be incorporated by reference from iHeartMedia, Inc.'s Form 10-K/A to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
IHEARTCOMMUNICATIONS, INC.
INDEX TO FORM 10-K
 
 
Page
Number
PART I
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
PART III
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
 
Item 15.
Item 16.





PART I
ITEM 1.  BUSINESS
The Company
iHeartCommunications, Inc., (the “Company”) is a Texas corporation with all of its outstanding shares of common stock held by iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC, an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of iHeartMedia, Inc. (“Parent”).
Parent was formed in May 2007 by private equity funds sponsored by Bain Capital Partners, LLC (“Bain Capital”) and Thomas H. Lee Partners, L.P. (“THL”) (together, the “Sponsors”) to effect the acquisition of the Company by Parent. On July 30, 2008, Parent acquired the Company. The acquisition was effected by the merger of an entity formed by the Sponsors, then an indirect subsidiary of Parent, with and into the Company. As a result of the merger, the Company became an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Parent. Upon the consummation of the merger, Parent became a public company and the Company was no longer a public company.
On March 14, 2018, we, Parent and certain of Parent's direct and indirect domestic subsidiaries (collectively, the "Debtors") filed voluntary petitions for relief (the "Chapter 11 Cases") under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code (the "Bankruptcy Code"), in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Texas, Houston Division (the "Bankruptcy Court"). Clear Channel Outdoor Holdings, Inc. (“CCOH”) and its direct and indirect subsidiaries did not file voluntary petitions for reorganization under the Bankruptcy Code and are not Debors in the Chapter 11 Cases.
The Chapter 11 Cases are being administered under the caption In re: iHeartMedia, Inc., Case No. 18-31274 (MI). The Debtors will continue to operate their businesses as “debtors-in-possession” under the jurisdiction of the Bankruptcy Court and in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Bankruptcy Code and orders of the Bankruptcy Court.
On March 16, 2018, the Debtors entered into a Restructuring Support Agreement (the “RSA”) with certain creditors and equityholders (the “Consenting Stakeholders”). The RSA contemplates the restructuring and recapitalization of the Debtors (the “Restructuring Transactions”), which will be implemented through a plan of reorganization in the Chapter 11 Cases, if confirmed by the Bankruptcy Court. Pursuant to the RSA, the Consenting Stakeholders have agreed to, among other things, support the Restructuring Transactions and vote in favor of a plan of reorganization to effect the Restructuring Transactions.
The RSA provides certain milestones for the Restructuring Transactions. Failure of the Debtors to satisfy these milestones without a waiver or consensual amendment would provide the Consenting Stakeholders a termination right under the RSA. These milestones include (i) the filing of a plan of reorganization, disclosure statement and motion for approval of the disclosure statement, in form and substance reasonably acceptable to the Debtors and the Consenting Stakeholders, which was filed with the Bankruptcy Court on April 28, 2018, (ii) the entry of an order approving the disclosure statement by July 7, 2018, (iii) the entry of an order confirming the plan of reorganization within 75 days of the entry of an order approving the disclosure statement and (iv) the effective date of the plan of reorganization occurring by March 14, 2019.
In general, as debtors-in-possession under the Bankruptcy Code, we are authorized to continue to operate as an ongoing business, but may not engage in transactions outside the ordinary course of business without the prior approval of the Bankruptcy Court. Pursuant to first day motions filed with the Bankruptcy Court, the Bankruptcy Court authorized Parent to conduct our business activities in the ordinary course, including, among other things and subject to the terms and conditions of such orders, authorizing us to: (i) pay employees’ wages and related obligations; (ii) continue to operate our cash management system in a form substantially similar to prepetition practice; (iii) use cash collateral on an interim basis; (iv) continue to honor certain obligations related to on-air talent, station affiliates and royalty obligations; (v) continue to maintain certain customer programs; (vi) pay taxes in the ordinary course; (vii) continue our surety bond program; and (viii) maintain our insurance program in the ordinary course.
Our filing of the Chapter 11 Cases constitutes an event of default that accelerated its obligations under its debt agreements. Due to the Chapter 11 Cases, however, the creditors’ ability to exercise remedies under our debt agreements was stayed as of March 14, 2018, the date of the Chapter 11 petition filing, and continues to be stayed.
Information about the Chapter 11 Cases is available at a website maintained by our claims agent, Prime Clerk (https://cases.primeclerk.com/iheartmedia/Home-Index).
Our corporate headquarters are in San Antonio, Texas and we have executive offices in New York, New York. Our headquarters are located at 20880 Stone Oak Parkway, San Antonio, Texas 78258 (telephone: 210-822-2828).
Our Business Segments

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We are a diversified media and entertainment company with three reportable business segments:  iHeartMedia (“iHM”); Americas outdoor advertising (“Americas outdoor”); and International outdoor advertising (“International outdoor”).  Our iHM segment provides media and entertainment services via broadcast and digital delivery and also includes our national syndication business.  Our Americas outdoor and International outdoor segments provide outdoor advertising services in their respective geographic regions using various digital and traditional display types. As of December 31, 2017, our Americas outdoor segment consisted of operations primarily in the United States and Latin America and our International outdoor segment consisted of operations primarily in Europe and Asia. Beginning January 1, 2018, our Latin American operations will be included in our International Outdoor segment. Our “Other” category includes our full-service media representation business, Katz Media Group (“Katz Media”), which is ancillary to our other businesses. For the year ended December 31, 2017, the iHM segment represented 56% of total revenues. For the year ended December 31, 2017, Americas outdoor represented 20% and International outdoor represented 22% of total revenues.
We specialize in broadcast radio, digital, out-of-home, mobile, live events and on-demand information services for national audiences and local communities while providing premium opportunities for advertisers.  Through our strong capabilities and unique collection of assets, we have the ability to deliver compelling content as well as innovative, effective marketing campaigns for advertisers and marketing, creative and strategic partners in the United States and internationally. 
We focus on leveraging our national reach and on building the leadership position of our diverse global assets and maximizing our financial performance while serving our local communities. We continue to invest strategically in our digital platforms, including the development of continued enhancements to iHeartRadio, our integrated digital radio platform, and the ongoing deployment of digital outdoor displays.  In addition, we have implemented data analytics and automated/programmatic sales infrastructure and capability in each of our business segments.  We intend to continue to execute our strategies while closely managing expenses and focusing on achieving operating efficiencies across our businesses.
For more information about our revenue, gross profit and assets by segment and our revenue and long-lived assets by geographic area, see Note 11 to our Consolidated Financial Statements located in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
iHM
Our iHM operations include broadcast radio, digital online and mobile platforms and products, program syndication, entertainment, traffic and weather data distribution and music research services.  Our radio stations and content can be heard on AM/FM stations, HD digital radio stations, satellite radio, on the internet at iHeartRadio.com and our radio stations’ websites, and through our iHeartRadio mobile application in enhanced automotive dashes, on tablets, wearables and smartphones, on gaming consoles, via in-home entertainment and voice-controlled devices.
As of December 31, 2017, we owned 849 domestic radio stations servicing over 160 U.S. markets, including 45 of the top 50 markets and 82 of the top 100 markets.  We are also the beneficiary of Aloha Station Trust, LLC and Ocean Station Trust LLC, which own and operates 14 and 3 radio stations, respectively, all of which we were required to divest in order to comply with Federal Communication Commission (“FCC”) media ownership rules, and which are being marketed for sale.
In addition to our local radio programming, we also operate Premiere Networks (“Premiere”), a national radio network that produces, distributes or represents more than 100 syndicated radio programs and serves more than 6,000 radio station affiliates.  We also deliver real-time traffic and weather information via navigation systems, radio and television broadcast media and wireless and Internet-based services through our traffic business, Total Traffic & Weather Network.
We also curate, promote, produce and televise nationally-recognized iHeartRadio-branded live music events for our listeners and advertising partners, including the iHeartRadio Music Festival, the iHeartRadio Music Awards, the iHeartRadio Wango Tango by AT&T, the iHeartRadio Jingle Ball Tour presented by Capital One, the iHeartCountry Festival by AT&T and the iHeartRadio Fiesta Latina.
Strategy
Our iHM strategy centers on delivering entertaining and informative content across multiple platforms, including broadcast, mobile and digital, as well as events. Our primary source of revenue is derived from selling local and national advertising time on our 849 domestic radio stations, with contracts typically less than one year in duration. The programming formats of our radio stations are designed to reach audiences with targeted demographic characteristics. We continue to expand the choices for listeners and advertisers by delivering our content and selling advertising across multiple distribution channels, including digitally via iHeartRadio, which reach national, regional and local audiences. In addition, we also generate revenues from network syndication, our nationally recognized live events and our station websites, among other activities. We are working closely with

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our advertising and marketing partners to develop tools and leverage data to enable advertisers to effectively reach their desired audiences.
Promote Broadcast Radio Media Spending.  Given the extensive reach and metrics of both the broadcast radio industry in general and iHM in particular, as well as the depth and breadth of our relationships with both media agencies and national and local advertisers, we believe we can drive broadcast radio's share of total media spending by using our dedicated sales teams to highlight the value of broadcast radio relative to other media. We have made and continue to make significant investments in research so we can provide the same ad-buying experience that once was only available from digital-only companies and to enable our clients to better understand how our assets can successfully reach their target audiences and promote their advertising campaigns. Our programmatic solution for broadcast radio, Soundpoint, provides improved planning and automated ad-buying by relying on sophisticated planning algorithms and a cloud-based network across all of iHeartMedia’s broadcast radio inventory to deliver highly optimized plans to our advertising customers. SmartAudio is our new audio data analytics advertising product for broadcast radio which leverages the capabilities of Soundpoint. With SmartAudio, we can create robust audience segment profiles for our advertising customers allowing them to select the best broadcasting schedules and methods to reach their targeted customers. We continue to seek opportunities to deploy iHeartRadio, our free all-in-one digital music, podcasting and live streaming digital radio service across both existing and emerging devices and platforms. iHeartRadio is on more than 200 platforms, including in cars, at home, on wearables, via gaming consoles through virtual assistants, and nearly everywhere listeners want to tune in. We continue to work closely with advertisers, marketers and agencies to meet their needs through new products, events and services developed through optimization of our current portfolio of assets, as well as to develop tools to determine how effective broadcast radio is in reaching their desired audiences.
Promote Local and National Advertising.  We intend to grow our iHM businesses by continuing to develop effective highly-rated programming, creating new solutions for our advertisers and agencies, fostering key relationships with advertisers and improving our local and national sales teams. We intend to leverage our diverse collection of assets, our programming and creative strengths, and our consumer relationships to create live music events, such as one-of-a-kind local and national promotions that benefit our listeners and advertisers, and develop new, innovative programmatic and data-focused technologies and products to promote advertising.  We seek to maximize revenue by closely managing our advertising opportunities and pricing to compete effectively in local markets. We operate price and yield information systems, which provide detailed inventory information. These systems enable our station managers and sales directors to adjust commercial inventory and pricing based on local market demand, as well as to manage and monitor different commercial durations (60 second, 30 second, 15 second and five second) in order to provide more effective advertising for our customers at what we believe are optimal prices given market conditions.
Continue to Enhance the Listener Experience.  We intend to continue enhancing the listener experience by offering a wide variety of compelling content.  We will continue to provide the content our listeners desire on their preferred platforms.  Our investments have created a collection of leading on-air talent. For example, Premiere offers 112 syndicated radio programs and services for more than 6,000 radio station affiliates across the United States, including popular programs featuring top talent such as Ryan Seacrest, Big Boy, Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity, Glenn Beck, Steve Harvey, Elvis Duran, Bobby Bones, Breakfast Club and Delilah. Our distribution capabilities allow us to attract top talent and more effectively utilize programming, sharing our best and most compelling content across both iHM's and other companies' radio stations.
Continue to Deliver Nationally-Recognized Live Events.  We intend to continue to deliver nationally-recognized live events to our listeners, such as the iHeartRadio Music Festival, the iHeartRadio Music Awards, the iHeartRadio Wango Tango by AT&T, the iHeartRadio Jingle Ball Tour presented by Capital One, the iHeartCountry Festival by AT&T and the iHeartRadio Fiesta Latina, featuring some of the biggest names in the music industry.
Deliver Content via Multiple Distribution Technologies.  We continue to expand the choices for our listeners. We deliver music, news, talk, sports, traffic and other content using an array of distribution technologies, including: broadcast radio; digitally via iHeartRadio.com and our stations' hundreds of websites; HD radio channels; satellite radio; through our free iHeartRadio mobile application on smartphones and tablets, on gaming consoles, via in-home entertainment, on voice-controlled devices, in enhanced automotive dashes; and through our two new iHeartRadio on demand subscription services - iHeartRadio Plus and iHeartRadio All Access. We continue to seek to expand our presence on popular user platforms. Some examples are as follows:
Streaming.   We provide streaming content via the Internet, mobile and other digital platforms through our iHeartRadio platform and our stations' hundreds of websites. We rank among the top streaming networks in the U.S. with regards to Average Active Sessions (“AAS”), Session Starts (“SS”) and Average Time Spent Listening (“ATSL”).  AAS and SS measure the level of activity while ATSL measures the ability to keep the audience engaged.
Websites and Mobile Applications.  We have developed mobile and Internet applications such as the iHeartRadio mobile application available on smart phones and tablets and website as well as websites for our stations and personalities. These mobile and Internet applications allow listeners to use their smart phones, tablets, voice-

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controlled devices or other digital devices to interact directly with stations, find titles/artists, request songs and create custom and personalized stations while providing an additional method for advertisers to reach consumers. As of December 31, 2017, our iHeartRadio mobile application has been downloaded 1.7 billion times (including updates), with more than 110 million registered users. iHeartRadio provides a unique digital music experience by offering access to more than 2,600 broadcast and digital-only radio stations, plus user-created custom stations with broad social media integration and our on demand content from our premium talk partnerships and user generated talk shows.
On Demand. In January 2017 we announced the official release of our two new on demand subscription services, iHeartRadio Plus and iHeartRadio All Access - the first fully-differentiated streaming music services that use on demand functionality to make radio truly interactive. Both services provide the best of live radio combined with easy-to-use on demand functionality. iHeartRadio Plus transforms live and custom radio listening with the addition of replay and unlimited skip functionality, the ability to save songs directly to user playlists and search for songs from a library of millions of tracks; iHeartRadio All Access combines the interactive functionality of iHeartRadio Plus with a complete music collection and library linked seamlessly to the radio listening experience, with functionality including the ability to listen offline; build subscribers' personal music libraries; no playback cap; and the ability to delete and sequence their playlist experience as well as manage unlimited playlists.
Sources of Revenue
Our iHM segment generated 56%, 54%, and 53% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.  The primary source of revenue in our iHM segment is the sale of advertising on our broadcast radio stations for local and national advertising.  Our iHeartRadio mobile application and website, our station websites, national live events, Premiere syndicated content and Total Traffic & Weather Network also provide additional means for our advertisers to reach consumers. We also generate revenues from network compensation, our online services, our traffic business, events and other miscellaneous transactions.  These other sources of revenue supplement our traditional advertising revenue without increasing on-air advertising time.
Our advertisers cover a wide range of categories, including consumer services, retailers, entertainment, health and beauty products, telecommunications, automotive, media and political.  Our contracts with our advertisers range from less than one-year to multi-year terms.
Each radio station’s local sales staff solicits advertising directly from local advertisers or indirectly through advertising agencies.  Our ability to produce content that respond to the specific needs of our advertisers helps to build local direct advertising relationships.  We utilize national sales teams to generate national advertising sales.  National sales representatives obtain advertising principally from advertising agencies located outside the station’s market and receive commissions based on advertising sold.
Advertising rates are principally based on the length of the spot and how many people in a targeted audience listen to our stations, as measured by independent ratings services.  A station’s format can be important in determining the size and characteristics of its listening audience, and advertising rates are influenced by the station’s ability to attract and target audiences that advertisers aim to reach.  The size of the market influences rates as well, with larger markets typically receiving higher rates than smaller markets.  Rates are generally highest during morning and evening commuting periods.

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Radio Stations
As of December 31, 2017, we owned 849 radio stations, including 240 AM and 609 FM radio stations.  All of our radio stations are located in the United States. No one station is material to our overall operations.  We believe that our properties are in good condition and suitable for our operations.
During the fourth quarter of 2017, iHM exchanged four radio stations in Chattanooga, TN and six radio stations in Richmond, VA for four radio stations in Boston, MA and three radio stations in Seattle, WA, owned by Entercom Communications Corp.
Radio broadcasting is subject to the jurisdiction of the FCC under the Communications Act of 1934, as amended (the “Communications Act”).  As described in “Regulation of Our iHeartMedia Business” below, the FCC grants us licenses in order to operate our radio stations.  The following table provides the number of owned and operated radio stations in the top 25 Nielsen-ranked markets within our iHM segment.
Nielsen
 
 
 
Number
Market
 
 
 
of
Rank(1)
 
Market
 
Stations
1
 
New York, NY
 
6
2
 
Los Angeles, CA
 
8
3
 
Chicago, IL
 
6
4
 
San Francisco, CA
 
6
5
 
Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX
 
6
6
 
Houston-Galveston, TX
 
6
7
 
Washington, DC
 
5
8
 
Atlanta, GA
 
7
9
 
Philadelphia, PA
 
6
10
 
Boston, MA
 
7
11
 
Miami-Ft. Lauderdale-Hollywood, FL
 
7
12
 
Seattle-Tacoma, WA
 
8
13
 
Detroit, MI
 
6
14
 
Phoenix, AZ
 
8
16
 
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN
 
6
17
 
San Diego, CA
 
7
18
 
Denver-Boulder, CO
 
8
19
 
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL
 
8
20
 
Nassau-Suffolk, NY
 
1
21
 
Baltimore, MD
 
4
22
 
Portland, OR
 
7
23
 
St. Louis, MO
 
6
24
 
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC
 
4
25
 
Riverside-San Bernardino, CA
 
6
 
 
Total Top 25 Markets
 
   148(2)
(1)
Source: Fall 2017 NielsenAudio Radio Market Rankings.
(2)
Our station in the Nassau-Suffolk, NY market is also represented in the New York, NY Nielsen market. Thus, the actual number of stations in the top 25 markets is 148.

Premiere Networks
We operate Premiere, a national radio network that produces, distributes or represents 112 syndicated radio programs and services for more than 6,000 radio station affiliates.  Our broad distribution capabilities enable us to attract and retain top programming talent. Some of our more popular syndicated programs feature top talent including Ryan Seacrest, Big Boy, Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity, Glenn Beck, Steve Harvey, Elvis Duran, Bobby Bones, Breakfast Club and Delilah.  We believe recruiting and retaining top talent is an important component of the success of our radio networks.

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Total Traffic & Weather Network
Total Traffic & Weather Network delivers real-time local traffic flow and incident information along with weather updates to more than 1,900 radio stations and approximately 80 television affiliates, as well as through Internet and mobile partnerships, reaching over 210 million consumers each month. Total Traffic & Weather Network services more than 200 markets in the United States, Canada and Mexico. It operates the largest broadcast traffic navigation network in North America and has expanded its offerings to include news and sports content.
Competition
Our broadcast radio stations, as well as our mobile and digital applications, syndicated content and our traffic business, compete for listeners and advertising revenues directly with other radio stations within their respective markets, as well as with other advertising media, including broadcast and cable television, online, print media, outdoor advertising, satellite radio, direct mail and other forms of advertisement.  In addition, the radio broadcasting industry is subject to competition from services that use media technologies such as Internet-based media, mobile applications and other digital radio services. Such services reach national and local audiences with multi-channel, multi-format, digital radio services.
Our broadcast radio stations compete for listeners primarily on the basis of program content that appeals to a particular demographic group.  Our targeted listener base of specific demographic groups in each of our markets allows us to attract advertisers seeking to reach those listeners.
Americas Outdoor Advertising
We are one of the largest outdoor advertising companies in the United States.  Approximately 91%, 90% and 90% of our revenue in our Americas segment was derived from the United States in the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.  As of December 31, 2017, we owned or operated approximately 85,000 display structures in the United States with operations in 43 of the 50 largest markets, including all of the 20 largest markets. The majority of our non-US revenues are from Latin America where we operate approximately 9,000 display structures in countries including Brazil, Mexico, Peru, and Chile. During the first quarter of 2018, the Company reevaluated its segment reporting and determined that its Latin America operations should be managed by its International outdoor leadership team. As such, beginning January 1, 2018, our Latin American operations will be included in our International outdoor segment.
Our Americas outdoor assets consist of printed and digital billboards, transit displays, including airports, street furniture and wallscapes and other spectaculars. Our Americas outdoor advertising business is focused on metropolitan areas with dense populations.
Strategy
We seek to capitalize on our Americas outdoor network and diversified product mix to maximize revenue. Our outdoor strategy focuses on pursuing the technology of digital displays, as well as leveraging our diversified product mix and long-standing presence in many of our existing markets, which provides us with the ability to launch new products and test new initiatives in a reliable and cost-effective manner.
Promote Outdoor Media Spending.  Given the attractive industry fundamentals of outdoor media and our depth and breadth of relationships with both local and national advertisers, we believe we can drive outdoor advertising's share of total media spending by using our dedicated sales team to highlight the value of outdoor advertising relative to other media.  We have made and continue to make significant investments in research tools like Radar. Radar is the industry's first suite of campaign planning and attribution solutions that utilize anonymous mobile location intelligence to help brands reach certain audiences and understand what happens after someone is exposed to an advertisement on our printed and digital displays.
Differentiate through Innovation, Sales and Services. Over the last several years, we have developed and hired talent who are helping to re-make how outdoor media is bought and sold. We are working closely with clients, advertising agencies and other diversified media companies to develop more sophisticated approaches to delivering the right audience in the right location at the right time. One example is our programmatic effort to sell digital billboard advertisements using automated advertisement sales technology to introduce ease and efficiency to the out-of-home ad sales process and enable better targeting of digital billboard advertising. Another is our RFP Team, which provides proposal preparation and marketing support for our key multi-market sales efforts. A third area is our proof of performance delivery platform that is leading the industry in providing transparency when the ad is delivered, accessible via API to allow partners to pull proof of performance information into whatever system they choose.
Continue to Deploy Digital Displays.  Our long-term strategy for our outdoor advertising businesses includes pursuing the technology of digital displays, including flat screens, LCDs and LEDs, as additions to traditional methods of displaying our clients’ advertisements. Digital outdoor advertising provides significant advantages over traditional outdoor media. Our electronic

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displays are linked through centralized computer systems to instantaneously and simultaneously and rapidly change advertising copy on a large number of displays, allowing us to sell more advertising opportunities to advertisers. The ability to change copy by time of day and quickly change messaging based on advertisers’ needs creates additional flexibility for our customers. Although digital displays require more capital to construct compared to printed bulletins, the advantages of digital allow us to penetrate new accounts and categories of advertisers, as well as serve a broader set of needs for existing advertisers. Digital displays allow for high-frequency, 24-hour advertising changes in high-traffic locations and allow us to offer our clients optimal flexibility, distribution, circulation and visibility. We expect this trend to continue as we increase our quantity of digital inventory. As of December 31, 2017, we had deployed more than 1,100 digital billboards in 28 markets in the United States.
Sources of Revenue
Americas outdoor generated 20%, 20% and 22% of our revenue in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.  Americas outdoor revenue is derived from the sale of advertising copy placed on our printed and digital displays.  Our display inventory consists primarily of billboards, transit displays and street furniture.  The margins on our billboard contracts, including those related to digital billboards, tend to be higher than those on contracts for other displays, due to their greater size, impact and location along major roadways that are highly trafficked.  Billboards comprise approximately two-thirds of our display revenues.  The following table shows the approximate percentage of revenue derived from each category for our Americas outdoor inventory:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Billboards:
 
 
 
 
 
Bulletins
59
%
 
59
%
 
58
%
Posters
10
%
 
10
%
 
12
%
Transit displays
16
%
 
16
%
 
15
%
Street furniture displays
7
%
 
7
%
 
6
%
Spectaculars/wallscapes
4
%
 
4
%
 
5
%
Other
4
%
 
4
%
 
4
%
Total
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%
Our Americas outdoor segment generates revenues from local and national sales.  Our advertising rates are based on a number of different factors including location, competition, size of display, illumination, market and gross ratings points.  Gross ratings points are the total number of impressions delivered, expressed as a percentage of a market population, of a display or group of displays.  The number of impressions delivered by a display is measured by the number of people passing the site during a defined period of time.  For all of our billboards in the United States, we use independent, third-party auditing companies to verify the number of impressions delivered by a display. 
While location, price and availability of displays are important competitive factors, we believe that providing quality customer service and establishing strong client relationships are also critical components of sales.  In addition, we have long-standing relationships with a diversified group of advertising brands and agencies that allow us to diversify client accounts and establish continuing revenue streams.
Billboards
Our billboard inventory primarily includes bulletins and posters.
Bulletins.   Bulletins vary in size, with the most common size being 14 feet high by 48 feet wide.  Digital bulletins display static messages that resemble standard printed bulletins when viewed, but also allow advertisers to change messages throughout the course of a day, and may display advertisements for multiple customers.  Our electronic displays are linked through centralized computer systems to instantaneously and simultaneously change advertising copy as needed.  Because of their greater size, impact, high-frequency and 24-hour advertising changes, we typically receive our highest rates for digital bulletins.  Almost all of the advertising copy displayed on printed bulletins is computer printed on vinyl and transported to the bulletin where it is secured to the display surface.  Bulletins generally are located along major expressways, primary commuting routes and main intersections that are highly visible and heavily trafficked.  Our clients may contract for individual bulletins or a network of bulletins, meaning the clients’ advertisements are rotated among bulletins to increase the reach of the campaign.  Our client contracts for bulletins, either printed or digital, generally have terms ranging from four weeks to one year.
Posters.   Printed posters are approximately 11 feet high by 23 feet wide, and the printed junior posters are approximately 5 feet high by 11 feet wide.  Digital posters are available in addition to the traditional poster-size and

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junior poster-size.  Similar to digital bulletins, digital posters display static messages that resemble standard printed posters when viewed, and are linked through centralized computer systems to instantaneously and simultaneously change messages throughout the course of a day.  Advertising copy for printed posters is digitally printed on a single piece of polyethylene material that is then transported and secured to the poster surfaces.  Advertising copy for printed junior posters is printed using silk screen, lithographic or digital process to transfer the designs onto paper that is then transported and secured to the poster surfaces.  Posters generally are located in commercial areas on primary and secondary routes near point-of-purchase locations, facilitating advertising campaigns with greater demographic targeting than those displayed on bulletins.  Our poster rates typically are less than our bulletin rates, and our client contracts for posters generally have terms ranging from four weeks to one year.  Premiere displays, which consist of premiere panels and squares, are innovative hybrids between bulletins and posters that we developed to provide our clients with an alternative for their targeted marketing campaigns.  The premiere displays use one or more poster panels, but with vinyl advertising stretched over the panels similar to bulletins.  Our intent is to combine the creative impact of bulletins with the additional reach and frequency of posters.
Transit Displays
Our transit displays are advertising surfaces on various types of vehicles or within transit systems, including on the interior and exterior sides of buses, trains, trams, and within the common areas of rail stations and airports, and are available in both printed and digital formats.  Similar to street furniture, contracts for the right to place our displays on such vehicles or within such transit systems and to sell advertising space on them generally are awarded by public transit authorities in competitive bidding processes or are negotiated with private transit operators.  Generally, these contracts have terms ranging from five to ten years.  Our client contracts for transit displays generally have terms ranging from four weeks to one year.
Street Furniture Displays
Our street furniture displays include advertising surfaces on bus shelters, information kiosks, freestanding units and other public structures, are available in both printed and digital formats, and are primarily located in major metropolitan areas and along major commuting routes.  Generally, we are responsible for the construction and maintenance of street furniture structures.  Contracts for the right to place our street furniture displays in the public domain and sell advertising space on them are awarded by municipal and transit authorities in competitive bidding processes governed by local law.  Generally, these contracts have terms ranging from 10 to 20 years.  As compensation for the right to sell advertising space on our street furniture structures, we pay the municipality or transit authority a fee or revenue share that is either a fixed amount or a percentage of the revenue derived from the street furniture displays.  Typically, these revenue sharing arrangements include payments by us of minimum guaranteed amounts.  Client contracts for street furniture displays typically have terms ranging from four weeks to one year, and are typically for network packages of multiple street furniture displays.
Other Displays
The balance of our display inventory consists of spectaculars and wallscapes.  Spectaculars are customized display structures that often incorporate video, multidimensional lettering and figures, mechanical devices and moving parts and other embellishments to create special effects.  The majority of our spectaculars are located in Los Angeles, San Francisco and Times Square in New York City.  Client contracts for spectaculars typically have terms of one year or longer.  A wallscape is a display that drapes over or is suspended from the sides of buildings or other structures.  Generally, wallscapes are located in high-profile areas where other types of outdoor advertising displays are limited or unavailable.  Clients typically contract for individual wallscapes for extended terms. 
Advertising Inventory and Markets
As of December 31, 2017, we owned or operated approximately 94,000 display structures in our Americas outdoor advertising segment with operations in 43 of the 50 largest markets in the United States, including all of the 20 largest markets.  Therefore, no one property is material to our overall operations.  We believe that our properties are in good condition and suitable for our operations.
Our displays are located on land we own, lease or for which we have acquired permanent easements or executed long-term management agreements.  The majority of the advertising structures on which our displays are mounted require permits.  Permits are granted for the right to operate an advertising structure as long as the structure is used in compliance with the laws and regulations of the applicable jurisdiction.

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In January 2017, Americas outdoor sold its Indianapolis, Indiana market in exchange for certain assets in Atlanta, Georgia with a fair value of $39.4 million, plus $43.1 million in cash, net of closing costs. The assets acquired as part of the transaction consisted of $9.9 million in fixed assets and $29.5 million in intangible assets (including $2.3 million in goodwill). The Company recognized a net gain of $28.9 million related to the sale, which is included within Other operating income (expense), net.
During the third quarter of 2017, Americas outdoor sold its ownership interest in a joint venture in Canada. As a result, the Company recognized a net loss on sale of $12.1 million, including a $6.3 million cumulative translation adjustment, which is included within Other operating income (expense), net.
Production
In a majority of our markets, our local production staff performs the full range of activities required to create and install advertising copy.  Production work includes creating the advertising copy design and layout, coordinating its printing and installing the copy on displays.  We provide creative services to smaller advertisers and to advertisers not represented by advertising agencies.  National advertisers often use preprinted designs that require only installation.  Our creative and production personnel typically develop new designs or adopt copy from other media for use on our inventory.  Our creative staff also can assist in the development of marketing presentations, demonstrations and strategies to attract new clients.
Construction and Operation
We typically own the physical structures on which our clients’ advertising copy is displayed.  We manage the construction of our structures centrally and erect them on sites we either lease or own or for which we have acquired permanent easements.  The site lease terms generally range from one to 20 years.  In addition to the site lease, we must obtain a permit to build new signs or convert existing signs to digital format.  Permits are typically granted in perpetuity by the state and/or local government and typically are transferable or renewable for a minimal, or no, fee.  Printed bulletin and poster advertising copy is primarily printed with computer generated graphics on a single sheet of vinyl supplied by the advertiser.  These advertisements are then transported to the site and wrapped around the face of the site or affixed to a hardware anchoring system on the display site.  The operational process also includes conducting visual inspections of the inventory for display defects and taking the necessary corrective action within a reasonable period of time.
Client Categories
In 2017, the top five client categories in our Americas outdoor segment were business services, retail, healthcare and medical, media and restaurants.
Competition
The outdoor advertising industry in the Americas is fragmented, consisting of several large companies involved in outdoor advertising, such as OUTFRONT Media Inc. and Lamar Advertising Company, as well as numerous smaller and local companies operating a limited number of displays in a single market or a few local markets.  We also compete with other advertising media in our respective markets, including broadcast and cable television, radio, print media, direct mail, mobile, social media, online and other forms of advertisement.  Outdoor advertising companies compete primarily based on ability to reach consumers, which is driven by location of the display.
International Outdoor Advertising
Our International outdoor business segment includes our operations in Europe and Asia, with approximately 34%, 32% and 34% of our revenue in this segment derived from France and the United Kingdom for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.  As of December 31, 2017, we owned or operated more than 480,000 displays across 18 countries.
Our International outdoor assets consist of street furniture, billboards, transit displays, retail displays, SmartBike programs and other spectaculars, which we own or operate under lease or license agreements. Our International business is focused on densely-populated metropolitan areas.
Strategy
Similar to our Americas outdoor advertising business, we believe our International outdoor advertising business has attractive industry fundamentals, including the ability to reach a broad audience and drive foot traffic to the point-of-sale, making outdoor a cost-effective medium for advertisers as measured by cost per thousand persons reached compared to other traditional media.  Our International business focuses on the following strategies:
Promote Overall Outdoor Media Spending.  Our strategy is to promote growth in outdoor advertising’s share of total media spending by demonstrating the strength of our medium.  We believe that outdoor advertising is strongly positioned to

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compete with other media, whose audiences are fragmenting to online equivalents of traditional media content. As part of our effort to promote growth in outdoor advertising’s share of total media, we are focusing on developing and implementing improved outdoor audience delivery measurement systems (such as our C.A.S.T. system in France) to provide advertisers with tools to plan their campaigns and determine how effectively their message is reaching the desired audience.
Differentiate on Sales and Marketing. For over five years, we have spent time and resources building commercial capabilities through a company wide sales force effectiveness program and an upgrade in our sales and marketing talent. These capabilities allow us to build and nurture relationships with our clients and their agencies as well as to offer packages and products that meet our clients’ advertising needs. Going forward, particular areas of focus include pricing, packaging and programmatic selling. Our new proprietary programmatic platform enables marketers to buy our out of home inventory in audience-based packages, giving them the ability to manage their campaigns on a self-service basis.
Capitalize on Product and Geographic Opportunities.  We are also focused on growing our relevance to our advertising customers by continuously optimizing our display portfolio and targeting investments in promising market segments. We have continued to innovate and introduce new products in our markets based on local demand. Our street furniture business generates the largest portion of our revenue and that is where we plan to focus much of our investment. We plan to continue to evaluate municipal contracts that may come up for bid and will make prudent investments where we believe we can generate attractive returns.
Continue to Deploy Digital Display Networks.  Our digital outdoor displays are a dynamic medium, which enables our customers to engage in real-time, tactical, topical and flexible advertising. We will continue our focused and dedicated digital strategy and remain committed to the development of digital out-of-home communication solutions. Through our digital brand, Clear Channel Play, we are able to offer networks of digital displays in multiple formats and multiple environments including bus shelters, billboards, airports, transit, malls and flagship locations. Part of our long-term strategy is to pursue the diversification of our product offering by introducing technologies, such as beacons, small cells, wayfinding stations and provision of wifi in our street furniture network, as additions to traditional methods of displaying our clients’ advertisements. We are currently installing these technologies in a number of our markets. Digital displays enable revenue growth by enhancing the core proposition of outdoor advertising to our clients by improving the quality of display; enabling greater utilization of our best advertising locations through sequential displays; allowing advertisers to plan campaigns around specific days or times of day; and enhancing creativity and contextual relevance of advertisements, tailoring messages according to specific locations, times or other inputs, such as the current weather or latest betting odds. We seek to achieve greater consumer engagement and flexibility by delivering powerful, flexible and interactive campaigns that open up new possibilities for advertisers to engage with their target audiences.  We had more than 13,500 digital displays in 16 countries across Europe and Asia as of December 31, 2017.
Sources of Revenue
Our International outdoor segment generated 22%, 23% and 23% of our revenue in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.  Our International outdoor display inventory consists primarily of street furniture displays, billboards, transit displays and other out-of-home advertising displays. The following table shows the approximate percentage of revenue derived from each inventory category of our International outdoor segment:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Street furniture displays
51
%
 
52
%
 
52
%
Billboards
17
%
 
17
%
 
19
%
Transit displays
11
%
 
10
%
 
9
%
Other (1)
21
%
 
21
%
 
20
%
Total
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%
(1)
Includes advertising revenue from retail displays, other small displays, and non-advertising revenue from sales of street furniture equipment, cleaning and maintenance services, operation of SmartBike programs and production revenue.
Our International outdoor segment generates the majority of its revenue from the sale of advertising space on street furniture displays, billboards, retail displays and transit displays. Similar to our Americas outdoor business, advertising rates generally are based on the gross ratings points of a display or group of displays. In some of the countries where we have operations, the number of impressions delivered by a display is weighted to account for such factors as illumination, proximity to other displays and the speed and viewing angle of approaching traffic.

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While location, price and availability of displays are important competitive factors, we believe that providing quality customer service and establishing strong client relationships are also critical components of sales.  Our entrepreneurial culture allows local management to operate their markets as separate profit centers, encouraging customer cultivation and service.
Street Furniture Displays
Our International street furniture displays, available in printed and digital formats, are substantially similar to their Americas street furniture counterparts, and include bus shelters, freestanding units, various types of kiosks, telephone boxes and other public structures.  Internationally, contracts with municipal and transit authorities for the right to place our street furniture in the public domain and sell advertising on such street furniture typically provide for terms ranging up to 15 years. The major difference between our International and Americas street furniture businesses is in the nature of the municipal contracts.  In our International outdoor business, these contracts typically require us to provide the municipality with a broader range of metropolitan amenities such as bus shelters with or without advertising panels, information kiosks and public wastebaskets, as well as space for the municipality to display maps or other public information.  In exchange for providing such metropolitan amenities and display space, we are authorized to sell advertising space on certain sections of the structures we erect in the public domain.  Our International print street furniture is typically sold to clients as network packages of multiple street furniture displays, with contract terms ranging from one to two weeks. Due to its dynamic and real time delivery capabilities, digital street furniture can be sold flexibly, allowing advertisers to buy solutions on a ‘play and impact’ audience-based model to reach and engage their audiences with dynamic, contextually relevant and targeted messages
Billboards
The sizes of our International billboards are not standardized.  The billboards vary in both format and size across our networks, with the majority of our International billboards being similar in size to our posters used in our Americas outdoor business. 
Our billboard inventory is primarily comprised of premium billboards and classic billboards and is available in printed and digital formats.
Premium. Digital premium billboards allow advertisers to dynamically change messages throughout the course of a day to more effectively target and engage audiences in key locations, and may display advertisements for multiple customers. Our electronic displays are linked through centralized computer systems to instantaneously and simultaneously change messages throughout the course of a day. Because of their greater size, impact, high frequency and 24-hour advertising changes, digital premium billboards typically deliver our highest rates. Almost all of the advertising copy displayed on printed premium billboards is digitally-printed and transported to the billboard where it is secured to the display surface. Premium billboards generally are located along major expressways, primary commuting routes and main intersections that are highly visible and heavily trafficked. Our clients may contract for individual billboards or a network of billboards.
Classic. Digital and printed classic billboards are available in a variety of formats across our markets. Similar to digital premium billboards, classic digital billboards are linked through centralized computer systems to instantaneously and simultaneously change messages throughout the course of a day. Advertising copy for printed classic billboards is digitally printed then transported and secured to the poster surfaces. Classic billboards generally are located in commercial areas on primary and secondary routes near point-of-purchase locations, facilitating advertising campaigns with greater demographic targeting than those displayed on premium billboards. Classic billboards typically deliver lower rates than our premium billboards. Our intent is to combine the creative impact of premium billboards with the additional reach and frequency of classic billboards.
Our billboards are primarily sold to clients as network packages with contract terms typically ranging from one to two weeks. Long-term client contracts are also available and typically have terms of up to one year. We lease the majority of our billboard sites from private landowners, usually for one to ten years.
Transit Displays
Our International transit display contracts are substantially similar to their Americas transit display counterparts.  They are advertising surfaces on various types of vehicles or within transit systems, including on the interior and exterior sides of buses, trains, trams and within the common areas of rail stations and airports, and are available in both printed and digital formats. Similar to street furniture, contracts for the right to place our displays on such vehicles or within such transit systems and to sell advertising space on them generally are awarded by public transit authorities in competitive bidding processes or are negotiated with private transit operators. Contracts with public transit authorities or private transit operators typically have terms ranging from two to five years. Our client contracts for transit displays, either printed or digital, generally have terms ranging from one week to one year,

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or longer. Due to its dynamic and real time delivery capabilities, digital transit can be sold flexibly, allowing advertisers to buy solutions on a ‘play and impact’ audience-based model to reach and engage their audiences with dynamic, contextually relevant and targeted messages.
Retail Displays
Our retail displays are mainly standalone advertising structures in or in close proximity to retail outlets such as malls and supermarkets. The right to place our displays in these locations and to sell advertising space on them generally is awarded by retail outlet operators such as large retailers or mall operators either through private tenders or bilateral negotiations. Upfront investment and ongoing maintenance costs vary across contracts. Contracts with mall operators and retailers have terms ranging from three to ten years. Our client contracts for retail displays, either printed or digital, generally have terms ranging from one week to two weeks. Due to its dynamic and real time delivery capabilities, digital retail displays can be sold flexibly, allowing advertisers to buy solutions on a ‘play and impact’ audience-based model to reach and engage their audiences with dynamic, contextually relevant and targeted messages.
Other International Displays and Services
The balance of our revenue from our International outdoor segment consists primarily of advertising revenue from other small displays and non-advertising revenue from sales of street furniture equipment, cleaning and maintenance services and production and creative services revenue.  Our International inventory includes other small displays that are counted as separate displays since they form a substantial part of our network and International outdoor advertising revenue.  We also have a SmartBike bicycle rental program which provides bicycles for rent to the general public in several municipalities.  In exchange for operating these bike rental programs, we generally derive revenue from advertising rights to the bikes, bike stations, additional street furniture displays, and/or a share of rental income from the local municipalities.  In several of our International markets, we sell equipment or provide cleaning and maintenance services as part of street furniture contracts with municipalities.
Advertising Inventory and Markets
As of December 31, 2017, we owned or operated more than 480,000 displays in our International outdoor segment, with operations across 18 countries.  Our International outdoor display count includes display faces, which may include multiple faces on a single structure, as well as small, individual displays.  As a result, our International outdoor display count is not comparable to our Americas outdoor display count, which includes only unique displays.  No one property is significant to our overall operations.  We believe that our properties are in good condition and suitable for our operations.
Production
The majority of our International clients are advertisers targeting national or regional audiences whose business generally is placed with us through media or advertising agencies. These agencies often provide to our International clients creative services to design and produce the advertising copy, which is delivered to us either in digital format or in the traditional format of physical printed advertisements. For digital advertising campaigns, the digital advertisement is received by our content management system and is then distributed to our digital displays. For traditional advertising campaigns, the printed advertisement - whether in paper or vinyl - is shipped to centralized warehouses operated by us. The copy is then sorted and delivered to sites where it is installed on our displays.
Construction and Operation
The International manufacturing process largely consists of two elements: the manufacture and installation of advertising structures and the weekly preparation of advertising posters for distribution throughout our networks. We outsource the manufacturing of advertising structures to third parties and regularly seek competitive bids. We use a wide range of suppliers located in many of our markets, although much of our inventory is manufactured in China and the United Kingdom. The design of street furniture structures (such as bus shelters, bicycle racks and kiosks) is typically done in conjunction with a third party design or architectural firm and followed by a competitive bidding process to select a manufacturer. Our street furniture sites are posted by our own employees or subcontractors who also clean and maintain the sites. The decision to use our own employees or subcontractors is made on a market-by-market basis taking into consideration the mix of products in the market and local labor costs.
Client Categories
In 2017, the top five client categories in our International segment, based on International revenue derived from these categories, were retail, entertainment, telecommunications, internet and e-commerce and food and food products.

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Competition
The international outdoor advertising industry is competitive, consisting of several large companies involved in outdoor advertising, such as JCDecaux SA and ExterionMedia (UK) Limited, as well as numerous smaller and local companies operating a limited number of displays in a single market or a few local markets.  We also compete with other advertising media in our respective markets, including broadcast and cable television, radio, print media, direct mail, online, mobile and other forms of advertisement.  Outdoor companies compete primarily based on ability to reach consumers, which is driven by location of the display.
Our business requires us to obtain and renew contracts with municipalities and other governmental entities, which frequently require us to participate in competitive bidding processes at each renewal. Many of these contracts typically have terms ranging up to 15 years and have revenue share, capital expenditure requirements and/or fixed payment components. Competitive bidding processes are complex and sometimes lengthy.  Substantial costs may be incurred in connection with preparing bids for such processes. Our competitors, individually or through relationships with third parties, may be able to provide municipalities with different or greater capabilities or prices or benefits than we can provide. In the past we have not, and most likely in the future will not, be awarded all of the contracts on which we bid. There can be no assurance that we will win any particular bid, or that we will be able to replace any revenues lost upon expiration or completion of a contract. Our inability to renew existing contracts can also result in significant expenses from the removal of our displays. Furthermore, if and when we do obtain a contract, we are generally required to incur significant start-up expenses. The costs of bidding on contracts and the start-up costs associated with new contracts we may obtain may significantly reduce our cash flow and liquidity. The success of our business also depends generally on our ability to obtain and renew contracts with private landlords.
Other
Our Other category includes our media representation firm, Katz Media, which is ancillary to our other businesses.
Katz Media, a leading media representation firm in the U.S. for radio and television stations, sells national spot advertising time for clients in the radio and television industries.  As of December 31, 2017, Katz Media represented more than 3,000 radio stations.  Katz Media also represents more than 900 television and digital multicast stations throughout the United States.
Katz Media generates revenue primarily through contractual commissions realized from the sale of national spot and online advertising.  National spot advertising is commercial airtime sold to advertisers on behalf of radio and television stations.  Katz Media represents its media clients pursuant to media representation contracts, which typically have terms of up to ten years in length.
Employees
As of December 31, 2017, we had approximately 13,600 domestic employees and approximately 4,300 international employees, of which approximately 16,400 were in direct operations and 1,500 were in administrative or corporate related activities.  Approximately 800 of our employees are subject to collective bargaining agreements in their respective countries. We are a party to numerous collective bargaining agreements, none of which represent a significant number of employees.  We believe that our relationship with our union and non-union employees is good.
Seasonality
Required information is located within Item 7 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Regulation of our iHeartMedia Business
General
The following is a brief summary of certain statutes, regulations, policies and proposals affecting our iHeartMedia business.  For example, radio broadcasting is subject to the jurisdiction of the FCC under the Communications Act.  The Communications Act permits the operation of a radio broadcast station only under a license issued by the FCC upon a finding that grant of the license would serve the public interest, convenience and necessity.  Among other things, the Communications Act empowers the FCC to: issue, renew, revoke and modify broadcasting licenses; assign frequency bands for broadcasting; determine stations’ frequencies, locations, power and other technical parameters; impose penalties for violation of its regulations, including monetary forfeitures and, in extreme cases, license revocation; impose annual regulatory and application processing fees; and adopt and implement regulations and policies affecting the ownership, program content, employment practices and many other aspects of the operation of broadcast stations.

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This summary does not comprehensively cover all current and proposed statutes, regulations and policies affecting our iHeartMedia business.  Reference should be made to the Communications Act and other relevant statutes, regulations, policies and proceedings for further information concerning the nature and extent of regulation of our iHeartMedia business.  Finally, several of the following matters are now, or may become, the subject of court litigation, and we cannot predict the outcome of any such litigation or its impact on our iHeartMedia business.
License Assignments
The Communications Act prohibits the assignment of a license or the transfer of control of an FCC licensee without prior FCC approval.  Applications for license assignments or transfers involving a substantial change in ownership are subject to a 30-day period for public comment, during which petitions to deny the application may be filed and considered by the FCC.
License Renewal
The FCC grants broadcast licenses for a term of up to eight years.  The FCC will renew a license for an additional eight-year term if, after consideration of the renewal application and any objections thereto, it finds that the station has served the public interest, convenience and necessity and that, with respect to the station seeking renewal, there have been no serious violations of either the Communications Act or the FCC’s rules and regulations by the licensee and no other such violations which, taken together, constitute a pattern of abuse.  The FCC may grant the license renewal application with or without conditions, including renewal for a term less than eight years.  The vast majority of radio licenses are renewed by the FCC for the full eight-year term.  While we cannot guarantee the grant of any future renewal application, our stations’ licenses historically have been renewed for the full eight-year term.
Ownership Regulation
FCC rules and policies define the interests of individuals and entities, known as “attributable” interests, which implicate FCC rules governing ownership of broadcast stations and other specified mass media entities.  Under these rules, attributable interests generally include: (1) officers and directors of a licensee or of its direct or indirect parents; (2) general partners; (3) limited partners and limited liability company members, unless properly “insulated” from management activities; (4) a 5% or more direct or indirect voting stock interest in a corporate licensee or parent, except that, for a narrowly defined class of passive investors, the attribution threshold is a 20% or more voting stock interest; and (5) combined equity and debt interests in excess of 33% of a licensee’s total asset value, if the interest holder provides over 15% of the licensee station’s total weekly programming, or has an attributable broadcast or newspaper interest in the same market (the “EDP Rule”).  An entity that owns one or more radio stations in a market and programs more than 15% of the broadcast time, or sells more than 15% per week of the advertising time, on a radio station in the same market is generally deemed to have an attributable interest in that station.
Debt instruments, non-voting corporate stock, minority voting stock interests in corporations having a single majority stockholder, and properly insulated limited partnership and limited liability company interests generally are not subject to attribution unless such interests implicate the EDP Rule.  To the best of our knowledge at present, none of our officers, directors or 5% or greater stockholders holds an interest in another television station, radio station or daily newspaper that is inconsistent with the FCC’s ownership rules.
The current FCC ownership rules relevant to our business are summarized below.
Local Radio Ownership Rule. The maximum allowable number of radio stations that may be commonly owned in a market is based on the size of the market.  In markets with 45 or more stations, one entity may have an attributable interest in up to eight stations, of which no more than five are in the same service (AM or FM).  In markets with 30-44 stations, one entity may have an attributable interest in up to seven stations, of which no more than four are in the same service.  In markets with 15-29 stations, one entity may have an attributable interest in up to six stations, of which no more than four are in the same service.  In markets with 14 or fewer stations, one entity may have an attributable interest in up to five stations, of which no more than three are in the same service, so long as the entity does not have an interest in more than 50% of all stations in the market.  To apply these ownership tiers, the FCC relies on Nielsen Metro Survey Areas, where they exist, and a signal contour-overlap methodology where they do not exist.  An FCC rulemaking is pending to determine how to define radio markets for stations located outside Nielsen Metro Survey Areas.
Newspaper-Broadcast Cross-Ownership Rule. FCC rules have historically prohibited an individual or entity from having an attributable interest in either a radio or television station and a daily newspaper located in the same market. As noted below, the FCC has recently adopted an order eliminating this prohibition.

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Radio-Television Cross-Ownership Rule.  FCC rules have permitted the common ownership of one television and up to seven same-market radio stations, or up to two television and six same-market radio stations, depending on the number of independent media voices in the market and on whether the television and radio components of the combination comply with the television and radio ownership limits, respectively. As noted below, the FCC has recently adopted an order eliminating limitations on radio-television cross-ownership.
The FCC is required to conduct periodic reviews of its media ownership rules. In August 2016, the FCC concluded its 2010 and 2014 quadrennial reviews with a decision retaining the local radio ownership rules, the radio-television cross-ownership rule and the prohibition on newspaper-broadcast cross-ownership without significant change. In November 2017, however, the FCC adopted an order reconsidering the August 2016 decision and modifying it in a number of respects. The November 2017 order on reconsideration did not significantly modify the August 2016 decision with respect to the local radio ownership limits. It did, however, eliminate the FCC's previous limits on radio-television cross-ownership and newspaper-broadcast cross-ownership. These rule changes became effective on February 7, 2018, but the November 2017 order on reconsideration has been appealed. We cannot predict the outcome of the FCC's media ownership proceedings or their effects on our business in the future.
Irrespective of the FCC's media ownership rules, the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice ("DOJ") and the U.S. Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") have the authority to determine that a particular transaction presents antitrust concerns. In particular, where the proposed purchaser already owns one or more radio stations in a particular market and seeks to acquire radio stations in that market, the DOJ has, in some cases, obtained consent decrees requiring radio station divestitures.
Alien Ownership Restrictions
The Communications Act restricts foreign entities or individuals from owning or voting more than 20% of the equity of a broadcast licensee directly.  It also restricts foreign entities or individuals from owning or voting more than 25% of a licensee’s equity indirectly (i.e., through a parent company), unless the FCC has made a finding that greater indirect foreign ownership is in the public interest. Since we serve as a holding company for FCC licensee subsidiaries, we are effectively restricted from having more than one-fourth of our stock owned or voted directly or indirectly by foreign entities or individuals.  The FCC has clarified that it will entertain and authorize, on a case-by-case basis and upon a sufficient public interest showing, proposals to exceed the 25% foreign ownership limit in broadcasting holding companies.  In September 2016, the FCC adopted rules to simplify and streamline the process for requesting authority to exceed the 25% indirect foreign ownership limit and reformed the methodology that publicly-traded broadcasters may use to assess their compliance with the foreign ownership restrictions. 
Indecency Regulation
Federal law regulates the broadcast of obscene, indecent or profane material.  Legislation enacted by Congress provides the FCC with authority to impose fines of up to $325,000 per utterance with a cap of $3.0 million for any violation arising from a single act.  In June 2012, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled on the appeals of several FCC indecency enforcement actions.  While setting aside the particular FCC actions under review on narrow due process grounds, the Supreme Court declined to rule on the constitutionality of the FCC’s indecency policies, and the FCC has since solicited public comment on those policies.  We have received, and may receive in the future, letters of inquiry and other notifications from the FCC concerning complaints that programming aired on our stations contains indecent or profane language.  We cannot predict the outcome of our outstanding letters of inquiry and notifications from the FCC or the nature or extent of future FCC indecency enforcement actions.
Equal Employment Opportunity
The FCC’s rules require broadcasters to engage in broad equal employment opportunity recruitment efforts, retain data concerning such efforts and report much of this data to the FCC and to the public via periodic reports filed with the FCC or placed in stations’ public files and websites.  Broadcasters could be sanctioned for noncompliance.
Technical Rules
Numerous FCC rules govern the technical operating parameters of radio stations, including permissible operating frequency, power and antenna height and interference protections between stations.  Changes to these rules could negatively affect the operation of our stations.  For example, in January 2011 a law was enacted that eliminates certain minimum distance separation requirements between full-power and low-power FM radio stations.  In March 2011, the FCC adopted policies which, in certain circumstances, could make it more difficult for radio stations to relocate to increase their population coverage.  In October 2015, the FCC proposed rules which could reduce the degree of interference protection afforded to certain of our AM radio stations that serve wide areas.

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Content, Licenses and Royalties
We must pay royalties to copyright owners of musical compositions (typically, songwriters and publishers) whenever we broadcast or stream musical compositions.  Copyright owners of musical compositions most often rely on intermediaries known as performing rights organizations (“PROs”) to negotiate licenses with copyright users for the public performance of their compositions, collect royalties under such licenses and distribute them to copyright owners. We have obtained public performance licenses from, and pay license fees to, the three major PROs in the United States, which are the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (“ASCAP”), Broadcast Music, Inc. (“BMI”) and SESAC, Inc. (“SESAC”).  There is no guarantee that a given songwriter or publisher will remain associated with ASCAP, BMI or SESAC or that additional PROs will not emerge.  In 2013, a new PRO was formed named Global Music Rights (“GMR”).  GMR has secured the rights to certain high-value copyrights and is seeking to negotiate individual licensing agreements with radio stations for songs in its repertoire. GMR and the Radio Music License Committee, Inc. ("RMLC"), which negotiates music licensing fees with PROs on behalf of many U.S. radio stations, have instituted antitrust litigation against one another. Additionally, there has been litigation concerning whether the consent decrees between the DOJ and major PROs require full-work licensing, most recently resulting in a ruling by a federal appeals court that they do not. The withdrawal of a significant number of musical composition copyright owners from the three established PROs; the emergence of one or more additional PROs; the outcome of the GMR/RMLC litigation; and the outcome of the full-work licensing issue could impact, and in some circumstances increase, our royalty rates and negotiation costs.
To secure the rights to stream music content over the Internet, we also must obtain performance rights licenses and pay public performance royalties to copyright owners of sound recordings (typically, performing artists and record companies).  Under Federal statutory licenses, we are permitted to stream any lawfully released sound recordings and to make ephemeral reproductions of these recordings on our computer servers without having to separately negotiate and obtain direct licenses with each individual copyright owner as long as we operate in compliance with the rules of those statutory licenses and pay the applicable royalty rates to SoundExchange, the organization designated by the Copyright Royalty Board (“CRB”) to collect and distribute royalties under these statutory licenses.  Sound recordings fixed on or after February 15, 1972 are protected by federal copyright law.  Sound recording copyright owners have asserted that state law provides copyright protection for recordings fixed before that date (“pre-72 recordings”).  Sound recording copyright owners have sued radio broadcasters and digital audio transmission services (including us) for unauthorized public performances and reproductions of pre-72 recordings under various state laws. Courts applying the laws of at least four states have denied protection to pre-72 recordings, and the issue remains pending elsewhere. Legislation has also been introduced in Congress that would preempt state law claims for copyright violations related to pre-72 recordings. If legislative efforts are unsuccessful, and if the courts ultimately determine that there are public performance rights in pre-72 sound recordings and those rulings are held to apply to radio broadcasting or Internet simulcasting, it could impede our ability to broadcast or stream pre-72 recordings and/or increase our licensing and negotiating costs of doing so.
The rates at which we pay royalties to copyright owners are privately negotiated or set pursuant to a regulatory process.  In addition, we have business arrangements directly with some copyright owners to receive deliveries of and, in some cases, to directly license their sound recordings for use in our Internet operations.  There is no guarantee that the licenses and associated royalty rates that currently are available to us will be available to us in the future.  Congress may consider and adopt legislation that would require us to pay royalties to sound recording copyright owners for broadcasting those recordings on our terrestrial radio stations. In addition, the CRB has issued a final determination establishing copyright royalty rates for the public performance and ephemeral reproduction of sound recordings by various noninteractive webcasters, including radio broadcasters that simulcast their terrestrial programming online, to apply to the period January 1, 2016-December 31, 2020 under the so-called webcasting statutory license.  The rates set by the CRB represent a decrease from the 2015 CRB rates applicable to broadcasters and other webcasters, but the determination has been appealed. Increased royalty rates could significantly increase our expenses, which could adversely affect our business.  Additionally, there are conditions applicable to the webcasting statutory license. Some, but not all, record companies have agreed to waive or provide limited relief from certain of these conditions under certain circumstances.  Some of these conditions may be inconsistent with customary radio broadcasting practices.
Privacy and Data Protection
We collect certain types of information from users of our technology platforms, including, without limitation, our websites, web pages, interactive features, applications, social media pages, and mobile application (“Platforms”), in accordance with the privacy policies and terms of use posted on the applicable Platform.  We collect personally identifiable information directly from Platform users in several ways, including when a user purchases our products or services, registers to use our services, fills out a listener profile, posts comments, uses our social networking features, participates in polls and contests and signs up to receive email newsletters.  We also may obtain information about our listeners from other listeners and third parties.  We use the information we collect about and from Platform users for a variety of business purposes. Outside our radio business, we collect personally identifiable information from our employees, from users of our Smartbike services, from our business partners and from consumers who interact with our digital panels, including the use of behavioral analysis software.

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We are subject to a number of laws and regulations relating to consumer protection, information security, data protection and privacy.  Many of these laws and regulations are still evolving and could be interpreted in ways that could harm our business.  In the area of information security and data protection, the laws in several states in the United States and most countries require companies to implement specific information security controls and legal protections to protect certain types of personally identifiable information.  Likewise, most states in the United States and most countries have laws in place requiring companies to notify users if there is a security breach that compromises certain categories of their personally identifiable information.  Any failure on our part to comply with these laws may subject us to significant liabilities.
We have implemented commercially reasonable organizational and technical physical and electronic security measures that are designed to protect against the loss, misuse, and alteration of our listeners’, employees', clients' and customers' personally identifiable information and to protect our proprietary business information. In Europe, we have appointed a Chief Data Protection Officer and are preparing a comprehensive legal and information security-led approach to compliance with the new Europe-wide General Data Protection Regulation (the "GDPR") in line with our obligations and our risk profile.  Despite our best efforts, no security measures are perfect or impenetrable.  Any failure or perceived failure by us to protect our information or information about our listeners, employees, clients and customers or to comply with our policies or applicable regulatory requirements could result in damage to our business and loss of confidence in us, damage to our brands, the loss of users of our services, including listeners, consumers, business partners and advertisers, as well as proceedings against us by governmental authorities or others, which could harm our business.
Other
Congress, the FCC and other government agencies and regulatory bodies may in the future adopt new laws, regulations and policies that could affect, directly or indirectly, the operation, profitability and ownership of our broadcast stations and Internet-based audio music services.  In addition to the regulations and other arrangements noted above, such matters may include, for example:  proposals to impose spectrum use or other fees on FCC licensees; changes to the political broadcasting rules, including the adoption of proposals to provide free air time to candidates; restrictions on the advertising of certain products, such as beer and wine; frequency allocation, spectrum reallocations and changes in technical rules; and the adoption of significant new programming and operational requirements designed to increase local community-responsive programming and enhance public interest reporting requirements.
Regulation of our Americas and International Outdoor Advertising Businesses 
The outdoor advertising industry in the United States is subject to governmental regulation at the federal, state and local levels. These regulations may include, among others, restrictions on the construction, repair, maintenance, lighting, upgrading, height, size, spacing and location and permitting of and, in some instances, content of advertising copy being displayed on outdoor advertising structures.  In addition, international regulations have a significant impact on the outdoor advertising industry.  International regulation of the outdoor advertising industry can vary by municipality, region and country, but generally limits the size, placement, nature and density of out-of-home displays. Other regulations may limit the subject matter and language of out-of-home displays.
From time to time, legislation has been introduced in both the United States and foreign jurisdictions attempting to impose taxes on revenue from outdoor advertising or for the right to use outdoor advertising assets. Several jurisdictions have imposed such taxes as a percentage of our outdoor advertising revenue generated in that jurisdiction.  In addition, some jurisdictions have taxed our personal property and leasehold interests in advertising locations using various valuation methodologies.  We expect U.S. and foreign jurisdictions to continue to try to impose such taxes as a way of increasing revenue.  In recent years, outdoor advertising also has become the subject of targeted taxes and fees.  These laws may affect prevailing competitive conditions in our markets in a variety of ways.  Such laws may reduce our expansion opportunities or may increase or reduce competitive pressure from other members of the outdoor advertising industry.  No assurance can be given that existing or future laws or regulations, and the enforcement thereof, will not materially and adversely affect the outdoor advertising industry.  However, we contest laws and regulations that we believe unlawfully restrict our constitutional or other legal rights and may adversely impact the growth of our outdoor advertising business.
In the United States, federal law, principally the Highway Beautification Act (“HBA”), regulates outdoor advertising on Federal-Aid Primary, Interstate and National Highway Systems roads within the United States (“controlled roads”). The HBA regulates the size and placement of billboards, requires the development of state standards, mandates a state’s compliance program, promotes the expeditious removal of illegal signs and requires just compensation for takings.
To satisfy the HBA’s requirements, all states have passed billboard control statutes and regulations that regulate, among other things, construction, repair, maintenance, lighting, height, size, spacing and the placement and permitting of outdoor advertising structures.  We are not aware of any state that has passed control statutes and regulations less restrictive than the prevailing federal requirements on the federal highway system, including the requirement that an owner remove any non-

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grandfathered, non-compliant signs along the controlled roads, at the owner’s expense and without compensation.  Local governments generally also include billboard control as part of their zoning laws and building codes regulating those items described above and include similar provisions regarding the removal of non-grandfathered structures that do not comply with certain of the local requirements.  Some local governments have initiated code enforcement and permit reviews of billboards within their jurisdiction. In some instances we have had to remove billboards as a result of such reviews.
As part of their billboard control laws, state and local governments regulate the construction of new signs.  Some jurisdictions prohibit new construction, some jurisdictions allow new construction only to replace or relocate existing structures and some jurisdictions allow new construction subject to the various restrictions discussed above.  In certain jurisdictions, restrictive regulations also limit our ability to relocate, rebuild, repair, maintain, upgrade, modify or replace existing legal non-conforming billboards.
U.S. federal law neither requires nor prohibits the removal of existing lawful billboards, but it does mandate the payment of compensation if a state or political subdivision compels the removal of a lawful billboard along the controlled roads.  In the past, state governments have purchased and removed existing lawful billboards for beautification purposes using federal funding for transportation enhancement programs, and these jurisdictions may continue to do so in the future. From time to time, state and local government authorities use the power of eminent domain and amortization to remove billboards.  Amortization is the required removal of legal non-conforming billboards (billboards which conformed with applicable laws and regulations when built, but which do not conform to current laws and regulations) or the commercial advertising placed on such billboards after a period of years. Pursuant to this concept, the governmental body asserts that just compensation is earned by continued operation of the billboard over that period of time. Although amortization is prohibited along all controlled roads, amortization has been upheld along non-controlled roads in limited instances where permitted by state and local law. Thus far, we have been able to obtain satisfactory compensation for, or relocation of, our billboards purchased or removed as a result of these types of governmental action, although there is no assurance that this will continue to be the case in the future.
We have introduced and intend to expand the deployment of digital billboards that display static digital advertising copy from various advertisers that change up to several times per minute. We have encountered some existing regulations in the U.S. and across some international jurisdictions that restrict or prohibit these types of digital displays.  However, since digital technology for changing static copy has only recently been developed and introduced into the market on a large scale, and is in the process of being introduced more broadly in our international markets, existing regulations that currently do not apply to digital technology by their terms could be revised to impose greater restrictions. These regulations, or actions by third parties, may impose greater restrictions on digital billboards due to alleged concerns over aesthetics or driver safety.
Available Information
You can find more information about us at our Internet website located at www.iheartmedia.com. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports are available free of charge through our Internet website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish such material to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The contents of our website are not deemed to be part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any of our other filings with the SEC.
The SEC maintains an internet website that contains these reports at www.sec.gov. Any materials we file with the SEC may also be read or copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. Information concerning the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at (800) 732-0330.
ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS
Chapter 11 Reorganization Risks
We filed for reorganization under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code on March 14, 2018 and are subject to the risks and uncertainties associated with the Chapter 11 Cases.
For the duration of our Chapter 11 Cases, our operations, including our ability to execute our business plan, are subject to the risks and uncertainties associated with bankruptcy. Risks and uncertainties associated with our Chapter 11 Cases include the following:
our creditors or other third parties may take actions or make decisions that are inconsistent with and detrimental to the plans we believe to be in the best interests of the Company;
we may be unable to obtain court approval with respect to certain matters in the Chapter 11 Cases from time to time;
the court may not agree with our objections to positions taken by other parties;
we may not be able to confirm and consummate a Chapter 11 plan of reorganization or may be delayed in doing so;

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we may not be able to obtain and maintain normal credit terms with vendors, strategic partners and service providers;
we may not be able to continue to invest in our products and services, which could hurt our competitiveness;
we may not be able to enter into or maintain contracts that are critical to our operations at competitive rates and terms, if at all;
we may be exposed to risks associated with third parties seeking and obtaining court approval to (i) terminate or shorten our exclusivity period to propose and confirm a plan of reorganization, (ii) appoint a Chapter 11 trustee or (iii) convert the cases to Chapter 7 liquidation cases; and
our customers may choose to advertise with our competitors.

These risks and uncertainties could affect our business and operations in various ways. For example, negative events, the positions we take in court, or publicity associated with our Chapter 11 Cases could adversely affect our ability to compete for advertising dollars and our relationship with our customers, as well as with our business partners, vendors and employees, which in turn could adversely affect our operations and financial condition, particularly if the Chapter 11 Cases are protracted. Because of the risks and uncertainties associated with our Chapter 11 Cases, the ultimate impact of events that occur during these proceedings will have on our business, financial condition and results of operations cannot be accurately predicted or quantified. If any one or more of these risks materializes, it could affect our ability to continue as a going concern.
Operating under Chapter 11 may restrict our ability to pursue our business strategies.
Under Chapter 11, transactions outside the ordinary course of business will be subject to the prior approval of the Bankruptcy Court, which may limit our ability to respond in a timely manner to certain events or take advantage of certain opportunities. We must obtain Bankruptcy Court approval to, among other things:
engage in certain transactions with our vendors;
buy or sell assets outside the ordinary course of business;
consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets;
grant liens; and
finance our operations, investments or other capital needs or to engage in other business activities that would be in our interest.

The Chapter 11 Cases have required and will continue to require a substantial amount of time and attention of our senior management, which may have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
The requirements of the Chapter 11 Cases have required and will continue to require a substantial portion of time and attention from our senior management team and leave them with less time to devote to the operations of our business. Our management has spent considerable time participating in the development of restructuring plans and the business plan for the Company. This diversion of management’s attention may have a material adverse effect on the conduct of our business, and, as a result, on our financial condition and results of operations, particularly if the Chapter 11 Cases are protracted.
We may experience increased levels of employee attrition as a result of the Chapter 11 Cases.
As a result of the Chapter 11 Cases, we may experience increased levels of employee attrition, and our employees likely will face considerable distraction and uncertainty. A loss of key personnel or material erosion of employee morale could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Our ability to engage, motivate and retain key employees or take other measures intended to motivate and incent key employees to remain with us through the pendency of the Chapter 11 Cases is limited by restrictions on implementation of incentive programs under the Bankruptcy Code. The loss of services of members of our senior management team could impair our ability to execute our strategy and implement operational initiatives, which would be likely to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
Our businesses could suffer from a protracted restructuring.
Our future results are dependent upon the timely and successful filing, confirmation and implementation of a plan of reorganization. If a restructuring is protracted, it could adversely affect our operating results, including our relationships with our advertising customers, business partners and employees. The longer the proceedings related to the Chapter 11 Cases continue, the more likely it is that our advertising customers will lose confidence in our ability to reorganize our businesses successfully and seek to establish alternative commercial relationships. If we experience a protracted reorganization, there is a significant risk that the value of our enterprise would be substantially eroded to the detriment of all stakeholders. In addition, the RSA requires that we achieve various milestones in the Chapter 11 Cases, including that a plan of reorganization be effective by March 14, 2019. If we fail to achieve these milestones, the Consenting Stakeholders may terminate the RSA, which could create considerable uncertainty in the bankruptcy process.

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Our ability to emerge from Chapter 11 and operate profitably thereafter will depend on our ability to obtain exit financing or other capital and to reduce our debt and debt service costs.
It is too early in the Chapter 11 process for us to have certainty regarding the terms of our ultimate plan of reorganization. However, for our ultimate plan of reorganization to be effective, we will need to obtain exit financing or capital to fund our emergence costs and support our business following emergence. We cannot presently determine the final terms of such financing, nor can there be any assurances of our success in obtaining it. In addition to pursuing traditional forms of exit financing, we also intend to explore potential merger and acquisition transactions and other investment transactions with financial and strategic investors. Failure to obtain exit financing or other capital may delay our emergence from bankruptcy protection and/or limit our alternatives, which could result in our inability to continue as a going concern. Even if such financing or other capital is available, there is no guarantee that we will be able to implement our business plan and achieve improved financial results.
Our current cost structure is heavily driven by existing levels of indebtedness. Our plan of reorganization contemplates restructuring, renegotiating, and/or otherwise discharging a substantial portion of our debt. Nevertheless, there is no guarantee that we will be able to successfully achieve sufficient reductions in our debt and debt service costs and other cost savings or otherwise meet our planned continuing obligations. Failure to achieve substantial interest cost reduction and other cost savings upon emergence could materially hamper our ability to operate profitably after emergence, and could result in our inability to continue as a going concern.
Third parties may propose competing Chapter 11 plans of reorganization and we may receive unsolicited offers for the Company or our assets.
Chapter 11 gives us the exclusive right to file a plan of reorganization during the first 120 days after filing. That period can be extended for cause up to a total of 18 months from the Petition Date with approval of the Bankruptcy Court. While we intend to conclude our Chapter 11 Cases during this so-called “exclusivity period”, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so. Although we filed a plan of reorganization on April 28, 2018, there is no assurance that such plan of reorganization will be approved by the requisite creditors and the Bankruptcy Court. After the expiration of the exclusivity period, third parties can file one or more Chapter 11 plans of reorganization for the Debtors. An alternative plan of reorganization could contemplate the Company continuing as a going concern, the Company being broken up, the Company or its assets being acquired by a third party, the Company being merged with a competitor, or some other proposal. We may not believe that such an alternative plan of reorganization is in our stakeholders’ best interests or fully values the benefits to be achieved by our reorganization. If we cannot successfully obtain approval of our plan of reorganization during the exclusivity period, we may have limited ability to prevent an alternative plan of reorganization from being approved by the Bankruptcy Court.
Companies in Chapter 11 are often the target of unsolicited merger and acquisition offers, and there is no guarantee that we will emerge from Chapter 11 as a standalone company. An unsolicited proposal or alternative plan of reorganization could potentially delay our emergence from Chapter 11 and expose us to a number of other risks, including potential limitations on our ability to execute our business plan and strategic initiatives; difficulties in hiring, retaining and motivating key personnel; negative reactions among our employees, vendors, strategic partners and service providers; a failure to provide stakeholders full value for the benefits that could be achieved by the Company post-emergence on a stand-alone basis; and unease and uncertainty among our advertising customer base. In addition, any potential transaction proposed during Chapter 11, even if we decided such transaction was in our best interest, would be expressly subject to Bankruptcy Code requirements and Bankruptcy Court approval.
We may not be able to obtain confirmation of a Chapter 11 plan of reorganization.
To emerge successfully from Bankruptcy Court protection as a viable entity, we must meet certain statutory requirements with respect to adequacy of disclosure with respect to a Chapter 11 plan of reorganization, solicit and obtain the requisite acceptances of such a plan and fulfill other statutory conditions for confirmation of such a plan, which have not occurred to date. The confirmation process is subject to numerous, unanticipated potential delays, including a delay in the Bankruptcy Court’s commencement of the confirmation hearing regarding our plan.
Even though the Consenting Stakeholders have agreed pursuant to the RSA to support a plan of reorganization to effect the Restructuring Transactions described therein, we may not receive the requisite acceptances of constituencies in the proceedings related to the Chapter 11 Cases proceedings to confirm a plan. Even if the requisite acceptances of a plan are received, the Bankruptcy Court may not confirm such a plan. The precise requirements and evidentiary showing for confirming a plan, notwithstanding its rejection by one or more impaired classes of claims or equity interests, depends upon a number of factors including, without limitation, the status and seniority of the claims or equity interests in the rejecting class (i.e., secured claims or unsecured claims, subordinated or senior claims).

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If a Chapter 11 plan of reorganization is not confirmed by the Bankruptcy Court, it is unclear whether we would be able to reorganize our business and what, if anything, holders of claims against us would ultimately receive with respect to their claims.
Even if a Chapter 11 plan of reorganization is consummated, we will continue to face risks.
Even if a Chapter 11 plan of reorganization is consummated, we will continue to face a number of risks, including certain risks that are beyond our control, such as further deterioration or other changes in economic conditions, changes in our industry and potential revaluing of our assets due to the Chapter 11 Cases. Some of these concerns and effects typically become more acute when a case under the Bankruptcy Code continues for a protracted period without indication of how or when the case may be completed. As a result of these risks and others, there is no guarantee that any plan of reorganization will achieve our stated goals.
Furthermore, we cannot predict the ultimate amount of all settlement terms for the Debtors’ liabilities that will be subject to a plan of reorganization. Even if our debts are reduced or discharged through a plan of reorganization, we may need to raise additional funds through public or private debt or equity financing or other various means to fund our business after the completion of the Chapter 11 process. Adequate funds may not be available when needed or may not be available on favorable terms. Even once a plan of reorganization is implemented, our operating results may be adversely affected by the possible reluctance of advertisers to do business with a company that recently emerged from bankruptcy proceedings.
As a result of the Chapter 11 Cases, our historical financial information may be volatile and not be indicative of our future financial performance.
During the Chapter 11 Cases, we expect our financial results to continue to be volatile as asset impairments, asset dispositions, restructuring activities and expenses, contract terminations and rejections, and claims assessments may significantly impact our consolidated financial statements. As a result, our historical financial performance may not be indicative of our future financial performance.
Our capital structure will likely be significantly altered under any plan confirmed by the Bankruptcy Court. Under fresh-start accounting rules that may apply to us upon the effective date of a plan, our assets and liabilities would be adjusted to fair value, which could have a significant impact on our financial statements. Accordingly, if fresh-start accounting rules apply, our financial condition and results of operations following our emergence from Chapter 11 would not be comparable to the financial condition and results of operations reflected in our historical financial statements. In connection with the Chapter 11 Cases and the development of a plan of reorganization, it is also possible that additional restructuring and related charges may be identified and recorded in future periods. Such charges could be material to our consolidated financial position, liquidity and results of operations.
We may be subject to claims that will not be discharged in the Chapter 11 Cases.
The Bankruptcy Code provides that the confirmation of a plan of reorganization discharges a debtor from substantially all debts arising prior to confirmation. With few exceptions, all claims that arose prior to the filing of our Chapter 11 Cases (i) will be subject to compromise and/or treatment under the plan of reorganization or (ii) will be discharged in accordance with the Bankruptcy Code and the terms of the plan of reorganization. However, there can be no assurance that the aggregate amount of such claims that are not subject to treatment under the plan of reorganization or that are not discharged will not be material.
Liquidity Risk
Our cash flows may not provide sufficient liquidity during the Chapter 11 Cases. Our long-term liquidity requirements and the adequacy of our capital resources are difficult to predict at this time.
Our ability to fund our operations and our capital expenditures require a significant amount of cash. Our principal sources of liquidity historically have been cash flow from operations, borrowing capacity under the senior secured credit facilities and the receivables based credit facility and issuances of bonds. If our cash flow from operations decreases as a result of lower advertising prices, decreased listener demand, or otherwise, we may not have the ability to expend the capital necessary to improve or maintain our current operations, resulting in decreased revenues over time.
We face uncertainty regarding the adequacy of our liquidity and capital resources and have extremely limited, if any, access to additional financing. In addition to the cash requirements necessary to fund ongoing operations, we have incurred significant professional fees and other costs in connection with preparation for the Chapter 11 Cases and expect that we will continue to incur significant professional fees and costs throughout our Chapter 11 Cases. We cannot assure you that cash on hand and cash flow from operations will be sufficient to continue to fund our operations and allow us to satisfy our obligations related to the Chapter 11 Cases until we are able to emerge from our Chapter 11 Cases.

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Our liquidity, including our ability to meet our ongoing operational obligations, is dependent upon, among other things: (i) our ability to comply with the terms and conditions of the cash collateral order entered by the Bankruptcy Court in connection with the Chapter 11 Cases, (ii) our ability to maintain adequate cash on hand, (iii) our ability to generate cash flow from operations, (iv) our ability to develop, confirm and consummate a plan of reorganization or other alternative restructuring transaction, and (v) the cost, duration and outcome of the Chapter 11 Cases.
We may not have sufficient cash to fund our operations and our emergence costs.
As discussed above under “Chapter 11 Reorganization Risks,” our cash flows from operations may not provide sufficient liquidity during the Chapter 11 Cases and exit financing or capital may not be sufficient to support our operations post-emergence. Our operating cash flows and exit financing or capital may not be sufficient to pay our debt as it comes due, interest on our debt, emergence costs and other operating expenses. We currently face significantly higher operating expenses due in part to payments to our financial and legal advisors, as well as fees and other amounts payable to the advisors to our lenders and bondholders in connection with the Chapter 11 Cases. Because we have limited short-term sources of cash, we may be unable to successfully emerge from bankruptcy or implement our plan of reorganization.
The filing of the Chapter 11 Cases is intended to permit iHeartCommunications to reduce its indebtedness to achieve a manageable capital structure. We are in the process of developing and implementing a plan of reorganization that conforms to the terms set forth in the RSA and meets the standards for confirmation under the Bankruptcy Code. We believe that we will have sufficient cash from operations to fund anticipated cash requirements for the next twelve months. Our ability to maintain adequate liquidity through the reorganization process and beyond depends on successful operation of our business, and appropriate management of operating expenses and capital spending. Our anticipated liquidity needs are highly sensitive to changes in each of these and other factors.
The Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K have been prepared on a going concern basis of accounting, which contemplates continuity of operations, realization of assets, and satisfaction of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. The Consolidated Financial Statements do not reflect any adjustments that might result from the outcome of the Chapter 11 Cases. We have significant indebtedness, all of which we have reclassified to current liabilities at December 31, 2017. Our level of indebtedness has adversely impacted and is continuing to adversely impact our financial condition. As a result of our financial condition, the defaults under our debt agreements, and the risks and uncertainties surrounding the Chapter 11 Cases, substantial doubt exists that we will be able to continue as a going concern.
CCOH’s substantial indebtedness could have a material adverse effect on CCOH’s performance and on our financial condition and liquidity.
Our subsidiary CCOH has a substantial amount of indebtedness. As of December 31, 2017, CCOH had $5.3 billion of total indebtedness outstanding, including: (1) $2.7 billion aggregate principal amount of CCWH’s senior notes, net of unamortized discounts of $4.2 million, which mature in November 2022; (2) $2.2 billion aggregate principal amount of CCWH’s senior subordinated notes, which mature in March 2020; (3) $379.0 million aggregate principal amount outstanding of international subsidiary senior notes, net of unamortized premiums of $4.0 million, which mature in December 2020; and (4) $2.4 million of other debt. CCOH’s ability to make scheduled payments on its debt obligations depends on its financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business and other factors beyond its control. CCOH may not be able to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit it to pay the principal and interest on its indebtedness. CCOH’s operations and its ability to successfully refinance or extend its debt may also be negatively affected by our Chapter 11 Cases.
We, a Debtor in the Chapter 11 Cases, provide the day-to-day cash management services for CCOH’s cash activities and balances in the U.S. pursuant to the Corporate Services Agreement between us and CCOH, and are continuing to do so during the Chapter 11 Cases pursuant to a cash management order approved by the Bankruptcy Court. CCOH does not have any material committed external sources of capital other than ours. If CCOH has a significant need for capital in the future and we are limited in our ability to provide such capital, there could be a material adverse effect on CCOH’s financial condition and liquidity, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and liquidity.
Our substantial indebtedness upon emergence from Chapter 11 may adversely affect our financial health and operating flexibility.

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The terms of the RSA contemplate that upon the effective date of a plan of reorganization, we will have a senior secured asset-based revolving credit facility sufficient to fund the distributions required by the plan of reorganization and $5,750 million in principal amount of secured debt. This substantial amount of indebtedness could have important consequences to us, including:
limiting our ability to borrow additional amounts for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, execution of our business strategy or other purposes;
limiting our ability to use operating cash flow in other areas of our business because we must dedicate a substantial portion of these funds to service debt;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions, including increases in interest rates, particularly given our substantial indebtedness which bears interest at variable rates;
limiting our ability to capitalize on business opportunities and to react to competitive pressures; and
limiting our ability or increasing the costs to refinance indebtedness.

The Chapter 11 Cases may give rise to unfavorable tax consequences for us.

The consummation of the Chapter 11 Cases may have an adverse tax impact on us.  The RSA contemplates the separation of our business from CCOH, with certain senior creditors  receiving the approximately 89.5% of CCOH’s outstanding shares of common stock that are currently owned indirectly by us.  It has not yet been determined whether such separation will be structured as a taxable transaction or as a tax-free reorganization.  In either case, there is a risk that such separation will give rise to a U.S. federal income tax liability. If such liability were to arise, we would be jointly liable for such tax liability under federal law. We will be contractually obligated to indemnify CCOH with respect to any such liability. Similar principles may apply for foreign, state and local income tax purposes where we file combined, consolidated or unitary returns with us or our subsidiaries for federal, foreign, state and local income tax purposes.  If an “ownership change” (as discussed below) were to occur prior to the conclusion of the Chapter 11 Cases, any tax liability recognized in connection with any transaction, particularly any taxable transaction, could be meaningfully increased.
In addition, we expect to be required to significantly reduce certain of our tax attributes, including net operating loss carryforwards, as a result of any cancellation of indebtedness income realized in connection with the Chapter 11 Cases.
Transfers of our equity and issuances of equity in connection with the Chapter 11 Cases may impair our ability to utilize our federal income tax net operating loss carryforwards in future years.

Under federal income tax law, a corporation is generally permitted to deduct from taxable income net operating losses carried forward from prior years. Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards to offset future taxable income and to reduce federal income tax liability is subject to certain requirements and restrictions. If we experience an “ownership change,” as defined in section 382 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, then our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards may be substantially limited, which could have a negative impact on our financial position and results of operations. Generally, there is an “ownership change” if one or more shareholders owning 5% or more of a corporation’s common stock have aggregate increases in their ownership of such stock of more than 50 percentage points over the prior three-year period. Following the implementation of a plan of reorganization in the Chapter 11 Cases, it is expected that we will experience an “ownership change.”  Under section 382 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, absent an application exception, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” the amount of its net operating losses that may be utilized to offset future taxable income generally is subject to an annual limitation on the amount of federal income tax net operating loss carry-forwards existing prior to the change that it could utilize to offset its taxable income in any future taxable year to an amount generally equal to the value of its stock immediately prior to the ownership change multiplied by the long-term tax-exempt rate, subject to adjustments to reflect the differences between the fair market value of the corporation’s assets and the tax basis in such assets. Because the value of our stock can fluctuate materially, it is possible an ownership change would materially limit our ability to utilize our substantial federal income tax net operating loss carry-forwards in the future. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will be able to utilize our federal income tax net operating loss carry-forwards to offset future taxable income, even if any such attributes survive reduction as a result of cancellation of indebtedness income.
Risks Related to Our Business
Our results have been in the past, and could be in the future, adversely affected by economic uncertainty or deteriorations in economic conditions.
We derive revenues from the sale of advertising.  Expenditures by advertisers tend to be cyclical, reflecting economic conditions and budgeting and buying patterns.  Periods of a slowing economy or recession, or periods of economic uncertainty, may be accompanied by a decrease in advertising. For example, the global economic downturn that began in 2008 resulted in a

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decline in advertising and marketing by our customers, which resulted in a decline in advertising revenues across our businesses. This reduction in advertising revenues had an adverse effect on our revenue, profit margins, cash flow and liquidity. Global economic conditions have been slow to recover and remain uncertain.  If economic conditions do not continue to improve, economic uncertainty increases or economic conditions deteriorate again, global economic conditions may once again adversely impact our revenue, profit margins, cash flow and liquidity.  Furthermore, because a significant portion of our revenue is derived from local advertisers, our ability to generate revenues in specific markets is directly affected by local and regional conditions, and unfavorable regional economic conditions also may adversely impact our results.  In addition, even in the absence of a downturn in general economic conditions, an individual business sector or market may experience a downturn, causing it to reduce its advertising expenditures, which also may adversely impact our results.
We face intense competition in our iHeartMedia and our outdoor advertising businesses.
We operate in a highly competitive industry, and we may not be able to maintain or increase our current audience ratings and advertising revenues. Our iHeartMedia and our outdoor advertising businesses compete for audiences and advertising revenues with other radio and outdoor advertising businesses, as well as with other media, such as newspapers, magazines, television, direct mail, portable digital audio players, mobile devices, satellite radio, Internet-based services and live entertainment, within their respective markets. Audience ratings and market shares are subject to change for various reasons, including through consolidation of our competitors through processes such as mergers and acquisitions, which could have the effect of reducing our revenues in a specific market. Our competitors may develop technology, services or advertising media that are equal or superior to those we provide or that achieve greater market acceptance and brand recognition than we achieve. It also is possible that new competitors may emerge and rapidly acquire significant market share in any of our business segments.  An increased level of competition for advertising dollars may lead to lower advertising rates as we attempt to retain customers or may cause us to lose customers to our competitors who offer lower rates that we are unable or unwilling to match. Our ability to compete effectively depends in part on our ability to achieve a competitive cost structure during the Chapter 11 Cases. If we cannot do so, then our business, financial condition and operating results would be adversely affected.
Alternative media platforms and technologies may continue to increase competition with our broadcasting operations.
Our terrestrial radio broadcasting operations face increasing competition from alternative media platforms and technologies, such as broadband wireless, satellite radio, audio broadcasting by cable television systems and Internet-based streaming music services, as well as consumer products, such as portable digital audio players and other mobile devices, smart phones and tablets, gaming consoles, in-home entertainment and enhanced automotive platforms. These technologies and alternative media platforms, including those used by us, compete with our broadcast radio stations for audience share and advertising revenues.  We are unable to predict the effect that such technologies and related services and products will have on our broadcasting operations.  The capital expenditures necessary to implement these or other technologies could be substantial and we cannot assure you that we will continue to have the resources to acquire new technologies or to introduce new services to compete with other new technologies or services, or that our investments in new technologies or services will provide the desired returns.  Other companies employing new technologies or services could more successfully implement such new technologies or services or otherwise increase competition with our businesses.
Our iHeartMedia business is dependent upon the performance of on-air talent and program hosts.
We employ or independently contract with many on-air personalities and hosts of syndicated radio programs with significant loyal audiences in their respective markets.  Although we have entered into long-term agreements with some of our key on-air talent and program hosts to protect our interests in those relationships, we can give no assurance that all or any of these persons will remain with us or will retain their audiences.  Competition for these individuals is intense and many of these individuals are under no legal obligation to remain with us.  Our competitors may choose to extend offers to any of these individuals on terms which we may be unwilling to meet. Furthermore, the popularity and audience loyalty of our key on-air talent and program hosts is highly sensitive to rapidly changing public tastes.  A loss of such popularity or audience loyalty is beyond our control and could have a material adverse effect on our ability to attract local and/or national advertisers and on our revenue and/or ratings, and could result in increased expenses.
Our business is dependent on our management team and other key individuals.
Our business is dependent upon the performance of our management team and other key individuals.  Although we have entered into agreements with some members of our management team and certain other key individuals, we can give no assurance that all or any of our management team and other key individuals will remain with us, or that we won’t continue to make changes to the composition of, and the roles and responsibilities of, our management team.  Competition for these individuals is intense and many of our key employees are at-will employees who are under no obligation to remain with us, and may decide to leave for a variety of personal or other reasons beyond our control.  If members of our management or key individuals decide to leave

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us in the future, if we decide to make further changes to the composition of, or the roles and responsibilities of, these individuals, or if we are not successful in attracting, motivating and retaining other key employees, our business could be adversely affected.
Our financial performance may be adversely affected by many factors beyond our control.
Certain factors that could adversely affect our financial performance by, among other things, decreasing overall revenues, the numbers of advertising customers, advertising fees or profit margins include:
unfavorable fluctuations in operating costs, which we may be unwilling or unable to pass through to our customers;
our inability to successfully adopt or our being late in adopting technological changes and innovations that offer more attractive advertising or listening alternatives than what we offer, which could result in a loss of advertising customers or lower advertising rates, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial performance;
the impact of potential new royalties charged for terrestrial radio broadcasting, which could materially increase our expenses;
unfavorable shifts in population and other demographics, which may cause us to lose advertising customers as people migrate to markets where we have a smaller presence or which may cause advertisers to be willing to pay less in advertising fees if the general population shifts into a less desirable age or geographical demographic from an advertising perspective;
adverse political effects and acts or threats of terrorism or military conflicts; and
unfavorable changes in labor conditions, which may impair our ability to operate or require us to spend more to retain and attract key employees.

In addition, on June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom (the "U.K.") held a referendum in which voters approved an exit of the U.K. from the European Union (the "E.U."), commonly referred to as "Brexit". International outdoor is currently headquartered in the U.K. and transacts business in many key European markets. As a result of the referendum, the British government has begun negotiating the terms of the U.K.'s withdrawal from the E.U. It is unclear how these negotiations, or the U.K.’s ultimate exit from the E.U., will impact the economies of the U.K., the E.U. and other countries. This uncertainty may cause our customers to closely monitor their costs and reduce the amount they spend on advertising. Any of these or similar effects of Brexit could adversely impact our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.
The success of our street furniture and transit products businesses is dependent on our obtaining key municipal concessions, which we may not be able to obtain on favorable terms.
Our street furniture and transit products businesses require us to obtain and renew contracts with municipalities and transit authorities. Many of these contracts, which require us to participate in competitive bidding processes at each renewal, typically have terms ranging up to 15 years and have revenue share, capital expenditure requirements and/or fixed payment components. Competitive bidding processes are complex and sometimes lengthy and substantial costs may be incurred in connection with preparing bids.
Our competitors, individually or through relationships with third parties, may be able to provide different or greater capabilities or prices or benefits than we can provide. In the past we have not been, and most likely in the future will not be, awarded all of the contracts on which we bid. The success of our business also depends generally on our ability to obtain and renew contracts with private landlords. There can be no assurance that we will win any particular bid, be able to renew existing contracts or be able to replace any revenue lost upon expiration or completion of a contract. Our inability to renew existing contracts may also result in significant expenses from the removal of our displays. Furthermore, if and when we do obtain a contract, we are generally required to incur significant start-up expenses. The costs of bidding on contracts and the start-up costs associated with new contracts we may obtain may significantly reduce our cash flow and liquidity.
This competitive bidding process presents a number of risks, including the following:
we expend substantial cost and managerial time and effort to prepare bids and proposals for contracts that we may not win;
we may be unable to estimate accurately the revenue derived from and the resources and cost structure that will be required to service any contract we win; and
we may encounter expenses and delays if our competitors challenge awards of contracts to us in competitive bidding, and any such challenge could result in the resubmission of bids on modified specifications, or in the termination, reduction or modification of the awarded contract.


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Our inability to successfully negotiate, renew or complete these contracts due to third-party or governmental demands and delay and the highly competitive bidding processes for these contracts could affect our ability to offer these products to our clients, or to offer them to our clients at rates that are competitive to other forms of advertising, without adversely affecting our financial results.
Future dispositions, acquisitions and other strategic transactions could pose risks.
We frequently evaluate strategic opportunities both within and outside our existing lines of business. We expect from time to time to pursue strategic dispositions of certain businesses as well as acquisitions. These dispositions or acquisitions could be material. Dispositions and acquisitions involve numerous risks, including:
our dispositions may negatively impact revenues from our national, regional and other sales networks;
our dispositions may make it difficult to generate cash flows from operations sufficient to meet our anticipated cash requirements, including our and Clear Channel Outdoor Holdings, Inc.'s ("CCOH") debt service requirements;
our acquisitions may prove unprofitable and fail to generate anticipated cash flows:
to successfully manage our large portfolio of iHeartMedia, outdoor advertising and other businesses, we may need to:
recruit additional senior management as we cannot be assured that senior management of acquired businesses will continue to work for us and we cannot be certain that our recruiting efforts will succeed, and
expand corporate infrastructure to facilitate the integration of our operations with those of acquired businesses, because failure to do so may cause us to lose the benefits of any expansion that we decide to undertake by leading to disruptions in our ongoing businesses or by distracting our management;
we may enter into markets and geographic areas where we have limited or no experience;
we may encounter difficulties in the integration of operations and systems; and
our management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns.

Dispositions and acquisitions of media and entertainment businesses and outdoor advertising businesses may require antitrust review by U.S. federal antitrust agencies and may require review by foreign antitrust agencies under the antitrust laws of foreign jurisdictions. We can give no assurances that the DOJ, the FTC or foreign antitrust agencies will not seek to bar us from disposing of or acquiring media and entertainment businesses or outdoor advertising businesses or impose stringent undertaking on our business as a condition to the completion of an acquisition in any market where we already have a significant position. Further, radio acquisitions are subject to FCC approval.  Such transactions must comply with the Communications Act and FCC regulatory requirements and policies, including with respect to the number of broadcast facilities in which a person or entity may have an ownership or attributable interest in a given local market and the level of interest that may be held by a foreign individual or entity.  The FCC's media ownership rules remain subject to ongoing agency and court proceedings.  Future changes could restrict our ability to dispose of or acquire new radio assets or businesses. In addition, dispositions and acquisitions outside of the ordinary course of business during the Chapter 11 Cases will be subject to Bankruptcy Court approval.
Extensive current government regulation, and future regulation, may limit our radio broadcasting and other iHeartMedia operations or adversely affect our business and financial results.
Congress and several federal agencies, including the FCC, extensively regulate the domestic radio industry.  For example, the FCC could impact our profitability by imposing large fines on us if, in response to pending or future complaints, it finds that we broadcast indecent programming or committed other violations of FCC regulations.  We could face significant fines, for instance, as a result of pending FCC investigations into the allegedly inappropriate broadcast of emergency alert signals by several of our stations.  Additionally, we cannot be sure that the FCC will approve renewal of the licenses we must have in order to operate our stations.  Nor can we be assured that our licenses will be renewed without conditions and for a full term.  The non-renewal, or conditioned renewal, of a substantial number of our FCC licenses could have a materially adverse impact on our operations.  Furthermore, possible changes in interference protections, spectrum allocations and other technical rules may negatively affect the operation of our stations.  For example, in January 2011, a law was enacted that eliminates certain minimum distance separation requirements between full-power and low-power FM radio stations.  In March 2011, the FCC adopted policies which, in certain circumstances, could make it more difficult for radio stations to relocate to increase their population coverage.  In October 2015, the FCC proposed rules, which could reduce the degree of interference protection afforded to certain of our AM radio stations that serve wide areas.  In addition, Congress, the FCC and other regulatory agencies have considered, and may in the future consider and adopt, new laws, regulations and policies that could, directly or indirectly, have an adverse effect on our business operations and financial performance.  For example, Congress may consider and adopt legislation that would impose an obligation upon all U.S. broadcasters to pay performing artists a royalty for the on-air broadcast of their sound recordings (this would be in addition to payments already made by broadcasters to owners of musical work rights, such as songwriters, composers and publishers).  Moreover, it is possible that our license fees and negotiating costs associated with obtaining rights to use musical compositions and sound recordings in our programming content could sharply increase as a result of private negotiations, one or more regulatory

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rate-setting processes, or administrative and court decisions. The CRB has issued a final determination establishing copyright royalty rates for the public performance and ephemeral reproduction of sound recordings by various noninteractive webcasters, including radio broadcasters that simulcast their terrestrial programming online, to apply to the period from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2020 under the webcasting statutory license.  The rates set by the CRB represent a decrease from the 2015 CRB rates applicable to broadcasters and other webcasters, but the determination has been appealed.  Increased royalty rates could significantly increase our expenses, which could adversely affect our business.  Additionally, there are conditions applicable to the webcasting statutory license. Some, but not all, record companies have agreed to waive or provide limited relief from certain of these conditions under certain circumstances.  Some of these conditions may be inconsistent with customary radio broadcasting practices. Finally, various regulatory matters relating to our iHeartMedia business are now, or may become, the subject of court litigation, and we cannot predict the outcome of any such litigation or its impact on our business.
Government regulation of outdoor advertising may restrict our outdoor advertising operations.
U.S. federal, state and local regulations have a significant impact on the outdoor advertising industry and our business. One of the seminal laws is the HBA, which regulates outdoor advertising on controlled roads in the United States. The HBA regulates the size and location of billboards, mandates a state compliance program, requires the development of state standards, promotes the expeditious removal of illegal signs and requires just compensation for takings. Construction, repair, maintenance, lighting, upgrading, height, size, spacing, the location and permitting of billboards and the use of new technologies for changing displays, such as digital displays, are regulated by federal, state and local governments. From time to time, states and municipalities have prohibited or significantly limited the construction of new outdoor advertising structures. Changes in laws and regulations affecting outdoor advertising, or changes in the interpretation of those laws and regulations, at any level of government, including the foreign jurisdictions in which we operate, could have a significant financial impact on us by requiring us to make significant expenditures or otherwise limiting or restricting some of our operations. Due to such regulations, it has become increasingly difficult to develop new outdoor advertising locations.
From time to time, certain state and local governments and third parties have attempted to force the removal of our displays under various state and local laws, including zoning ordinances, permit enforcement and condemnation. Similar risks also arise in certain of our international jurisdictions.  Certain zoning ordinances provide for amortization, which is the required removal of legal non-conforming billboards (billboards which conformed with applicable laws and regulations when built, but which do not conform to current laws and regulations) or the commercial advertising placed on such billboards after a period of years. Pursuant to this concept, the governmental body asserts that just compensation is earned by continued operation of the billboard over that period of time. Although amortization is prohibited along all controlled roads, amortization has been upheld along non-controlled roads in limited instances where permitted by state and local law. Other regulations limit our ability to rebuild, replace, repair, maintain and upgrade non-conforming displays. In addition, from time to time third parties or local governments assert that we own or operate displays that either are not properly permitted or otherwise are not in strict compliance with applicable law. If we are increasingly unable to resolve such allegations or obtain acceptable arrangements in circumstances in which our displays are subject to removal, modification or amortization, or if there occurs an increase in such regulations or their enforcement, our operating results could suffer.
A number of state and local governments have implemented or initiated taxes, fees and registration requirements in an effort to decrease or restrict the number of outdoor signs and/or to raise revenue.  From time to time, legislation also has been introduced in international jurisdictions attempting to impose taxes on revenue from outdoor advertising or for the right to use outdoor advertising assets.  In addition, a number of jurisdictions have implemented legislation or interpreted existing legislation to restrict or prohibit the installation of digital billboards, and we expect these efforts to continue.  The increased imposition of these measures, and our inability to overcome any such measures, could reduce our operating income if those outcomes require removal or restrictions on the use of preexisting displays or limit growth of digital displays.  In addition, if we are unable to pass on the cost of these items to our clients, our operating income could be adversely affected.
International regulation of the outdoor advertising industry can vary by municipality, region and country, but generally limits the size, placement, nature and density of out-of-home displays.  Other regulations limit the subject matter, animation and language of out-of-home displays. Our failure to comply with these or any future international regulations could have an adverse impact on the effectiveness of our displays or their attractiveness to clients as an advertising medium and may require us to make significant expenditures to ensure compliance and avoid certain penalties or contractual breaches. As a result, we may experience a significant impact on our operations, revenue, international client base and overall financial condition.
Regulations and consumer concerns regarding privacy and data protection, or any failure to comply with these regulations, could hinder our operations.
We collect and utilize demographic and other information, including personally identifiable information, from and about our listeners, consumers, business partners and advertisers as they interact with us.  For example: (1) our broadcast radio station

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websites and our iHeartRadio digital platform collect personal information as users register for our services, fill out their listener profiles, post comments, use our social networking features, participate in polls and contests and sign-up to receive email newsletters; (2) we use tracking technologies, such as “cookies,” to manage and track our listeners’ interactions with us so that we can deliver relevant music content and advertising; and (3) we collect credit card or debit card information from consumers, business partners and advertisers who use our services.
We are subject to numerous federal, state and foreign laws and regulations relating to consumer protection, information security, data protection and privacy, among other things.  Many of these laws are still evolving, new laws may be enacted and any of these laws could be amended or interpreted in ways that could harm our business.  In addition, changes in consumer expectations and demands regarding privacy and data protection could restrict our ability to collect, use, disclose and derive economic value from demographic and other information related to our listeners, consumers, business partners and advertisers, or to transfer employee data within the corporate group.  Such restrictions could limit our ability to provide customized music content to our listeners, interact directly with our listeners and consumers and offer targeted advertising opportunities to our business partners and advertisers.  Although we have implemented and are implementing policies and procedures designed to comply with these laws and regulations, any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our policies or applicable regulatory requirements related to consumer protection, information security, data protection and privacy could result in a loss of confidence in us, damage to our brands, the loss of listeners, consumers, business partners and advertisers, as well as proceedings against us by governmental authorities or others, which could hinder our operations and adversely affect our business.
If our security measures are breached, we could lose valuable information, suffer disruptions to our business, and incur expenses and liabilities including damages to our relationships with listeners, consumers, business partners and advertisers.
Although we have implemented physical and electronic security measures that are designed to protect against the loss, misuse and alteration of our websites, digital assets and proprietary business information as well as listener, consumer, business partner and advertiser personally identifiable information, no security measures are perfect and impenetrable and we may be unable to anticipate or prevent unauthorized access.  A security breach could occur due to the actions of outside parties, employee error, malfeasance or a combination of these or other actions.  If an actual or perceived breach of our security occurs, we could lose competitively sensitive business information or suffer disruptions to our business operations, information processes or internal controls.  In addition, the public perception of the effectiveness of our security measures or services could be harmed, we could lose listeners, consumers, business partners and advertisers.  In the event of a security breach, we could suffer financial exposure in connection with penalties, remediation efforts, investigations and legal proceedings and changes in our security and system protection measures.  Currently, not all of our systems are fully compliant with PCI-DSS and GDPR standards and, as a result, we may face additional liability in the event of a security breach involving payment card information.
Restrictions on outdoor advertising of certain products may restrict the categories of clients that can advertise using our products.
Out-of-court settlements between the major U.S. tobacco companies and all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories include a ban on the outdoor advertising of tobacco products.  Other products and services may be targeted in the U.S. in the future, including alcohol products.  Most European Union countries, among other nations, also have banned outdoor advertisements for tobacco products and regulate alcohol advertising.  Regulations vary across the countries in which we conduct business.  Any significant reduction in advertising of products due to content-related restrictions could cause a reduction in our direct revenues from such advertisements and an increase in the available space on the existing inventory of billboards in the outdoor advertising industry.
Environmental, health, safety and land use laws and regulations may limit or restrict some of our operations.
As the owner or operator of various real properties and facilities, especially in our outdoor advertising operations, we must comply with various foreign, federal, state and local environmental, health, safety and land use laws and regulations. We and our properties are subject to such laws and regulations relating to the use, storage, disposal, emission and release of hazardous and non-hazardous substances and employee health and safety as well as zoning restrictions. Historically, we have not incurred significant expenditures to comply with these laws. However, additional laws which may be passed in the future, or a finding of a violation of or liability under existing laws, could require us to make significant expenditures and otherwise limit or restrict some of our operations.
We are exposed to foreign currency exchange risks because a portion of our revenue is received in foreign currencies and translated to U.S. dollars for reporting purposes.
We generate a portion of our revenues in currencies other than U.S. dollars. Changes in economic or political conditions, including Brexit, in any of the foreign countries in which we operate could result in exchange rate movement, new currency or exchange controls or other currency restrictions being imposed. Because we receive a portion of our revenues in currencies from

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the countries in which we operate, exchange rate fluctuations in any such currency could have an adverse effect on our profitability. A portion of our cash flows are generated in foreign currencies and translated to U.S. dollars for reporting purposes, and certain of the indebtedness held by our international subsidiaries is denominated in U.S. dollars, and, therefore, significant changes in the value of such foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and our ability to meet interest and principal payments on our indebtedness.
Given the volatility of exchange rates, we cannot assure you that we will be able to effectively manage our currency transaction and/or translation risks. It is possible that volatility in currency exchange rates will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. We expect to experience economic losses and gains and negative and positive impacts on our operating income as a result of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.
Doing business in foreign countries exposes us to certain risks not expected to occur when doing business in the United States.
Doing business in foreign countries carries with it certain risks that are not found when doing business in the United States. These risks could result in losses against which we are not insured.  Examples of these risks include:
potential adverse changes in the diplomatic relations of foreign countries with the United States;
hostility from local populations;
the adverse effect of foreign exchange controls;
government policies against businesses owned by foreigners;
investment restrictions or requirements;
expropriations of property without adequate compensation;
the potential instability of foreign governments;
the risk of insurrections;
risks of renegotiation or modification of existing agreements with governmental authorities;
difficulties collecting receivables and otherwise enforcing contracts with governmental agencies and others in some foreign legal systems;
withholding and other taxes on remittances and other payments by subsidiaries;
changes in tax structure and level; and
changes in laws or regulations or the interpretation or application of laws or regulations.

Our International operations involve contracts with, and regulation by, foreign governments.  We operate in many parts of the world that experience corruption to some degree.  Although we have policies and procedures in place that are designed to promote legal and regulatory compliance (including with respect to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act), our employees, subcontractors and agents could take actions that violate applicable anti-corruption laws or regulations.  Violations of these laws, or allegations of such violations, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.
We identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, and the occurrence of this or any other material weakness could have a material adverse effect on our ability to report accurate financial information in a timely manner.
Our management recently concluded that, as described under the heading “Item 9A. Controls and Procedures,” we had a material weakness as of December 31, 2017 and therefore did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or effective disclosure controls and procedures, both of which are requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as of that date. The material weakness related to our failure to detect the misappropriation of funds by an employee of Clear Media Limited, an indirect, non-wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company whose ordinary shares are listed, but currently suspended from trading, on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. The Company understands that several employees of Clear Media Limited are subject to an ongoing police investigation for misappropriation of funds. Although we concluded that the amount misappropriated was not material to our financial statements, it is possible that the internal controls in place on that date would not have detected a larger misappropriation that would have been material to our financial statements.
The misappropriation and the special investigation that we conducted as a result of the misappropriation kept us from filing this Annual Report on Form 10-K on or before its due date. We have implemented additional controls, and are taking additional steps, to remediate the material weakness. However, the remedial measures we have taken may not be adequate to prevent future misappropriation or avoid other control deficiencies or material weaknesses. There can be no assurance that any system of internal control over financial reporting will be successful in preventing all errors or fraud or in making all material information known in a timely manner to the appropriate levels of management. As a result, it is possible that our financial statements will not comply with generally accepted accounting principles, will contain a material misstatement or will not be

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available on a timely basis, any of which could cause investors to lose confidence in us and lead to, among other things, unanticipated legal, accounting and other expenses, delays in filing required financial disclosures, enforcement actions by government authorities, fines, penalties, the delisting of our common stock and liabilities arising from stockholder litigation.
Significant equity investors control us.
 Private equity funds sponsored by or co-investors with Bain Capital and THL currently indirectly control us through their ownership of all of our outstanding shares of Class B common stock and Class C common stock, which collectively represent approximately 68% of the voting power of all of our outstanding capital stock.  As a result, Bain Capital and THL have the power to elect all but two of our directors, appoint new management and approve any action requiring the approval of the holders of our capital stock, including adopting any amendments to our fourth amended and restated certificate of incorporation, and approving mergers or sales of substantially all of our capital stock or assets. The directors elected by Bain Capital and THL will have significant influence over decisions affecting us during the pendency of the Chapter 11 Cases, subject to the approval of the Bankruptcy Court, and, to the extent required, the creditors of the Company.
Uncertainties in the interpretation and application of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 could materially affect our tax obligations and effective tax rate.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. enacted comprehensive tax legislation, commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act"). The Tax Act requires complex computations not previously required by U.S. tax law. As such, the application of accounting guidance for such items is currently uncertain. Further, compliance with the Tax Act and the accounting for such provisions require preparation and analysis of information not previously required or regularly produced. In addition, the U.S. Department of Treasury has broad authority to issue regulations and interpretative guidance that may significantly impact how we will apply the Tax Act and impact our results of operations in future periods. Accordingly, while we have provided a provisional estimate on the effect of the Tax Act in our accompanying audited financial statements, further regulatory or GAAP accounting guidance for the law, our further analysis on the application of the law, and refinement of our initial estimates and calculations could materially change our current provisional estimates, which could, in turn, materially affect our tax obligations and effective tax rate. There may also be significant future effects that these tax reforms will have on our financial results and our business strategies. In addition, there is a risk that states or foreign jurisdictions may amend their tax laws in response to these tax reforms, which could have a material impact on our future results.
Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements
The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a safe harbor for forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf.  This report contains various forward-looking statements which represent our expectations or beliefs concerning future events, including, without limitation, our future operating and financial performance, our ability to comply with the covenants in the agreements governing our indebtedness and the availability of capital and the terms thereof.  Statements expressing expectations and projections with respect to future matters are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.  We caution that these forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties and are subject to many variables which could impact our future performance.  These statements are made on the basis of management’s views and assumptions, as of the time the statements are made, regarding future events and performance.  There can be no assurance, however, that management’s expectations will necessarily come to pass.  Actual future events and performance may differ materially from the expectations reflected in our forward-looking statements.  We do not intend, nor do we undertake any duty, to update any forward-looking statements.
A wide range of factors could materially affect future developments and performance, including but not limited to:
the risks and uncertainties associated with the Chapter 11 Cases;
our ability to generate sufficient cash from operations to fund our operations;
our ability to propose and implement a business plan;
our ability to pursue our business strategies during the Chapter 11 Cases;
the diversion of management’s attention as a result of the Chapter 11 Cases;
increased levels of employee attrition as a result of the Chapter 11 Cases;
the impact of a protracted restructuring on our business;
our ability to obtain sufficient exit financing to emerge from Chapter 11 and operate successfully;
our ability to obtain confirmation of a Chapter 11 plan of reorganization;
volatility of our financial results as a result of the Chapter 11 Cases;
our inability to predict our long-term liquidity requirements and the adequacy of our capital resources;
the availability of cash to maintain our operations and fund our emergence costs;

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our ability to continue as a going concern;
the impact of CCOH’s substantial indebtedness;
the impact of our substantial indebtedness upon emergence from Chapter 11, including the effect of our leverage on our financial position and earnings;
risks associated with weak or uncertain global economic conditions and their impact on the level of expenditures on advertising;
other general economic and political conditions in the United States and in other countries in which we currently do business, including those resulting from recessions, political events and acts or threats of terrorism or military conflicts;
industry conditions, including competition;
increased competition from alternative media platforms and technologies;
changes in labor conditions, including programming, program hosts and management;
fluctuations in operating costs;
technological changes and innovations;
shifts in population and other demographics;
our ability to obtain keep municipal concessions for our street furniture and transit products;
the impact of future dispositions, acquisitions and other strategic transactions;
legislative or regulatory requirements;
regulations and consumer concerns regarding privacy and data protection, and breaches of information security measures;
restrictions on outdoor advertising of certain products;
fluctuations in exchange rates and currency values;
risks of doing business in foreign countries;
the identification of a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting; and
certain other factors set forth in our other filings with the SEC.

This list of factors that may affect future performance and the accuracy of forward-looking statements is illustrative and is not intended to be exhaustive.  Accordingly, all forward-looking statements should be evaluated with the understanding of their inherent uncertainty.
ITEM 1B.  UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2.  PROPERTIES
Corporate
Our corporate headquarters are located in San Antonio, Texas, where we lease space for executive offices and a data and administrative service center.  In addition, certain of our executive and other operations are located in New York, New York and London, England.
iHM
The types of properties required to support each of our radio stations include offices, studios, transmitter sites and antenna sites.  We either own or lease our transmitter and antenna sites.  During 2015 and 2016, we sold approximately 382 of our owned broadcast communication tower sites and entered into operating leases for the use of the sites. These leases generally have expiration dates that range from five to 30 years.  A radio station’s studios are generally housed with its offices in downtown or business districts.  A radio station’s transmitter sites and antenna sites are generally positioned in a manner that provides maximum market coverage.
Americas Outdoor and International Outdoor Advertising
The types of properties required to support each of our outdoor advertising branches include offices, production facilities and structure sites.  An outdoor branch and production facility is generally located in an industrial or warehouse district.
With respect to each of the Americas outdoor and International outdoor segments, we primarily lease our outdoor display sites and own or have acquired permanent easements for relatively few parcels of real property that serve as the sites for our outdoor displays.  Our leases generally range from month-to-month to year-to-year and can be for terms of 10 years or longer, and many provide for renewal options.

31



There is no significant concentration of displays under any one lease or subject to negotiation with any one landlord.  We believe that an important part of our management activity is to negotiate suitable lease renewals and extensions.
Consolidated
The studios and offices of our radio stations and outdoor advertising branches are located in leased or owned facilities.  These leases generally have expiration dates that range from one to 40 years.  We do not anticipate any difficulties in renewing those leases that expire within the next several years or in leasing other space, if required.  We lease substantially all of our towers and antennas and own substantially all of the other equipment used in our iHM business. We own substantially all of the equipment used in our outdoor advertising businesses.  For additional information regarding our iHM and outdoor properties, see “Item 1. Business.”
ITEM 3.  LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Our filing of the Chapter 11 Cases constitutes an event of default that accelerated its obligations under its debt agreements. Due to the Chapter 11 Cases, however, the creditors' ability to exercise remedies under our debt agreements were stayed as of March 14, 2018, the date of the Chapter 11 petition filing, and continue to be stayed. See Note 5 to our Consolidated Financial Statements located in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information about the debt agreements. On March 21, 2018, Wilmington Savings Fund Society, FSB ("WSFS"), solely in its capacity as successor indenture trustee to the 6.875% senior notes due 2018 and 7.25% senior notes due 2027, and not in its individual capacity, filed an adversary proceeding against us in the Chapter 11 Cases. In the complaint, WSFS alleged, among other things, that the "springing lien" provisions of the priority guarantee notes indentures and the priority guarantee notes security agreements amounted to "hidden encumbrances" on the Company's property, to which the holders of the 6.875% senior notes due 2018 and 7.25% senior notes due 2027 were entitled to "equal and ratable" treatment. On March 26, 2018, Delaware Trust Co. ("Delaware Trust"), in its capacity as successor indenture trustee to the 14% senior notes due 2021, filed a motion to intervene as a plaintiff in the adversary proceeding filed by WSFS. In the complaint, Delaware Trust alleged, among other things, that the indenture governing the 14% senior notes due 2021 also has its own "negative pledge" covenant, and, therefore, to the extent the relief sought by WSFS in its adversary proceeding is warranted, the holders of the 14% senior notes due 2021 are also entitled to the same "equal and ratable" liens on the same property. On April 6, 2018, we filed a motion to dismiss the adversary proceeding.
We currently are involved in certain legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business and, as required, have accrued an estimate of the probable costs for the resolution of those claims for which the occurrence of loss is probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated. These estimates have been developed in consultation with counsel and are based upon an analysis of potential results, assuming a combination of litigation and settlement strategies. It is possible, however, that future results of operations for any particular period could be materially affected by changes in our assumptions or the effectiveness of our strategies related to these proceedings. Additionally, due to the inherent uncertainty of litigation, there can be no assurance that the resolution of any particular claim or proceeding would not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
Although we are involved in a variety of legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business, a large portion of our litigation arises in the following contexts: commercial disputes; defamation matters; employment and benefits related claims; governmental fines; intellectual property claims; and tax disputes. A plan of reorganization in the Chapter 11 Cases, when confirmed, will provide for the treatment of claims against the Debtors' bankruptcy estates, including prepetition liabilities that have not otherwise been satisfied or addressed during the Chapter 11 Cases.

32



Stockholder Litigation
On May 9, 2016, a stockholder of Clear Channel Outdoor Holdings, Inc. ("CCOH") filed a derivative lawsuit in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, captioned GAMCO Asset Management Inc. v. iHeartMedia Inc. et al., C.A. No. 12312-VCS. The complaint names as defendants us, Parent, Bain Capital Partners, LLC and Thomas H. Lee Partners, L.P. (together, the "Sponsor Defendants"), Parent's private equity sponsors and majority owners, and the members of CCOH's board of directors. CCOH also is named as a nominal defendant. The complaint alleges that CCOH has been harmed by the intercompany agreements with us, CCOH’s lack of autonomy over its own cash and the actions of the defendants in serving the interests of us, Parent and the Sponsor Defendants to the detriment of CCOH and its minority stockholders. Specifically, the complaint alleges that the defendants have breached their fiduciary duties by causing CCOH to: (i) continue to loan cash to us under the intercompany note at below-market rates; (ii) abandon its growth and acquisition strategies in favor of transactions that would provide cash to us and Parent; (iii) issue new debt in the CCIBV note offering (the "CCIBV Note Offering") to provide cash to us and Parent through a dividend; and (iv) effect the sales of certain outdoor markets in the U.S. (the "Outdoor Asset Sales") allegedly to provide cash to us and Parent through a dividend. The complaint also alleges that we, Parent and the Sponsor Defendants aided and abetted the directors' breaches of their fiduciary duties. The complaint further alleges that we, Parent and the Sponsor Defendants were unjustly enriched as a result of these transactions and that these transactions constituted a waste of corporate assets for which the defendants are liable to CCOH. The plaintiff is seeking, among other things, a ruling that the defendants breached their fiduciary duties to CCOH and that we, Parent and the Sponsor Defendants aided and abetted the CCOH board of directors' breaches of fiduciary duty, rescission of payments made by CCOH to us and our affiliates pursuant to dividends declared in connection with the CCIBV Note Offering and Outdoor Asset Sales, and an order requiring us, Parent and the Sponsor Defendants to disgorge all profits they have received as a result of the alleged fiduciary misconduct.
On July 20, 2016, the defendants filed a motion to dismiss plaintiff's verified stockholder derivative complaint for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. On November 23, 2016, the Court granted defendants’ motion to dismiss all claims brought by the plaintiff.  On December 19, 2016, the plaintiff filed a notice of appeal of the ruling. The oral hearing on the appeal was held on October 11, 2017. On October 12, 2017, the Supreme Court of Delaware affirmed the lower court's ruling, dismissing the case.
On December 29, 2017, another stockholder of CCOH filed a derivative lawsuit in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, captioned Norfolk County Retirement System, v. iHeartMedia, Inc.,  et al., C.A. No. 2017-0930-JRS. The complaint names as defendants the Company, us, the Sponsor Defendants, and the members of CCOH's board of directors.  CCOH is named as a nominal defendant. The complaint alleges that CCOH has been harmed by the CCOH Board’s November 2017 decision to extend the maturity date of the intercompany revolving note (the “Third Amendment”) at what the complaint describes as far-below-market interest rates.  Specifically, the complaint alleges that (i) the Company and Sponsor defendants breached their fiduciary duties by exploiting their position of control to require CCOH to enter the Third Amendment on terms unfair to CCOH; (ii) the CCOH Board breached their duty of loyalty by approving the Third Amendment and elevating the interests of the Company, us and the Sponsor Defendants over the interests of CCOH and its minority unaffiliated stockholders; and (iii) the terms of the Third Amendment could not have been agreed to in good faith and represent a waste of corporate assets by the CCOH Board.  The complaint further alleges that the Company, us and the Sponsor defendants were unjustly enriched as a result of the unfairly favorable terms of the Third Amendment.  The plaintiff is seeking, among other things, a ruling that the defendants breached their fiduciary duties to CCOH, a modification of the Third Amendment to bear a commercially reasonable rate of interest, and an order requiring disgorgement of all profits, benefits and other compensation obtained by defendants as a result of the alleged breaches of fiduciary duties.
On March 7, 2018, the defendants filed a motion to dismiss plaintiff's verified derivative complaint for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. On March 16, 2018, the Company filed a Notice of Suggestion of Pendency of Bankruptcy and Automatic Stay of Proceedings.
China Investigation
Several employees of Clear Media Limited, an indirect, non-wholly-owned subsidiary of ours whose ordinary shares are listed on, but currently suspended from trading on, the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, are subject to an ongoing police investigation in China for misappropriation of funds. Clear Media Limited has conducted additional procedures and processes, including a special investigation by forensic accountants and an external law firm appointed by Clear Media Limited’s board of directors and approved by the Company’s Audit Committee, into the misappropriation of funds. During the course of the special investigation, it was discovered that three bank accounts were opened in the name of Clear Media Limited entities, which were not authorized, and certain transactions were recorded therein. The opening of the unauthorized bank accounts has also been referred to the police in China for investigation. The misappropriation of funds resulted in discrepancies between actual cash balances and cash amounts included in the Company’s accounting records as of December 31, 2016 and 2015. Included in Selling, general and administrative expenses and Interest expense is $9.6 million and $1.4 million, respectively, recorded in the fourth quarter of 2017 to correct for

33



the accounting errors resulting from the discrepancies. Such accounting errors are not considered to be material to the current year or prior year financial statements.
We advised both the United States Securities and Exchange Commission and the United States Department of Justice of the investigation at Clear Media Limited, and we intend to cooperate with both agencies in connection with any investigation that may be conducted in this matter.
The police investigation is on-going, and the Company is not aware of any litigation, claim or assessment pending against the Company related to the matters described above. Based on information known to date, we believe any contingent liabilities arising from potential misconduct that has been or may be identified by the investigations are not material to our consolidated financial statements. In 2017, Clear Media Limited accounted for 4.1% of our net revenue and 3.8% of our consolidated total assets.
The investigation could implicate the books and records, internal controls and anti-bribery provisions of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, which statute and regulations provide for potential monetary penalties as well as criminal and civil sanctions. It is possible that monetary penalties and other sanctions could be assessed on the Company in connection with this matter. The nature and amount of any monetary penalty or other sanctions cannot reasonably be estimated at this time.
ITEM 4.  MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable.
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
The following information with respect to our executive officers is presented as of May 3, 2018:
Name
 
Age
 
Position
Robert W. Pittman
 
64
 
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Richard J. Bressler
 
60
 
President, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Director
Scott R. Wells
 
49
 
Chief Executive Officer – Clear Channel Outdoor Americas
C. William Eccleshare
 
62
 
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer – Clear Channel Outdoor International
Steven J. Macri
 
49
 
Senior Vice President – Corporate Finance
Scott D. Hamilton
 
48
 
Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Assistant Secretary
Robert H. Walls, Jr.
 
57
 
Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
The officers named above serve until their respective successors are chosen and qualified, in each case unless the officer sooner dies, resigns, is removed or becomes disqualified.
Robert W. Pittman is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Parent, us and iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of CCOH. Mr. Pittman was appointed as the Executive Chairman and a director of Parent and us on October 2, 2011. He was appointed as Chairman of Parent and us on May 17, 2013. He also was appointed as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and a member of the board of managers of iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC on April 26, 2013. Prior to October 2, 2011, Mr. Pittman served as the Chairman of Media and Entertainment Platforms for Parent and us since November 2010. He has been a member of, and an investor in, Pilot Group, a private equity investment company, since April 2003. Mr. Pittman was formerly Chief Operating Officer of AOL Time Warner, Inc. from May 2002 to July 2002. He also served as Co-Chief Operating Officer of AOL Time Warner, Inc. from January 2001 to May 2002, and earlier, as President and Chief Operating Officer of America Online, Inc. from February 1998 to January 2001. Mr. Pittman serves on the boards of numerous charitable organizations, including the Lupus Research Alliance, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation and the Robin Hood Foundation, where he has served as past Chairman. Mr. Pittman was selected to serve as a member of our Board because of his service as our Chief Executive Officer, as well as his extensive media experience gained through the course of his career.
Richard J. Bressler is the President, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Director of Parent, us and iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and the Chief Financial Officer of CCOH.  Mr. Bressler was appointed as the Chief Financial Officer and President of Parent, us, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and CCOH on July 29, 2013 and as Chief Operating Officer of Parent, us and iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC on February 18, 2015. Prior thereto, Mr. Bressler was a Managing Director at THL. Prior to joining THL, Mr. Bressler was the Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Viacom, Inc. from 2001 through 2005. He also served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Time Warner Digital Media and, from 1995 to 1999, was

34



Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Time Warner Inc. Prior to joining Time Inc. in 1988, Mr. Bressler was previously a partner with the accounting firm of Ernst & Young LLP. Mr. Bressler also currently is a director of Parent, us and Gartner, Inc., a member of the board of managers of iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and Mr. Bressler previously served as a member of the board of directors of American Media Operations, Inc., Nielsen Holdings B.V. and Warner Music Group Corp. and as a member of the J.P. Morgan Chase National Advisory Board. Mr. Bressler holds a B.B.A. in Accounting from Adelphi University. Mr. Bressler was selected to serve as a member of our Board for his experience in and knowledge of the industry gained through his various positions with Viacom and Time Warner as well as his knowledge of finance and accounting gained from his experience at THL and Ernst & Young LLP.
Scott R. Wells is the Chief Executive Officer of Clear Channel Outdoor Americas at each of Parent, us, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and CCOH and was appointed to this position on March 3, 2015.  Previously, Mr. Wells served as an Operating Partner at Bain Capital since January 2011 and prior to that served as an Executive Vice President at Bain Capital since 2007. Mr. Wells also was one of the leaders of the firm’s operationally focused Portfolio Group. Prior to joining Bain Capital, he held several executive roles at Dell, Inc. (“Dell”) from 2004 to 2007, most recently as Vice President of Public Marketing and On-Line in the Americas. Prior to joining Dell, Mr. Wells was a Partner at Bain & Company, where he focused primarily on technology and consumer-oriented companies. Mr. Wells was a member of our Board from August 2008 until March 2015. He currently serves as a director of Ad Council, the Achievement Network (ANet) and the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA). He has an M.B.A., with distinction, from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and a B.S. from Virginia Tech.
C. William Eccleshare is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer-Clear Channel International at each of Parent, us, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and CCOH and was appointed to this position on March 2, 2015. Prior to such time, he served as Chief Executive Officer – Outdoor of Parent, us and CCOH since January 24, 2012 and as Chief Executive Officer—Outdoor of iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC on April 26, 2013.  Prior to January 24, 2012, he served as Chief Executive Officer—Clear Channel Outdoor—International of Parent and us since February 17, 2011 and as Chief Executive Officer—International of CCOH since September 1, 2009.  Previously, he was Chairman and CEO of BBDO EMEA from 2005 to 2009.  Prior thereto, he was Chairman and CEO of Young & Rubicam EMEA since 2002.
Steven J. Macri is the Senior Vice President-Corporate Finance of Parent, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC, us and CCOH and the Chief Financial Officer of Parent's iHM segment. Mr. Macri was appointed Senior Vice President-Corporate Finance of Parent, us, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and CCOH on September 9, 2014 and as the Chief Financial Officer of Parent's iHM segment on October 7, 2013. Prior to joining the company, Mr. Macri served as Chief Financial Officer for LogicSource Inc., from March 2012 to September 2013. Prior to joining LogicSource, Mr. Macri was Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer at Warner Music Group Corp. from September 2008 to December 2011 and prior thereto served as Controller and Senior Vice President-Finance from February 2005 to August 2008. He has an MBA from New York University Stern School of Business and a B.S. in Accounting from Syracuse University.
Scott D. Hamilton is the Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Assistant Secretary of Parent, us, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and CCOH. Mr. Hamilton was appointed Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Assistant Secretary of Parent, us and CCOH on April 26, 2010 and was appointed as Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Assistant Secretary of iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC on April 26, 2013.  Prior to April 26, 2010, Mr. Hamilton served as Controller and Chief Accounting Officer of Avaya Inc. (“Avaya”), a multinational telecommunications company, from October 2008 to April 2010.  Prior thereto, Mr. Hamilton served in various accounting and finance positions at Avaya, beginning in October 2004.  Prior thereto, Mr. Hamilton was employed by PricewaterhouseCoopers from September 1992 until September 2004 in various roles including audit, transaction services and technical accounting consulting.
Robert H. Walls, Jr. is the Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Parent, us, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and CCOH.  Mr. Walls was appointed the Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Parent, us and CCOH on January 1, 2010 and was appointed as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC on April 26, 2013.  On March 31, 2011, Mr. Walls was appointed to serve in the newly-created Office of the Chief Executive Officer for iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC , us and CCOH, in addition to his existing offices.  Mr. Walls served in the Office of the Chief Executive Officer for iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC  and us until October 2, 2011, and served in the Office of the Chief Executive Officer for CCOH until January 24, 2012.  Mr. Walls was a founding partner of Post Oak Energy Capital, LP and served as Managing Director through December 31, 2009 and as an advisor to Post Oak Energy Capital, LP through December 31, 2013.

35



PART II
ITEM 5.  MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
There is no established public trading market for our stock. iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC owns all of our issued and outstanding stock. All of iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC’s issued and outstanding equity interests are directly owned by iHeartMedia Capital II, LLC and all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of iHeartMedia Capital II, LLC are owned by Parent. All equity interests in Parent are owned, directly or indirectly, by the Sponsors and their co-investors, public investors and certain employees of Parent and its subsidiaries, including certain executive officers and directors.
Dividend Policy
We have not paid cash dividends on the shares of our common stock since the merger in 2008 and our ability to pay dividends is subject to restrictions should we seek to do so in the future. Our debt financing arrangements include restrictions on our ability to pay distributions. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Liquidity and Capital Resources-Sources of Capital” and Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Sales of Unregistered Securities
We did not sell any equity securities during 2017 that were not registered under the Securities Act of 1933.
Purchases of Equity Securities
We did not purchase any of our equity securities during the fourth quarter of 2017.

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ITEM 6.  SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following tables set forth our selected historical consolidated financial and other data as of the dates and for the periods indicated. The selected historical financial data are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the 2017 presentation.  Historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for future periods.  Acquisitions and dispositions impact the comparability of the historical consolidated financial data reflected in this schedule of Selected Financial Data.
The selected historical consolidated financial and other data should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto located within Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(In thousands)
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Results of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
6,170,994

 
$
6,260,062

 
$
6,241,516

 
$
6,318,533

 
$
6,243,044

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct operating expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
2,461,722

 
2,398,776

 
2,471,113

 
2,540,035

 
2,560,028

Selling, general and administrative expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
1,851,646

 
1,725,899

 
1,704,352

 
1,680,938

 
1,641,462

Corporate expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
311,898

 
341,072

 
315,143

 
321,023

 
316,095

Depreciation and amortization
601,295

 
635,227

 
673,991

 
710,898

 
730,828

Impairment charges (1)
10,199

 
8,000

 
21,631

 
24,176

 
16,970

Other operating income (expense), net
35,704

 
353,556

 
94,001

 
40,031

 
22,998

Operating income
969,938

 
1,504,644

 
1,149,287


1,081,494

 
1,000,659

Interest expense
1,865,584

 
1,849,982

 
1,805,496

 
1,741,596

 
1,649,451

Gain (loss) on investments
(4,872
)
 
(12,907
)
 
(4,421
)
 

 
130,879

Equity in loss of nonconsolidated affiliates
(2,855
)
 
(16,733
)
 
(902
)
 
(9,416
)
 
(77,696
)
Gain (loss) on extinguishment of debt
1,271

 
157,556

 
(2,201
)
 
(43,347
)
 
(87,868
)
Other income (expense), net
(15,322
)
 
(73,102
)
 
13,056

 
9,104

 
(21,980
)
Loss before income taxes
(917,424
)
 
(290,524
)
 
(650,677
)
 
(703,761
)
 
(705,457
)
Income tax benefit (expense)
457,406

 
50,474

 
(86,957
)
 
(58,489
)
 
121,817

Consolidated net loss
(460,018
)
 
(240,050
)
 
(737,634
)
 
(762,250
)
 
(583,640
)
Less amount attributable to noncontrolling interest
(66,127
)
 
56,312

 
17,140

 
31,610

 
23,384

Net loss attributable to the Company
$
(393,891
)
 
$
(296,362
)
 
$
(754,774
)
 
$
(793,860
)
 
$
(607,024
)
(1)
We recorded non-cash impairment charges of $10.2 million, $8.0 million, $21.6 million, $24.2 million and $17.0 million during 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.  Our impairment charges are discussed more fully in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(In thousands)
As of December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Current assets
$
2,067,347

 
$
2,504,687

 
$
2,778,115

 
$
2,109,748

 
$
2,431,162

Property, plant and equipment, net
1,884,714

 
1,948,162

 
2,212,556

 
2,699,064

 
2,897,630

Total assets
12,260,431

 
12,862,247

 
13,673,115

 
13,839,580

 
14,871,407

Current liabilities
16,354,597

 
1,674,574

 
1,659,228

 
1,364,285

 
1,763,618

Long-term debt, net of current maturities
5,676,814

 
20,022,080

 
20,539,099

 
20,159,545

 
19,856,551

Stockholder's deficit
(11,327,455
)
 
(10,885,475
)
 
(10,606,681
)
 
(9,665,208
)
 
(8,696,635
)

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ITEM 7.  MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
OVERVIEW
Format of Presentation
Management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations (“MD&A”) should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related footnotes contained in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.  Our discussion is presented on both a consolidated and segment basis.  Our reportable segments are iHeartMedia (“iHM”), Americas outdoor advertising (“Americas outdoor” or “Americas outdoor advertising”), and International outdoor advertising (“International outdoor” or “International outdoor advertising”).  Our iHM segment provides media and entertainment services via live broadcast and digital delivery, and also includes our national syndication business.  Our Americas outdoor and International outdoor segments provide outdoor advertising services in their respective geographic regions using various digital and printed display types. Included in the “Other” category are our media representation business, Katz Media Group, which is ancillary to our other businesses.
We manage our operating segments primarily focusing on their operating income, while Corporate expenses, Depreciation and amortization, Impairment charges, Other operating income (expense), net, Interest expense, Gain (loss) on investments, net, Equity in earnings (loss) of nonconsolidated affiliates, Gain (loss) on extinguishment of debt, Other income (expense), net and Income tax benefit (expense) are managed on a total company basis and are, therefore, included only in our discussion of consolidated results.
During the first quarter of 2018, we reevaluated our segment reporting and determined that our Latin America operations should be managed by our International outdoor leadership team. As such, beginning January 1, 2018, our Latin American operations will be included in our International outdoor segment.
On March 14, 2018, we, Parent and certain of Parent's direct and indirect domestic subsidiaries (collectively, the "Debtors") filed voluntary petitions for relief (the "Chapter 11 Cases") under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code (the "Bankruptcy Code"), in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Texas, Houston Division (the "Bankruptcy Court"). Clear Channel Outdoor Holdings, Inc. (“CCOH”) and its direct and indirect subsidiaries did not file voluntary petitions for reorganization under the Bankruptcy Code and are not Debtors in the Chapter 11 Cases.
The Chapter 11 Cases are being administered under the caption In re: iHeartMedia, Inc., Case No. 18-31274 (MI). The Debtors will continue to operate their businesses as “debtors-in-possession” under the jurisdiction of the Bankruptcy Court and in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Bankruptcy Code and orders of the Bankruptcy Court.
For more information regarding the impact of the Chapter 11 Cases, see “-Liquidity After Filing the Chapter 11 Cases.”
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the 2017 presentation.
Description of our Business
iHM 
Our iHM strategy centers on delivering entertaining and informative content across multiple platforms, including broadcast, mobile and digital, as well as events. Our primary source of revenue is derived from selling local and national advertising time on our radio stations, with contracts typically less than one year in duration. The programming formats of our radio stations are designed to reach audiences with targeted demographic characteristics. We are working closely with our advertising and marketing partners to develop tools and leverage data to enable advertisers to effectively reach their desired audiences. We continue to expand the choices for listeners and we deliver our content and sell advertising across multiple distribution channels, including digitally via our iHeartRadio mobile application and other digital platforms which reach national, regional and local audiences. We also generate revenues from network syndication, our nationally recognized live events, our station websites and other miscellaneous transactions.
iHM management monitors average advertising rates and cost per minute (“CPM”), which are principally based on the length of the spot and how many people in a targeted audience listen to our stations, as measured by an independent ratings service.  In addition, our advertising rates are influenced by the time of day the advertisement airs, with morning and evening drive-time hours typically priced the highest.  Our price and yield information systems enable our station managers and sales teams to adjust commercial inventory and pricing based on local market demand, as well as to manage and monitor different commercial durations in order to provide more effective advertising for our customers at what we believe are optimal prices given market conditions. Yield is measured by management in a variety of ways, including revenue earned divided by minutes of advertising sold.

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Management looks at our iHM operations’ overall revenue as well as the revenue from each type of advertising, including local advertising, which is sold predominately in a station’s local market, and national advertising, which is sold across multiple markets.  Local advertising is sold by each radio station’s sales staff while national advertising is sold by our national sales team.  Local advertising, which is our largest source of advertising revenue, and national advertising revenues are tracked separately because these revenue streams have different sales teams and respond differently to changes in the economic environment.  We periodically review and refine our selling structures in all regions and markets in an effort to maximize the value of our offering to advertisers and, therefore, our revenue.
Management also looks at iHM revenue by region and market size.  Typically, larger markets can reach larger audiences with wider demographics than smaller markets.  Additionally, management reviews our share of iHM advertising revenues in markets where such information is available, as well as our share of target demographics listening in an average quarter hour.  This metric gauges how well our formats are attracting and retaining listeners.
A portion of our iHM segment’s expenses vary in connection with changes in revenue.  These variable expenses primarily relate to costs in our sales department, such as commissions, and bad debt.  Our content costs, including music royalty and license fees for music delivered via broadcast or digital streaming, vary with the volume and mix of songs played on our stations and the listening hours on our digital platforms.  Our programming and general and administrative departments incur most of our fixed costs, such as utilities and office salaries.  We incur discretionary costs in our advertising, marketing and promotions, which we primarily use in an effort to maintain and/or increase our audience share. Lastly, we have incentive systems in each of our departments which provide for bonus payments based on specific performance metrics, including ratings, revenue and overall profitability.
Outdoor Advertising
Our outdoor advertising revenue is derived from selling advertising space on the displays we own or operate in key markets worldwide, consisting primarily of billboards, street furniture and transit displays.  Part of our long-term strategy for our outdoor advertising businesses is to pursue the technology of digital displays, including flat screens, LCDs and LEDs, as additions to traditional methods of displaying our clients’ advertisements. We are currently installing these technologies in certain markets, both domestically and internationally. Management typically monitors our outdoor advertising business by reviewing the average rates, average revenue per display, occupancy and inventory levels of each of our display types by market.
We own the majority of our advertising displays, which typically are located on sites that we either lease or own or for which we have acquired permanent easements.  Our advertising contracts with clients typically outline the number of displays reserved, the duration of the advertising campaign and the unit price per display.
The significant expenses associated with our operations include direct production, maintenance and installation expenses as well as site lease expenses for land under our displays including revenue-sharing or minimum guaranteed amounts payable under our billboard, street furniture and transit display contracts.  Our direct production, maintenance and installation expenses include costs for printing, transporting and changing the advertising copy on our displays, the related labor costs, the vinyl costs, electricity costs and the costs for cleaning and maintaining our displays.  Vinyl costs vary according to the complexity of the advertising copy and the quantity of displays.  Our site lease expenses include lease payments for use of the land under our displays, as well as any revenue-sharing arrangements or minimum guaranteed amounts payable that we may have with the landlords.  The terms of our site leases and revenue-sharing or minimum guaranteed contracts generally range from one to 20 years.
Americas Outdoor Advertising
Our advertising rates are based on a number of different factors including location, competition, type and size of display, illumination, market and gross ratings points.  Gross ratings points are the total number of impressions delivered by a display or group of displays, expressed as a percentage of a market population.  The number of impressions delivered by a display is measured by the number of people passing the site during a defined period of time.  For all of our billboards in the United States, we use independent, third-party auditing companies to verify the number of impressions delivered by a display.
Client contract terms typically range from four weeks to one year for the majority of our display inventory in the United States.  Generally, we own the street furniture structures and are responsible for their construction and maintenance.  Contracts for the right to place our street furniture and transit displays and sell advertising space on them are awarded by municipal and transit authorities in competitive bidding processes governed by local law or are negotiated with private transit operators.  Generally, these contracts have terms ranging from 10 to 20 years.
International Outdoor Advertising
Similar to our Americas outdoor business, advertising rates generally are based on the gross ratings points of a display or group of displays. The number of impressions delivered by a display, in some countries, is weighted to account for such factors

39



as illumination, proximity to other displays and the speed and viewing angle of approaching traffic.  In addition, because our International outdoor advertising operations are conducted in foreign markets, including Europe and Asia, management reviews the operating results from our foreign operations on a constant dollar basis.  A constant dollar basis allows for comparison of operations independent of foreign exchange movements.
Our International display inventory is typically sold to clients through network packages, with client contract terms typically ranging from one to two weeks with terms of up to one year available as well.  Internationally, contracts with municipal and transit authorities for the right to place our street furniture and transit displays typically provide for terms ranging up to 15 years. The major difference between our International and Americas street furniture businesses is in the nature of the municipal contracts.  In our International outdoor business, these contracts typically require us to provide the municipality with a broader range of metropolitan amenities in exchange for which we are authorized to sell advertising space on certain sections of the structures we erect in the public domain.  A different regulatory environment for billboards and competitive bidding for street furniture and transit display contracts, which constitute a larger portion of our business internationally, may result in higher site lease costs in our International business. 
Macroeconomic Indicators
Our advertising revenue for all of our segments is highly correlated to changes in gross domestic product (“GDP”) as advertising spending has historically trended in line with GDP, both domestically and internationally. According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, estimated U.S. GDP growth for 2017 was 2.3%. Internationally, our results are impacted by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates as well as the economic conditions in the foreign markets in which we have operations.
Executive Summary
The key developments in our business for the year ended December 31, 2017 are summarized below:
Consolidated revenue decreased $89.1 million during 2017 compared to 2016. Excluding the $8.6 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated revenue decreased $97.7 million during 2017 compared to 2016.
In the first quarter of 2017, we sold our Indianapolis, Indiana outdoor market in exchange for certain assets in Atlanta, Georgia with a fair value of $39.4 million, plus $43.1 million in cash, net of closing costs, resulting in a net gain of $28.9 million related to the sale, which is included within Other operating income (expense), net.
In the third quarter of 2017, we sold our ownership interest in an Americas outdoor joint venture in Canada, resulting in a net loss on sale of $12.1 million, including a $6.3 million cumulative translation adjustment, which is included within Other operating income (expense), net.
On February 7, 2017, the Company completed an exchange offer by issuing $476.4 million in aggregate principal amount of 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 in exchange for $476.4 million of aggregate principal amount outstanding of our 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018. Of the $476.4 million principal amount of 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 issued in the exchange offer, $241.4 million principal amount was issued to subsidiaries of the Company that participated in the exchange offer.
On August 14, 2017, Clear Channel International B.V. (“CCIBV”), an indirect subsidiary of the Company, issued $150.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 8.75% Senior Notes due 2020 (the “New Notes”). The New Notes were issued as additional notes under the indenture governing CCIBV’s existing 8.75% Senior Notes due 2020 and were issued at a premium, resulting in $156.0 million in proceeds.
On November 30, 2017, the Company refinanced its receivables based credit facility and replaced it with a $300.0 million term loan and revolving credit commitments of $250.0 million. As of December 31, 2017, $300.0 million was drawn on the term loan and $105.0 million on the revolving credit commitments for a total of $405.0 million outstanding. The facility has a three-year term, maturing in 2020 and accrues interest at a rate of LIBOR plus 4.75%.
In the fourth quarter of 2017, we exchanged four radio stations in Chattanooga, TN and six radio stations in Richmond, VA for four radio stations in Boston, MA and three radio stations in Seattle, WA.

Revenues and expenses “excluding the impact of foreign exchange movements” in this Management’s Discussion & Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations is presented because management believes that viewing certain financial results without the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency rates facilitates period to period comparisons of business performance and provides useful information to investors.  Revenues and expenses “excluding the impact of foreign exchange movements” are calculated by converting the current period’s revenues and expenses in local currency to U.S. dollars using average foreign exchange rates for the prior period. 

40



Consolidated Results of Operations
The comparison of our historical results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2017 to the year ended December 31, 2016 is as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2017
 
2016
 
Change
Revenue
$
6,170,994

 
$
6,260,062

 
(1.4)%
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Direct operating expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
2,461,722

 
2,398,776

 
2.6%
Selling, general and administrative expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
1,851,646

 
1,725,899

 
7.3%
Corporate expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
311,898

 
341,072

 
(8.6)%
Depreciation and amortization
601,295

 
635,227

 
(5.3)%
Impairment charges
10,199

 
8,000

 
27.5%
Other operating income, net
35,704

 
353,556

 
(89.9)%
Operating income
969,938

 
1,504,644

 
(35.5)%
Interest expense
1,865,584

 
1,849,982

 
 
Loss on investments, net
(4,872
)
 
(12,907
)
 
 
Equity in loss of nonconsolidated affiliates
(2,855
)
 
(16,733
)
 
 
Gain on extinguishment of debt
1,271

 
157,556

 
 
Other expense, net
(15,322
)
 
(73,102
)
 
 
Loss before income taxes
(917,424
)
 
(290,524
)
 
 
Income tax benefit
457,406

 
50,474

 
 
Consolidated net loss
(460,018
)
 
(240,050
)
 
 
Less amount attributable to noncontrolling interest
(66,127
)
 
56,312

 
 
Net loss attributable to the Company
$
(393,891
)
 
$
(296,362
)
 
 
Consolidated Revenue
Consolidated revenue decreased $89.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016. Excluding the $8.6 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated revenue decreased $97.7 million during the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016. Revenue growth from our iHM business was offset by lower revenue generated by our Americas and International outdoor businesses as a result of the sales of our businesses in Canada in 2017 and Australia and Turkey in 2016, which generated $13.7 million and $149.4 million in revenue in the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Consolidated Direct Operating Expenses
Consolidated direct operating expenses increased $62.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016. Excluding the $4.0 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated direct operating expenses increased $58.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016. Higher direct operating expenses in our iHM business, including a $33.8 million prior year benefit resulting from the renegotiation of certain contracts, and higher direct operating expenses in our outdoor businesses, driven primarily by higher site lease expenses, were partially offset by the impact of the sale of our outdoor businesses in Australia and Turkey in 2016 and Canada in 2017.
Consolidated Selling, General and Administrative (“SG&A”) Expenses
Consolidated SG&A expenses increased $125.7 million during the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016. Excluding the $2.8 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated SG&A expenses increased $122.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016. Higher SG&A expenses in our iHM business, primarily driven by higher trade and barter expenses, were partially offset by a decrease in SG&A expenses resulting primarily from the sales of our outdoor businesses in Australia and Turkey in 2016 and Canada in 2017.

41



Corporate Expenses
Corporate expenses decreased $29.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016. Excluding the $1.4 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, corporate expenses decreased $27.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016. In 2017, we incurred professional fees directly related to negotiations with lenders and other activities related to our capital structure, including the notes exchange offers and term loan offers, and, accordingly, such fees are reflected in Other Income (Expense), net as further discussed below. In 2016, professional fees incurred in connection with our capital structure activities were reflected as part of corporate expenses. Employee benefit expense was also lower due to lower claims.
Revenue and Efficiency Initiatives
Included in the amounts for direct operating expenses, SG&A and corporate expenses discussed above are expenses incurred in connection with our strategic revenue and efficiency initiatives. These costs consist primarily of severance related to workforce initiatives, consolidation of locations and positions, contract cancellation costs, consulting expenses, and other costs incurred in connection with improving our businesses. These costs are expected to provide benefits in future periods as the initiative results are realized.
Strategic revenue and efficiency costs were $35.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2017. Of these expenses, $15.8 million was incurred by our iHM segment, $2.1 million was incurred by our Americas outdoor segment, $8.1 million was incurred by our International outdoor segment, $4.1 million was incurred by our Other category and $5.8 million was incurred by Corporate. $12.4 million of these costs are reported within direct operating expenses, $17.7 million are reported within SG&A and $5.8 million are reported within corporate expenses. 
Strategic revenue and efficiency costs were $30.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2016. Of these expenses, $15.5 million was incurred by our iHM segment, $3.1 million was incurred by our Americas outdoor segment, $7.4 million was incurred by our International outdoor segment, $1.3 million was incurred by our Other segment and $3.6 million was incurred by Corporate. $10.9 million of these costs are reported within direct operating expenses, $16.4 million are reported within SG&A and $3.6 million are reported within corporate expenses.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization decreased $33.9 million during 2017 compared to 2016, primarily due to the sale of certain outdoor businesses and markets and assets becoming fully depreciated or fully amortized.
Impairment Charges
We perform our annual impairment test on our goodwill, FCC licenses, billboard permits, and other intangible assets as of July 1 of each year. In addition, we test for impairment of property, plant and equipment whenever events and circumstances indicate that depreciable assets might be impaired.  As a result of these impairment tests, during 2017 we recorded impairment charges of $7.6 million related primarily to one of our iHM markets and one of our International outdoor businesses. In addition, the Company recognized an impairment of $2.6 million during 2017 in relation to advertising assets that were no longer usable in one country in our International outdoor segment.  During 2016 we recorded impairment charges of $8.0 million related primarily to goodwill for one International outdoor business.  Please see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements located in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a further description of the impairment charges.
Other Operating Income, Net
Other operating income, net of $35.7 million in 2017 primarily related to the $28.9 million gain on the sale of our Americas outdoor Indianapolis market exchanged for cash and certain assets in Atlanta, Georgia, a gain of $6.8 million recognized on the sale of our ownership interest in a joint venture in Belgium and a gain of $15.4 million recognized in relation to an exchange of four radio stations in Chattanooga, TN and six radio stations in Richmond, VA for four radio stations in Boston, MA and three radio stations in Seattle, WA. These gains were partially offset by the loss of $12.1 million, which includes $6.3 million in cumulative translation adjustments, recognized on the sale of our ownership interest in a joint venture in Canada.
Other operating income of $353.6 million in 2016, primarily related to the net gain of $278.3 million on sale of nine non-strategic outdoor markets in the first quarter of 2016 and the net gain of $127.6 million on sale on our outdoor Australia business in the fourth quarter of 2016, partially offset by the $56.6 million loss, which includes $32.2 million in cumulative translation adjustments, on the sale of our Turkey business in the second quarter of 2016. In the first quarter of 2016, Americas outdoor sold nine non-strategic outdoor markets including Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, Des Moines, Iowa, Ft. Smith, Arkansas, Memphis, Tennessee, Portland, Oregon, Reno, Nevada, Seattle, Washington and Wichita, Kansas for net proceeds of $592.3 million in cash and certain advertising assets in Florida.

42



Interest Expense
Interest expense increased $15.6 million during 2017 compared to 2016 due to higher interest rates on floating rate loans and new debt issuances. Please refer to “Sources of Capital” for additional discussion of debt issuances and exchanges. Our weighted average cost of debt during 2017 and 2016 was 8.9% and 8.5%, respectively.
Loss on Investments, Net
During the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, we recognized losses of $4.9 million and $12.9 million, respectively, related to cost-method investments.  The loss in 2016 related primarily to a $14.5 million non-cash impairment recorded in connection with an other-than-temporary decline in the value of one of our cost investments.
Equity in Loss of Nonconsolidated Affiliates
During the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, we recognized losses of $2.9 million and $16.7 million, respectively, related to equity-method investments.  The loss in 2016 related primarily to a $15.0 million non-cash impairment recorded in connection with an other-than-temporary decline in the value of one of our equity investments.
Gain on Extinguishment of Debt
During the fourth quarter of 2017, Broader Media, LLC, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, repurchased approximately $4.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $2.7 million. In connection with this repurchase, we recognized a gain of $1.3 million.
During the third quarter of 2016, Broader Media, LLC, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, repurchased approximately $383.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $222.2 million. In connection with this repurchase, we recognized a gain of $157.6 million.
Other Expense, Net
Other expense, net was $15.3 million for the year 2017, which relates primarily to expenses incurred in connection with negotiations with lenders and other activities related to our capital structure, including the notes exchange offers and term loan offers of $41.8 million, as described in "Liquidity and Capital Resources - Notes Exchange Offers and Term Loan Offers", partially offset by net foreign exchange gains of $29.2 million recognized in connection with intercompany notes denominated in foreign currencies.
Other expense, net was $73.1 million for the year 2016 which primarily related to net foreign exchange gains and losses recognized in connection with intercompany notes denominated in foreign currencies. The decline in value during 2016 of the British pound against the Euro impacted Euro-denominated notes payable by one of our UK subsidiaries, which was the primary driver of the foreign exchange loss in 2016.
Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive income tax legislation, referred to as The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the Tax Act). The Tax Act reduces the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018, requires companies to pay a one-time transition tax on earnings of certain foreign subsidiaries that were previously tax deferred and creates new U.S. taxes on certain foreign earnings. To account for the reduction in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate, we remeasured our deferred tax assets and liabilities based on the rates at which they are expected to reverse in the future, generally 21%. To determine the impact from the one-time transition tax on accumulated foreign earnings, we analyzed our cumulative foreign earnings and profits in accordance with the rules provided in the Tax Act. Based upon our preliminary analysis which is not yet complete, we have not recorded income tax expense in the current period for the one-time transition tax due to the net accumulated deficit in our foreign earnings and profits.
The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2017 was 49.9% as compared to 17.4% for the year ended December 31, 2016.  The effective tax benefit rate for 2017 was primarily impacted by the $510.1 million provisional deferred tax benefit recorded in connection with enactment of the Tax Act which reduced the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate to 21% as mentioned above.
The effective tax rate for 2016 was impacted by the $43.3 million deferred tax benefit recorded in connection with the release of valuation allowance in France, which was offset by $54.7 million of tax expense attributable to the sale of our outdoor business in Australia. Additionally, the 2016 effective tax benefit rate was impacted by the $31.8 million valuation allowance recorded against a portion of current period federal and state deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ability to realize those assets in future periods.

43



iHM Results of Operations
Our iHM operating results were as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2017
 
2016
 
Change
Revenue
$
3,442,963

 
$
3,403,040

 
1.2
 %
Direct operating expenses
1,059,123

 
975,463

 
8.6
 %
SG&A expenses
1,245,741

 
1,102,998

 
12.9
 %
Depreciation and amortization
233,757

 
243,964

 
(4.2
)%
Operating income
$
904,342

 
$
1,080,615

 
(16.3
)%
iHM revenue increased $39.9 million during 2017 compared to 2016, with growth in national revenue and other revenue being partially offset by lower local revenue. National revenue grew due to an increase in national trade and barter, as well as higher spot sales in response to our national investments, including our programmatic buying platforms, primarily offset by a decrease in national traffic and weather revenue and political revenue. Other revenue increased primarily as a result of digital subscription revenue from our iHeartRadio on-demand service. Local revenue decreased primarily as a result of lower spot and political revenue, partially offset by an increase in local trade and barter.
iHM direct operating expenses increased $83.7 million during 2017 compared to 2016, including a $33.8 million prior year benefit resulting from the renegotiation of certain contracts, as well as higher content and programming costs, including employee compensation and music license and royalty fees. iHM SG&A expenses increased $142.7 million during 2017 compared to 2016, primarily due to higher trade and barter expenses, investments in national and digital sales capabilities, and higher variable expenses, including sales activation costs and commissions.
Americas Outdoor Results of Operations
Our Americas outdoor operating results were as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2017
 
2016
 
Change
Revenue
$
1,256,326

 
$
1,278,413

 
(1.7)%
Direct operating expenses
574,113

 
570,310

 
0.7%
SG&A expenses
219,467

 
225,415

 
(2.6)%
Depreciation and amortization
189,707

 
185,654

 
2.2%
Operating income
$
273,039

 
$
297,034

 
(8.1)%
Americas outdoor revenue decreased $22.1 million during 2017 compared to 2016. Excluding the $3.8 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas outdoor revenue decreased $25.9 million during 2017 compared to 2016. The decrease in revenue was primarily due to the $17.9 million impact resulting from the sales of non-strategic outdoor markets during the first quarter of 2016 and our Canadian business in the third quarter of 2017. The impact of exchanging our Indianapolis market for cash and assets in Atlanta in the first quarter of 2017 also contributed to the decrease in revenue. These decreases were partially offset by higher revenue from new and existing airport contracts.
Americas outdoor direct operating expenses increased $3.8 million during 2017 compared to 2016. Excluding the $1.9 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas outdoor direct operating expenses increased $1.9 million during 2017 compared to 2016. The increase in direct operating expenses was driven primarily by higher site lease expenses related to new and existing airport contracts and print displays, partially offset by the $13.2 million decrease in expense due to the impact of the sales of non-strategic outdoor markets during the first quarter of 2016 and our Canadian business in the third quarter of 2017. Americas outdoor SG&A expenses decreased $5.9 million during 2017 compared to 2016. Excluding the $1.0 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas outdoor SG&A expenses decreased $6.9 million during 2017 compared to 2016. The decrease in SG&A expenses was primarily due to lower bad debt expense and the $2.5 million impact resulting from the sales of non-strategic outdoor markets in the first quarter of 2016 and the sale of our Canadian business in the third quarter of 2017, and the exchange of outdoor markets in the first quarter of 2017.

44



International Outdoor Results of Operations
Our International outdoor operating results were as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2017
 
2016
 
Change
Revenue
$
1,334,939

 
$
1,410,471

 
(5.4)%
Direct operating expenses
828,652

 
851,748

 
(2.7)%
SG&A expenses
289,170

 
289,787

 
(0.2)%
Depreciation and amortization
131,224

 
152,758

 
(14.1)%
Operating income
$
85,893

 
$
116,178

 
(26.1)%
International outdoor revenue decreased $75.5 million during 2017 compared to 2016. Excluding the $4.9 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International outdoor revenue decreased $80.4 million during 2017 compared to 2016. The decrease in revenue is due to a $117.8 million decrease in revenue resulting from the sale of our businesses in Australia and Turkey in 2016. This was partially offset by growth across other markets including Spain, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and China, primarily from new contracts and digital expansion.
International outdoor direct operating expenses decreased $23.1 million during 2017 compared to 2016. Excluding the $2.0 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International outdoor direct operating expenses decreased $25.1 million during 2017 compared to 2016. The decrease was driven by a $70.3 million decrease in direct operating expenses resulting from the 2016 sales of our businesses in Australia and Turkey, partially offset by higher site lease and production expenses primarily in countries experiencing revenue growth. International outdoor SG&A expenses decreased $0.6 million during 2017 compared to 2016. Excluding the $1.7 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International outdoor SG&A expenses decreased $2.3 million during 2017 compared to 2016. The decrease in SG&A expenses was primarily due to a $22.6 million decrease resulting from the sale of our businesses in Australia and Turkey, partially offset by higher spending related to growth in certain countries. Included within SG&A expenses is $9.6 million recorded in the fourth quarter of 2017 to correct for accounting errors related to the misappropriation of cash identified at our China subsidiary. Such corrections are not considered to be material to the current year or prior year financial results.
Depreciation and amortization decreased $21.5 million primarily due to assets becoming fully depreciated or fully amortized and the sale of our businesses in Australia and Turkey in 2016.

45



Consolidated Results of Operations
The comparison of our historical results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2016 to the year ended December 31, 2015 is as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
Revenue
$
6,260,062

 
$
6,241,516

 
0.3%
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Direct operating expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
2,398,776

 
2,471,113

 
(2.9)%
Selling, general and administrative expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
1,725,899

 
1,704,352

 
1.3%
Corporate expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
341,072

 
315,143

 
8.2%
Depreciation and amortization
635,227

 
673,991

 
(5.8)%
Impairment charges
8,000

 
21,631

 
(63.0)%
Other operating income, net
353,556

 
94,001

 
276.1%
Operating income
1,504,644

 
1,149,287

 
30.9%
Interest expense
1,849,982

 
1,805,496

 
 
Loss on investments, net
(12,907
)
 
(4,421
)
 
 
Equity in loss of nonconsolidated affiliates
(16,733
)
 
(902
)
 
 
Gain (loss) on extinguishment of debt
157,556

 
(2,201
)
 
 
Other income (expense), net
(73,102
)
 
13,056

 
 
Loss before income taxes
(290,524
)
 
(650,677
)
 
 
Income tax benefit (expense)
50,474

 
(86,957
)
 
 
Consolidated net loss
(240,050
)
 
(737,634
)
 
 
Less amount attributable to noncontrolling interest
56,312

 
17,140

 
 
Net loss attributable to the Company
$
(296,362
)
 
$
(754,774
)
 
 
Consolidated Revenue
Consolidated revenue increased $18.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $47.6 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated revenue increased $66.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2016 compared to 2015. Revenue growth from our iHM business was partially offset by lower revenue generated by our Americas and International outdoor businesses as a result of the sales of certain U.S. outdoor markets and international businesses which generated $248.9 million in revenue in the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to $123.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2016.
Consolidated Direct Operating Expenses
Consolidated direct operating expenses decreased $72.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $29.0 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated direct operating expenses decreased $43.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2016 compared to 2015. Lower direct operating expenses in our iHM business were primarily driven by the impact of contract renegotiations, partially offset by increases primarily related to higher revenue. Lower direct operating expenses in our Americas outdoor business were primarily due to the sale of nine non-strategic U.S. outdoor markets in the first quarter of 2016. Lower direct operating expenses in our International outdoor business related primarily to the loss of the London bus contract and the sale of our businesses in Australia and Turkey, partially offset by increases in expenses related to higher revenues in other countries.
Consolidated SG&A Expenses
Consolidated SG&A expenses increased $21.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $9.9 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated SG&A expenses increased $31.4 million during the year ended December 31, 2016 compared to 2015. Higher SG&A expenses driven primarily by investments in sales capabilities in our iHM business were partially offset by a decrease in SG&A expenses resulting from the sale of non-strategic U.S. outdoor markets in the first quarter of 2016.

46



Corporate Expenses
Corporate expenses increased $25.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2016 compared to 2015 primarily resulting from higher professional fees and higher expenses related to variable compensation plans, as well as higher employee health benefit costs. Excluding the $4.1 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, corporate expenses increased $30.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2016 compared to 2015.
Revenue and Efficiency Initiatives
Included in the amounts for direct operating expenses, SG&A and corporate expenses discussed above are expenses incurred in connection with our strategic revenue and efficiency initiatives. These costs consist primarily of severance related to workforce initiatives, consolidation of locations and positions, contract cancellation costs, consulting expenses, and other costs incurred in connection with improving our businesses. These costs are expected to provide benefits in future periods as the initiative results are realized.
Strategic revenue and efficiency costs were $30.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2016. Of these expenses, $15.5 million was incurred by our iHM segment, $3.1 million was incurred by our Americas outdoor segment, $7.4 million was incurred by our International outdoor segment, $1.3 million was incurred by our Other segment and $3.6 million was incurred by Corporate. $10.9 million of these costs are reported within direct operating expenses, $16.4 million are reported within SG&A and $3.6 million are reported within corporate expenses.
Strategic revenue and efficiency costs were $42.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2015. Of these expenses, $11.8 million was incurred by our iHM segment, $2.4 million was incurred by our Americas outdoor segment, $11.1 million was incurred by our International outdoor segment, $3.7 million was incurred by our Other segment and $13.8 million was incurred by Corporate. $14.0 million of these costs are reported within direct operating expenses, $15.0 million are reported within SG&A and $13.8 million are reported within corporate expenses.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization decreased $38.8 million during 2016 compared to 2015, primarily due to assets becoming fully depreciated or fully amortized, the sale of certain outdoor markets, as well as the impact of movements in foreign exchange rates.
Impairment Charges
We perform our annual impairment test on our goodwill, FCC licenses, billboard permits, and other intangible assets as of July 1 of each year. In addition, we test for impairment of property, plant and equipment whenever events and circumstances indicate that depreciable assets might be impaired. As a result of these impairment tests, during 2016 we recorded impairment charges of $8.0 million related primarily to goodwill in one of our International outdoor businesses. During 2015 we recorded impairment charges of $21.6 million related to billboard permits in one Americas outdoor market. Please see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements located in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a further description of the impairment charges.
Other Operating Income, Net
Other operating income was $353.6 million in 2016, which primarily related to the net gain of $278.3 million on sale of nine non-strategic outdoor markets in the first quarter of 2016 and the net gain of $127.6 million on sale on our outdoor Australia business in the fourth quarter of 2016, partially offset by the $56.6 million loss, which includes $32.2 million in cumulative translation adjustments, on the sale of our Turkey business in the second quarter of 2016. In the first quarter of 2016, Americas outdoor sold nine non-strategic outdoor markets including Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, Des Moines, Iowa, Ft. Smith, Arkansas, Memphis, Tennessee, Portland, Oregon, Reno, Nevada, Seattle, Washington and Wichita, Kansas for net proceeds of $592.3 million in cash and certain advertising assets in Florida.
Other operating income of $94.0 million in 2015 primarily related to the gain on the sale of radio towers which were subsequently leased back (see Note 2 to our Consolidated Financial Statements located in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K).
Interest Expense
Interest expense increased $44.5 million during 2016 compared to 2015 due to higher interest rates on floating rate loans and new debt issuances. Please refer to "Sources of Capital" for additional discussion of debt issuances and exchanges. Our weighted average cost of debt during 2016 and 2015 was 8.5% and 8.5%, respectively.

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Loss on Investments, Net
During the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, we recognized losses of $12.9 million and $4.4 million, respectively, related to cost-method investments. The loss in the year ended December 31, 2016 related primarily to a $14.5 million non-cash impairment recorded in connection with an other-than-temporary decline in the value of one of our cost investments.
Equity in Loss of Nonconsolidated Affiliates
During the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, we recognized losses of $16.7 million and $0.9 million respectively, related to equity-method investments. The loss in the year ended December 31, 2016 related primarily to a $15.0 million non-cash impairment recorded in connection with an other-than-temporary decline in the value of one of our equity investments.
Gain (loss) on Extinguishment of Debt
During the third quarter of 2016, Broader Media, LLC, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, repurchased approximately $383.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $222.2 million. In connection with this repurchase, we recognized a gain of $157.6 million.
In connection with the first quarter 2015 prepayment of our Term Loan B facility and Term Loan C-asset sale facility, we recognized a loss of $2.2 million.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other expense was $73.1 million for 2016. Other income was $13.1 million for 2015. These amounts relate primarily to net foreign exchange gains and losses recognized in connection with intercompany notes denominated in foreign currencies. The decline in value during 2016 of the British pound against the Euro impacted Euro-denominated notes payable by one of our UK subsidiaries, which was the primary driver of the foreign exchange loss in 2016.
Income Tax Benefit (Expense)
The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2016 was 17.4% as compared to (13.4)% for the year ended December 31, 2015. The effective tax benefit rate for 2016 was impacted by the $43.3 million deferred tax benefit recorded in connection with the release of valuation allowance in France, which was offset by $54.7 million of tax expense attributable to the sale of our outdoor business in Australia. Additionally, the 2016 effective tax benefit rate was impacted by the $31.8 million valuation allowance recorded against a portion of current period federal and state deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ability to realize those assets in future periods.
The effective tax rate for 2015 was impacted by the $305.3 million valuation allowance recorded against our current period federal and state net operating losses due to the uncertainty of the ability to utilize those losses in future periods. The valuation allowance was recorded against the Company's current period federal and state net operating losses due to the uncertainty of the ability to utilize these losses in future periods.
iHM Results of Operations
Our iHM operating results were as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
Revenue
$
3,403,040

 
$
3,284,320

 
3.6%
Direct operating expenses
975,463

 
972,937

 
0.3%
SG&A expenses
1,102,998

 
1,065,066

 
3.6%
Depreciation and amortization
243,964

 
240,207

 
1.6%
Operating income
$
1,080,615

 
$
1,006,110

 
7.4%
iHM revenue increased $118.7 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Growth in broadcast radio and digital advertising was driven primarily by political advertising revenues resulting from 2016 being a presidential election year. In addition, we had growth in our traffic and weather business, sponsorship and other revenues surrounding our events and trade and barter. Trade and barter includes the impact of marketing partnerships with our advertisers on events, as well as revenue recognized in connection with advertising provided during the period in connection with investments made in certain non-public companies.

48



iHM direct operating expenses increased $2.5 million during 2016 compared to 2015 primarily driven by higher content and programming costs, as well as higher theater and event production costs. In addition, we incurred higher spending on strategic revenue and efficiency initiatives and lease expense was higher as a result of the sale and subsequent leaseback of broadcast communications tower sites in the second quarter of 2015. These costs were nearly offset by the $33.8 million benefit resulting from contract renegotiations completed in the third quarter. iHM SG&A expenses increased $37.9 million during 2016 compared to 2015 primarily due to investments in national and digital sales capabilities, higher promotion expense and higher variable compensation related to higher revenue.
Americas Outdoor Results of Operations
Our Americas outdoor operating results were as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
Revenue
$
1,278,413

 
$
1,349,021

 
(5.2)%
Direct operating expenses
570,310

 
597,382

 
(4.5)%
SG&A expenses
225,415

 
233,254

 
(3.4)%
Depreciation and amortization
185,654

 
204,514

 
(9.2)%
Operating income
$
297,034

 
$
313,871

 
(5.4)%
Americas outdoor revenue decreased $70.6 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $7.7 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas outdoor revenue decreased $62.9 million during 2016 compared to 2015. The decrease in revenue is due to the $102.7 million impact of the sale of nine non-strategic U.S. markets in the first quarter of 2016. The decrease in revenue resulting from these sales was partially offset by increased revenues from digital billboards from new deployments and higher occupancy on existing digital billboards, as well as new airport contracts, and higher revenues in Latin America.
Americas outdoor direct operating expenses decreased $27.1 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $3.6 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas outdoor direct operating expenses decreased $23.5 million during 2016 compared to 2015. The decrease in direct operating expenses was driven by a $35.4 million decrease in direct operating expenses resulting from the sale of the nine non-strategic markets in the first quarter of 2016, partially offset by higher site lease expenses related to new airport contracts. Americas outdoor SG&A expenses decreased $7.8 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $2.1 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas outdoor SG&A expenses decreased $5.7 million during 2016 compared to 2015. This decrease was due to a $20.4 million decrease in SG&A expenses resulting from the sale of the nine non-strategic U.S. markets in the first quarter of 2016, partially offset by higher variable compensation expense related to higher revenues.
Depreciation and amortization decreased $18.9 million. Excluding the $0.8 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, depreciation and amortization decreased $18.1 million primarily due to the sale of the nine non-strategic U.S. markets in the first quarter of 2016 and assets becoming fully depreciated or fully amortized.
International Outdoor Results of Operations
Our International outdoor operating results were as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
Revenue
$
1,410,471

 
$
1,457,183

 
(3.2)%
Direct operating expenses
851,748

 
897,520

 
(5.1)%
SG&A expenses
289,787

 
298,250

 
(2.8)%
Depreciation and amortization
152,758

 
166,060

 
(8.0)%
Operating income
$
116,178

 
$
95,353

 
21.8%
International outdoor revenue decreased $46.7 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $39.9 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International outdoor revenue decreased $6.8 million during 2016 compared to 2015. The decrease in revenue is due to a $22.7 million decrease in revenue resulting from the sale of our businesses in Turkey and

49



Australia in the second and fourth quarters of 2016, respectively, as well as lower revenue in the United Kingdom as a result of the London bus shelter contract not being renewed. These decreases were partially offset by growth across most of our markets including China, Spain, Sweden, France and Belgium, primarily from new digital assets and new contracts.
International outdoor direct operating expenses decreased $45.8 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $25.4 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International outdoor direct operating expenses decreased $20.4 million during 2016 compared to 2015. The decrease was driven by a $14.6 million decrease in direct operating expenses resulting from the sale of our businesses in Turkey and Australia and lower rent expense due to lower revenue in the United Kingdom as a result of the London bus shelter contract not being renewed. These decreases were partially offset by higher site lease and production expenses in countries experiencing revenue growth. International outdoor SG&A expenses decreased $8.5 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $7.8 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International outdoor SG&A expenses decreased $0.7 million during 2016 compared to 2015. The decrease in SG&A expenses was primarily due to a $3.0 million decrease resulting from the sale of our businesses in Turkey and Australia, partially offset by higher variable compensation expenses.
Included in 2015 International Outdoor direct operating expenses and SG&A expenses are $8.2 million and $3.2 million, respectively, recorded in the fourth quarter of 2015 to correct for accounting errors included in the results of our Netherlands subsidiary reported in prior years. Such corrections are not considered to be material to the prior year financial results.
Depreciation and amortization decreased $13.3 million. Excluding the $5.5 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, depreciation and amortization decreased $7.8 million primarily due to assets becoming fully depreciated or fully amortized.
Reconciliation of Segment Operating Income to Consolidated Operating Income
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
iHM
$
904,342

 
$
1,080,615

 
$
1,006,110

Americas outdoor
273,039

 
297,034

 
313,871

International outdoor
85,893

 
116,178

 
95,353

Other
28,395

 
43,411

 
19,314

Impairment charges
(10,199
)
 
(8,000
)
 
(21,631
)
Corporate expense (1)
(347,236
)
 
(378,150
)
 
(357,731
)
Other operating income, net
35,704

 
353,556

 
94,001

Consolidated operating income
$
969,938

 
$
1,504,644

 
$
1,149,287

(1)
Corporate expenses include expenses related to iHM, Americas outdoor, International outdoor and our Other category, as well as overall executive, administrative and support functions.
Share-Based Compensation Expense
We do not have any compensation plans under which we grant stock awards to employees. Certain employees receive equity awards from the equity incentive plans of our indirect parent, iHeartMedia, Inc. (“Parent”), and our subsidiary, CCOH.
Share-based compensation expenses are recorded in corporate expenses and were $12.1 million, $13.1 million and $11.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
As of December 31, 2017, there was $17.5 million of unrecognized compensation cost, net of estimated forfeitures, related to unvested share-based compensation arrangements that will vest based on service conditions.  This cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of approximately three years.  In addition, as of December 31, 2017, there was $26.5 million of unrecognized compensation cost, net of estimated forfeitures, related to unvested share-based compensation arrangements that will vest based on market, performance and service conditions.  This cost will be recognized when it becomes probable that the performance condition will be satisfied.

50



LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Cash Flows
The following discussion highlights cash flow activities during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Cash provided by (used for):
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
(503,740
)
 
$
(13,982
)
 
$
(77,304
)
Investing activities
$
(236,071
)
 
$
510,915

 
$
30,234

Financing activities
$
151,335

 
$
(418,231
)
 
$
377,410

Operating Activities
2017
Cash used for operating activities was $503.7 million in 2017 compared to $14.0 million of cash used for operating activities in 2016.  Our consolidated net loss in 2017 and 2016 included non-cash items of $123.1 million and $195.1 million, respectively. Non-cash items affecting our net loss include impairment charges, depreciation and amortization, deferred taxes, provision for doubtful accounts, amortization of deferred financing charges and note discounts, net, share-based compensation, gain on disposal of operating and fixed assets, loss on investments, equity in loss of nonconsolidated affiliates, (gain) loss on extinguishment of debt, and other reconciling items, net as presented on the face of the consolidated statement of cash flows.  The increase in cash used for operating activities is primarily attributed to lower operating income as well as changes in working capital balances, particularly accounts receivable, which was impacted by slower collections, and prepaid assets, partially offset by accrued interest and accounts payable due to the timing of payments. Cash paid for interest was $7.6 million higher in 2017 compared to the prior year due to higher variable interest rates and interest on new debt issuances.
2016
Cash used for operating activities was $14.0 million in 2016 compared to $77.3 million of cash used for operating activities in 2015.  Our consolidated net loss in 2016 and 2015 included non-cash items of $195.1 million and $700.8 million, respectively. Non-cash items affecting our net loss include impairment charges, depreciation and amortization, deferred taxes, provision for doubtful accounts, amortization of deferred financing charges and note discounts, net, share-based compensation, gain on disposal of operating and fixed assets, loss on investments, equity in loss of nonconsolidated affiliates, (gain) loss on extinguishment of debt, and other reconciling items, net as presented on the face of the consolidated statement of cash flows.  The decrease in cash used for operating activities is primarily attributed to changes in working capital balances, particularly accounts receivable, which were driven primarily by improved collections.  Cash paid for interest was $77.8 million higher in 2016 compared to the prior year due to the timing of accrued interest payments and higher interest rates as a result of financing transactions.
2015
Cash used for operating activities was $77.3 million in 2015 compared to $245.1 million of cash provided from operating activities in 2014.  Our consolidated net loss in 2015 and 2014 included non-cash items of $700.8 million and $877.6 million, respectively. Non-cash items affecting our net loss include impairment charges, depreciation and amortization, deferred taxes, provision for doubtful accounts, amortization of deferred financing charges and note discounts, net, share-based compensation, gain on disposal of operating and fixed assets, gain on marketable securities, equity in (earnings) loss of nonconsolidated affiliates, loss on extinguishment of debt, and other reconciling items, net as presented on the face of the consolidated statement of cash flows.  The increase in cash used for operating activities is primarily attributed to an increase of $146.1 million of cash interest payments in 2015 compared to 2014, as well as changes in working capital balances, particularly accounts receivable, which were driven primarily by an increase in revenues and slower collections, as well as prepaid and other current assets.  Cash paid for interest was higher in 2015 compared to the prior year due to the timing of accrued interest payments and higher interest rates as a result of refinancing transactions.
Investing Activities
2017
Cash used for investing activities of $236.1 million in 2017 reflected $292.0 million used for capital expenditures, partially offset by net cash proceeds from the sale of assets of $83.0 million, which included net cash proceeds from the sale of our Outdoor

51



Indianapolis market of $43.1 million. We spent $58.1 million for capital expenditures in our iHM segment primarily related to leasehold improvements and IT infrastructure, $74.6 million in our Americas outdoor segment primarily related to the construction of new advertising structures such as digital displays, $146.4 million in our International outdoor segment primarily related to street furniture advertising structures, $0.9 million in our Other category and $12.0 million by Corporate primarily related to equipment and software. 
2016
Cash provided by investing activities of $510.9 million in 2016 primarily reflected net cash proceeds from the sale of nine non-strategic outdoor markets including Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, Des Moines, Iowa, Ft. Smith, Arkansas, Memphis, Tennessee, Portland, Oregon, Reno, Nevada, Seattle, Washington and Wichita, Kansas of $592.3 million in cash and certain advertising assets in Florida, and the sale of our outdoor business in Australia for $195.7 million, net of cash retained by the purchaser and closing costs. Those sale proceeds were partially offset by $314.7 million used for capital expenditures.  We spent $73.2 million for capital expenditures in our iHM segment primarily related to leasehold improvements and IT infrastructure, $81.4 million in our Americas outdoor segment primarily related to the construction of new advertising structures such as digital displays, $143.8 million in our International outdoor segment primarily related to street furniture advertising structures, $2.5 million in our Other category and $13.8 million by Corporate primarily related to equipment and software. 
2015
Cash provided by investing activities of $30.2 million in 2015 primarily reflected proceeds of $369.9 million from the sale of broadcasting towers and related property and equipment, as well as proceeds of $34.3 million from the sale of our San Antonio office buildings, partially offset by closing costs incurred in relation to the sale of broadcasting towers of $10.0 million. We are leasing back a portion of the radio towers and related property and equipment, as well as the San Antonio office buildings, under long-term operating leases. Those sale proceeds were partially offset by $296.4 million used for capital expenditures and $85.8 million used to purchase businesses, investments and other operating assets.  We spent $63.8 million for capital expenditures in our iHM segment primarily related to leasehold improvements and IT infrastructure, $82.2 million in our Americas outdoor segment primarily related to the construction of new advertising structures such as digital displays, $132.6 million in our International outdoor segment primarily related to street furniture advertising and digital billboard structures, $2.0 million in our Other category and $15.8 million by Corporate primarily related to equipment and software. 
Financing Activities
2017
Cash provided by financing activities of $151.3 million in 2017 primarily resulted from proceeds from long-term debt issued by one of our international subsidiaries, as well as borrowings on our receivables-based credit facility. These proceeds were partially offset by dividends paid to non-controlling interests, which represents the portion of the dividends paid by CCOH to parties other than our subsidiaries that own CCOH stock, and a payment under our receivables-based credit facility.
2016
Cash used for financing activities of $418.2 million in 2016 primarily resulted from the purchase of our  10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 for an aggregate purchase price of $222.2 million, the payment at maturity of $192.9 million of 5.5% Senior Notes in December 2016, other payments on long-term debt and dividends paid to non-controlling interests, partially offset by net draws under our  receivables based credit facility of $100.0 million.
2015
Cash provided by financing activities of $377.4 million in 2015 primarily resulted from net draws under our  receivables based credit facility of $230.0 million, the net effect of the proceeds from the issuance of $950.0 million of 10.625% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2023 and proceeds from the issuance by CCIBV of $225.0 million of 8.75% Senior Notes due 2020, offset by the prepayment at par of $916.1 million of the loans outstanding under our term loan B facility, $15.2 million of the loans outstanding under our term loan C-asset sale facility and cash paid of $42.6 million to purchase CCOH’s Class A common stock.

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Liquidity Before Filing the Chapter 11 Cases
Historically, our primary sources of liquidity were cash on hand, cash flow from operations, borrowing capacity under our domestic receivables-based credit facility, subject to the limitations contained in our material financing agreements, and cash from liquidity-generating transactions. As of December 31, 2017, we had $267.1 million of cash and cash equivalents on our balance sheet, including $144.1 million of cash and cash equivalents held by our subsidiary, CCOH. Cash held by CCOH included $119.0 million of cash held outside the U.S. Excess cash from our foreign operations may be transferred to our operations in the United States if needed to fund operations in the United States, subject to the foreseeable cash needs of our foreign operations and the mutual agreement of CCOH and us.  If any excess cash held by our foreign subsidiaries were needed to fund operations in the U.S., we could presently repatriate available funds without a requirement to accrue or pay U.S. taxes as a result of significant deficits, as calculated for tax law purposes, in our foreign earnings and profits, which gives us flexibility to make future cash distributions as non-taxable returns of capital. Additionally, as a result of U.S. tax reform, future dividend distributions from our international subsidiaries are exempt from U.S. federal income tax beginning January 1, 2018.
On November 30, 2017, we refinanced our receivables based credit facility and replaced it with a new facility providing for a $300.0 million term loan and revolving credit commitments of $250.0 million. The facility has a three-year term, maturing in 2020 and accrues interest at a rate of LIBOR plus 4.75%.
As of December 31, 2017, we had $405.0 million of outstanding borrowings and had $57.3 million of outstanding letters of credit under the receivables-based credit facility.
Recent Liquidity-Generating Transactions
On February 7, 2017, we completed an exchange offer of $476.4 million principal amount of our 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 for $476.4 million principal amount of newly-issued 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021. Of the $476.4 million principal amount of 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 issued in the exchange offer, $241.4 million principal amount was issued to subsidiaries of ours that participated in the exchange offer.
On February 9, 2017, CCOH declared a special dividend of $282.5 million using a portion of the proceeds from the sales of certain non-strategic U.S. outdoor markets and of our Australia outdoor business. On February 23, 2017, we received 89.9% of that dividend, or approximately $254.0 million, with the remaining 10.1%, or approximately $28.5 million, paid to public stockholders of CCOH.
On July 10, 2017, a subsidiary of ours exchanged $15.6 million aggregate principal amount outstanding of 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 that were held by an unaffiliated third party for $15.6 million aggregate principal amount of its 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 that were held by a subsidiary of ours.
On July 31, 2017, we borrowed an additional $60.0 million under our receivables-based credit facility.
On August 14, 2017, Clear Channel International B.V. ("CCIBV"), our indirect subsidiary, issued an additional $150.0 million in aggregate principal amount of its 8.75% Senior Notes due 2020 (the “New CCIBV Notes”). The New CCIBV Notes were issued as additional notes under the indenture governing CCIBV’s existing 8.75% Senior Notes due 2020 and were issued at a premium, which resulted in $156.0 million in proceeds.  The New CCIBV Notes mature on December 15, 2020 and bear interest at a rate of 8.75% per annum, payable semi-annually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year.
In October 2017, a subsidiary of ours exchanged $45.0 million aggregate principal amount of 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 that were held by a subsidiary of ours for $45.0 million aggregate principal amount of 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 that were held by unaffiliated third parties.
On November 30, 2017, we refinanced our receivables based credit facility and replaced it with a new facility providing for a $300.0 million term loan and revolving credit commitments of $250.0 million (together, the "Facility"). On November 30, 2017, we drew $300.0 million on the term loan and $65.0 million on the revolving credit commitments for a total of $365.0 million in borrowings. The Facility has a three-year term, maturing in 2020, and accrues interest at a rate of LIBOR plus 4.75%. On December 27, 2017, we incurred $40.0 million of additional borrowings under the revolving credit loan portion of the Facility bringing our total outstanding borrowings under the Facility to $405.0 million.
On January 18, 2018, we incurred $25.0 million of additional borrowings under the revolving credit loan portion of the Facility bringing its total outstanding borrowings under the Facility to $430.0 million. In February 2018, we prepaid $59.0 million on the revolving credit loan portion of its new Facility bringing its total outstanding borrowings under the Facility to $371.0 million.

53



Non-Payment of $57.1 Million of Our Legacy Notes Held by an Affiliate
Our wholly-owned subsidiary, Clear Channel Holdings, Inc. ("CCH"), owns $57.1 million aggregate principal amount of our 5.50% Senior Notes due 2016 (the "5.50% Senior Notes"). On December 9, 2016, a special committee of our independent directors decided to not repay the $57.1 million principal amount of the 5.50% Senior Notes held by CCH when the notes matured on December 15, 2016 and on December 12, 2016, we informed CCH of that decision. CCH informed us on that date that, while it retains its right to exercise remedies under the indenture governing the 5.50% Senior Notes (the "legacy notes indenture") in the future, it does not currently intend to, and it does not currently intend to request that the trustee, seek to collect principal amounts due or exercise or request enforcement of any remedy with respect to the nonpayment of such principal amount under the legacy notes indenture. As a result, $57.1 million of the 5.50% Senior Notes remain outstanding. We repaid the other $192.9 million of 5.50% Senior Notes held by other holders.
As a result of the non-payment of the $57.1 million of the 5.50% Senior Notes, we continue to have in excess of $500 million of Legacy Notes outstanding.  Matters involving the validity and priority of any liens on iHeartMedia property are now before the Bankruptcy Court.
Notes Exchange Offers and Term Loan Offers
On March 15, 2017, we commenced exchange offers (the “notes exchange offers”) to exchange certain series of its outstanding debt securities (the “Existing Notes”) for new securities of Parent, the Company and CC Outdoor Holdings, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Parent, and concurrent consent solicitations with respect to the terms of the Existing Notes. On March 15, 2017, the Company also commenced offers (the “term loan offers”) to amend its outstanding Term Loan D and Term Loan E borrowings under its senior secured credit facilities and/or to issue new securities of Parent, CC Outdoor Holdings, Inc., Broader Media, LLC and/or the Company to the lenders depending on the scenario in which the notes exchange offers and the term loan offers close. On March 15, 2018, in light of the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases, we terminated the notes exchange offers and the term loan offers.
Liquidity After Filing the Chapter 11 Cases
Our filing of the Chapter 11 Cases constitutes an event of default that accelerated our obligations under our debt agreements. Due to the Chapter 11 Cases, however, the creditors' ability to exercise remedies under our debt agreements were stayed as of March 14, 2018, the date of the Chapter 11 petition filing, and continue to be stayed.
On March 16, 2018, the Debtors entered into a Restructuring Support Agreement (the “RSA”) with certain creditors and equityholders (the “Consenting Stakeholders”). The RSA contemplates the restructuring and recapitalization of the Debtors (the “Restructuring Transactions”), which will be implemented through a plan of reorganization in the Chapter 11 Cases. Pursuant to the RSA, the Consenting Stakeholders have agreed to, among other things, support the Restructuring Transactions and vote in favor of a plan of reorganization to effect the Restructuring Transactions.
The RSA provides certain milestones for the Restructuring Transactions. Failure of the Debtors to satisfy these milestones without a waiver or consensual amendment would provide the Consenting Stakeholders a termination right under the RSA. These milestones include (i) the filing of a plan of reorganization, disclosure statement and motion for approval of the disclosure statement, in form and substance reasonably acceptable to the Debtors and the Consenting Stakeholders, which was filed with the Bankruptcy Court on April 28, 2018, (ii) the entry of an order approving the disclosure statement by July 7, 2018, (iii) the entry of an order confirming the plan of reorganization within 75 days of the entry of an order approving the disclosure statement and (iv) the effective date of the plan of reorganization occurring by March 14, 2019.
In general, as debtors-in-possession under the Bankruptcy Code, we are authorized to continue to operate as an ongoing business, but may not engage in transactions outside the ordinary course of business without the prior approval of the Bankruptcy Court. Pursuant to first day motions filed with the Bankruptcy Court, the Bankruptcy Court authorized us to conduct our business activities in the ordinary course, including, among other things and subject to the terms and conditions of such orders, authorizing us to: (i) pay employees’ wages and related obligations; (ii) continue to operate our cash management system in a form substantially similar to prepetition practice; (iii) use cash collateral on an interim basis; (iv) continue to honor certain obligations related to on-air talent, station affiliates and royalty obligations; (v) continue to maintain certain customer programs; (vi) pay taxes in the ordinary course; (vii) continue our surety bond program; and (viii) maintain our insurance program in the ordinary course.
The filing of the Chapter 11 Cases is intended to permit us to reduce our indebtedness to achieve a manageable capital structure. We filed a plan of reorganization with the Bankruptcy Court on April 28, 2018.

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During the pendency of the Chapter 11 Cases, our principal sources of liquidity are expected to be limited to cash flow from operations, cash on hand and, if obtained, borrowings under a DIP credit facility. Our ability to maintain adequate liquidity through the reorganization process and beyond depends on successful operation of our business, and appropriate management of operating expenses and capital spending. Our anticipated liquidity needs are highly sensitive to changes in each of these and other factors.
The Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K have been prepared on a going concern basis of accounting, which contemplates continuity of operations, realization of assets, and satisfaction of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. The Consolidated Financial Statements do not reflect any adjustments that might result from the outcome of the Chapter 11 Cases. We have significant indebtedness and we have reclassified all of the Debtors' indebtedness to current liabilities at December 31, 2017. Our level of indebtedness has adversely impacted and is continuing to adversely impact our financial condition. As a result of our financial condition, the defaults under our debt agreements, and the risks and uncertainties surrounding the Chapter 11 Cases, substantial doubt exists that we will be able to continue as a going concern.
In connection with the cash management arrangements for CCOH, we maintain an intercompany revolving promissory note payable by us to CCOH (the "Intercompany Note"), which matures on May 15, 2019. As of December 31, 2017, the principal amount outstanding under the Intercompany Note was $1,067.6 million. As a result of the Chapter 11 Cases, CCOH wrote down the balance of the note to $212.0 million during the fourth quarter of 2017 to reflect the estimated recoverable amount of the Intercompany Note as of December 31, 2017, based on CCOH management's best estimate of the cash settlement amount. The Intercompany note is eliminated in consolidation in our consolidated financial statements. Pursuant to an order entered by the Bankruptcy Court, as of March 14, 2018, the balance of the Intercompany Note is frozen, and following March 14, 2018, intercompany allocations that would have been reflected in adjustments to the balance of the Intercompany Note are instead reflected in an intercompany balance that accrues interest at a rate equal to the interest under the Intercompany Note. As a result, we are continuing to provide the day-to-day cash management services for CCOH during the Chapter 11 Cases, and we expect to continue to do so until such arrangements are addressed through the Chapter 11 Cases.
The Bankruptcy Court’s order also approves our continuing to provide services to CCOH pursuant to the Corporate Services Agreement during the Chapter 11 Cases. Although we expect we will continue to provide services to CCOH under the Corporate Services Agreement during the Chapter 11 Cases, we currently expect that if CCOH is separated from us at the conclusion of the Chapter 11 Cases as contemplated by the RSA and the proposed plan of reorganization filed with the Bankruptcy Court, the Corporate Services Agreement will terminate, be modified or be replaced with an agreement that gives effect to such separation.
Indebtedness
As of December 31, 2017, we had $20.6 billion of consolidated indebtedness. The filing of the Chapter 11 Cases constituted an event of default with respect to our existing debt obligations, or approximately $15.0 billion of our consolidated debt. As a result of the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases, all of the indebtedness of the Debtors became immediately due and payable, but any efforts to enforce such payment obligations were automatically stayed as a result of the Chapter 11 Cases. These debt obligations and substantially all other pre-petition obligations of the Debtors are subject to settlement under a plan of reorganization which must be confirmed by the Bankruptcy Court. The Chapter 11 Cases did not trigger any default or event of default under the debt obligations of our subsidiaries Clear Channel Worldwide Holdings, Inc. and Clear Channel International B.V.

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The balances of outstanding debt of the Debtors shown in the table below have been reclassified as current liabilities on the accompanying consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2017. Debt balances as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 consists of the following:
 
December 31,
(In millions)
2017
 
2016
Senior Secured Credit Facilities:
 
 
 
Term Loan D Facility Due 2019
$
5,000.0

 
$
5,000.0

Term Loan E Facility Due 2019
1,300.0

 
1,300.0

Receivables Based Credit Facility(1)
405.0

 
330.0

9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes Due 2019
1,999.8

 
1,999.8

9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes Due 2021
1,750.0

 
1,750.0

11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes Due 2021(2)
870.5

 
575.0

9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes Due 2022
1,000.0

 
1,000.0

10.625% Priority Guarantee Notes Due 2023
950.0

 
950.0

Subsidiary Revolving Credit Facility due 2018(3)

 

Other Secured Subsidiary Debt
8.5

 
21.0

Total Secured Debt
$
13,283.8

 
$
12,925.8

 
 
 
 
14.0% Senior Notes Due 2021
1,763.9

 
1,729.2

Legacy Notes:
 
 
 
5.5% Senior Notes Due 2016(4)

 

6.875% Senior Notes Due 2018
175.0

 
175.0

7.25% Senior Notes Due 2027
300.0

 
300.0

10.0% Senior Notes Due 2018(2)
47.5

 
347.0

Subsidiary Senior Notes:
 
 
 
6.5% Series A Senior Notes Due 2022
735.8

 
735.8

6.5% Series B Senior Notes Due 2022
1,989.2

 
1,989.2

Subsidiary Senior Subordinated Notes:
 
 
 
7.625% Series A Senior Notes Due 2020
275.0

 
275.0

7.625% Series B Senior Notes Due 2020
1,925.0

 
1,925.0

Subsidiary 8.75% Senior Notes due 2020(5)
375.0

 
225.0

Other Subsidiary Debt
24.6

 
28.0

Purchase accounting adjustments and original issue discount
(136.6
)
 
(167.0
)
Long-term debt fees
(109.0
)
 
(123.0
)
Total Debt
$
20,649.2

 
$
20,365.0

Less:  Cash and cash equivalents
267.1

 
845.0

 
$
20,382.1

 
$
19,520.0

(1)
On November 30, 2017, we refinanced its receivables based credit facility and replaced it with a new facility providing for a $300.0 million term loan and revolving credit commitments of $250.0 million. On November 30, 2017, we drew $300.0 million on the term loan and $65.0 million on the revolving credit commitments for a total of $365.0 million in borrowings. The facility has a three-year term, maturing in 2020, and accrues interest at a rate of LIBOR plus 4.75%. On December 27, 2017, we incurred $40.0 million of additional borrowings under the revolving credit loan portion of this facility bringing our total outstanding borrowings under this facility to $405.0 million.
(2)
On February 7, 2017, we completed an exchange offer of $476.4 million principal amount of our 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 for $476.4 million principal amount of newly-issued 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021, which were issued as "additional notes" under the indenture governing the 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021. Of the $476.4 million principal amount of 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 issued in the exchange offer, $241.4 million principal amount was issued to subsidiaries of ours that participated in the exchange offer. On July 10, 2017, we exchanged $15.6 million principal amount of our 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 that were held by an unaffiliated third party for $15.6 million principal amount of our 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 that were held by a subsidiary of ours.

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In October 2017, we exchanged $45.0 million principal amount of our 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 that were held by unaffiliated third parties for $45.0 million principal amount of our 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 that were held by a subsidiary of ours. On December 13, 2017 we repurchased $4.0 million aggregate principal amount of 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 that were held by unaffiliated third parties for $2.7 million in cash.
On January 4, 2018, we repurchased $5.4 million aggregate principal amount of 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 that were held by unaffiliated third parties for $5.3 million in cash. On January 16, 2018, we repaid the remaining balance of $42.1 million aggregate principal amount of 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 at maturity.
(3)
The subsidiary revolving credit facility provides for borrowings of up to $75.0 million (the revolving credit commitment).
(4)
In December 2016, we repaid at maturity $192.9 million of 5.5% Senior Notes due 2016 and did not pay $57.1 million of the notes held by a subsidiary of ours. The $57.1 million of aggregate principal amount remains outstanding and is eliminated for purposes of consolidation of our financial statements.
(5)
On August 14, 2017, CCIBV, our indirect subsidiary, issued $150.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 8.75% Senior Notes due 2020 (the “New CCIBV Notes”). The New CCIBV Notes were issued as additional notes under the indenture governing CCIBV’s existing 8.75% Senior Notes due 2020.
Senior Secured Credit Facilities
As of December 31, 2017, we had a total of $6.3 billion outstanding under our senior secured credit facilities, consisting of:
a $5.0 billion term loan D, which matures on January 30, 2019; and
a $1.3 billion term loan E, which matures on July 30, 2019.
We are the primary borrower under the senior secured credit facilities, and certain of our domestic restricted subsidiaries are co-borrowers under a portion of the term loan facilities.
The filing of the Chapter 11 Cases triggered an event of default that accelerated our obligations under the senior secured credit facilities. The credit agreement governing the senior secured credit facilities provides that upon acceleration of our obligations under the senior secured credit facilities, the outstanding balance of loans becomes due, unpaid interest accrued as of the time of acceleration becomes due, and any fees payable by or other obligations of ours become due. Under the Bankruptcy Code, the creditors under the senior secured credit facilities are stayed from taking any action against us or any of the other Debtors as a result of the default.
Interest Rate and Fees
Prior to the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases, borrowings under our senior secured credit facilities bore interest at a rate equal to an applicable margin plus, at our option, either (i) a base rate determined by reference to the higher of (A) the prime lending rate publicly announced by the administrative agent or (B) the Federal funds effective rate from time to time plus 0.50%, or (ii) a Eurocurrency rate determined by reference to the costs of funds for deposits for the interest period relevant to such borrowing adjusted for certain additional costs.
The margin percentages applicable to the term loan facilities were the following percentages per annum:
with respect to loans under the term loan D, (i) 5.75% in the case of base rate loans and (ii) 6.75% in the case of Eurocurrency rate loans; and
with respect to loans under the term loan E, (i) 6.50% in the case of base rate loans and (ii) 7.50% in the case of Eurocurrency rate loans.
The margin percentages were subject to adjustment based upon our leverage ratio:
As a result of the default triggered by the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases, the senior secured credit facilities currently bear interest at a default rate equal to the rate otherwise applicable to the loans under the senior secured credit facilities plus 2%. However, we are not currently paying interest on the senior secured credit facilities while the Chapter 11 Cases are pending.

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Collateral and Guarantees
The senior secured credit facilities are guaranteed by us and each of our existing and future material wholly-owned domestic restricted subsidiaries, subject to certain exceptions.
All obligations under the senior secured credit facilities, and the guarantees of those obligations, are secured, subject to permitted liens, including prior liens permitted by the indenture governing our legacy notes, and other exceptions, by:
a lien on our capital stock ;
100% of the capital stock of any future material wholly-owned domestic license subsidiary that is not a “Restricted Subsidiary” under the indenture governing our legacy notes;
certain assets that do not constitute “principal property” (as defined in the indenture governing our legacy notes);
certain specified assets of ours and the guarantors that constitute “principal property” (as defined in the indenture governing our legacy notes) securing obligations under the senior secured credit facilities up to the maximum amount permitted to be secured by such assets without requiring equal and ratable security under the indenture governing our legacy notes; and
a lien on the accounts receivable and related assets securing our receivables based credit facility that is junior to the lien securing our obligations under such credit facility.
Certain Covenants and Events of Default
The senior secured credit facilities require us to comply on a quarterly basis with a financial covenant limiting the ratio of consolidated secured debt, net of cash and cash equivalents, to consolidated EBITDA (as defined by our senior secured credit facilities) for the preceding four quarters.  Our secured debt consists of the senior secured credit facilities, the receivables based credit facility, the priority guarantee notes and certain other secured subsidiary debt.  As required by the definition of consolidated EBITDA in our senior secured credit facilities, our consolidated EBITDA for the preceding four quarters of $1.6 billion is calculated as operating income (loss) before depreciation, amortization, impairment charges and other operating income (expense), net plus share-based compensation and is further adjusted for the following items: (i) costs incurred in connection with the closure and/or consolidation of facilities, retention charges, consulting fees and other permitted activities; (ii) extraordinary, non-recurring or unusual gains or losses or expenses and severance; (iii) non-cash charges; (iv) cash received from nonconsolidated affiliates; and (v) various other items.

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The following table reflects a reconciliation of consolidated EBITDA (as defined by our senior secured credit facilities) to operating income and net cash provided by operating activities for the four quarters ended December 31, 2017:
 
Four Quarters Ended
(In Millions)
December 31, 2017
Consolidated EBITDA (as defined by our senior secured credit facilities)
$
1,589.5

Less adjustments to consolidated EBITDA (as defined by our senior secured credit facilities):
Costs incurred in connection with the closure and/or consolidation of facilities, retention charges, consulting fees and other permitted activities
(37.8
)
Extraordinary, non-recurring or unusual gains or losses or expenses and severance (as referenced in the definition of consolidated EBITDA in our senior secured credit facilities)
(43.3
)
Non-cash charges
(20.4
)
Other items
66.9

Less: Depreciation and amortization, Impairment charges, Other operating income (expense), net, and Share-based compensation expense
(585.0
)
Operating income
969.9

Plus: Depreciation and amortization, Impairment charges, Gain (loss) on disposal of operating and fixed assets, and Share-based compensation expense
579.1

Less: Interest expense
(1,865.6
)
Less: Current income tax expense
(30.8
)
Plus: Other income (expense), net
(15.3
)
Adjustments to reconcile consolidated net loss to net cash provided by operating activities (including Provision for doubtful accounts, Amortization of deferred financing charges and note discounts, net and Other reconciling items, net)
25.8

Change in assets and liabilities, net of assets acquired and liabilities assumed
(166.8
)
Net cash used for operating activities
$
(503.7
)
The maximum ratio permitted under this financial covenant for the four quarters ended December 31, 2017 was 8.75:1.  At December 31, 2017, the ratio was 8.2:1.
Receivables Based Credit Facility
On November 30, 2017, we refinanced our receivables based credit facility and replaced it with the Facility, which provides for a $300.0 million term loan and revolving credit commitments of $250.0 million. On November 30, 2017, we drew $300.0 million on the term loan and $65.0 million on the revolving credit commitments for a total of $365.0 million in borrowings. The Facility has a three-year term, maturing on November 30, 2020, and accrues interest at a rate of LIBOR plus 4.75%. On December 27, 2017, we incurred $40.0 million of additional borrowings under this Facility bringing its total outstanding borrowings under this Facility to $405.0 million.
On January 18, 2018, we incurred $25.0 million of additional borrowings under the revolving credit loan portion of the Facility bringing its total outstanding borrowings under the Facility to $430.0 million. In February 2018, we prepaid $59.0 million on the revolving credit loan portion of the Facility bringing its total outstanding borrowings under the Facility to $371.0 million.
The Facility provides commitments of $550.0 million, subject to a borrowing base. The Facility includes a letter of credit sub-facility and a swingline loan sub-facility. We and certain subsidiary borrowers are the borrowers under the Facility.
Pursuant to an order approved by the Bankruptcy Court, we are currently making postpetition interest payments under the Facility.
Interest Rate and Fees
Prior to the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases, borrowings under the Facility bore interest at a rate per annum equal to an applicable rate plus, at our option, either (1) a base rate determined by reference to the highest of (a) the prime rate of PNC Bank, National Association and (b) the Federal Funds rate plus 0.50% or (2) a Eurocurrency rate that is the greater of (a) 1.00%, and (b) the quotient of (i) the ICE LIBOR rate, or if such rate is not available, the rate determined by the Administrative Agent, and (ii) one minus the maximum rate at which reserves are required to be maintained for Eurocurrency liabilities. The applicable rate for

59



borrowings under the Facility was 4.75% with respect to Eurocurrency term loans and revolving loans and 3.75% with respect to base rate term loans and revolving loans.
In addition to paying interest on outstanding principal under the Facility, we are required to pay a commitment fee of 0.75% to the lenders under the Facility in respect of the unutilized revolving commitments thereunder.  We must also pay a letter of credit fee equal to 4.75% per annum.
Priority Guarantee Notes
The filing of the Chapter 11 Cases constituted an event of default that accelerated the Company's obligations under the 9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2019, 9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021, 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021, 9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2022 and 10.625% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2023 (collectively, the "Priority Guarantee Notes"). Under the indentures pursuant to which the Priority Guarantee Notes were issued, upon the acceleration of our obligations under the Priority Guarantee Notes, the Priority Guarantee Notes are deemed to have matured, the unpaid principal balance of the Priority Guarantee Notes comes due, unpaid interest accrued as of the time of the acceleration comes due, and any applicable premiums (as determined pursuant to the applicable indentures) comes due. Under the Bankruptcy Code, the holders of the Priority Guarantee Notes are stayed from taking any action against the Debtors.
As a result of the default triggered by the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases, each issue of Priority Guarantee Notes currently bears interest at a default rate equal 1.0% per annum in excess of the applicable interest rate. However, we are not currently paying interest on the Priority Guarantee Notes while the Chapter 11 Cases are pending.
The Priority Guarantee Notes are our senior obligations and are fully and unconditionally guaranteed, jointly and severally, on a senior basis by the guarantors named in the applicable indenture. Each issue of Priority Guarantee Notes and the guarantors’ obligations under the respective guarantees are secured by (i) a lien on (a) our capital stock  and (b) certain property and related assets that do not constitute “principal property” (as defined in the indenture governing certain Legacy Notes of ours), in each case equal in priority to the liens securing the obligations under our senior secured credit facilities and the other Priority Guarantee Notes, subject to certain exceptions, and (ii) a lien on the accounts receivable and related assets securing our Facility junior in priority to the lien securing our obligations thereunder, subject to certain exceptions.
9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2019
As of December 31, 2017, iHeartCommunications had outstanding $2.0 billion aggregate principal amount of 9.0% priority guarantee notes due 2019 (the "9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2019").
The 9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2019 are scheduled to mature on December 15, 2019 and, prior to the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases, bore interest at a rate of 9.0% per annum, payable semi-annually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year. In addition to the collateral granted to secure the 9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2019 described above under “--Priority Guarantee Notes,” the collateral agent and the trustee for the 9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2019 entered into an agreement with the administrative agent for the lenders under the senior secured credit facilities to turn over to the trustee under the 9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2019, for the benefit of the holders of the 9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2019, a pro rata share of any recovery received on account of the principal properties, subject to certain terms and conditions.
9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021
As of December 31, 2017, we had outstanding $1.75 billion aggregate principal amount of 9.0% priority guarantee notes due 2021 (the “9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021”).
The 9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 are scheduled to mature on March 1, 2021 and, prior to the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases, bore interest at a rate of 9.0% per annum, payable semi-annually in arrears on March 1 and September 1 of each year.

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11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021
As of December 31, 2017, we had outstanding $870.5 million (net of $180.8 million aggregate principal amount held by certain subsidiaries of iHeartCommunications) aggregate principal amount of 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 (the “11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021”). On February 7, 2017, we completed an exchange offer of $476.4 million principal amount of our 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 for $476.4 million principal amount of newly-issued 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021, which were issued as “additional notes” under the indenture governing the 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021. Of the $476.4 million principal amount of 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 issued in the exchange offer, $241.4 million principal amount was issued to subsidiaries of ours that exchanged 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 in the exchange offer. On July 10, 2017, we exchanged $15.6 million principal amount of our 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 that were held by an unaffiliated third party for $15.6 million principal amount of our 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 that were held by a subsidiary of ours. In October 2017, we exchanged $45.0 million principal amount of our 10.0% Senior Notes due 2018 that were held by unaffiliated third parties for $45.0 million principal amount of our 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 that were held by a subsidiary of ours.
The 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 are scheduled to mature on March 1, 2021 and, prior to the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases, bore interest at a rate of 11.25% per annum, payable semi-annually in arrears on March 1 and September 1 of each year. In connection with the exchange offer that was completed on February 7, 2017, we entered into a registration rights agreement pursuant to which we agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to file and cause to be declared effective a registration statement covering a registered offer to exchange the 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 issued in the exchange offer for exchange notes having substantially identical terms (except that they will have been registered pursuant to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act and will not contain provisions for special interest). Because such a registration statement did not become effective within 420 days of the February 7, 2017 closing of the exchange offer, commencing after April 3, 2018, the 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 issued in the exchange offer are subject to special interest that is accruing at a rate of 0.25% per annum during the first 90 days following April 3, 2018 and will accrue at a rate of 0.50% thereafter until the registration default is cured. We are not currently paying any interest or special interest on the 11.25% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2021 while the Chapter 11 Cases are pending.
9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2022
As of December 31, 2017, we had outstanding $1.0 billion aggregate principal amount of 9.0% priority guarantee notes due 2022 (the “9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2022”).
The 9.0% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2022 are scheduled to mature on September 15, 2022 and, prior to the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases, bore interest at a rate of 9.0% per annum, payable semi-annually in arrears on March 15 and September 15 of each year.
10.625% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2023
As of December 31, 2017, we had outstanding $950.0 million aggregate principal amount of 10.625% priority guarantee notes due 2023 (the “10.625% Priority Guarantee Notes due 2023”).
The 1