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EX-31.1 - ROPER TECHNOLOGIES INCex31-1.htm
EX-23.1 - ROPER TECHNOLOGIES INCex23-1.htm
EX-21.1 - ROPER TECHNOLOGIES INCex21-1.htm
EX-31.2 - ROPER TECHNOLOGIES INCex31-2.htm
EX-10.20 - AMENDMENT TO CREDIT AGREEMENT - ROPER TECHNOLOGIES INCexhibit_10-20.htm
EX-32.1 - ROPER TECHNOLOGIES INCex32-1.htm
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
--------------------------
FORM 10-K
 
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015

    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from ___ to ___

Commission File Number 1-12273

ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
----------------
Delaware
 
51-0263969
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
----------------
6901 Professional Parkway East, Suite 200
Sarasota, Florida 34240
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (941) 556-2601
----------------
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:

Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 Par Value
 
New York Stock Exchange

SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT: None
----------------
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes   No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.   Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes   No

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§223.405) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer   Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12-b2 of the Act). Yes   No

Based on the closing sale price on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2015, the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was: $16,931,595,935.

Number of shares of registrant's Common Stock outstanding as of February 19, 2016: 101,064,624.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement to be furnished to Stockholders in connection with its Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 27, 2016, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
 
 
ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

FORM 10-K FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2015

Table of Contents

PART I
 
Page
Item 1.
Business
4
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
8
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
12
Item 2.
Properties
13
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
13
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
13
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
14
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
16
Item 7.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
16
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
26
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
27
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
55
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
55
Item 9B.
Other Information
56
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
56
Item 11.
Executive Compensation
56
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
56
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence
57
Item 14.
Principal Accountant Fees and Services
57
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
Item 15.
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
57
 
Signatures
60
 
2

Information About Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Annual Report") includes and incorporates by reference "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the federal securities laws. In addition, we, or our executive officers on our behalf, may from time to time make forward-looking statements in reports and other documents we file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") or in connection with oral statements made to the press, potential investors or others. All statements that are not historical facts are "forward-looking statements."  Forward-looking statements may be indicated by words or phrases such as "anticipate," "estimate," "plans," "expects," "projects," "should," "will," "believes" or "intends" and similar words and phrases. These statements reflect management's current beliefs and are not guarantees of future performance. They involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in any forward-looking statement.

Examples of forward-looking statements in this report include but are not limited to statements regarding operating results, the success of our operating plans, our expectations regarding our ability to generate cash and reduce debt and associated interest expense, profit and cash flow expectations, the prospects for newly acquired businesses to be integrated and contribute to future growth and our expectations regarding growth through acquisitions. Important assumptions relating to the forward-looking statements include, among others, demand for our products, the cost, timing and success of product upgrades and new product introductions, raw material costs, expected pricing levels, expected outcomes of pending litigation, competitive conditions and general economic conditions. These assumptions could prove inaccurate. Although we believe that the estimates and projections reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may prove to be incorrect. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from estimates or projections contained in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:

general economic conditions;
difficulty making acquisitions and successfully integrating acquired businesses;
any unforeseen liabilities associated with future acquisitions;
limitations on our business imposed by our indebtedness;
unfavorable changes in foreign exchange rates;
difficulties associated with exports;
risks and costs associated with our international sales and operations;
rising interest rates;
product liability and insurance risks;
increased warranty exposure;
future competition;
the cyclical nature of some of our markets;
reduction of business with large customers;
risks associated with government contracts;
changes in the supply of, or price for, raw materials, parts and components;
environmental compliance costs and liabilities;
risks and costs associated with asbestos-related litigation;
potential write-offs of our substantial goodwill and other intangible assets;
our ability to successfully develop new products;
failure to protect our intellectual property;
the effect of, or change in, government regulations (including tax);
economic disruption caused by terrorist attacks, including cybersecurity threats, health crises or other unforeseen events; and
the factors discussed in Item 1A to this Annual Report under the heading "Risk Factors."

We believe these forward-looking statements are reasonable. However, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based on current expectations. Further, forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we undertake no obligation to publicly update any of them in light of new information or future events.
3

PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
 
Our Business

Effective April 24, 2015, Roper Industries, Inc. changed its name to Roper Technologies, Inc. in order to reflect our continued evolution to a diversified technology company.
 
Roper Technologies, Inc. ("Roper," the "Company," "we," "our" or "us") is a diversified technology company.  We operate businesses that design and develop software (both license and software-as-a-service) and engineered products and solutions for a variety of niche end markets; including healthcare, transportation, food, energy, water, education and academic research.

We pursue consistent and sustainable growth in earnings by emphasizing continuous improvement in the operating performance of our existing businesses and by acquiring other businesses that offer high value-added services, engineered products and solutions that we believe are capable of achieving growth and maintaining high margins.   We compete in many niche markets and believe we are the market leader or a competitive alternative to the market leader in most of these markets.
 
We were incorporated on December 17, 1981 under the laws of the State of Delaware.

Market Share, Market Expansion, and Product Development

Leadership with Engineered Content for Niche Markets - We maintain a leading position in many of our markets. We believe our market positions are attributable to the technical sophistication of our products and software, the applications expertise used to create our advanced products and systems, and our distribution and service capabilities. Our operating units grow their businesses through new product development and development of new applications and services to satisfy customer needs. In addition, our operating units grow our customer base by expanding our access to customers and entering adjacent markets.

Diversified End Markets and Geographic Reach - We have a global presence, with sales to customers outside the U.S. totaling $1.2 billion in 2015.  Information regarding our international operations is set forth in Note 13 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report.

Research and Development - We conduct applied research and development to improve the quality and performance of our products and to develop new technologies and products. Our research and development spending was $164.2 million in 2015 as compared to $147.9 million and $145.7 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively.

Our Business Segments

Our operations are reported in four segments based upon common customers, markets, sales channels, technologies and common cost opportunities. The segments are: Medical & Scientific Imaging, RF Technology, Industrial Technology and Energy Systems & Controls. Financial information about our business segments is presented in Note 13 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report.

Medical and Scientific Imaging

Our Medical & Scientific Imaging segment offers products and software in medical applications, and high performance digital imaging products. These products and solutions are provided through eleven reporting units. For 2015, this segment had net sales of $1.215 billion, representing 33.9% of our total net sales.

Medical Products and Software - We provide diagnostic and laboratory software solutions to healthcare providers and services and technologies to support the diverse and complex needs of alternate site health care providers who deliver services outside of an acute care hospital setting.  We also manufacture and sell patient positioning devices and related software for use in radiation oncology, 3-D measurement technology in computer-assisted surgery and supply diagnostic and therapeutic disposable products used in ultrasound imaging for minimally invasive medical procedures.  We design and manufacture a non-invasive instrument for portable ultrasound bladder volume measurement and a video laryngoscope designed to enable rapid intubation even in the most difficult settings.  In addition, we provide a cloud-based financial analytics and performance software platform to healthcare providers.

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Digital Imaging Products and Software - We manufacture and sell extremely sensitive, high-performance electron filters, charged couple device ("CCD") and complementary metal oxide semiconductor ("CMOS") cameras, detectors and related software for a variety of scientific and industrial uses, which require high resolution and/or high speed digital video, including electron microscopy and spectroscopy applications. We sell these products for use within academic, government research, semiconductor, security and other end-user markets such as biological and material science. They are frequently incorporated into products by original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs").

Our Medical & Scientific Imaging segment companies have lead times of up to several months on some of their product sales, although standard products are often shipped within two weeks of receipt of order. Blanket purchase orders are placed by certain OEM and end-users, with continuing requirements for fulfillment over specified periods of time.
 
RF Technology

Our RF Technology segment provides radio frequency identification ("RFID") communication technology and software solutions that are used primarily in toll and traffic systems, security and access control, campus card systems, card readers, software-as-a-service in the freight matching and food industries, comprehensive management software for legal and construction firms and metering and remote monitoring applications. These products and solutions are provided through nine reporting units. This segment had sales of $1.034 billion for the year ended December 31, 2015, representing 28.9% of our total net sales.

Toll and Traffic Systems - We manufacture and sell toll tags and monitoring systems as well as provide transaction and violation processing services for toll and traffic systems to both governmental and private sector entities. In addition, we provide intelligent traffic systems that assist customers in improving traffic flow and infrastructure utilization.

Card Systems/Integrated Security Solutions - We provide card systems and integrated security solutions primarily to education and health care markets. We also provide an integrated nutrition management solution used by food service customers.

RFID Card Readers - We design, develop and manufacture RFID card readers that support most smart cards worldwide. The readers are used in numerous applications and OEM solutions including: attendance management, multi-function printers, mobile, physical access, manufacturing, dispensing, kiosks, point-of-sale and computer logon.

Software-as-a-Service - We maintain electronic marketplaces that connect 1) available capacity of trucking units with the available loads of freight to be moved from location to location throughout North America and 2) food suppliers, distributors and vendors, primarily in the perishable food sector.

Comprehensive Management Software - We provide comprehensive management software solutions for law and other professional services firms, including business development, calendar/docket matter management, time and billing and case management. We also provide construction firms with construction project management solutions which encompass the end-to-end construction process.

Metering and Remote Monitoring - We manufacture and sell meter reading, data logging and pressure control products for use in water, gas and electricity applications.  We also provide network monitoring, leakage reduction and pressure control services in water and gas distribution networks.

The RF Technology segment companies' sales reflect a combination of standard products, large engineered projects, and multi-year operations and maintenance contracts. Standard products generally ship within two weeks of receipt of order, and large engineered projects may have lead times of several months. As such, backlog may fluctuate depending upon the timing of large project awards.

Industrial Technology

Our Industrial Technology segment produces fluid handling pumps, materials analysis equipment and consumables, leak testing equipment, flow measurement and metering equipment and water meter and automatic meter reading ("AMR") products and systems. These products and solutions are provided through six reporting units. For 2015, this segment had net sales of $745.4 million, representing 20.8% of our total net sales.

5

Fluid Handling Pumps - We manufacture and sell a wide variety of pumps. These pumps vary significantly in complexity and in pumping method employed, which allows for the movement and application of a diverse range of low and high viscosity liquids, high solids content slurries and chemicals. Our pumps are used in end markets such as oil and gas, agricultural, water and wastewater, chemical and general industrial.

Materials Analysis Equipment and Consumables - We manufacture and sell equipment and supply consumables necessary to prepare material samples for testing and analysis. These products are used mostly within the material science, steel, automotive, electronics, mining and research end-user markets.

Water Meter and AMR Products and Systems - We manufacture and distribute water meter products serving the residential, commercial and industrial water management markets, and several lines of automatic meter reading products and systems serving these markets.

The Industrial Technology segment companies' sales reflect a combination of standard products and specially engineered, application-specific products. Standard products are typically shipped within two weeks of receipt of order. Application-specific products typically ship within 6 to 12 weeks following receipt of order. However, larger project orders and blanket purchase orders for certain OEMs may extend shipment for longer periods.

Energy Systems & Controls

Our Energy Systems & Controls segment principally produces control systems, fluid properties testing equipment, industrial valves and controls, vibration sensors and controls and non-destructive inspection and measurement products and solutions, which are provided through six reporting units. For 2015, this segment had net sales of $587.7 million, representing 16.4% of our total net sales.

Control Systems - We manufacture control systems and provide related engineering and commissioning services for turbomachinery applications, primarily in energy markets.

Fluid Properties Testing Equipment - We manufacture and sell test equipment to determine physical and elemental properties, such as sulfur and nitrogen content, flash point, viscosity, freeze point and distillation range of liquids and gases primarily for the petroleum industry.

Sensors, Controls and Valves - We manufacture sensors and control equipment including pressure sensors, temperature sensors, measurement instruments and control software for global rubber, plastics and process industries.  We also manufacture and distribute valves, sensors, switches and control products used on engines, compressors, turbines and other powered equipment for the oil and gas, pipeline, power generation, marine engine and general industrial markets. Many of these products are designed for use in hazardous environments.

Non-destructive Inspection and Measurement Instrumentation - We manufacture non-destructive inspection and measurement solutions including measurement probes, robotics, vibration sensors, switches and transmitters. These solutions are applied principally in nuclear energy markets. Many of these products are designed for use in hazardous environments.

The Energy Systems & Controls segment companies' sales reflect a combination of standard products and large engineered projects. Standard products generally ship within two weeks of receipt of order, and large engineered projects may have lead times of several months. As such, backlog may fluctuate depending upon the timing of large project awards.

Materials and Suppliers

We believe most materials and supplies we use are readily available from numerous sources and suppliers throughout the world. However, some components and sub-assemblies are currently available from a limited number of suppliers. Some high-performance components for digital imaging products can be in short supply and/or suppliers have occasional difficulty manufacturing such components to our specifications. We regularly investigate and identify alternative sources where possible, and we believe these conditions equally affect our competitors. Supply shortages have not had a material adverse effect on our sales although delays in shipments have occurred following such supply interruptions.
 
6

Backlog

Our backlog includes only firm unfilled orders expected to be recognized as revenue within twelve months.  Backlog was $1.07 billion at December 31, 2015, and $1.04 billion at December 31, 2014.

Distribution and Sales

Distribution and sales occur through direct sales offices, manufacturers' representatives and distributors.  In addition, our Medical & Scientific Imaging segment also sells through value added resellers ("VARs") and OEMs.

Environmental Matters and Other Governmental Regulation

Our operations and properties are subject to laws and regulations relating to environmental protection, including those governing air emissions, water discharges, waste management and workplace safety. We use, generate and dispose of hazardous substances and waste in our operations and could be subject to material liabilities relating to the investigation and clean-up of contaminated properties and related claims. We are required to conform our operations and properties to these laws and adapt to regulatory requirements in all countries as these requirements change. In connection with our acquisitions, we may assume significant environmental liabilities, some of which we may not be aware of, or may not be quantifiable, at the time of acquisition. In addition, new laws and regulations, the discovery of previously unknown contamination or the imposition of new requirements could increase our costs or subject us to new or increased liabilities.

Customers

No customer accounted for 10% or more of net sales for 2015 for any of our segments or for our company as a whole.

Competition

Generally, our products and solutions face significant competition, usually from a limited number of competitors. We believe that we are a leader in most of our markets, and no single company competes with us over a significant number of product lines. Competitors might be large or small in size, often depending on the size of the niche market we serve. We compete primarily on product quality, performance, innovation, technology, price, applications expertise, system and service flexibility, distribution channel access and customer service capabilities.

Patents and Trademarks

In addition to trade secrets, unpatented know-how, and other intellectual property rights, we own or license the rights under a number of patents, trademarks and copyrights relating to certain of our products and businesses. We also employ various methods, including confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements with individuals and companies we do business with, employees, distributors, representatives and customers to protect our trade secrets and know-how. We believe our operating units are not substantially dependent on any single patent, trademark, copyright, or other item of intellectual property or group of patents, trademarks or copyrights.

Employees

As of December 31, 2015, we had 10,806 employees, with 7,724 located in the United States. We have 164 employees who are subject to collective bargaining agreements. We have not experienced any work stoppages and consider our relations with our employees to be good.

7

Available Information

All reports we file electronically with the SEC, including our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and our annual proxy statements, as well as any amendments to those reports, are accessible at no cost on our website at www.ropertech.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.  These filings are also accessible on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any material we file with the SEC at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Our Corporate Governance Guidelines; the charters of our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, and Nominating and Governance Committee; and our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics are also available on our website.  Any amendment to the Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and any waiver applicable to our directors, executive officers or senior financial officers will be posted on our website within the time period required by the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange (the "NYSE").  The information posted on our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report.

We have included the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer certifications regarding our public disclosure required by Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 as Exhibits 31.1 and 31.2 of this report. Additionally, we filed with the NYSE the Chief Executive Officer certification regarding our compliance with the NYSE's Corporate Governance Listing Standards (the "Listing Standards") pursuant to Section 303A.12(a) of the Listing Standards. We filed the certification with the NYSE on June 29, 2015 and our Chief Executive Officer indicated that he was not aware of any violations of the Listing Standards by us.


ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Risks Relating to Our Business

Our indebtedness may affect our business and may restrict our operating flexibility.

As of December 31, 2015, we had $3.29 billion in total consolidated indebtedness. In addition, we had $1.7 billion undrawn availability under our senior unsecured credit facility. Subject to restrictions contained in our credit facility, we may incur additional indebtedness in the future, including indebtedness incurred to finance acquisitions.

Our level of indebtedness and the debt servicing costs associated with that indebtedness could have important effects on our operations and business strategy. For example, our indebtedness could:

place us at a competitive disadvantage relative to our competitors, some of which have lower debt service obligations and greater financial resources;
limit our ability to borrow additional funds;
limit our ability to complete future acquisitions;
limit our ability to pay dividends;
limit our ability to make capital expenditures; and
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions.

Our ability to make scheduled principal payments of, to pay interest on, or to refinance our indebtedness and to satisfy our other debt obligations will depend upon our future operating performance, which may be affected by factors beyond our control. In addition, there can be no assurance that future borrowings or equity financing will be available to us on favorable terms for the payment or refinancing of our indebtedness. If we are unable to service our indebtedness, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.

Our credit facility contains covenants requiring us to achieve certain financial and operating results and maintain compliance with specified financial ratios. Our ability to meet the financial covenants or requirements in our credit facility may be affected by events beyond our control, and we may not be able to satisfy such covenants and requirements. A breach of these covenants or our inability to comply with the financial ratios, tests or other restrictions contained in our facility could result in an event of default under this facility. Upon the occurrence of an event of default under our credit facility, and the expiration of any grace periods, the lenders could elect to declare all amounts outstanding under the facility, together with accrued interest, to be immediately due and payable. If this were to occur, our assets may not be sufficient to fully repay the amounts due under this facility or our other indebtedness.

8

Unfavorable changes in foreign exchange rates may harm our business.

Several of our operating companies have transactions and balances denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Most of these transactions and balances are denominated in euros, Canadian dollars, British pounds or Danish kroner. Sales by our operating companies whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar represented 20% of our total net sales for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to 23% for the year ended December 31, 2014. Unfavorable changes in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and those currencies could significantly reduce our reported sales and earnings.

We export a significant portion of our products. Difficulties associated with the export of our products could harm our business.

Sales to customers outside the U.S. by our businesses located in the U.S. account for a significant portion of our net sales. These sales accounted for 13% of our net sales for each of the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014. We are subject to risks that could limit our ability to export our products or otherwise reduce the demand for these products in our foreign markets. Such risks include, without limitation, the following:

unfavorable changes in or noncompliance with U.S. and other jurisdictions' export requirements;
restrictions on the export of technology and related products;
unfavorable changes in or noncompliance with U.S. and other jurisdictions' export policies to certain countries, including Russia;
unfavorable changes in the import policies of our foreign markets; and
a general economic downturn in our foreign markets.

The occurrence of any of these events could reduce the foreign demand for our products or could limit our ability to export our products and, therefore, could have a material negative effect on our future sales and earnings.

Economic, political and other risks associated with our international operations could adversely affect our business.

As of and for the year ended December 31, 2015, 21% of our net sales and 14% of our long-lived assets, excluding goodwill and intangibles, were attributable to operations outside the U.S. We expect our international operations to contribute materially to our business for the foreseeable future. Our international operations are subject to varying degrees of risk inherent in doing business outside the U.S. including, without limitation, the following:

adverse changes in a specific country's or region's political or economic conditions, particularly in Russia and emerging markets;
oil price shocks;
trade protection measures and import or export requirements;
subsidies or increased access to capital for firms that are currently, or may emerge as, competitors in countries in which we have operations;
partial or total expropriation;
potentially negative consequences from changes in tax laws;
difficulty in staffing and managing widespread operations;
differing labor regulations;
differing protection of intellectual property; and
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements.

The occurrence of any of these events could materially harm our business.

Our growth strategy includes acquisitions. We may not be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates, complete acquisitions or integrate acquisitions successfully.

Our future growth is likely to depend to some degree on our ability to acquire and successfully integrate new businesses. We intend to seek additional acquisition opportunities, both to expand into new markets and to enhance our position in existing markets. There are no assurances, however, that we will be able to successfully identify suitable candidates, negotiate appropriate terms, obtain financing on acceptable terms, complete proposed acquisitions, successfully integrate acquired businesses or expand into new markets. Once acquired, operations may not achieve anticipated levels of revenues or profitability.

9

Acquisitions involve risks, including difficulties in the integration of the operations, technologies, services and products of the acquired companies and the diversion of management's attention from other business concerns. Although our management will endeavor to evaluate the risks inherent in any particular transaction, there are no assurances that we will properly ascertain all such risks. In addition, prior acquisitions have resulted, and future acquisitions could result, in the incurrence of substantial additional indebtedness and other expenses. Future acquisitions may also result in potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities. Difficulties encountered with acquisitions may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Product liability, insurance risks and increased insurance costs could harm our operating results.

Our business exposes us to product liability risks in the design, manufacturing and distribution of our products. In addition, certain of our products are used in hazardous environments. We currently have product liability insurance; however, we may not be able to maintain our insurance at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts to protect us against losses. We also maintain other insurance policies, including directors' and officers' liability insurance. We believe we have adequately accrued estimated losses, principally related to deductible amounts under our insurance policies, with respect to all product liability and other claims, based upon our past experience and available facts. However, a successful product liability or other claim or series of claims brought against us could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, a significant increase in our insurance costs could have an adverse impact on our operating results.

Our operating results could be adversely affected by a reduction of business with our large customers.

In some of our businesses, we derive a significant amount of revenue from large customers. The loss or reduction of any significant contracts with any of these customers could materially reduce our revenue and cash flows. Additionally, many of our customers are government entities. In many situations, government entities can unilaterally terminate or modify our existing contracts without cause and without penalty to the government agency.

We face intense competition. If we do not compete effectively, our business may suffer.

We face intense competition from numerous competitors. Our products compete primarily on the basis of product quality, performance, innovation, technology, price, applications expertise, system and service flexibility, distribution channel access and established customer service capabilities. We may not be able to compete effectively on all of these fronts or with all of our competitors. In addition, new competitors may emerge, and product lines may be threatened by new technologies or market trends that reduce the value of these product lines. To remain competitive, we must develop new products, respond to new technologies and enhance our existing products in a timely manner. We anticipate that we may have to adjust prices to stay competitive.

Changes in the supply of, or price for, raw materials, parts and components used in our products could affect our business.

The availability and prices of raw materials, parts and components are subject to curtailment or change due to, among other things, suppliers' allocations to other purchasers, interruptions in production by suppliers, changes in exchange rates and prevailing price levels. Some high-performance components for digital imaging products may be in short supply and/or suppliers may have occasional difficulty manufacturing these components to meet our specifications. In addition, some of our products are provided by sole source suppliers. Any change in the supply of, or price for, these parts and components, as well as any increases in commodity prices, particularly copper, could affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Environmental compliance costs and liabilities could increase our expenses and adversely affect our financial condition.

Our operations and properties are subject to laws and regulations relating to environmental protection, including air emissions, water discharges, waste management and workplace safety. These laws and regulations can result in the imposition of substantial fines and sanctions for violations and could require the installation of pollution control equipment or operational changes to limit pollution emissions and/or decrease the likelihood of accidental hazardous substance releases. We must conform our operations and properties to these laws and adapt to regulatory requirements in the countries in which we operate as these requirements change.

10

We use and generate hazardous substances and wastes in our operations and, as a result, could be subject to potentially material liabilities relating to the investigation and clean-up of contaminated properties and to claims alleging personal injury. We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, costs relating to compliance with environmental laws and regulations. In connection with our acquisitions, we may assume significant environmental liabilities, some of which we may not be aware of at the time of acquisition. In addition, new laws and regulations, stricter enforcement of existing laws and regulations, the discovery of previously unknown contamination or the imposition of new clean-up requirements could require us to incur costs or become the basis for new or increased liabilities that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Some of the industries in which we operate are cyclical, and, accordingly, our business is subject to changes in the economy.

Some of the business areas in which we operate are subject to specific industry and general economic cycles. Certain businesses are subject to industry cycles, including but not limited to, the industrial and energy markets. Accordingly, a downturn in these or other markets in which we participate could materially adversely affect us. If demand changes and we fail to respond accordingly, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected. The business cycles of our different operations may occur contemporaneously. Consequently, the effect of an economic downturn may have a magnified negative effect on our business.

Our goodwill and intangible assets are valued at an amount that is high relative to our total assets, and a write-off of our intangible assets would negatively affect our results of operations and total capitalization.

Our total assets reflect substantial intangible assets, primarily goodwill. At December 31, 2015, goodwill totaled $5.8 billion compared to $5.3 billion of stockholders' equity, and represented 57% of our total assets of $10.2 billion. The goodwill results from our acquisitions, representing the excess of cost over the fair value of the net assets we have acquired. We assess at least annually whether there has been an impairment in the value of our goodwill and indefinite economic life intangible assets. If future operating performance at one or more of our business units were to fall significantly below current levels, if competing or alternative technologies emerge, if interest rates rise or if business valuations decline, we could incur a non-cash charge to operating earnings. Any determination requiring the write-off of a significant portion of goodwill or unamortized intangible assets would negatively affect our results of operations and total capitalization, the effect of which could be material.

We depend on our ability to develop new products, and any failure to develop or market new products could adversely affect our business.

The future success of our business will depend, in part, on our ability to design and manufacture new competitive products and to enhance existing products so that our products can be sold with high margins. This product development may require substantial internal investment. There can be no assurance that unforeseen problems will not occur with respect to the development, performance or market acceptance of new technologies or products or that we will otherwise be able to successfully develop and market new products. Failure of our products to gain market acceptance or our failure to successfully develop and market new products could reduce our margins, which would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our technology is important to our success and our failure to protect this technology could put us at a competitive disadvantage.

Many of our products rely on proprietary technology; therefore we believe that the development and protection of intellectual property rights through patents, copyrights, trade secrets, trademarks, confidentiality agreements and other contractual provisions are important to the future success of our business. Despite our efforts to protect proprietary rights, unauthorized parties or competitors may copy or otherwise obtain and use our products or technology.  Actions to enforce these rights may result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and we make no assurances that any such actions will be successful.

11

We rely on information and technology for many of our business operations which could fail and cause disruption to our business operations.

Our business operations are dependent upon information technology networks and systems to securely transmit, process and store electronic information and to communicate among our locations around the world and with clients and vendors. A shutdown of, or inability to access, one or more of our facilities, a power outage or a failure of one or more of our information technology, telecommunications or other systems could significantly impair our ability to perform such functions on a timely basis. Computer viruses, cyberattacks, other external hazards and human error could result in the misappropriation of assets or sensitive information, corruption of data or operational disruption. If sustained or repeated, such a business interruption, system failure, service denial or data loss and damage could result in a deterioration of our ability to write and process business, provide customer service or perform other necessary business functions.

Any business disruptions due to political instability, armed hostilities, incidents of terrorism or natural disasters could adversely impact our financial performance.

If terrorist activity, armed conflict, political instability or natural disasters occur in the U.S. or other locations, such events may negatively impact our operations, cause general economic conditions to deteriorate or cause demand for our products to decline. A prolonged economic slowdown or recession could reduce the demand for our products, and therefore, negatively affect our future sales and profits. Any of these events could have a significant impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.


ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None


12

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our corporate offices, consisting of 24,000 square feet of leased space, are located at 6901 Professional Parkway East, Sarasota, Florida.   We have 120 principal locations around the world to support our operations, of which 50 are manufacturing, assembly and testing facilities, and the remaining 70 locations provide sales, service and administrative support functions. We consider our facilities to be in good operating condition and adequate for their present use and believe we have sufficient capacity to meet our anticipated operating requirements.

The following table summarizes the size, location and usage of our principal properties as of December 31, 2015 (amounts in thousands of square feet).
 
 
 
Office
   
Office & Manufacturing
 
Segment
 
Region
 
Leased
   
Leased
   
Owned
 
Medical & Scientific Imaging
 
 
   
   
 
 
U.S.
   
320
     
269
     
127
 
 
Canada
   
-
     
99
     
-
 
 
Europe
   
27
     
28
     
-
 
 
Asia
   
25
     
-
     
-
 
 
Mexico
   
-
     
44
     
-
 
RF Technology
 
 
   
   
 
 
U.S.
   
799
     
116
     
16
 
 
Canada
   
11
     
-
     
-
 
 
Europe
   
9
     
-
     
16
 
 
Asia
   
12
     
-
     
-
 
Industrial Technology
 
 
   
   
 
 
U.S.
   
46
     
264
     
478
 
 
Canada
   
36
     
-
     
-
 
 
Europe
   
29
     
136
     
43
 
 
Asia
   
23
     
-
     
-
 
 
Mexico
   
-
     
60
     
-
 
Energy Systems & Controls
 
 
   
   
 
 
U.S.
   
11
     
355
     
-
 
 
Canada
   
-
     
56
     
-
 
 
Europe
   
35
     
28
     
128
 
Asia     
14
     
61
     
33
 
 
 
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Information pertaining to legal proceedings can be found in Note 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report, and is incorporated by reference herein.
 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

None

 
13

PART II
 
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our common stock trades on the NYSE under the symbol "ROP". The table below sets forth the range of high and low sales prices for our common stock as reported by the NYSE as well as cash dividends declared during each of our 2015 and 2014 quarters.

 
 
 
High
   
Low
   
Cash Dividends
Declared
 
2015
4th Quarter
 
$
194.83
   
$
157.75
   
$
0.30
 
3rd Quarter
   
177.08
     
152.93
     
0.25
 
2nd Quarter
   
177.79
     
167.08
     
0.25
 
1st Quarter
   
174.02
     
145.75
     
0.25
 
 
 
                       
2014
4th Quarter
 
$
160.48
   
$
138.63
   
$
0.25
 
3rd Quarter
   
151.21
     
142.50
     
0.20
 
2nd Quarter
   
148.94
     
128.99
     
0.20
 
1st Quarter
   
141.92
     
131.80
     
0.20
 

Based on information available to us and our transfer agent, we believe that as of February 19, 2016 there were 159 record holders of our common stock.

Dividends – We have declared a cash dividend in each quarter since our February 1992 initial public offering and we have annually increased our dividend rate since our initial public offering. In November 2015, our Board of Directors increased the quarterly dividend paid January 22, 2016 to $0.30 per share from $0.25 per share, an increase of 20%. The timing, declaration and payment of future dividends will be at the sole discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon our profitability, financial condition, capital needs, future prospects and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities - In 2015, there were no sales of unregistered securities.

Performance Graph - This performance graph shall not be deemed "filed" for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act") or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or under the Exchange Act.
 
The following graph compares, for the five year period ended December 31, 2015, the cumulative total stockholder return for our common stock, the Standard and Poor's 500 Stock Index (the "S&P 500") and the Standard and Poor's 500 Industrials Index (the "S&P 500 Industrials"). Measurement points are the last trading day of each of our fiscal years ended December 31, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. The graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2010 in our common stock, the S&P 500 and the S&P 500 Industrials and assumes reinvestment of any dividends. The stock price performance on the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

 
 
12/31/10
   
12/31/11
   
12/31/12
   
12/31/13
   
12/31/14
   
12/31/15
 
Roper Technologies, Inc.
 
$
100.00
     $
114.29
     $
147.73
     $
184.49
     $
209.19
     $
255.47
 
S&P 500
   
100.00
     
102.11
     
118.45
     
156.82
     
178.29
     
180.75
 
S&P 500 Industrials
   
100.00
     
99.41
     
114.67
     
161.31
     
177.16
     
172.67
 
 
14





The information set forth in Item 12 under the heading "Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans" is incorporated herein by reference.
15

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

You should read the table below in conjunction with "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and our Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes included in this Annual Report (amounts in thousands, except per share data).
 
 
As of and for the Years ended December 31,
 
 
 
2015(1)
   
2014(2)
   
2013(3)
   
2012(4)
   
2011(5)
 
Operations data:
 
   
   
   
   
 
Net sales
 
$
3,582,395
   
$
3,549,494
   
$
3,238,128
   
$
2,993,489
   
$
2,797,089
 
Gross profit
   
2,164,646
     
2,101,899
     
1,882,928
     
1,671,717
     
1,515,564
 
Income from operations
   
1,027,918
     
999,473
     
842,361
     
757,587
     
660,539
 
Net earnings
   
696,067
     
646,033
     
538,293
     
483,360
     
427,247
 
 
                                       
Per share data:
                                       
Basic earnings per share
 
$
6.92
   
$
6.47
   
$
5.43
   
$
4.95
   
$
4.45
 
Diluted earnings per share
   
6.85
     
6.40
     
5.37
     
4.86
     
4.34
 
 
                                       
Dividends declared per share
 
$
1.0500
   
$
0.8500
   
$
0.6950
     
0.5775
   
$
0.4675
 
 
                                       
Balance sheet data:
                                       
Working capital (6)
 
$
897,919
   
$
884,158
   
$
730,246
   
$
159,887
   
$
561,277
 
Total assets(7)
   
10,168,365
     
8,400,185
     
8,169,120
     
7,059,975
     
5,314,673
 
Long-term debt, net of current portion(7)
   
3,264,417
     
2,190,282
     
2,437,975
     
1,492,533
     
1,010,366
 
Stockholders' equity
   
5,298,947
     
4,755,360
     
4,213,050
     
3,687,726
     
3,195,096
 
 
(1) Includes results from the acquisitions of Strata Decision Technologies LLC from January 21, 2015, SoftWriters, Inc. from February 9, 2015, Data Innovations LLC from March 4, 2015, On Center Software LLC from July 20, 2015, RF IDeas, Inc. from September 1, 2015, Atlantic Health Partners LLC from September 4, 2015, Aderant Holdings, Inc. from October 21, 2015, Atlas Database Software Corp. from October 26, 2015, Black Diamond Advanced Technologies through March 20, 2015 and Abel Pumps through October 2, 2015.
(2) Includes results from the acquisitions of Foodlink Holdings, Inc. from July 2, 2014, Innovative Product Achievements LLC from August 5, 2014, Strategic Healthcare Programs Holdings LLC from August 14, 2014.
(3) Includes results from the acquisitions of Managed Health Care Associates, Inc. from May 1, 2013 and Advanced Sensors, Ltd. from October 4, 2013.
(4) Includes results from the acquisition of Sunquest Information Systems, Inc. from August 22, 2012.
(5) Includes results from the acquisitions of NDI Holding Corp. from June 3, 2011, United Controls Group, Inc. from September 26, 2011 and Trinity Integrated Systems Ltd. from December 1, 2011.
(6) At December 31, 2012, there were $499 million of senior notes, net of debt issuance costs (adjusted due to the retrospective adoption of an accounting standard update which requires that our senior notes be shown net of debt issuance costs), outstanding that matured on August 15, 2013, thus requiring a classification as short-term debt, included in working capital.
(7) Other assets and Long-term debt, net of current portion for 2011 through 2014 have been adjusted due to the retrospective adoption of an accounting standard update which requires that our senior notes be shown net of debt issuance costs.  The adjustment amounts were $12,749, $15,861, $10,574 and $4,744 for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

  
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion in conjunction with "Selected Financial Data" and our Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes included in this Annual Report.
 
Overview

We are a diversified technology company.  We operate businesses that design and develop software (both license and software-as-a-service) and engineered products and solutions for a variety of niche end markets; including healthcare, transportation, food, energy, water, education and academic research.

16

We pursue consistent and sustainable growth in earnings and cash flow by emphasizing continuous improvement in the operating performance of our existing businesses and by acquiring other carefully selected businesses. Our acquisitions have represented both additions to existing businesses and new strategic platforms.

In 2015, we acquired Strata Decision Technologies LLC ("Strata"), Softwriters Inc., Data Innovations LLC, On Center Software LLC ("On Center"), RF IDeas, Inc., Atlantic Health Partners LLC ("AHP"), Aderant Holdings, Inc. ("Aderant"), and Atlas Database Software Corp. ("Atlas").  The acquisitions both expanded and complemented our existing technologies.  We also divested Abel Pumps and Black Diamond Advanced Technologies in the current year.

Application of Critical Accounting Policies

Our Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ("GAAP"). A discussion of our significant accounting policies can also be found in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2015 included in this Annual Report.

GAAP offers acceptable alternative methods for accounting for certain issues affecting our financial results, such as determining inventory cost, depreciating long-lived assets and recognizing revenue. We have not changed the application of acceptable accounting methods or the significant estimates affecting the application of these principles in the last three years in a manner that had a material effect on our financial statements.

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires the use of estimates, assumptions, judgments and interpretations that can affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities and other supplemental disclosures.

The development of accounting estimates is the responsibility of our management. Our management discusses those areas that require significant judgments with the audit committee of our Board of Directors. The audit committee has reviewed all financial disclosures in our annual filings with the SEC. Although we believe the positions we have taken with regard to uncertainties are reasonable, others might reach different conclusions and our positions can change over time as more information becomes available. If an accounting estimate changes, its effects are accounted for prospectively or through a cumulative catch up adjustment.

Our most significant accounting uncertainties are encountered in the areas of accounts receivable collectibility, inventory valuation, future warranty obligations, revenue recognition (percentage-of-completion), income taxes and goodwill and indefinite-lived asset analyses. These issues affect each of our business segments and are evaluated using a combination of historical experience, current conditions and relatively short-term forecasting.

Accounts receivable collectibility is based on the economic circumstances of customers and credits given to customers after shipment of products, including in certain cases credits for returned products. Accounts receivable are regularly reviewed to determine customers who have not paid within agreed upon terms, whether these amounts are consistent with past experiences, what historical experience has been with amounts deemed uncollectible and the impact that economic conditions might have on collection efforts in general and with specific customers. The returns and other sales credit allowance is an estimate of customer returns, exchanges, discounts or other forms of anticipated concessions and is treated as a reduction in revenue. The returns and other sales credits histories are analyzed to determine likely future rates for such credits. At December 31, 2015, our allowance for doubtful accounts receivable was $10.0 million and our allowance for sales returns and sales credits was $2.4 million, for a total of $12.4 million, or 2.5% of total gross accounts receivable.  This percentage is influenced by the risk profile of the underlying receivables, and the timing of write-offs of accounts deemed uncollectible. The total allowance at December 31, 2015 was $1.3 million lower than at December 31, 2014.  The allowance will continue to fluctuate as a percentage of sales based on specific identification of allowances needed due to changes in our business, the write-off of uncollectible receivables, and the addition of reserve balances at acquired businesses.

We regularly compare inventory quantities on hand against anticipated future usage, which we determine as a function of historical usage or forecasts related to specific items in order to evaluate obsolescence and excessive quantities. When we use historical usage, this information is also qualitatively compared to business trends to evaluate the reasonableness of using historical information as an estimate of future usage. At December 31, 2015, inventory reserves for excess and obsolete inventory were $34.0 million, or 15.2% of gross inventory cost, as compared to $38.9 million, or 16.7% of gross inventory cost, at December 31, 2014. The inventory reserve as a percent of gross inventory cost will continue to fluctuate based upon specific identification of reserves needed based upon changes in our business as well as the physical disposal of obsolete inventory.

17

Most of our sales are covered by warranty provisions that generally provide for the repair or replacement of qualifying defective items for a specified period after the time of sale, typically 12 to 24 months. Future warranty obligations are evaluated using, among other factors, historical cost experience, product evolution and customer feedback. Our expense for warranty obligations was less than 1% of net sales for each of the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013.

Revenues related to the use of the percentage-of-completion method of accounting are dependent on total costs incurred compared with total estimated costs for a project. During the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 we recognized revenue of $253 million, $266 million and $205 million, respectively, using this method.  Percentage-of-completion is used primarily for major turn-key, longer term toll and traffic and energy projects and installations of large software application projects.  At December 31, 2015, $276 million of revenue related to unfinished percentage-of-completion contracts had yet to be recognized. Contracts accounted for under this method are generally not significantly different in profitability from revenues accounted for under other methods.

Income taxes can be affected by estimates of whether and within which jurisdictions future earnings will occur and if, how and when cash is repatriated to the U.S., combined with other aspects of an overall income tax strategy. Additionally, taxing jurisdictions could retroactively disagree with our tax treatment of certain items, and some historical transactions have income tax effects going forward. Accounting rules require these future effects to be evaluated using current laws, rules and regulations, each of which can change at any time and in an unpredictable manner.  During 2015, our effective income tax rate was 30.6%, which was 70 basis points higher than the 2014 rate of 29.9%.  The taxable gain on the divestiture of Abel Pumps led to an increase of 130 basis points, and was offset in part by discrete tax benefits from settlements of tax matters. We expect the effective tax rate to increase in 2016 due to a continued increase in revenues and resulting pretax income in higher tax jurisdictions, primarily the U.S.

We account for goodwill in a purchase business combination as the excess of the cost over the estimated fair value of net assets acquired. Goodwill, which is not amortized, is tested for impairment on an annual basis in conjunction with our annual forecast process during the fourth quarter, (or an interim basis if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value).

When testing goodwill for impairment, we have the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If we elect to perform a qualitative assessment and determine that an impairment is more likely than not, we are then required to perform the two-step quantitative impairment test; otherwise, no further analysis is required. Under the qualitative assessment, we consider various qualitative factors, including macroeconomic conditions, relevant industry and market trends, cost factors, overall financial performance, other entity-specific events and events affecting the reporting unit that could indicate a potential change in the fair value of our reporting unit or the composition of its carrying values. We also consider the specific future outlook for the reporting unit.

We also may elect not to perform the qualitative assessment and, instead, proceed directly to the two-step quantitative impairment test. The first step utilizes both an income approach (discounted cash flows) and a market approach consisting of a comparable company earnings multiples methodology to estimate the fair value of a reporting unit.  To determine the reasonableness of the estimated fair values, we review the assumptions to ensure that neither the income approach nor the market approach provides significantly different valuations.   If the estimated fair value exceeds the carrying value, no further work is required and no impairment loss is recognized.  If the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value, the goodwill of the reporting unit is potentially impaired and then the second step would be completed to measure the impairment loss by calculating the implied fair value of goodwill by deducting the fair value of all tangible and intangible net assets (including unrecognized intangible assets) of the reporting unit from the fair value of the reporting unit.  If the implied fair value of goodwill is less than the carrying value of goodwill, an impairment loss would be recognized.

Key assumptions used in the income and market approaches are updated when the analysis is performed for each reporting unit.  Various assumptions are utilized including forecasted operating results, strategic plans, economic projections, anticipated future cash flows, the weighted-average cost of capital, comparable transactions, market data and earnings multiples.  While we use reasonable and timely information to prepare our cash flow and discount rate assumptions, actual future cash flows or market conditions could differ significantly and could result in future non-cash impairment charges related to recorded goodwill balances.

18

We have 32 reporting units with individual goodwill amounts ranging from zero to $1.2 billion.  In 2015, we performed our annual impairment test in the fourth quarter for all reporting units. We conducted our analysis qualitatively and assessed whether it was more likely than not that the respective fair value of these reporting units was less than the carrying amount. We determined that impairment of goodwill was not likely in 29 of our reporting units and thus we were not required to perform a quantitative analysis for these reporting units. For the remaining three reporting units we performed our quantitative analysis and concluded that the fair value of each of these three reporting units was in excess of its carrying value, with no impairment indicated as of December 31, 2015.   Negative industry or economic trends, disruptions to our business, actual results significantly below projections, unexpected significant changes or planned changes in the use of the assets, divestitures and market capitalization declines may have a negative effect on the fair value of our reporting units.

Business combinations can also result in other intangible assets being recognized. Amortization of intangible assets, if applicable, occurs over their estimated useful lives. Trade names that are determined to have an indefinite useful economic life are not amortized, but separately tested for impairment during the fourth quarter of the fiscal year or on an interim basis if an event occurs that indicates the fair value is more likely than not below the carrying value.  We first qualitatively assess whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If necessary, we conduct a quantitative review using the relief-from-royalty method, which we believe to be an acceptable methodology due to its common use by valuations specialists in determining the fair value of intangible assets.  This methodology assumes that, in lieu of ownership, a third party would be willing to pay a royalty in order to exploit the related benefits of these assets.  The fair value of each trade name is determined by applying a royalty rate to a projection of net sales discounted using a risk-adjusted rate of capital.  Each royalty rate is determined based on the profitability of the reporting unit to which it relates and observed market royalty rates.  Sales growth rates are determined after considering current and future economic conditions, recent sales trends, discussions with customers, planned timing of new product launches or other variables.  Reporting units resulting from recent acquisitions generally represent the highest risk of impairment, which typically decreases as the businesses are integrated into our enterprise and positioned for improved future sales growth.

The assessment of fair value for impairment purposes requires significant judgments to be made by management.  Although our forecasts are based on assumptions that are considered reasonable by management and consistent with the plans and estimates management uses to operate the underlying businesses, there is significant judgment in determining the expected results attributable to the reporting units.  Changes in estimates or the application of alternative assumptions could produce significantly different results. No impairment resulted from the annual reviews performed in 2015.

We evaluate whether there has been an impairment of identifiable intangible assets with definite useful economic lives, or of the remaining life of such assets, when certain indicators of impairment are present. In the event that facts and circumstances indicate that the cost or remaining period of amortization of any asset may be impaired, an evaluation of recoverability would be performed. If an evaluation is required, the estimated future gross, undiscounted cash flows associated with the asset would be compared to the asset's carrying amount to determine if a write-down to fair value or a revision in the remaining amortization period is required.
 
19


Results of Operations

The following table sets forth selected information for the years indicated.  Dollar amounts are in thousands and percentages are of net sales.  Percentages may not foot due to rounding.
 
 
 
Years ended December 31,
 
 
 
2015
   
2014
   
2013
 
Net sales:
 
   
   
 
Medical & Scientific Imaging(1)
 
$
1,215,318
   
$
1,080,309
   
$
902,281
 
RF Technology(2)
   
1,033,951
     
950,227
     
904,363
 
Industrial Technology(3)
   
745,381
     
827,145
     
779,564
 
Energy Systems & Controls(4)
   
587,745
     
691,813
     
651,920
 
Total
 
$
3,582,395
   
$
3,549,494
   
$
3,238,128
 
 
                       
Gross margin:
                       
Medical & Scientific Imaging
   
74.0
%
   
72.1
%
   
69.3
%
RF Technology
   
53.4
     
52.8
     
53.7
 
Industrial Technology
   
49.8
     
50.5
     
51.1
 
Energy Systems & Controls
   
58.1
     
58.3
     
57.4
 
Total
   
60.4
%
   
59.2
%
   
58.1
%
 
                       
Segment operating margin:
                       
Medical & Scientific Imaging
   
36.4
%
   
34.8
%
   
29.7
%
RF Technology
   
30.2
     
28.5
     
28.0
 
Industrial Technology
   
28.8
     
29.9
     
28.6
 
Energy Systems & Controls
   
27.6
     
29.3
     
28.2
 
Total
   
31.6
%
   
30.9
%
   
28.7
%
 
                       
Corporate administrative expenses
   
(2.9
)%
   
(2.8
)%
   
(2.7
)%
Income from continuing operations
   
28.7
     
28.2
     
26.0
 
Interest expense, net
   
(2.4
)
   
(2.2
)
   
(2.7
)
Other income/(expense)
   
1.6
     
-
     
-
 
Income from continuing operations before taxes
   
28.0
     
26.0
     
23.3
 
Income taxes
   
(8.5
)
   
(7.8
)
   
(6.7
)
 
                       
Net earnings
   
19.4
%
   
18.2
%
   
16.6
%

(1) Includes results from the acquisitions of Managed Health Care Associates, Inc. from May 1, 2013, Innovative Product Achievements LLC from August 5, 2014, Strategic Healthcare Programs Holdings LLC from August 14, 2014, Strata from January 21, 2015, SoftWriters from February 9, 2015, Data Innovations from March 4, 2015, AHP from September 4, 2015 and Atlas from October 26, 2015.
(2) Includes results from the acquisitions of Foodlink Holdings, Inc. from July 2, 2014, On Center from July 20, 2015, RF Ideas from September 1, 2015, Aderant from October 21, 2015 and Black Diamond Advanced Technologies through March 20, 2015.
(3) Includes results from Abel Pumps through October 2, 2015.
(4) Includes results from the acquisition of Advanced Sensors, Ltd. from October 4, 2013.

 
Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2014
 
Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2015 were $3.58 billion as compared to sales of $3.55 billion for the year ended December 31, 2014, an increase of 1%. The increase was the result of contributions from acquisitions of 4%, negative organic growth of 0.3% and a negative foreign exchange impact of 3%.

20

Our Medical & Scientific Imaging segment reported a $135 million or 12.5% increase in net sales for the year ended December 31, 2015 over the year ended December 31, 2014.  Acquisitions contributed 11.5%, organic sales increased 3.8% and the negative foreign exchange impact was 2.8%. The increase in organic sales was due to increased sales in our medical businesses, led by Verathon and Managed Health Care Associates ("MHA").  Gross margin increased to 74.0% in the year ended December 31, 2015 from 72.1% in the year ended December 31, 2014, due primarily to additional sales from medical products which have a higher gross margin. Selling, general and administrative ("SG&A") expenses as a percentage of net sales were relatively unchanged at 37.7% in the year ended December 31, 2015 as compared to 37.4% in the year ended December 31, 2014.  Operating margin was 36.4% in the year ended December 31, 2015 as compared to 34.8% in the year ended December 31, 2014.

In our RF Technology segment, net sales for the year ended December 31, 2015 increased by $84 million or 9% over the year ended December 31, 2014. Organic sales increased by 6%, acquisitions along with the divestiture of the Black Diamond Advanced Technology business added 4% and the negative foreign exchange impact was 1%. The increase in organic sales was due primarily to growth in our toll and traffic and freight matching businesses.  Gross margin was 53.4% in 2015 as compared to 52.8% in the prior year due to leverage on higher sales volume and product mix.  SG&A expenses as a percentage of sales in the year ended December 31, 2015 were 23.3%, a decrease from 24.3% in the prior year due to operating leverage on higher sales volume.  Operating margin was 30.2% in 2015 as compared to 28.5% in 2014.

Net sales for our Industrial Technology segment decreased by $82 million or 10% for the year ended December 31, 2015 from the year ended December 31, 2014. Organic sales decreased by 4%, the  negative foreign exhange impact was 4% and the divestiture of the Abel Pumps business accounted for a negative 2%.  The decrease in organic sales was due primarily to decreased sales in those fluid handling businesses that serve oil and gas markets.  Gross margin decreased to 49.8% for the year ended December 31, 2015 as compared to 50.5% in the year ended December 31, 2014 due to negative leverage on lower sales volume.  SG&A expenses as a percentage of net sales were 21.0%, as compared to 20.5% in the prior year, due primarily to negative leverage on lower sales volume.  The resulting operating margin was 28.8% in the year ended December 31, 2015 as compared to 29.9% in the year ended December 31, 2014.

In our Energy Systems & Controls segment, net sales for the year ended December 31, 2015 decreased by $104 million or 15% from the year ended December 31, 2014.  Organic sales decreased by 10% due to decreased sales in oil and gas products, including safety systems and valves, and the negative foreign exchange impact was 5%.  Gross margin was relatively unchanged at  58.1% in the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to 58.3% in the year ended December 31, 2014. SG&A expenses as a percentage of net sales were 30.5% as compared to 28.9% in the prior year due negative leverage on lower sales volume. Operating margin was 27.6% in the year ended December 31, 2015 as compared to 29.3% in the year ended December 31, 2014.

Corporate expenses increased by $4.6 million to $102.8 million, or 2.9% of sales, in 2015 as compared to $98.2 million, or 2.8% of sales, in 2014. The increase was due primarily to increased costs related to acquisitions.

Interest expense increased $5.6 million, or 7.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to the year ended December 31, 2014.  The increase is due primarily to higher average debt balances offset in part by lower average interest rates throughout 2015.

Other income of $58.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 was composed primarily of the $70.9 million gain from the divestiture of Abel Pumps (see Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report), offset in part by a $9.5 million impairment charge on a minority investment.  Other income of $0.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 was composed of royalty income and foreign exchange gains at our non-U.S. based companies, offset in part by losses from asset disposals.  

During 2015, our effective income tax rate was 30.6%, which was 70 basis points higher than the 2014 rate of 29.9%.  The taxable gain on the divestiture of Abel Pumps led to an increase of 130 basis points, and was offset in part by discrete tax benefits from settlements of tax matters.

At December 31, 2015, the functional currencies of most of our non-U.S. subsidiaries were weaker against the U.S. dollar compared to currency exchange rates at December 31, 2014. The net result of these changes led to a pre-tax decrease in the foreign exchange component of comprehensive earnings of $146 million in the year ended December 31, 2015. Approximately $62 million of this amount related to goodwill and is not expected to directly affect our projected future cash flows. For the entire year of 2015, operating profit decreased by approximately 2% due to fluctuations in non-U.S. currencies.

21

The following table summarizes our net order information for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 (dollar amounts in thousands). 
 
 
2015
   
2014
   
change
 
Medical & Scientific Imaging
 
$
1,235,143
   
$
1,081,190
     
14.2
%
RF Technology
   
1,024,999
     
955,831
     
7.2
 
Industrial Technology
   
731,810
     
808,921
     
(9.5
)
Energy Systems & Controls
   
555,672
     
692,136
     
(19.7
)
Total
 
$
3,547,624
   
$
3,538,078
     
0.3
%

The increase in orders was due to orders from acquisitions which added 5%, offset by negative organic growth of 2% and a 3% negative foreign exchange impact.

The following table summarizes order backlog information at December 31, 2015 and 2014 (dollar amounts in thousands). We include in backlog only orders that are expected to be recognized as revenue within twelve months.
 
 
2015
   
2014
   
change
 
Medical & Scientific Imaging
 
$
373,213
   
$
296,098
     
26.0
%
RF Technology
   
538,877
     
520,727
     
3.5
 
Industrial Technology
   
68,002
     
97,507
     
(30.3
)
Energy Systems & Controls
   
90,365
     
126,838
     
(28.8
)
Total
 
$
1,070,457
   
$
1,041,170
     
2.8
%


Year Ended December 31, 2014 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2013
 
Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2014 were $3.55 billion as compared to sales of $3.24 billion for the year ended December 31, 2013, an increase of 10%. The increase was the result of organic sales growth of 7% and contributions from acquisitions of 3%.

Our Medical & Scientific Imaging segment reported a $178 million or 20% increase in net sales for the year ended December 31, 2014 over the year ended December 31, 2013.  Acquisitions added $91 million in sales, and organic sales increased 10% due to  increased sales in our medical businesses.  Gross margin increased to 72.1% in the year ended December 31, 2014 from 69.3% in the year ended December 31, 2013, due primarily to additional sales from medical products which have a higher gross margin. SG&A expenses as a percentage of net sales decreased to 37.4% in the year ended December 31, 2014 as compared to 39.5% in the year ended December 31, 2013 due to leverage on higher sales volume.  Operating margin was 34.8% in the year ended December 31, 2014 as compared to 29.7% in the year ended December 31, 2013.

In our RF Technology segment, net sales for the year ended December 31, 2014 increased by $46 million or 5% over the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase was due primarily to growth in our toll and traffic, university card systems and security solutions businesses.  Gross margin was 52.8% in 2014 as compared to 53.7% in the prior year due to product mix.  SG&A expenses as a percentage of sales in the year ended December 31, 2014 were 24.3%, a decrease from 25.6% in the prior year due to operating leverage on higher sales volume.  Operating margin was 28.5% in 2014 as compared to 28.0% in 2013.

Net sales for our Industrial Technology segment increased by $48 million or 6% for the year ended December 31, 2014 over the year ended December 31, 2013. Organic growth was 7%, and there was a negative 1% impact from foreign currency exchange.  The organic growth was due primarily to increased sales in our water meter, fluid handling and materials testing  businesses.  Gross margin was 50.5% for the year ended December 31, 2014 as compared to 51.1% in the year ended December 31, 2013 due to product mix.  SG&A expenses as a percentage of net sales were 20.5%, as compared to 22.5% in the prior year, due primarily to the non-recurrence of a $9.1 million pretax charge for warranty expense in 2013.  The resulting operating margin was 29.9% in the year ended December 31, 2014 as compared to 28.6% in the year ended December 31, 2013.

In our Energy Systems & Controls segment, net sales for the year ended December 31, 2014 increased by $40 million or 6% over the year ended December 31, 2013.  Organic sales increased by 5% due to sales of new instruments for refinery applications and increased sales in the fluid properties testing equipment market.  Gross margin was 58.3% in the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to 57.4% in the year ended December 31, 2013, due to operating leverage on higher sales volume. SG&A expenses as a percentage of net sales were 28.9% as compared to 29.2% in the prior year due to product mix. Operating margin was 29.3% in the year ended December 31, 2014 as compared to 28.2% in the year ended December 31, 2013.

22

Corporate expenses increased by $12.1 million to $98.2 million, or 2.8% of sales, in 2014 as compared to $86.1 million, or 2.7% of sales, in 2013. The increase was due to higher compensation costs, including increased equity compensation (see Note 11 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report).

Interest expense decreased $9.4 million, or 10.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to the year ended December 31, 2013.  The decrease is due primarily to lower average debt balances and lower average interest rates throughout 2014.

Other income of $0.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 was composed of royalty income and foreign exchange gains at our non-U.S. based companies, offset in part by losses from asset disposals.  Other expense for the year ended December 31, 2013 was $0.2 million due to foreign exchange losses at our non-U.S. based companies, offset in part by proceeds from a legal settlement.

During 2014, our effective income tax rate was 29.9% versus 28.6% in 2013. The increase was due to one-time discrete tax benefits in 2013 that did not recur in 2014  as well as increased revenues and resulting pretax income in higher tax jurisdictions, primarily the U.S

At December 31, 2014, the functional currencies of most of our non-U.S. subsidiaries were weaker against the U.S. dollar compared to currency exchange rates at December 31, 2013. The net result of these changes led to a pre-tax decrease in the foreign exchange component of comprehensive earnings of $118.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2014. Approximately $50.5 million of this amount related to goodwill and is not expected to directly affect our projected future cash flows. For the entire year of 2014, operating profit decreased by less than 1% due to fluctuations in non-U.S. currencies.

The following table summarizes our net order information for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013 (dollar amounts in thousands). 

 
 
2014
   
2013
   
change
 
Medical & Scientific Imaging
 
$
1,081,190
   
$
958,830
     
12.8
%
RF Technology
   
955,831
     
943,757
     
1.3
 
Industrial Technology
   
808,921
     
772,337
     
4.7
 
Energy Systems & Controls
   
692,136
     
673,569
     
2.8
 
Total
 
$
3,538,078
   
$
3,348,493
     
5.7
%

The increase in orders was due to internal growth of 3% and orders from acquisitions which added 3%.

The following table summarizes order backlog information at December 31, 2014 and 2013 (dollar amounts in thousands). We include in backlog only orders that are expected to be recognized as revenue within twelve months.
 
 
 
2014
   
2013
   
change
 
Medical & Scientific Imaging
 
$
296,098
   
$
290,435
     
1.9
%
RF Technology
   
520,727
     
510,553
     
2.0
 
Industrial Technology
   
97,507
     
121,943
     
(20.0
)
Energy Systems & Controls
   
126,838
     
131,799
     
(3.8
)
Total
 
$
1,041,170
   
$
1,054,730
     
(1.3
)%
 
Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources

Selected cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 are as follows (in millions):

 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
Cash provided by/(used in):
 
 
 
Operating activities
 
$
928.8
   
$
840.4
   
$
802.6
 
Investing activities
   
(1,698.3
)
   
(348.1
)
   
(1,115.9
)
Financing activities
   
996.2
     
(298.1
)
   
403.6
 

23

Operating activities - The increase in cash provided by operating activities in 2015 was primarily due to increased earnings net of intangible amortization related to acquisitions and the collection of $49 million of receivables due from the Puerto Rico Highways and Transportation Authority, offset in part by higher deferred revenue balances due to an increased percentage of revenue from software and other subscription based products.  The increase in cash provided by operating activities in 2014 was primarily due to increased earnings net of intangible amortization related to acquisitions offset in part by tax payments.

Investing activities - Cash used in investing activities during 2015, 2014 and 2013 was primarily for business acquisitions.  Cash received from investing activities in 2015 was primarily proceeds from the sale of the Abel Pumps business.

Financing activities - Cash used in financing activities in all periods presented was primarily debt repayments as well as dividends paid to stockholders.  Cash provided by financing activities during 2015 was primarily from the issuance of $900 million of senior notes and revolving debt borrowings for acquisitions. Cash provided by financing activities during 2014 was primarily revolving debt borrowing for acquisitions, offset in part by debt payments made using cash from operations.

Net working capital (current assets, excluding cash, less total current liabilities, excluding debt) was $126 million at December 31, 2015 compared to $285 million at December 31, 2014, due primarily to a net reduction in net working capital of $50 million due to the reclassification of current deferred tax assets and liabilities (see Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report) and a $49 million decrease in receivables related to the collection of amounts due from the Puerto Rico Highways and Transportation Authority. We acquired negative net working capital of $13 million through business acquisitions during 2015.  The negative acquired working capital was due primarily to $69 million in deferred revenue balances.

Total debt was $3.3 billion at December 31, 2015 (38.3% of total capital) compared to $2.2 billion at December 31, 2014 (31.8% of total capital). Our increased debt at December 31, 2015 compared to December 31, 2014 was due to debt borrowings for 2015 acquisitions.

On December 7, 2015, we completed a public offering of $600 million aggregate principal amount of 3.00% senior unsecured notes due December 15, 2020, issued at 99.962% of their principal amount, and $300 million aggregate principal amount of 3.85% senior unsecured notes due December 15, 2025, issued at 99.362% of their principal amount.  Net proceeds of $894 million were used to pay off a portion of the outstanding revolver balance under our $1.85 billion revolving credit facility. The senior notes are unsecured senior obligations of the Company and rank senior in right of payment with all of our existing and future subordinated indebtedness and rank equally in right of payment with all of our existing and future unsecured senior indebtedness. The notes are effectively subordinated to any of our existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness. The notes are not guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries and are effectively subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries.

The notes bear interest at a fixed rate of 3.00% and 3.85% per year, respectively, payable semi-annually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year, beginning June 15, 2016.

We may redeem some or all of these notes at any time or from time to time, at 100% of their principal amount, plus a make-whole premium based on a spread to U.S. Treasury securities.

At December 31, 2015, we had $3.1 billion of senior unsecured notes, $180 million of outstanding revolver borrowings and $4 million of senior subordinated convertible notes. In addition, we had $4 million of other debt in the form of capital leases and several smaller facilities that allow for borrowings or the issuance of letters of credit in foreign locations to support our non-U.S. businesses. We had $43 million of outstanding letters of credit at December 31, 2015, of which $39 million was covered by our lending group, thereby reducing our revolving credit capacity commensurately.

We were in compliance with all debt covenants related to our credit facility throughout the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014.

See Note 8 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for information regarding our credit facility, senior notes and senior subordinated convertible notes.

24

Cash and cash equivalents at our foreign subsidiaries at December 31, 2015 totaled $688 million.  Repatriation of these funds under current regulatory and tax law for use in domestic operations would expose us to additional taxes.  We consider this cash to be permanently reinvested.  We expect existing cash and cash equivalents, cash generated by our U.S. operations, our unsecured credit facility, as well as our expected ability to access the capital markets, will be sufficient to fund operating requirements in the U.S. for the foreseeable future.

Capital expenditures of $36.3 million, $37.6 million and $42.5 million were incurred during 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. In the future, we expect capital expenditures as a percentage of sales to be between 1.0% and 1.5% of annual net sales.

Contractual Cash Obligations and Other Commercial Commitments and Contingencies

The following tables quantify our contractual cash obligations and commercial commitments at December 31, 2015 (in thousands).
 
     
Payments Due in Fiscal Year
 
 Contractual
Cash Obligations1
 
Total
   
2016
   
2017
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
   
Thereafter
 
Long-term debt
 
$
3,284,196
   
$
4,196
   
$
580,000
   
$
800,000
   
$
500,000
   
$
600,000
   
$
800,000
 
Senior note interest
   
485,249
     
100,225
     
99,300
     
88,725
     
66,008
     
44,425
     
86,566
 
Capital leases
   
4,418
     
2,609
     
1,296
     
460
     
53
     
-
     
-
 
Operating leases
   
157,172
     
41,045
     
34,210
     
22,375
     
15,053
     
11,897
     
32,592
 
Total
 
$
3,931,035
   
$
148,075
   
$
714,806
   
$
911,560
   
$
581,114
   
$
656,322
   
$
919,158
 

 
 
Amounts Expiring in Fiscal Year
 
Other Commercial
Commitments
Total
Amount
Committed
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
 
2019
 
2020
 
Thereafter
 
Standby letters of credit and bank guarantees
 
$
43,314
   
$
23,940
   
$
3,170
   
$
422
   
$
201
   
$
54
   
$
15,527
 

1 We have excluded $26 million related to the liability for uncertain tax positions from the tables as the current portion is not material, and we are not able to reasonably estimate the timing of the long-term portion of the liability. See Note 7 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report.

As of December 31, 2015, we had $505 million of outstanding surety bonds. Certain contracts, primarily those involving public sector customers, require us to provide a surety bond as a guarantee of its performance of contractual obligations.
 
We believe that internally generated cash flows and the remaining availability under our credit facility will be adequate to finance normal operating requirements and future acquisition activities. Although we maintain an active acquisition program, any future acquisitions will be dependent on numerous factors and it is not feasible to reasonably estimate if or when any such acquisitions will occur and what the impact will be on our activities, financial condition and results of operations. We may also explore alternatives to attract additional capital resources.

We anticipate that our businesses will generate positive cash flows from operating activities, and that these cash flows will permit the reduction of currently outstanding debt in accordance with the repayment schedule. However, the rate at which we can reduce our debt during 2016 (and reduce the associated interest expense) will be affected by, among other things, the financing and operating requirements of any new acquisitions and the financial performance of our existing companies. None of these factors can be predicted with certainty.


Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
At December 31, 2015 and 2014, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, which would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.

25

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

See Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for information regarding the effect of new accounting pronouncements on our financial statements.


ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

We are exposed to interest rate risks on our outstanding revolving credit borrowings, and to foreign currency exchange risks on our transactions denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We are also exposed to equity market risks pertaining to the traded price of our common stock.

At December 31, 2015, we had $3.1 billion of fixed rate borrowings with interest rates ranging from 1.85% to 6.25%. At December 31, 2015, the prevailing market rates for our long-term notes were between 1.4% higher and 2.4% lower than the fixed rates on our debt instruments.  Our credit facility contains a $1.85 billion variable-rate revolver with $180 million of outstanding borrowings at December 31, 2015.

Several of our businesses have transactions and balances denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Most of these transactions or balances are denominated in euros, Canadian dollars, British pounds or Danish kroner. Sales by companies whose functional currency was not the U.S. dollar were 20% of our total sales in 2015 and 61% of these sales were by companies with a European functional currency. If these currency exchange rates had been 10% different throughout 2015 compared to currency exchange rates actually experienced, the impact on our net earnings would have been approximately 1.6%.

The trading price of our common stock influences the valuation of stock award grants and the effects these grants have on our results of operations. The stock price also influences the computation of potentially dilutive common stock which includes both stock awards and the premium over the conversion price on senior subordinated convertible notes to determine diluted earnings per share. The stock price also affects our employees' perceptions of programs that involve our common stock. We believe the quantification of the effects of these changing prices on our future earnings and cash flows is not readily determinable.
26


ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
 
 
Page
Consolidated Financial Statements:
 
Report of Independent Registered Certified Public Accounting Firm (PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP)
28
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2015 and 2014
29
Consolidated Statements of Earnings for the Years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013
30
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the Years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013
31
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity for the Years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013
32
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013
33
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
34
 
 
Supplementary Data:
 
Schedule II - Consolidated Valuation and Qualifying Accounts for the Years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013
55
27
 

Report of Independent Registered Certified Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders of Roper Technologies, Inc.:

In our opinion, the accompanying consolidated balance sheets and the related consolidated statements of earnings, of comprehensive income, of stockholders' equity, and of cash flows, present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Roper Technologies, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the "Company") at December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2015 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(2) presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2015, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework 2013 issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company's management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedule, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedule, and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our integrated audits.  We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).  Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.  Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation.  Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk.  Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company changed the manner in which it classifies deferred taxes in 2015.

A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.  A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements.  Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
As described in Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting, management has excluded acquisitions completed during 2015 from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2015 because they were acquired by the Company in purchase business combinations during 2015. We have also excluded acquisitions completed during 2015 from our audit of internal control over financial reporting. These acquisitions are wholly-owned subsidiaries whose total assets and total revenues represent 1.6% and 3.8% respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 2015.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
February 26, 2016
Tampa, Florida
 
28

ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
December 31, 2015 and 2014
(in thousands, except per share data)
 
 
 
2015
   
2014
 
Assets
 
   
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
778,511
   
$
610,430
 
Accounts receivable, net
   
488,271
     
511,538
 
Inventories, net
   
189,868
     
193,766
 
Deferred taxes
   
-
     
54,199
 
Unbilled receivables
   
122,042
     
96,409
 
Other current assets
   
39,355
     
45,763
 
Total current assets
   
1,618,047
     
1,512,105
 
 
               
Property, plant and equipment, net
   
105,510
     
110,876
 
Goodwill
   
5,824,726
     
4,710,691
 
Other intangible assets, net
   
2,528,996
     
1,978,729
 
Deferred taxes
   
31,532
     
27,496
 
Other assets
   
59,554
     
60,288
 
Total assets
 
$
10,168,365
   
$
8,400,185
 
 
               
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
               
Accounts payable
 
$
139,737
   
$
143,847
 
Accrued compensation
   
119,511
     
117,374
 
Deferred revenue
   
267,030
     
190,953
 
Other accrued liabilities
   
168,513
     
160,738
 
Income taxes payable
   
18,532
     
-
 
Deferred taxes
   
-
     
3,943
 
Current portion of long-term debt, net
   
6,805
     
11,092
 
Total current liabilities
   
720,128
     
627,947
 
 
               
Long-term debt, net of current portion
   
3,264,417
     
2,190,282
 
Deferred taxes
   
810,856
     
735,826
 
Other liabilities
   
74,017
     
90,770
 
Total liabilities
   
4,869,418
     
3,644,825
 
 
               
Commitments and contingencies (Note 12)
               
 
               
Stockholders' equity:
               
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share; 1,000 shares authorized; none outstanding
   
-
     
-
 
Common stock, $0.01 par value per share; 350,000 shares authorized; 102,795 shares issued and 100,870 outstanding at December 31, 2015 and 102,069 shares issued and 100,126 outstanding at December 31, 2014
   
1,028
     
1,021
 
Additional paid-in capital
   
1,419,262
     
1,325,338
 
Retained earnings
   
4,110,530
     
3,520,201
 
Accumulated other comprehensive earnings
   
(212,779
)
   
(71,927
)
Treasury stock, 1,925 shares at December 31, 2015 and 1,943 shares at December 31, 2014
   
(19,094
)
   
(19,273
)
Total stockholders' equity
   
5,298,947
     
4,755,360
 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
 
$
10,168,365
   
$
8,400,185
 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
29

ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EARNINGS
Years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013
(Dollar and share amounts in thousands, except per share data)
 
 
 
Years ended December 31,
 
 
 
2015
   
2014
   
2013
 
Net sales
 
$
3,582,395
   
$
3,549,494
   
$
3,238,128
 
Cost of sales
   
1,417,749
     
1,447,595
     
1,355,200
 
Gross profit
   
2,164,646
     
2,101,899
     
1,882,928
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
   
1,136,728
     
1,102,426
     
1,040,567
 
Income from operations
   
1,027,918
     
999,473
     
842,361
 
Interest expense, net
   
84,225
     
78,637
     
88,039
 
Other income/(expense), net
   
58,652
     
620
     
(192
)
Earnings before income taxes
   
1,002,345
     
921,456
     
754,130
 
Income taxes
   
306,278
     
275,423
     
215,837
 
 
                       
Net earnings
 
$
696,067
   
$
646,033
   
$
538,293
 
 
                       
Earnings per share:
                       
Basic
 
$
6.92
   
$
6.47
   
$
5.43
 
Diluted
 
$
6.85
   
$
6.40
   
$
5.37
 
 
                       
Weighted-average common shares outstanding:
                       
Basic
   
100,616
     
99,916
     
99,123
 
Diluted
   
101,597
     
100,884
     
100,209
 
 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.


30

ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
Years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013
(in thousands)

 
 
Years ended December 31,
 
 
 
2015
   
2014
   
2013
 
Net earnings
 
$
696,067
   
$
646,033
   
$
538,293
 
 
                       
Other comprehensive income, net of tax:
                       
Foreign currency translation adjustments
   
(139,789
)
   
(115,010
)
   
(15,454
)
Unrecognized pension gain
   
(1,063
)
   
-
     
-
 
 
                       
Total other comprehensive loss, net of tax
   
(140,852
)
   
(115,010
)
   
(15,454
)
 
                       
Comprehensive income
 
$
555,215
   
$
531,023
   
$
522,839
 
 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

 
31

ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013
 (in thousands, except per share data)
 
 
 
Common Stock
   
   
   
Accumulated
   
     
 
 
Shares
   
Amount
   
Additional
paid-in capital
   
Retained
earnings
   
other comprehensive
earnings
   
Treasury
stock
   
Total
stockholders'
equity
 
Balances at December 31, 2012
   
98,604
   
$
1,006
   
$
1,158,001
   
$
2,489,858
   
$
58,537
   
$
(19,676
)
 
$
3,687,726
 
Net earnings
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
538,293
     
-
     
-
     
538,293
 
Stock option exercises
   
434
     
4
     
23,995
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
23,999
 
Treasury stock sold
   
20
     
-
     
2,248
     
-
     
-
     
201
     
2,449
 
Currency translation adjustments, net of $2,406 tax
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
(15,454
)
   
-
     
(15,454
)
Stock based compensation
   
-
     
-
     
53,417
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
53,417
 
Restricted stock activity
   
254
     
3
     
(16,046
)
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
(16,043
)
Stock option tax benefit, net of shortfalls
   
-
     
-
     
16,000
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
16,000
 
Conversion of senior subordinated convertible notes
   
-
     
-
     
(8,382
)
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
(8,382
)
Dividends declared ($0.70 per share)
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
(68,955
)
   
-
     
-
     
(68,955
)
Balances at December 31, 2013
   
99,312
   
$
1,013
   
$
1,229,233
   
$
2,959,196
   
$
43,083
   
$
(19,475
)
 
$
4,213,050
 
Net earnings
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
646,033
     
-
     
-
     
646,033
 
Stock option exercises
   
581
     
6
     
32,517
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
32,523
 
Treasury stock sold
   
20
     
-
     
2,549
     
-
     
-
     
202
     
2,751
 
Currency translation adjustments, net of $3,916 tax
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
(115,010
)
   
-
     
(115,010
)
Stock based compensation
   
-
     
-
     
63,025
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
63,025
 
Restricted stock activity
   
213
     
2
     
(22,064
)
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
(22,062
)
Stock option tax benefit, net of shortfalls
   
-
     
-
     
21,481
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
21,481
 
Conversion of senior subordinated convertible notes
   
-
     
-
     
(1,403
)
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
(1,403
)
Dividends declared ($0.85 per share)
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
(85,028
)
   
-
     
-
     
(85,028
)
Balances at December 31, 2014
   
100,126
   
$
1,021
   
$
1,325,338
   
$
3,520,201
   
$
(71,927
)
 
$
(19,273
)
 
$
4,755,360
 
Net earnings
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
696,067
     
-
     
-
     
696,067
 
Stock option exercises
   
402
     
4
     
33,002
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
33,006
 
Treasury stock sold
   
18
     
-
     
2,710
     
-
     
-
     
179
     
2,889
 
Currency translation adjustments, net of $6,658 tax
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
(139,789
)
   
-
     
(139,789
)
Stock based compensation
   
-
     
-
     
61,766
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
61,766
 
Restricted stock activity
   
324
     
3
     
(14,697
)
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
(14,694
)
Stock option tax benefit, net of shortfalls
   
-
     
-
     
22,175
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
22,175
 
Conversion of senior subordinated convertible notes
   
-
     
-
     
(11,032
)
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
(11,032
)
Post-retirement benefit plan adjustments
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
(1,063
)
   
-
     
(1,063
)
Dividends declared ($1.05 per share)
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
(105,738
)
   
-
     
-
     
(105,738
)
Balances at December 31, 2015
   
100,870
   
$
1,028
   
$
1,419,262
   
$
4,110,530
   
$
(212,779
)
 
$
(19,094
)
 
$
5,298,947
 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
 
32

ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
Years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013
 (in thousands)
 
 
 
Years ended December 31,
 
 
 
2015
   
2014
   
2013
 
Cash flows from operating activities:
 
   
   
 
Net earnings
 
$
696,067
   
$
646,033
   
$
538,293
 
Adjustments to reconcile net earnings to cash flows from operating activities:
                       
Depreciation and amortization of property, plant and equipment
   
38,185
     
40,890
     
37,756
 
Amortization of intangible assets
   
166,076
     
156,394
     
151,434
 
Amortization of deferred financing costs
   
4,136
     
4,003
     
3,918
 
Non-cash stock compensation
   
61,766
     
63,027
     
53,133
 
Gain on disposal of a business
   
(70,860
)
   
-
     
-
 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of acquired businesses:
                       
Accounts receivable
   
52,597
     
(404
)
   
32,800
 
Unbilled receivables
   
(21,844
)
   
(10,305
)
   
(14,754
)
Inventories
   
(1,150
)
   
6,349
     
(12,687
)
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities
   
(153
)
   
(20,455
)
   
23,305
 
Income taxes
   
3,069
     
(46,619
)
   
(6,427
)
Other, net
   
936
     
1,528
     
(4,218
)
Cash provided by operating activities
   
928,825
     
840,441
     
802,553
 
Cash flows from investing activities:
                       
Acquisitions of businesses, net of cash acquired
   
(1,762,883
)
   
(305,379
)
   
(1,074,413
)
Capital expenditures
   
(36,260
)
   
(37,644
)
   
(42,528
)
Proceeds from disposal of a business
   
105,624
     
-
     
-
 
Proceeds from sale of assets
   
1,126
     
1,506
     
2,174
 
Other, net
   
(5,939
)
   
(6,588
)
   
(1,096
)
Cash used in investing activities
   
(1,698,332
)
   
(348,105
)
   
(1,115,863
)
Cash flows from financing activities:
                       
Proceeds from senior notes
   
900,000
     
-
     
800,000
 
Payment of senior notes
   
-
     
-
     
(500,000
)
Borrowings/(payments) under revolving line of credit, net
   
180,000
     
(250,000
)
   
150,000
 
Principal payments on convertible notes
   
(4,006
)
   
(561
)
   
(3,702
)
Debt issuance costs
   
(8,044
)
   
-
     
(7,717
)
Cash dividends to stockholders
   
(100,334
)
   
(79,859
)
   
(49,092
)
Treasury stock sales
   
2,889
     
2,751
     
2,449
 
Stock award tax excess windfall benefit
   
22,228
     
21,081
     
11,709
 
Proceeds from stock based compensation, net
   
18,312
     
10,463
     
7,944
 
Redemption premium on convertible debt
   
(13,126
)
   
(1,518
)
   
(9,124
)
Other
   
(1,677
)
   
(461
)
   
1,166
 
Cash provided by/(used in) financing activities
   
996,242
     
(298,104
)
   
403,633
 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
   
(58,654
)
   
(43,522
)
   
(1,193
)
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents
   
168,081
     
150,710
     
89,130
 
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year
   
610,430
     
459,720
     
370,590
 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of year
 
$
778,511
   
$
610,430
   
$
459,720
 
Supplemental disclosures:
                       
Cash paid for:
                       
Interest
 
$
79,225
   
$
74,446
   
$
94,648
 
Income taxes, net of refunds received
 
$
280,801
   
$
300,969
   
$
210,540
 
Noncash investing activities:
                       
Net assets of businesses acquired:
                       
Fair value of assets, including goodwill
 
$
1,876,984
   
$
324,717
   
$
1,275,827
 
Liabilities assumed
   
(114,101
)
   
(19,338
)
   
(201,414
)
Cash paid, net of cash acquired
 
$
1,762,883
   
$
305,379
   
$
1,074,413
 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
33

ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013
 
(1) Summary of Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation - Effective April 24, 2015, Roper Industries, Inc. changed its name to Roper Technologies, Inc. in order to reflect its continued evolution to a diversified technology company.

These financial statements present consolidated information for Roper Technologies, Inc. and its subsidiaries ("Roper" or the "Company"). All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.  The Company has a minority investment which is not consolidated in its results.  The original investment, made in 2007, was $11.5 million.  During the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company determined, based on deterioration in earnings performance, that impairment of the investment was likely, and performed an estimated fair value calculation using an earnings multiples methodology.  The resulting value was determined to be $2 million, generating an impairment loss of $9.5 million which was reported as Other income/(expense) in the consolidated statement of earnings.

The December 31, 2014 consolidated balance sheet has been adjusted due to the retrospective early adoption of an accounting standard update ("ASU") which requires that Roper's senior notes be shown net of debt issuance costs.  The Other assets and Long-term debt, net of current portion line items on the December 31, 2014 consolidated balance sheet were reduced by $13 million.

The Company also early adopted the provisions of an ASU requiring deferred tax liabilities and assets to be classified as noncurrent in the consolidated balance sheet.  The ASU allowed for early adoption as of the beginning of an interim or annual reporting period, as well as the option to be applied either prospectively to all deferred tax liabilities and assets or retrospectively to all periods presented. The Company elected to adopt on a prospective basis in the fourth quarter of 2015.  No prior periods were adjusted.

Nature of the Business - Roper is a diversified technology company.  The Company operates businesses that design and develop software (both license and software-as-a-service) and engineered products and solutions for a variety of niche end markets; including healthcare, transportation, food, energy, water, education and academic research.

Accounts Receivable - Accounts receivable are stated net of an allowance for doubtful accounts and sales allowances of $12.4 million and $13.7 million at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Outstanding accounts receivable balances are reviewed periodically, and allowances are provided at such time that management believes it is probable that an account receivable is uncollectible. The returns and other sales credit allowance is an estimate of customer returns, exchanges, discounts or other forms of anticipated concessions and is treated as a reduction in revenue.

Cash and Cash Equivalents - Roper considers highly liquid financial instruments with remaining maturities at acquisition of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Roper had no cash equivalents at December 31, 2015 and  $40 million at December 31, 2014.

Contingencies - Management continually assesses the probability of any adverse judgments or outcomes to its potential contingencies.  Disclosure of the contingency is made if there is at least a reasonable possibility that a loss or an additional loss may have been incurred.  In the assessment of contingencies as of December 31, 2015, management concluded that no accrual was necessary and that there were no matters for which there was a reasonable possibility of a material loss.

Earnings per Share - Basic earnings per share were calculated using net earnings and the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the respective year. Diluted earnings per share were calculated using net earnings and the weighted-average number of shares of common stock and potential common stock outstanding during the respective year. Potentially dilutive common stock consisted of stock options and the premium over the conversion price on Roper's senior subordinated convertible notes based upon the trading price of the Company's common stock. The effects of potential common stock were determined using the treasury stock method (in thousands):

34

  
 
Years ended December 31,
 
 
 
2015
   
2014
   
2013
 
Basic weighted-average shares outstanding
 
 
100,616
     
99,916
     
99,123
 
Effect of potential common stock:
                       
Common stock awards
   
887
     
816
     
891
 
Senior subordinated convertible notes
   
94
     
152
     
195
 
Diluted weighted-average shares outstanding
   
101,597
     
100,884
     
100,209
 
 
As of and for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, there were 618,220, 764,333 and 614,850 outstanding stock options, respectively, that were not included in the determination of diluted earnings per share because doing so would have been antidilutive.

Estimates - The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ("GAAP") requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions - Assets and liabilities of subsidiaries whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar were translated at the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date, and revenues and expenses were translated at average exchange rates for the period in which those entities were included in Roper's financial results.  Translation adjustments are reflected as a component of other comprehensive income.  Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are recorded in the consolidated statement of earnings as other income/(expense).  The gain or loss included in pre-tax income was a net loss of $0.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, a net gain of $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 and a net loss of $3.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2013.

Goodwill and Other Intangibles - Roper accounts for goodwill in a purchase business combination as the excess of the cost over the estimated fair value of net assets acquired. Business combinations can also result in other intangible assets being recognized. Amortization of intangible assets, if applicable, occurs over their estimated useful lives. Goodwill, which is not amortized, is tested for impairment on an annual basis (or an interim basis if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value). When testing goodwill for impairment, the Company has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the Company elects to perform a qualitative assessment and determines that an impairment is more likely than not, then performance of the two-step quantitative impairment test is required. The first step of the quantitative process utilizes both an income approach (discounted cash flows) and a market approach consisting of a comparable public company earnings multiples methodology to estimate the fair value of a reporting unit.  To determine the reasonableness of the estimated fair values, the Company reviews the assumptions to ensure that neither the income approach nor the market approach provides significantly different valuations.  If the estimated fair value exceeds the carrying value, no further work is required and no impairment loss is recognized.  If the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value, the goodwill of the reporting unit is potentially impaired and then the second quantitative step would be completed in order to measure the impairment loss by calculating the implied fair value of goodwill by deducting the fair value of all tangible and intangible net assets (including unrecognized intangible assets) of the reporting unit from the fair value of the reporting unit.  If the implied fair value of goodwill is less than the carrying value of goodwill, a non-cash impairment loss is recognized.
When performing the quantitative assessment, key assumptions used in the income and market methodologies are updated when the analysis is performed for each reporting unit.  Various assumptions are utilized including forecasted operating results, strategic plans, economic projections, anticipated future cash flows, the weighted-average cost of capital, comparable transactions, market data and earnings multiples.  The assumptions that have the most significant effect on the fair value calculations are the anticipated future cash flows, discount rates, and the earnings multiples.  While the Company uses reasonable and timely information to prepare its cash flow and discount rate assumptions, actual future cash flows or market conditions could differ significantly resulting in future impairment charges related to recorded goodwill balances.

35

Roper has 32 reporting units with individual goodwill amounts ranging from zero to $1.2 billion.  In 2015, the Company performed its annual impairment test in the fourth quarter for all reporting units. The Company conducted its analysis qualitatively and assessed whether it was more likely than not that the respective fair value of these reporting units was less than the carrying amount. The Company determined that impairment of goodwill was not likely in 29 of its reporting units and thus was not required to perform a quantitative analysis for these reporting units. For the remaining three reporting units, the Company performed its quantitative analysis and concluded that the fair value of each of these three reporting units was in excess of its carrying value, with no impairment indicated as of December 31, 2015.   Negative industry or economic trends, disruptions to its business, actual results significantly below expected results, unexpected significant changes or planned changes in the use of the assets, divestitures and market capitalization declines may have a negative effect on the fair value of Roper's reporting units.

The following events or circumstances, although not comprehensive, would be considered to determine whether interim testing of goodwill would be required:

a significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate;
an adverse action or assessment by a regulator;
unanticipated competition;
a loss of key personnel;
a more-likely-than-not expectation that a reporting unit or a significant portion of a reporting unit will be sold or otherwise disposed of;
the testing for recoverability under the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets of a significant asset group within a reporting unit; and
recognition of a goodwill impairment loss in the financial statements of a subsidiary that is a component of a reporting unit.

Business combinations can also result in other intangible assets being recognized. Amortization of intangible assets, if applicable, occurs over their estimated useful lives. Trade names that are determined to have an indefinite useful economic life are not amortized, but separately tested for impairment during the fourth quarter of the fiscal year or on an interim basis if an event occurs that indicates the fair value is more likely than not below the carrying value.  Roper first qualitatively assesses whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount.  If necessary, Roper conducts a quantitative review using the relief-from-royalty method, which management believes to be an acceptable methodology due to its common use by valuations specialists in determining the fair value of intangible assets.  This methodology assumes that, in lieu of ownership, a third party would be willing to pay a royalty in order to exploit the related benefits of these assets.  The fair value of each trade name is determined by applying a royalty rate to a projection of net sales discounted using a risk adjusted rate of capital.  Each royalty rate is determined based on the profitability of the reporting unit to which it relates and observed market royalty rates.  Sales growth rates are determined after considering current and future economic conditions, recent sales trends, discussions with customers, planned timing of new product launches or other variables.  Reporting units resulting from recent acquisitions generally represent the highest risk of impairment, which typically decreases as the businesses are integrated into Roper's enterprise and positioned for improved future sales growth.

The assessment of fair value for impairment purposes requires significant judgments to be made by management.  Although forecasts are based on assumptions that are considered reasonable by management and consistent with the plans and estimates management uses to operate the underlying businesses, there is significant judgment in determining the expected results attributable to the reporting units.  Changes in estimates or the application of alternative assumptions could produce significantly different results. No impairment resulted from the annual reviews performed in 2015.

Roper evaluates whether there has been an impairment of identifiable intangible assets with definite useful economic lives, or of the remaining life of such assets, when certain indicators of impairment are present. In the event that facts and circumstances indicate that the cost or remaining period of amortization of any asset may be impaired, an evaluation of recoverability would be performed. If an evaluation is required, the estimated future gross, undiscounted cash flows associated with the asset would be compared to the asset's carrying amount to determine if a write-down to fair value or a revision in the remaining amortization period is required.

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Impairment of Long-Lived Assets - The Company determines whether there has been an impairment of long-lived assets, excluding goodwill and identifiable intangible assets, that are determined to have indefinite useful economic lives, when certain indicators of impairment are present. In the event that facts and circumstances indicate that the cost or life of any long-lived assets may be impaired, an evaluation of recoverability would be performed. If an evaluation is required, the estimated future gross, undiscounted cash flows associated with the asset would be compared to the asset's carrying amount to determine if a write-down to fair value or revision to remaining life is required. Future adverse changes in market conditions or poor operating results of underlying long-lived assets could result in losses or an inability to recover the carrying value of the long-lived assets that may not be reflected in the assets' current carrying value, thereby possibly requiring an impairment charge or acceleration of depreciation or amortization expense in the future.

Income Taxes - Roper is a U.S.-based multinational company and the calculation of its worldwide provision for income taxes requires analysis of many factors, including income tax systems that vary from country to country, and the United States' treatment of non-U.S. earnings. The Company provides U.S. income taxes for unremitted earnings of foreign subsidiaries that are not considered permanently reinvested overseas. As of December 31, 2015, the amount of earnings of foreign subsidiaries that the Company considers permanently reinvested and for which deferred taxes have not been provided was approximately $1.25 billion. Because of the availability of U.S. foreign tax credits, it is not practicable to determine the U.S. federal income tax liability that would be payable if such earnings were not reinvested indefinitely.

Although it is the Company's intention to permanently reinvest these earnings indefinitely there are certain events that would cause these earnings to become taxable.  These events include, but are not limited to, changes in U.S. tax laws, dividends paid between foreign subsidiaries in the absence of Section 954(c)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended ("IRC"), foreign subsidiary guarantees of U.S. parent debt and the liquidation of foreign subsidiaries or actual distributions by foreign subsidiaries into a U.S. affiliate.

The Company early adopted the provisions of an ASU requiring deferred tax liabilities and assets to be classified as noncurrent in the consolidated balance sheet.  The ASU allowed for early adoption as of the beginning of an interim or annual reporting period, as well as the option to be applied either prospectively to all deferred tax liabilities and assets or retrospectively to all periods presented. The Company elected to adopt on a prospective basis in the fourth quarter of 2015.  No prior periods were adjusted.

The Company recognizes in the consolidated financial statements only those tax positions determined to be "more likely than not" of being sustained upon examination based on the technical merits of the positions.  Interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits are classified as a component of income tax expense.

The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce its deferred tax assets if, based on the weight of available evidence, both positive and negative, for each respective tax jurisdictions, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of such deferred tax assets will not be realized.  Available evidence which is considered in determining the amount of valuation allowance required includes, but is not limited to, the Company's estimate of future taxable income and any applicable tax-planning strategies.

Certain assets and liabilities have different bases for financial reporting and income tax purposes. Deferred income taxes have been provided for these differences at the tax rates expected to be paid.

Interest Rate Risk - The Company manages interest rate risk by maintaining a combination of fixed- and variable-rate debt, which may include interest rate swaps to convert fixed-rate debt to variable-rate debt, or to convert variable-rate debt to fixed-rate debt.  Interest rate swaps are recorded at fair value in the balance sheet as an asset or liability, and the changes in fair values of both the swap and the hedged item are recorded as interest expense in current earnings.  There were no interest rate swaps outstanding at December 31, 2015.

Inventories - Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out method. The Company writes down its inventory for estimated obsolescence or excess inventory equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated market value based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions.

Other Comprehensive Income - Comprehensive income includes net earnings and all other non-owner sources of changes in a company's net assets.

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Product Warranties - The Company sells certain of its products to customers with a product warranty that allows customers to return a defective product during a specified warranty period following the purchase in exchange for a replacement product, repair at no cost to the customer or the issuance of a credit to the customer. The Company accrues its estimated exposure to warranty claims based upon current and historical product sales data, warranty costs incurred and any other related information known to the Company.

Property, Plant and Equipment and Depreciation and Amortization - Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are provided for using principally the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:
 
Buildings
20-30 years
Machinery
8-12 years
Other equipment
3-5 years

Recently Released Accounting Pronouncements - The Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") establishes changes to accounting principles under GAAP in the form of accounting standards updates to the FASB's Accounting Standards Codification.  The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASUs.  Any ASUs not listed below were assessed and determined to be either not applicable or are expected to have an immaterial impact on the Company's results of operations, financial position or cash flows.

In September 2015, the FASB issued an update providing guidance to simplify the accounting for measurement period adjustments. This update, effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, including interim periods within those fiscal years, requires that an acquirer recognize adjustments to provisional amounts that are identified during the measurement period in the reporting period in which the adjustment amounts are determined. The Company does not expect the update to have a material impact on its results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

In July 2015, the FASB issued an update providing guidance to simplify the measurement of inventory. This update, effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, requires that inventory within the scope of the update be measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The Company does not expect the update to have a material impact on its results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

In April 2015, the FASB issued an update providing guidance to determine whether the fee paid by an entity for a cloud computing arrangement includes a software license. If a cloud computing arrangement includes a software license, then the software license element of the arrangement should be accounted for consistently with the acquisition of other software licenses. A cloud computing arrangement that does not include a software license should be accounted for as a service contract.  The update is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2015, and may be adopted prospectively or retrospectively.  The Company does not expect this update to have a material impact on its results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

In June 2014, the FASB issued an update to the accounting for stock compensation. These updates, effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, modify the accounting for share-based payments when the terms of an award provide that a performance target could be achieved after the requisite service period. The Company does not expect this update to have an impact on its results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

In May 2014, the FASB issued updates on accounting and disclosures for revenue from contracts with customers. These updates, effective for annual reporting periods after December 15, 2017, create a single, comprehensive revenue recognition model for all contracts with customers. The model is based on changes in contract assets (rights to receive consideration) and liabilities (obligations to provide a good or service). Revenue will be recognized based on the satisfaction of performance obligations, which occurs when control of a good or service transfers to a customer. The Company is evaluating the impact of these updates on its results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Research and Development - Research and development ("R&D") costs include salaries and benefits, rents, supplies, and other costs related to products under development. Research and development costs are expensed in the period incurred and totaled $164.2 million, $147.9 million and $145.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.