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EX-32.1 - EX-32.1 - HAYNES INTERNATIONAL INChayn-20180930ex321066508.htm
EX-31.2 - EX-31.2 - HAYNES INTERNATIONAL INChayn-20180930ex312ee011a.htm
EX-31.1 - EX-31.1 - HAYNES INTERNATIONAL INChayn-20180930ex3115aa095.htm
EX-23.1 - EX-23.1 - HAYNES INTERNATIONAL INChayn-20180930ex2317b11a6.htm
EX-21.1 - EX-21.1 - HAYNES INTERNATIONAL INChayn-20180930ex2112e5530.htm
EX-10.25 - EX-10.25 - HAYNES INTERNATIONAL INChayn-20180930ex1025d38cd.htm
EX-10.24 - EX-10.24 - HAYNES INTERNATIONAL INChayn-20180930ex10243b91a.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018

 

or

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from                      to                   

 

Commission file number 001-33288

 

HAYNES INTERNATIONAL, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

06-1185400
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

1020 West Park Avenue, Kokomo, Indiana
(Address of principal executive offices)

46904-9013
(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (765) 456-6000

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $.001 per share

 

NASDAQ Global Market

 

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None.

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.☐ Yes     ☒ No

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. ☐ Yes     ☒ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 ☒ Yes     ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

☒ Yes     ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer ☐

Accelerated filer ☒

Non-accelerated filer ☐

Smaller reporting Company ☐

 

 

 

Emerging growth company ☐

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). ☐ Yes ☒ No

 

As of March 31, 2018, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $296,922,788 based on the closing sale price as reported on the NASDAQ Global Market. Shares of common stock held by each executive officer and director and by each person who owns 10% or more of the outstanding common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

 

12,504,478 shares of Haynes International, Inc. common stock were outstanding as of November 15, 2018.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held February 27, 2019 have been incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.

 

 

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

    

    

Page No.

 

Part I 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1. 

 

Business

 

3

 

Item 1A. 

 

Risk Factors

 

15

 

Item 1B. 

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

26

 

Item 2. 

 

Properties

 

27

 

Item 3. 

 

Legal Proceedings

 

28

 

Item 4. 

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

28

 

Part II 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5. 

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

29

 

Item 6. 

 

Selected Financial Data

 

30

 

Item 7. 

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

32

 

Item 7A. 

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

49

 

Item 8. 

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

50

 

Item 9. 

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

84

 

Item 9A. 

 

Controls and Procedures

 

84

 

Item 9B. 

 

Other Information

 

84

 

Part III 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10. 

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

85

 

Item 11. 

 

Executive Compensation

 

85

 

Item 12. 

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

85

 

Item 13. 

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

85

 

Item 14. 

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

86

 

Part IV 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15. 

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

87

 

Index to Exhibits 

 

88

 

Signatures 

 

91

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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This Annual Report on Form 10‑K contains statements that constitute “forward‑looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended. All statements other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding market and industry prospects and future results of operations or financial position, made in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K are forward‑looking. In many cases, you can identify forward‑looking statements by terminology, such as “may”, “should”, “expects”, “intends”, “plans”, “anticipates”, “believes”, “estimates”, “predicts”, “potential” or “continue” or the negative of such terms and other comparable terminology. The forward‑looking information may include, among other information, statements concerning the Company’s outlook for fiscal year 2019 and beyond, overall volume and pricing trends, cost reduction strategies and their anticipated results, market and industry trends, capital expenditures and dividends. There may also be other statements of expectations, beliefs, future plans and strategies, anticipated events or trends and similar expressions concerning matters that are not historical facts. Readers are cautioned that any such forward‑looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, including, without limitation, those risk factors set forth in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. Actual results may differ materially from those in the forward‑looking statements as a result of various factors, many of which are beyond the Company’s control.

The Company has based these forward‑looking statements on its current expectations and projections about future events. Although the Company believes that the assumptions on which the forward‑looking statements contained herein are based are reasonable, any of those assumptions could prove to be inaccurate. As a result, the forward‑looking statements based upon those assumptions also could be incorrect. Risks and uncertainties may affect the accuracy of forward‑looking statements.

The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward‑looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

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Part I

Item 1.  Business

Overview

Haynes International, Inc. (“Haynes”, “the Company”, “we”, “our” or “us”) is one of the world’s largest producers of high‑performance nickel‑ and cobalt‑based alloys in flat product form such as sheet, coil and plate forms. The Company is focused on developing, manufacturing, marketing and distributing technologically advanced, high‑performance alloys, which are sold primarily in the aerospace, chemical processing and industrial gas turbine industries. The Company’s products consist of high‑temperature resistant alloys, or HTA products, and corrosion‑resistant alloys, or CRA products. HTA products are used by manufacturers of equipment that is subjected to extremely high temperatures, such as jet engines for the aerospace market, gas turbine engines used for power generation and waste incineration, and industrial heating equipment. CRA products are used in applications that require resistance to very corrosive media found in chemical processing, power plant emissions control and hazardous waste treatment. Management believes Haynes is one of the principal producers of high‑performance alloy flat products in sheet, coil and plate forms, and sales of these forms, in the aggregate, represented approximately 60% of net product revenues in fiscal 2018. The Company also produces its products as seamless and welded tubulars, and in slab, bar, billet and wire forms.

The Company has manufacturing facilities in Kokomo, Indiana; Arcadia, Louisiana; and Mountain Home, North Carolina. The Kokomo facility specializes in flat products, the Arcadia facility specializes in tubular products, and the Mountain Home facility specializes in wire products. The Company’s products are sold primarily through its direct sales organization, which includes 12 service and/or sales centers in the United States, Europe and Asia. All of these centers are Company‑operated. In fiscal 2018, approximately 75% of the Company’s net revenue was generated by its direct sales organization, and the remaining 25% was generated by a network of independent distributors and sales agents that supplement its direct sales efforts primarily in the United States, Europe and Asia, some of whom have been associated with the Company for over 30 years.

Available Information

The address of the Company’s website is www.haynesintl.com. The Company provides a link to its reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 on its website as soon as reasonably practicable after filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. The filings available on the Company’s website date back to February 3, 2011. For all filings made prior to that date, the Company’s website includes a link to the website of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, where such filings are available. Information contained or referenced on the Company’s website is not incorporated by reference into, and does not form a part of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. For a statement of the Company’s profits and losses and total assets, please see the financial statements of the Company included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Business Strategy

The Company’s goal is to grow its business by increasing revenues, profitability and cash flow while continuing to be its customers’ provider of choice for high‑performance alloys and value-added processes. The Company has launched a series of focus initiatives designed to unlock the potential of the Company by increasing volumes, improving targeted pricing, strengthening mix management and reducing costs.  This includes effectively utilizing open capacity on major assets and managing mix at constrained assets in order to, among other things, derive a meaningful return on investment from the $120 million in growth capital the Company has invested since 2012.  In addition, these initiatives include programs designed to take advantage of the Company’s expert technical abilities in delivering innovative products and applications combined with its niche manufacturing and value-added service capabilities to penetrate end markets.

The following are some examples of the focus initiatives that are currently being undertaken.

·

Increase revenues by inventing new alloys, developing new applications for existing alloys and expanding into new markets.  The Company believes that it is the industry leader in developing new alloys designed to meet its customers’ specialized and demanding requirements. The Company continues to work closely with customers and end users of its products to identify, develop, manufacture and test new high‑performance alloys. Since fiscal 2003, the Company’s technical programs have yielded nine new proprietary alloys, an

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accomplishment that the Company believes distinguishes it from its competitors. The Company expects continued emphasis on product innovation to yield similar future results.

Developing new applications for existing alloys is also a key strength and strategy of the Company.  The Company leverages its technical expertise to find unique applications for its products, especially proprietary and specialty alloys that can yield higher margins. 

Through development of new alloys and new applications for existing alloys, the Company is seeking to develop additional markets in order to generate new revenue streams beyond the core markets of aerospace, chemical processing and industrial gas turbine industries. The Company believes that the synthetic natural gas, renewable energy (such as solar), fuel cells, clean-coal, waste-to-energy, oil and gas, flue‑gas desulfurization in China, automotive, consumer electronics, heat treatment, medical and nuclear industries all present opportunities for its products.

·

Increase revenues by providing value‑added processing services and leveraging the Company’s global distribution network.  The Company believes that its network of service and sales centers throughout North America, Europe and Asia distinguishes it from its competitors, many of whom operate only mills. The Company’s service and sales centers enable it to develop close customer relationships through direct interaction with customers and to respond to customer orders quickly, while providing value‑added cutting services such as laser, plasma and water-jet cutting. These services allow the Company’s customers to minimize their processing costs and outsource non‑core activities. In addition, the Company’s rapid response time and enhanced processing services for products shipped from its service and sales centers offers the opportunity for the Company to provide more timely service to its customers.

·

Capitalize on strategic equipment investment and optimize processes with lean manufacturing improvements.  The Company expects to continue to improve operations through prior and ongoing capital investment in manufacturing facilities and equipment, including information technology, and focus on operational excellence. Ongoing investment in equipment is expected to improve the Company’s operations by increasing capacity, reducing unplanned downtime and manufacturing costs and improving product quality and working capital management. Management believes that the Company’s capital investments will enable it to continue to satisfy long‑term customer demand for value‑added products that meet increasingly precise specifications. For additional discussion of capital spending, see “Summary of Capital Spending” in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, contained elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

·

Continue to expand the maintenance, repair and overhaul business.  The Company believes that its maintenance, repair and overhaul, or MRO, business serves a growing market and represents both an expanding and recurring revenue stream. Products used in the Company’s end markets require periodic replacement due to the extreme environments in which they are used, which drives demand for recurring MRO work. The Company intends to continue to leverage the capabilities of its service and sales centers to respond quickly to its customers’ time‑sensitive MRO needs to develop new and retain existing business opportunities. 

·

Expand product capability through strategic acquisitions and alliances.  The Company will continue to examine opportunities that enable it to offer customers an enhanced and more competitive product line to complement its core flat products. These opportunities may include product line enhancement and market expansion opportunities. The Company will also continue to evaluate strategic relationships with third parties in the industry in order to enhance its competitive position and relationships with customers.

Company History

The Company was founded in 1912 as Haynes Stellite Works by American inventor and entrepreneur Elwood Haynes in Kokomo, Indiana. Since its founding, the Company has continuously conducted its main operations in Kokomo, Indiana. The Company was owned for much of its history by corporate parents, including Union Carbide and Cabot

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Corporation, until purchased in 1989 and then again in 1997 by private equity firms. The debt incurred in the last leveraged buy‑out ultimately forced the Company into bankruptcy in March 2004, from which it emerged five months later in August 2004.

The Company began operations in its tubular facility in Arcadia, Louisiana over 30 years ago. This facility and the Company’s tubular product business have grown with additional investment over time. The Company operates service centers in the U.S. that include value-added operations with laser, water-jet and plasma cutting.  The Company also acquired a stainless steel and high‑temperature alloy wire company located in Mountain Home, North Carolina in 2005. The Company primarily produces high‑performance alloy wire at that facility.  Most recently, in January 2015, the Company acquired assets in LaPorte, Indiana enabling coil stretching, leveling, slitting and cut-to-length operations.  The Laporte operation also includes a toll processing business.  The Company expanded the Laporte facility and moved operations from Lebanon, Indiana to that facility.  In addition, the Company has expanded globally with service center locations in the United Kingdom, Switzerland and China and other sales offices in France, Japan, Singapore and Italy.

In March 2007, the Company completed a public equity offering, and simultaneously the Company listed its common stock on the NASDAQ Global Market. The Company began paying a dividend in fiscal 2010 and raised the dividend at the beginning of fiscal 2012.

Products

The global specialty alloy market consists of three primary sectors: stainless steel, general-purpose nickel alloys and high‑performance nickel‑ and cobalt‑based alloys. The Company believes that the high‑performance alloy sector represents less than 10% of the total alloy market. The Company competes primarily in the high‑performance nickel‑ and cobalt‑based alloy sectors, which includes HTA products and CRA products. In each year of fiscal 2016, 2017 and 2018, HTA products accounted for approximately 81% of the Company’s net revenues, and sales of the Company’s CRA products accounted for approximately 19% of the Company’s net revenues.  These percentages are based on data which include revenue associated with sales by the Company to its foreign subsidiaries, but exclude revenue associated with sales by foreign subsidiaries to their customers. Management believes, however, that the effect of including revenue data associated with sales by its foreign subsidiaries would not materially change the percentages presented in this section.

High‑temperature Resistant Alloys.  HTA products are used primarily in manufacturing components for the hot sections of gas turbine engines. Stringent safety and performance standards in the aerospace industry result in development lead times typically as long as eight to ten years in the introduction of new aerospace‑related market applications for HTA products. However, once a particular new alloy is shown to possess the properties required for a specific application in the aerospace market, it tends to remain in use for extended periods. HTA products are also used in gas turbine engines produced for use in applications such as naval and commercial vessels, electric power generation, power sources for offshore drilling platforms, gas pipeline booster stations and emergency standby power generators. The following table

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sets forth information with respect to the Company’s significant high‑temperature resistant alloys, applications and features (new HTA development is discussed below under “Patents and Trademarks”):

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alloy and Year Introduced

    

End Markets and Applications(1)

    

Features

 

HAYNES® HR‑160® alloy (1990)(2)

 

Waste incineration/CPI‑boiler tube shields

 

Good resistance to sulfidation at high temperatures

 

HAYNES 242® alloy (1990)

 

Aero‑seal rings

 

High strength, low expansion and good fabricability

 

HAYNES HR‑120® alloy (1990)

 

IGT‑cooling shrouds

 

Good strength‑to‑cost ratio as compared to competing alloys

 

HAYNES 230® alloy (1984)(2)

 

Aero/IGT‑ducting, combustors

 

Excellent combination of strength, stability, oxidation-resistance and fabricability

 

HAYNES 214® alloy (1981)(2)

 

Aero‑honeycomb seals

 

Excellent combination of oxidation resistance and fabricability among nickel‑based alloys

 

HAYNES 188 alloy (1968)

 

Aero‑burner cans, after‑burner components

 

High strength, oxidation resistant cobalt‑based alloy

 

HAYNES 625 alloy (1964)

 

Aero/CPI‑ducting, tanks, vessels, weld overlays

 

Good fabricability and general corrosion resistance

 

HAYNES 617 alloy (1999)

 

Aero/IGT—ducting, combustors

 

Good combination of strength, stability, oxidation resistance and fabricability

 

HAYNES 263 alloy (1960)

 

Aero/IGT‑components for gas turbine hot gas exhaust pan

 

Good ductility and high strength at temperatures up to 1600°F

 

HAYNES 718 alloy (1955)

 

Aero‑ducting, vanes, nozzles

 

Weldable, high-strength alloy with good fabricability

 

HASTELLOY® X alloy (1954)

 

Aero/IGT‑burner cans, transition ducts

 

Good high-temperature strength at relatively low cost

 

HAYNES 25 alloy (1950)(2)

 

Aero‑gas turbine parts, bearings, and various industrial applications

 

Excellent strength, good oxidation resistance to 1800°F

 

HAYNES 282® alloy (2005)(2)

 

Aero/IGT components

 

Excellent high temperature strength, weldability and fabricability

 

HAYNES 244®  alloy (2013)(2)

 

Aero/IGT components

 

High strength to 1400°F and low thermal expansion

 


(1)

“Aero” refers to the aerospace industry; “IGT” refers to the industrial gas turbine industry; “CPI” refers to the chemical processing industry.

(2)

Represents a patented product or a product which the Company believes has limited or no competition.

Corrosion‑resistant Alloys.  CRA products are used in a variety of applications, such as chemical processing, power plant emissions control, hazardous waste treatment, sour gas production and pharmaceutical vessels. Historically, the chemical processing market has represented the largest end‑user sector for CRA products. Due to maintenance, safety and environmental considerations, the Company believes this market continues to represent an area of potential long‑term growth. In addition to the use of CRA products in the chemical and petrochemical processing industry, the Company has seen an increased demand for some of these alloys in applications such as gas-to-liquid and synthetic gas. For improved efficiency within relevant applications, higher operating temperatures and harsher environmental conditions are required and, as a consequence, high-temperature, corrosion-resistant alloys are used. Some of our HTA products offer excellent resistance to oxidation, sulfidation, metal dusting and other high-temperature degradation modes. The Company expects this area of the chemical and petrochemical industry to represent potential long-term growth opportunities for the HTA products. Unlike aerospace applications within the HTA product market, the development of new market applications for CRA products generally does not require long lead times. The following table sets forth information with respect to certain

6


 

of the Company’s significant corrosion‑resistant alloys, applications and features (new CRA development is discussed below under “Patents and Trademarks”):

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alloy and Year Introduced

    

End Markets and Applications(1)

    

Features

 

HASTELLOY C‑2000® alloy (1995)(2)

 

CPI‑tanks, mixers, piping

 

Versatile alloy with good resistance to uniform corrosion

 

HASTELLOY B‑3® alloy (1994)(2)

 

CPI‑acetic acid plants

 

Better fabrication characteristics compared to other nickel‑molybdenum alloys

 

HASTELLOY D‑205® alloy (1993)(2)

 

CPI‑plate heat exchangers

 

Corrosion resistance to hot concentrated sulfuric acid

 

ULTIMET® alloy (1990)(2)

 

CPI‑pumps, valves

 

Wear and corrosion resistant nickel‑based alloy

 

HASTELLOY C‑22® alloy (1985)

 

CPI/FGD‑tanks, mixers, piping

 

Resistance to localized corrosion and pitting

 

HASTELLOY G‑30® alloy (1985)(2)

 

CPI‑tanks, mixers, piping

 

Alloy with good corrosion resistance in phosphoric acid

 

HASTELLOY G‑35® alloy (2004)(2)

 

CPI‑tanks, heat exchangers, piping

 

Improved corrosion resistance to phosphoric acid with excellent resistance to corrosion in highly oxidizing media

 

HASTELLOY C‑276 alloy (1968)

 

CPI/FGD/oil and gas tanks, mixers, piping

 

Broad resistance to many environments

 

HASTELLOY C‑22HS® alloy (2003)(2)

 

Oil & Gas/Marine tubular, shafts, fasteners

 

Combines very high strength with excellent corrosion resistance and toughness

 


(1)

“CPI” refers to the chemical processing industry; “FGD” refers to the flue gas desulfurization industry.

(2)

Represents a patented product or a product which the Company believes has limited or no significant competition.

Patents and Trademarks

The Company currently maintains a total of approximately 25 published U.S. patents and applications and approximately 267 foreign counterpart patents and applications targeted at countries with significant or potential markets for the patented products. Since fiscal 2003, the Company’s technical programs have yielded nine new proprietary alloys. The alloys being commercialized saw significant further advancement in the process during fiscal 2016, 2017 and 2018. HAYNES 282 alloy, which management believes will have significant commercial potential for the Company in the long term, is the subject of a U.S. patent issued in 2011. HAYNES 282 alloy has excellent formability, fabricability and forgeability. The commercial launch of HAYNES 282 alloy occurred in October 2005 and, since that time, there have been a significant number of customer tests and evaluations of this product for the hot sections of gas turbines in the aerospace and industrial gas turbine markets, as well as for automotive and other high‑temperature applications. The alloy has been specified into major aerospace and industrial gas turbine components. The Company will continue to actively promote HAYNES 282 alloy through customer engineering visits and technical presentations and papers.  Another new alloy for use in the aerospace and industrial gas turbine markets is HAYNES 244 alloy (U.S. patent filed in 2012 and granted in 2013).  It combines high strength to 1400 degrees Fahrenheit with a low coefficient of thermal expansion.  Commercialization is ongoing for this alloy, and it has recently been specified into a major aerospace component.

In the chemical processing industry, customers have found extensive applications for HASTELLOY G‑35 alloy, particularly in wet phosphoric acid production. Management expects demand for this alloy will continue to grow. Commercialization of HASTELLOY C‑22HS alloy has also continued, and the alloy has already found applications in the oil and gas industry. Testing, evaluation and promotion of this alloy are ongoing with special emphasis on applications for this industry. The Company believes that its alloys (particularly HAYNES 282 alloy) are being commercialized rapidly when compared to historical trends for other proprietary alloys introduced by the Company. Commercialization is also ongoing for HASTELLOY HYBRID‑BC1® alloy and HAYNES HR-224® alloy. HYBRID-BC1 alloy is a CRA product with potential applications in the chemical processing industry that has demonstrated resistance to hydrochloric and

7


 

sulfuric acid. HAYNES HR-224 alloy is an HTA product with superior resistance to oxidation and excellent fabricability.

In addition to the commercialization of the above alloys, the Company continues to develop applications for new alloys not yet ready to begin the commercialization process. HAYNES HR‑235® was introduced in fiscal 2013. This alloy has excellent resistance to metal dusting in carbonaceous high temperature environments. Potential uses include applications in petrochemical production and syngas plants. Scale-up of this alloy is well underway and material is currently being evaluated by certain key customers. Most recently, HAYNES 233TM alloy was introduced. This alloy offers excellent oxidation resistance at temperatures to 2100°F or higher coupled with superior clasp strength, a combination of properties believed not to have been achieved previously in a readily fabricated alloy. The alloy is currently being scaled-up and introduced to key customers.

Patents or other proprietary rights are an important element of the Company’s business. The Company’s strategy is to file patent applications in the U.S. and any other country that represents an important potential commercial market to the Company. In addition, the Company seeks to protect technology that is important to the development of the Company’s business. The Company also relies upon trade secret rights to protect its technologies and its development of new applications and alloys. The Company protects its trade secrets in part through confidentiality and proprietary information agreements with its customers. Trademarks on the names of many of the Company’s alloys have also been applied for or granted in the U.S. and certain foreign countries.

While the Company believes its patents are important to its competitive position, significant barriers to entry continue to exist beyond the expiration of any patent period. These barriers to entry include the unique equipment required to produce these materials and the exacting processes required to achieve the desired metallurgical properties. These processing requirements include such items as specific annealing temperature, processing speeds and reduction per rolling pass. Management believes that the current alloy development program and these barriers to entry reduce the impact of patent expirations on the Company.

End Markets

The global specialty alloy market consists of stainless steels, general purpose nickel alloys and high‑performance nickel‑ and cobalt‑based alloys. Of this total market, the Company primarily competes in the high‑performance nickel‑ and cobalt‑based alloy sector, which demands diverse specialty alloys suitable for use in precision manufacturing. Given the technologically advanced nature of the products, strict requirements of the end users and higher‑growth end markets, the Company believes the high‑performance alloy sector provides greater growth potential, higher profit margins and greater opportunities for service, product and price differentiation as compared to the stainless steels and general-purpose nickel alloys markets. While stainless steel and general-purpose nickel alloys are generally sold in bulk through third‑party distributors, the Company’s products are sold in smaller‑sized orders which are customized and typically handled on a direct‑to‑customer basis.

Aerospace.  The Company has manufactured HTA products for the aerospace market since the late 1930s and has developed numerous proprietary alloys for this market. Customers in the aerospace market tend to be the most demanding with respect to meeting specifications within very precise tolerances and achieving new product performance standards. Stringent safety standards and continuous efforts to reduce equipment weight and develop more fuel-efficient designs require close coordination between the Company and its customers in the selection and development of HTA products. As a result, sales to aerospace customers tend to be made through the Company’s direct sales force. Demand for the Company’s products in the aerospace market is based on the new and replacement market for jet engines and the maintenance needs of operators of commercial and military aircraft. The Company specializes in the static parts included in the hot sections of the jet engine. The hot sections are subjected to substantial wear and tear and accordingly require periodic maintenance, repair and overhaul. The Company views the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) business as an area of continuing long‑term growth.

Chemical Processing.  The chemical processing market represents a large base of customers with diverse CRA applications driven by demand for key end-use markets such as automobiles, housing, health care, agriculture and metals production. CRA products supplied by the Company have been used in the chemical processing market since the early 1930s. Demand for the Company’s products in this market is driven by the level of MRO and expansion requirements of

8


 

existing chemical processing facilities, as well as the construction of new facilities. The expansion of manufacturing of natural gas liquids in North America is expected to be a driver of demand in this market. In addition, the Company believes the extensive worldwide network of Company‑owned service and sales centers, as well as its network of independent distributors and sales agents who supplement the Company’s direct sales efforts outside of the U.S., provide a competitive advantage in marketing its CRA products in the chemical processing market.

Industrial gas turbine.  Demand for the Company’s products in the industrial gas turbine market is driven by the construction of cogeneration facilities such as base load for electric utilities or as backup sources to fossil fuel‑fired utilities during times of peak demand. Demand for the Company’s alloys in the industrial gas turbine markets has also been driven by concerns regarding lowering emissions from generating facilities powered by fossil fuels. Industrial gas turbine generating facilities have gained acceptance as clean, low‑cost alternatives to fossil fuel‑fired electric generating facilities. Industrial gas turbines are also used in power barges with mobility and as temporary base‑load‑generating units for countries that have numerous islands and a large coastline. Demand is also generated by mechanical drive units used for oil and gas production and pipeline transportation, as well as microturbines that are used as back-up sources of power generation for hospitals and shopping malls.

Other Markets.  Other markets in which the Company sells its HTA products and CRA products include flue‑gas desulfurization (FGD), oil and gas, waste incineration, industrial heat treating, automotive, instrumentation, biopharmaceuticals, solar and nuclear fuel. The FGD market has been driven by both legislated and self‑imposed standards for lowering emissions from fossil fuel‑fired electric generating facilities. This market is expected to soften in the U.S. if the trend to switch from coal to natural gas for power plants continues. The Company also sells its products for use in the oil and gas market, primarily in connection with sour gas production. In addition, incineration of municipal, biological, industrial and hazardous waste products typically produces very corrosive conditions that demand high‑performance alloys. The Company continues to look for opportunities to introduce and expand the use of its alloys in emerging technologies such as solar and nuclear fuel applications. Markets capable of providing growth are being driven by increasing performance, reliability and service life requirements for products used in these markets, which could provide further applications for the Company’s products.

Sales and Marketing and Distribution

The Company sells its products primarily through its direct sales organization, which operates from 15 total locations in the U.S., Europe and Asia, 12 of which are service and/or sales centers. All of the Company’s service and/or sales centers are operated either directly by the Company or through its directly or indirectly wholly‑owned subsidiaries. Approximately 75% of the Company’s net revenue in fiscal 2018 was generated by the Company’s direct sales organization. The remaining 25% of the Company’s fiscal 2018 net revenues was generated by a network of independent distributors and sales agents who supplement the Company’s direct sales in the U.S., Europe and Asia.  Going forward, the Company expects its direct sales force to generate approximately 75% of its total net revenues.

Providing technical assistance to customers is an important part of the Company’s marketing strategy. The Company provides performance analyses of its products and those of its competitors for its customers. These analyses enable the Company to evaluate the performance of its products enabling the products to be included as part of the technical specifications used in the production of customers’ products. The Company’s market development professionals are assisted by its engineering and technology staff in directing the sales force to new opportunities. Management believes the Company’s combination of direct sales, technical marketing, engineering and customer support provides an advantage over other manufacturers in the high‑performance alloy industry. This framework allows the Company to obtain direct insight into customers’ alloy needs and to develop proprietary alloys that provide solutions to customers’ problems.

The Company continues to focus on growing its business in foreign markets, operating from service and sales centers in Asia and Europe.

While the Company is making concentrated efforts to expand foreign sales, the majority of its revenue continues to be provided by sales to U.S. customers. The Company’s domestic expansion effort includes, but is not limited to, capital investment in increased capacity, the continued expansion of ancillary product forms, the continued development of new high‑performance alloys, the addition of equipment in U.S. service and sales centers to improve the Company’s ability to provide a product closer to the form required by the customer and the continued effort, through the technical expertise of the Company, to find solutions to customer challenges.

9


 

The following table sets forth the approximate percentage of the Company’s fiscal 2018 net revenues generated through each of the Company’s distribution channels.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

From

    

From

    

 

 

 

 

Domestic

 

Foreign

 

 

 

 

 

Locations

 

Locations

 

Total

 

Company mill direct/service and sales centers

 

47

%  

28

%  

75

%  

Independent distributors/sales agents

 

25

%  

 —

%  

25

%  

Total

 

72

%  

28

%  

100

%  

 

The Company’s top twenty customers accounted for approximately 41%, 38% and 36% of the Company’s net revenues in fiscal 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively. No customer or group of affiliated customers of the Company accounted for more than 10% of the Company’s net revenues in fiscal 2016, 2017 or 2018.

Manufacturing Process

High‑performance alloys require a lengthier, more complex production process and are more difficult to manufacture than lower‑performance alloys, such as stainless steel. The alloying elements in high‑performance alloys must be highly refined during melting, and the manufacturing process must be tightly controlled to produce precise chemical properties. The resulting alloyed material is more difficult to process because, by design, it is more resistant to deformation. Consequently, high‑performance alloys require that a greater force be applied when hot or cold working and are less susceptible to reduction or thinning when rolling or forging. This results in more cycles of rolling, annealing and pickling compared to a lower‑performance alloy to achieve proper dimensions. Certain alloys may undergo forty or more distinct stages of melting, remelting, annealing, hot reduction, cold reduction, pickling and testing before they achieve the specifications required by a customer. This longer production cycle contributes to slower inventory turns. The Company manufactures its high‑performance alloys in various forms, including sheet, coil, plate, billet/ingot, tubular, wire and other forms. The Company also performs value‑added cutting services to supply certain customers with product cut to their specification.

At the Kokomo, Indiana facility, the manufacturing process begins with raw materials being combined, melted and refined in a precise manner to produce the chemical composition specified for each high‑performance alloy. The Company’s primary melt facility utilizes two different melting processes. The argon oxygen decarburization process utilizes gas controls to remove carbon and other undesirable elements, thereby allowing more tightly‑controlled chemistries, which in turn produce more consistent properties in the high‑performance alloys. The other primary melt method utilizes vacuum induction melting, which involves the melting of raw materials through electromagnetic induction while under vacuum conditions to produce the desired tightly‑controlled chemistry. The control systems allow for statistical process control monitoring in real time to improve product quality. For most high‑performance alloys, this molten material is cast into electrodes and additionally refined through electroslag remelting. The resulting ingots are then forged or rolled to an intermediate shape and size depending upon the intended final product form. Intermediate shapes destined for flat products are then sent through a series of hot and cold rolling, annealing, pickling, leveling and shearing operations before being cut to final size.

The Company has a four‑high Steckel rolling mill for use in hot rolling high‑performance alloys, created specifically for that purpose. The four‑high Steckel rolling mill was installed in 1982 and is one of the most powerful four‑high Steckel rolling mills in the world. The mill is capable of generating approximately 12.0 million pounds of separating force and rolling a plate up to 72 inches wide. The mill includes integrated computer controls (with automatic gap control and programmed rolling schedules), two coiling Steckel furnaces and seven heating furnaces. Computer‑controlled rolling schedules for each of the hundreds of combinations of product shapes and sizes the Company produces allow the mill to roll numerous widths and gauges to exact specifications without stoppages or changeovers.

The Company also operates a three‑high hot rolling mill and a two‑high hot rolling mill, each of which is capable of custom processing much smaller quantities of material than the four‑high Steckel rolling mill. These mills provide the Company with significant flexibility in running smaller batches of varied products in response to customer requirements. The Company believes the flexibility provided by the three‑high and two‑high mills provides the Company with an advantage over its major competitors in obtaining smaller specialty orders.

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The coil and sheet operation includes the ability to cold roll to tight tolerances, bright anneal, oxidize anneal and pickle, along with finishing processes that slit and cut to size. The Company recently made the capital investment to redesign, rebuild, and operate a cold mill that has been shuttered for a decade, resulting in a significant increase in capacity in that area.  The Company has also invested, installed, and begun to operate a new processing line for more annealing capacity to support the added rolling capacity.  This added annealing capacity gives the Company the ability to offer either bright annealed finish or anneal and pickled finish that will be determined by specifications, application or type of alloy.

The Arcadia, Louisiana facility uses feedstock produced at the Kokomo facility to fabricate welded and seamless alloy pipe and tubing and purchases extruded tube hollows to produce seamless titanium tubing. The manufacturing processes at Arcadia require cold pilger mills, weld mills, draw benches, annealing furnaces and pickling facilities. The Company recently completed a capital investment project that added capacity in the above‑mentioned processes.

The Mountain Home, North Carolina facility primarily manufactures finished high‑performance alloy wire. Finished wire products and powder are also warehoused at this facility.

Backlog

The Company defines backlog to include firm commitments from customers for delivery of product at established prices. There are orders in the backlog at any given time which include prices that are subject to adjustment based on changes in raw material costs, that can vary from approximately 30%-50% of the orders.  Historically, approximately 75% of the Company’s backlog orders have shipped within six months and approximately 90% have shipped within 12 months. The backlog figures do not typically reflect that portion of the Company’s business conducted at its service and sales centers on a spot or “just‑in‑time” basis. For additional discussion of backlog, see Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contained in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Consolidated Backlog at Fiscal Quarter End

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

 

 

(in millions)

 

1st quarter

    

$

180.2

    

$

215.5

    

$

204.7

    

$

167.3

    

$

205.7

 

2nd quarter

 

 

202.3

 

 

220.4

 

 

193.5

 

 

170.8

 

 

212.3

 

3rd quarter

 

 

204.7

 

 

192.9

 

 

187.2

 

 

180.9

 

 

220.6

 

4th quarter

 

 

221.3

 

 

185.8

 

 

168.3

 

 

177.3

 

 

216.0

 

 

Raw Materials

Raw materials represented an estimated 36% of cost of sales in fiscal 2018. Nickel, a major component of many of the Company’s products, accounted for approximately 34% of raw material costs, or approximately 12% of total cost of sales in fiscal 2018.  Other raw materials include cobalt, chromium, molybdenum and tungsten. Melt materials consist of virgin raw material, purchased scrap and internally produced scrap.

The average nickel price per pound for cash buyers for the 30‑day period ended on September 30, 2016, 2017 and 2018, as reported by the London Metals Exchange, was $4.63, $5.10 and $5.68 respectively. Prices for certain other raw materials which are significant in the manufacture of the Company’s products, such as molybdenum, cobalt and chrome were higher in fiscal 2018 compared to fiscal 2017.

Although alternative sources of supply are available, the Company currently purchases nickel through an exclusive arrangement with a single supplier to ensure consistent quality and supply. The Company purchases raw materials through various arrangements including fixed‑term contracts and spot purchases, which involve a variety of pricing mechanisms. In cases where the Company prices its products at the time of order placement, the Company attempts to establish selling prices with reference to known costs of materials, thereby reducing the risk associated with changes in the cost of raw materials. However, to the extent that the price of nickel fluctuates rapidly, there may be a favorable or unfavorable effect on the Company’s gross profit margins. The Company periodically purchases material forward with certain suppliers in connection with fixed price agreements with customers. In the event a customer fails to meet the

11


 

expected volume levels or the consumption schedule deviates from the expected schedule, a rapid or prolonged decrease in the price of raw materials could adversely affect the Company’s operating results.

The Company values inventory utilizing the first‑in, first‑out (“FIFO”) inventory costing methodology. Under the FIFO inventory costing method, the cost of materials included in cost of sales may be different from the current market price at the time of sale of finished product due to the length of time from the acquisition of the raw material to the sale of the finished product. In a period of decreasing raw material costs, the FIFO inventory valuation method normally results in higher costs of sales as compared to last‑in, first out method. Conversely, in a period of rising raw material costs, the FIFO inventory valuation method normally results in lower costs of sales.

Research and Technical Support

The Company’s technology facilities are located at the Kokomo headquarters and consist of 19,000 square feet of offices and laboratories, as well as an additional 90,000 square feet of paved storage area. The Company has six fully equipped technology testing laboratories, including a mechanical and wear test lab, a metallographic lab, an electron microscopy lab, a corrosion lab, a high-temperature lab and a welding lab. These facilities also contain a reduced scale, fully equipped melt shop and process lab. As of September 30, 2018, the technology, engineering and technological testing staff consisted of 25 persons, 11 of whom have engineering or science degrees, including 5 with doctoral degrees, with the majority of degrees in the field of metallurgical engineering or materials science.

During fiscal 2018, research and development projects were focused on new alloy development, new product form development, supportive data generation and new alloy concept validation, relating to products for the aerospace, industrial gas turbine, chemical processing and oil and gas industries. In addition, significant projects were conducted to generate technical data in support of major market application opportunities in areas such as renewable energy, fuel cell systems, biotechnology (including toxic waste incineration and pharmaceutical manufacturing) and power generation.

Competition

The high‑performance alloy market is a highly competitive market in which eight to ten major producers participate in various product forms. The Company’s primary competitors in flat rolled products include Special Metals Corporation, a subsidiary of Precision Castparts Corp., Allegheny Technologies, Inc. and VDM Metals GmbH. The Company faces strong competition from domestic and foreign manufacturers of both high‑performance alloys (similar to those the Company produces) and other competing metals. The Company may face additional competition in the future to the extent new materials are developed, such as plastics, ceramics or additive manufacturing that may be substituted for the Company’s products. The Company also believes that it will face increased competition from non‑U.S. entities in the next five to ten years, especially from competitors located in Eastern Europe and Asia. For example, recent tariff increases between the U.S. and China, among other changes could lead to a “trade war” that could adversely affect the Company’s competitive position.  Additionally, in recent years, the Company’s domestic business has been challenged by a strong U.S. dollar, which makes the goods of foreign competitors less expensive to import into the U.S and makes the Company’s products more expensive to export outside the U.S.

In recent years, the Company experienced strong price competition from competitors who produce both stainless steel and high‑performance alloys due primarily to weakness in the stainless steel market. Increased competition requires the Company to price its products competitively, which pressures the Company’s gross profit margin and net income.  The Company continues to respond to this competition by increasing emphasis on service centers, offering value‑added services, improving its cost structure and striving to improve delivery times and reliability.

Employees

As of September 30, 2018, the Company employed 1,157 full‑time employees worldwide. All eligible hourly employees at the Kokomo, Indiana and Arcadia, Louisiana plants (541 in the aggregate) are covered by two collective bargaining agreements.

On July 1, 2018, the Company entered into a new five-year collective bargaining agreement with the United

12


 

Steelworkers of America, which covers eligible hourly employees at the Kokomo, Indiana plant. This agreement will expire in June 2023.

On December 21, 2015, the Company entered into a new collective bargaining agreement with the United Steelworkers of America which covers eligible hourly employees at the Company’s Arcadia, Louisiana plant. This agreement will expire in December 2020.

Management believes that current relations with the union are satisfactory.

Environmental Matters

The Company’s facilities and operations are subject to various foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of human health and the environment, including those governing the discharge of pollutants into the environment and the storage, handling, use, treatment and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes. In the U.S., such laws include, without limitation, the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. As environmental laws and regulations continue to evolve, it is likely the Company will be subject to increasingly stringent environmental standards in the future, particularly under air quality and water quality laws and standards related to climate change issues, such as reporting of greenhouse gas emissions. Violations of these laws and regulations can result in the imposition of substantial penalties and can require facility improvements. Expenses related to environmental compliance, which are primarily included in Cost of sales on the Consolidated Statements of Operations, were approximately $2.8 million for fiscal 2018 and are currently expected to be approximately $2.5 million for fiscal 2019. 

The Company’s facilities are subject to periodic inspection by various regulatory authorities, who from time to time have issued findings of violations of governing laws, regulations and permits. In the past five years, the Company has paid administrative fines, none of which have had a material effect on the Company’s financial condition, for alleged violations relating to environmental matters, requirements relating to its Title V Air Permit and alleged violations of record keeping and notification requirements relating to industrial waste water discharge. Capital expenditures of approximately $1.1 million were made for pollution control improvements during fiscal 2018, with additional expenditures of approximately $1.4 million for similar improvements planned for fiscal 2019.

The Company has received permits from the Indiana Department of Environmental Management and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources to close and provide post‑closure environmental monitoring and care for certain areas of its Kokomo and Mountain Home, North Carolina facilities, respectively. 

The Company is required among other things to monitor groundwater and to continue post‑closure maintenance of the former disposal areas at each site. As a result, the Company is aware of elevated levels of certain contaminants in the groundwater, and additional testing and corrective action by the Company could be required.  The Company is unable to estimate the costs of any further corrective action at these sites, if required. Accordingly, the Company cannot assure that the costs of any future corrective action at these or any other current or former sites would not have a material effect on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.

The Company may also incur liability for alleged environmental damages associated with the off‑site transportation and disposal of hazardous substances.  Generators of hazardous substances which are transported to disposal sites where environmental problems are alleged to exist are subject to claims under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, or CERCLA, and state counterparts. CERCLA imposes strict, joint and several liabilities for investigatory and cleanup costs upon hazardous substance generators, site owners and operators and other potentially responsible parties. The Company is currently named as a potentially responsible party at one site. There can be no assurance that the Company will not be named as a potentially responsible party at other sites in the future or that the costs associated with those sites would not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.

On February 11, 2016, the Company voluntarily reported to the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality a leak that it discovered in one of its chemical cleaning operations at its Arcadia, Louisiana facility.  As a result of the discovery, the Company is working with that department to determine the extent of the issue and appropriate remediation.

13


 

Executive Officers of the Company

The following table sets forth certain information concerning the persons who served as executive officers of the Company as of September 30, 2018. Except as indicated in the following paragraphs, the principal occupations of these persons have not changed during the past five years.

 

 

 

 

 

Name

    

Age

    

Position with Haynes International, Inc.

Michael L. Shor

 

59

 

President and Chief Executive Officer

Daniel W. Maudlin

 

52

 

Vice President—Finance, Treasurer and Chief Financial Officer

Janice W. Gunst

 

46

 

Vice President—General Counsel & Corporate Secretary

Venkat R. Ishwar

 

66

 

Vice President—Marketing & Technology

Marlin C. Losch

 

58

 

Vice President—Sales & Distribution

Jean C. Neel

 

59

 

Vice President—Corporate Affairs

Scott R. Pinkham

 

51

 

Vice President—Tube & Wire

David L. Strobel

 

57

 

Vice President—Operations

David S. Van Bibber

 

47

 

Controller and Chief Accounting Officer

Jeffrey L. Young

 

61

 

Vice President & Chief Information Officer

 

Mr. Shor was elected President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company in September 2018.  Prior to that, he served as interim President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company from May 2018 through September 2018, Chairman of the Board of the Company from February 2017 through September 2018 and has been a director since 2012.  

Mr. Maudlin has served as the Vice President‑Finance and Chief Financial Officer of the Company since December 2012.

Ms. Gunst has served as Vice President—General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of the Company since August 2011.

Dr. Ishwar has served as Vice President—Marketing & Technology of the Company since January 2010.

Mr. Losch has served as Vice President—Sales & Distribution of the Company since January 2010.

Ms. Neel has served as Vice President—Corporate Affairs of the Company since April 2000.

Mr. Pinkham has served as Vice President—Tube and Wire Products of the Company since September 2018.  Prior to that, he served as Vice President—Manufacturing of the Company since March 2008.

Mr. Strobel has served as Vice President—Operations of the Company since September 2018.  Prior to that, he was a consultant to manufacturing companies through his company Silver Eagle Consulting. Mr. Strobel was also Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer of Carpenter Technology Corporation from June 2015 to August 2016 and Senior Vice President – Operations of Carpenter Technology from September 2011 to June 2015. 

Mr. Van Bibber has served as Controller and Chief Accounting Officer of the Company since December 2012.

Mr. Young has served as Vice President & Chief Information Officer of the Company since November 2005.

14


 

Item 1A.  Risk Factors

The following risk factors should be considered carefully in addition to the other information contained in this filing. 

The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face and represent risks that our management believes are material to our Company and our business.  Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem not material may also harm our business.  If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be harmed. 

Risks Related to Our Business

Our revenues may fluctuate widely based upon changes in demand for our customers’ products.

Demand for our products is dependent upon and derived from the level of demand for the machinery, parts and equipment produced by our customers, which are principally manufacturers and fabricators of machinery, parts and equipment for highly specialized applications. Historically, certain of the markets in which we compete have experienced unpredictable, wide demand fluctuations. Because of the comparatively high level of fixed costs associated with our manufacturing processes, significant declines in those markets have had a disproportionately adverse impact on our operating results.

Since we became an independent company, we have, in several instances, experienced substantial year‑to‑year declines in net revenues, primarily as a result of decreases in demand in the industries to which our products are sold. In fiscal 2002, 2003, 2009, 2010, 2013 and 2016, our net revenues, when compared to the immediately preceding year, declined by approximately 10.3%, 21.2%, 31.1%, 13.0%, 16.7% and 16.6%, respectively. We may experience similar fluctuations in our net revenues in the future. Additionally, demand is likely to continue to be subject to substantial year‑to‑year fluctuations as a consequence of industry cyclicality, as well as other factors such as global economic uncertainty, and such fluctuations may have a material adverse effect on our business.

Profitability in the high‑performance alloy industry is highly sensitive to changes in sales volumes.

The high‑performance alloy industry is characterized by high capital investment and high fixed costs. The cost of raw materials is the primary variable cost in the manufacture of our high‑performance alloys and, in fiscal 2018, represented approximately 36% of our total cost of sales. Other manufacturing costs, such as labor, energy, maintenance and supplies, often thought of as variable, have a significant fixed element. Profitability is, therefore, very sensitive to changes in volume, and relatively small changes in volume can result in significant variations in earnings. Our ability to effectively utilize our manufacturing assets depends greatly upon continuing demand in our end markets, successfully increasing our market share and continued acceptance of our new products into the marketplace. Any failure to effectively utilize our manufacturing assets may negatively impact our business.

We are subject to risks associated with global trade matters

 

We are subject to macroeconomic downturns in the United States and abroad that may affect the general economic climate, our performance and the demand of our customers.  Previous turmoil in the global economy has had, and future turmoil may have, an adverse impact on our business and our financial condition.  In addition to the impact that the global financial crisis previously had, we may face significant challenges if conditions in the global economy worsen.  Further, any global trade wars or similar economic turmoil, including new or existing tariffs, could adversely affect our business.  Our competitors outside of the United States may not be subject to these tariffs or other measures, and therefore, could have a significant competitive advantage over us in that respect.  In addition, the effect of the exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union is currently unknown and could adversely affect our business.

 

In addition, we are subject to various domestic and international risks and uncertainties, including changing social conditions and uncertainties relating to the current and future political climate. Changes in governmental policies (particularly those that would limit or reduce defense spending) could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and may reduce our customers’ demand for our products and/or depress pricing of those products

15


 

used in the defense industry or which have other military applications, resulting in a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, results of operations, revenues and cash flows. Furthermore, any actual armed hostilities and any future terrorist attacks in the U.S. or abroad could also have an adverse impact on the U.S. economy, global financial markets and our business. The effects may include, among other things, a decrease in demand in the aerospace industry due to reduced air travel, as well as reduced demand in the other industries we serve. Depending upon the severity, scope and duration of these effects, the impact on our business could be material.

We operate in cyclical markets.

A significant portion of our revenues are derived from the highly cyclical aerospace, power generation and chemical processing markets. Our sales to the aerospace industry constituted 52.1% of our total sales in fiscal 2018. Our industrial gas turbine and chemical processing sales constituted 12.0% and 18.2%, respectively, of our total sales in fiscal 2018.

The commercial aerospace industry is historically driven by demand from commercial airlines for new aircraft. The U.S. and international commercial aviation industries continue to face challenges arising from the global economic climate, competitive pressures and fuel costs. Demand for commercial aircraft is influenced by industry profitability, trends in airline passenger traffic, the state of U.S. and world economies, the ability of aircraft purchasers to obtain required financing and numerous other factors, including the effects of terrorism and health and safety concerns. The military aerospace cycle is highly dependent on U.S. and foreign government funding which is driven by, among other factors, the effects of terrorism, a changing global political environment, U.S. foreign policy, the retirement of older aircraft and technological improvements to new engines that increase reliability. Accordingly, the timing, duration and magnitude of cyclical upturns and downturns cannot be forecasted with certainty. Downturns or reductions in demand for our products sold into the aerospace market could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The industrial gas turbine market is also cyclical in nature. Demand for power generation products is global and is affected by the state of the U.S. and world economies, the availability of financing to power generation project sponsors and the political environments of numerous countries. The availability of fuels and related prices also have a large impact on demand. Reductions in demand for our products sold into the industrial gas turbine industry may have a material adverse effect on our business.  In addition, in the event demand in this industry does not return, our business could be materially and adversely affected. 

We also sell products into the chemical processing industry, which is also cyclical in nature. Customer demand for our products in this market may fluctuate widely depending on U.S. and world economic conditions, the availability of financing, and the general economic strength of the end use customers in this market. Cyclical declines or sustained weakness in this market could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our business depends, in part, on the success of commercial aircraft programs and our ability to accelerate production levels to timely match order increases in new or existing programs.

 

                The success of our business will depend, in part, on the success of new and existing commercial aircraft programs.  We are currently under contract to supply components for a number of commercial aircraft programs.  The programs are scheduled to have production increases over the next several years.  Our failure to achieve production levels to timely match any related orders could have a material adverse effect on our business.  Cancellation, reductions or delays of orders or contracts by our customers or in any of these programs, or regulatory or certification-related groundings or other delays or cancellations to new or existing aircraft programs or to the scheduled production increases for any aircraft programs, could also have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

The competitive nature of our business results in pressure for price concessions to our customers and increased pressure to reduce our costs.

We are subject to substantial competition in all of the markets we serve, and we expect this competition to continue. As a result, we have made significant price concessions to our customers in the aerospace, chemical processing and power generation markets from time to time, and we expect customer pressure for further price concessions to continue. Maintenance of our market share will depend, in part, on our ability to sustain a cost structure that enables us to be

16


 

cost‑competitive. If we are unable to adjust our costs relative to our pricing, our profitability will suffer. Our effectiveness in managing our cost structure will be a key determinant of future profitability and competitiveness.

Reductions in government expenditures or changes in spending priorities could adversely affect our military aerospace business.

The budget for the U.S. Department of Defense may be reduced from current levels. In addition to debt reduction efforts already authorized, it is possible that the U.S. government could reduce or further delay its spending on, or reprioritize its spending away from, the military aerospace industry.  Budgetary cuts could negatively affect our business.

Aerospace demand is primarily dependent on two manufacturers.

A significant portion of our aerospace products are sold to fabricators and are ultimately used in the production of new commercial aircraft. There are only two primary manufacturers of large commercial aircraft in the world, The Boeing Company and Airbus.  A significant portion of our aerospace sales are dependent on the number of new aircraft built by these two manufacturers, which is in turn dependent on a number of factors over which we have little or no control. Those factors include demand for new aircraft from around the globe, success of new commercial and military aircraft programs and factors that impact manufacturing capabilities, such as the availability of raw materials and manufactured components, changes in highly exacting performance requirements and product specifications, U.S. and world economic conditions, changes in the regulatory environment and labor relations between the aircraft manufacturers and their work forces. A significant interruption or slowdown in the number of new aircraft built by the aircraft manufacturers could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our operations are dependent on production levels at our Kokomo facility.

Our principal assets are located at our primary integrated production facility in Kokomo, Indiana and at our production facilities in Arcadia, Louisiana and in Mountain Home, North Carolina. The Arcadia and Mountain Home plants as well as all of the domestic and foreign service centers rely to a significant extent upon feedstock produced at the Kokomo facility. Any production failures, shutdowns or other significant problems at the Kokomo facility could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We maintain property damage insurance to provide for reconstruction of damaged equipment, as well as business interruption insurance to mitigate losses resulting from any production shutdown caused by an insured loss. Although we believe that our insurance is adequate to cover any such losses, that may not be the case. One or more significant uninsured losses at our Kokomo facility may have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, from time to time we schedule planned outages on the equipment at our Kokomo facility for maintenance and upgrades. These projects are subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties, including a variety of market, operational and labor-related factors, many of which may be beyond our control. Should a planned shut down on a significant piece of equipment last substantially longer than originally planned, there could be a material adverse effect on our business.

Our production may be interrupted due to equipment failures, lack of critical spares, or other events affecting our factories.

Our manufacturing processes depend on certain sophisticated and high‑value equipment, some of which has been in operation for a long period of time for which there may be only limited or no production alternatives. Failures of this equipment, or the lack of critical spares to timely repair this equipment, could result in production delays, revenue loss and significant repair costs. In addition, our factories rely on the availability of electrical power and natural gas, transportation for raw materials and finished products and employee access to our workplace that are subject to interruption in the event of severe weather conditions or other natural or manmade events. While we maintain backup resources to the extent practicable, a severe or prolonged equipment outage, failure or other interruptive event affecting areas where we have significant manufacturing operations may result in loss of manufacturing or shipping days, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Natural or manmade events that interrupt significant manufacturing operations of our customers also could have a material adverse effect on our business.

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Issues related to our agreements with Titanium Metals Corporation could require us to make significant payments and could disrupt our operations and materially affect our financial results.

We entered into a Conversion Services Agreement and an Access and Security Agreement with Titanium Metals Corporation (TIMET) in November 2016 that provide for the performance of certain titanium conversion services through November 2026. TIMET was acquired by Precision Castparts Corp. which owns Special Metals Corporation, a direct competitor of ours. Events of default under the Conversion Services Agreement include (a) a change in control in which the successor does not assume the agreement, (b) a violation by us of certain non‑compete obligations relating to the manufacture and conversion of titanium and (c) failure to meet agreed‑upon delivery and quality requirements. If an event of default under the Conversion Services Agreement occurs, TIMET could require us to repay the unearned portion of the $50.0 million fee paid to us by TIMET when the agreement was signed, plus liquidated damages of $25.0 million. Our obligations to pay these amounts to TIMET are secured by a security interest in our four‑high Steckel rolling mill, through which we process a substantial amount of our products. In addition, the Access and Security Agreement with TIMET includes, among other terms, an access right that would allow TIMET to use certain of our operating assets, including the four‑high mill, to perform titanium conversion services in the event of our bankruptcy or the acceleration of our indebtedness. Exercise by TIMET of its rights under its security interest following a default and non‑payment of the amounts provided in the Conversion Services Agreement or exercise of the access rights under the Access and Security Agreement could cause significant disruption in our Kokomo operations, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, the Conversion Services Agreement contains a requirement that we reserve a significant amount of capacity exclusively for TIMET.  That agreement does not contain a volume commitment on TIMET’s part.  The agreement also severely limits our ability to manufacture titanium for any customer other than TIMET.  In recent years, our business with TIMET has been declining. 

During periods of lower demand in other alloy markets, some of our competitors may use their available capacity to produce higher volumes of high‑performance alloys, which leads to increased competition in the high‑performance alloy market.

We have experienced increased competition from competitors who produce both stainless steel and high‑performance alloys. Due to continued under‑utilization of capacity in the stainless steel market, we believe these competitors increased their production levels and sales activity in high‑performance alloys to keep capacity in their mills as full as possible, while offering very competitive prices and delivery times. If the stainless market does not improve, continued competition from stainless steel producers could negatively impact our average selling price and reduce our gross profit margin.

In addition, as a result of the competition in our markets, we have made significant price concessions to our customers from time to time, and we expect customer pressure for further price concessions to continue. Maintenance of our market share will depend, in part, on our ability to sustain a cost structure that enables us to be cost‑competitive. If we are unable to adjust our costs relative to our pricing, our profitability will suffer. Our effectiveness in managing our cost structure will be a key determinant of future profitability and competitiveness.

Periods of reduced demand and excess supply as well as the availability of substitute lower-cost materials can adversely affect our ability to price and sell our products at the profitability levels we require to be successful.

Additional worldwide capacity and reduced demand for our products could significantly impact future worldwide pricing, which would adversely impact our business.  In recent years, several of our competitors have added capacity that represents direct competition with the Company’s business.  In addition, continued availability of lower-cost, substitute materials may also cause significant fluctuations in future results as our customers opt for a lower-cost alternative.

We change prices on our products as we deem necessary. In addition to the above general competitive impact, other market conditions and various economic factors beyond our control can adversely affect the timing of our pricing actions. The effects of any pricing actions may be delayed due to long manufacturing lead times or the terms of existing contracts. There is no guarantee that the pricing actions we implement will be effective in maintaining our profit margin levels.

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Rapid fluctuations in the price of nickel may materially adversely affect our business.

To the extent that we are unable to adjust to rapid fluctuations in the price of nickel, there may be a negative effect on our gross profit margins. In fiscal 2018, nickel, a major component of many of our products, accounted for approximately 34% of our raw material costs, or approximately 12% of our total cost of sales. We enter into several different types of sales contracts with our customers, some of which allow us to pass on increases in nickel prices to our customers. In other cases, we fix the nickel component of our prices for a period of time through the life of a long‑term contract. In yet other cases, we price our products at the time of order, which allows us to establish prices with reference to known costs of our nickel inventory, but which does not allow us to offset an unexpected rise in the price of nickel. We may not be able to successfully offset rapid increases in the price of nickel or other raw materials in the future. In the event that raw material price increases occur that we are unable to pass on to our customers, our cash flows or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Our results of operations may also be negatively impacted if both customer demand and nickel prices rapidly fall at the same time. Because we value our inventory utilizing the first‑in, first‑out inventory costing methodology, a rapid decrease in raw material costs has a negative effect on our operating results. In those circumstances, we recognize higher material cost in cost of sales relative to lower raw material market prices that drive the sales price.

In addition, we periodically enter into forward purchase agreements for our nickel supply. If we enter into a forward purchase agreement which is not matched to one or more customer contracts with fixed nickel prices, a rapid or prolonged decrease in the price of nickel could adversely impact our business.

Our business is dependent on a number of raw materials that are subject to volatility in price and availability.

We use a number of raw materials in our products which are found in only a few parts of the world and are available from a limited number of suppliers. The availability and costs of these materials may be influenced by private or government cartels, changes in world politics, additional regulation, labor relations between the materials producers and their work force, unstable governments in exporting nations, inflation, general economic conditions and export quotas imposed by governments in nations with rare earth element supplies. The ability of key material suppliers to meet quality and delivery requirements or to provide materials on price and other terms acceptable to us can also impact our ability to meet commitments to customers. Future shortages or price fluctuations in raw materials could result in decreased sales as well as margins, or otherwise adversely affect our business. The enactment of new or increased import duties on raw materials imported by us could also increase the costs to us of obtaining the raw materials and might adversely affect our business.

If suppliers increase the price of critical raw materials, we may not have alternative sources of supply. In some cases, we have entered into exclusive supply agreements with respect to raw materials, which could adversely affect our business if the exclusive supplier cannot meet quality and delivery requirements to provide materials on price and other terms acceptable to us. In addition, to the extent that we have quoted prices to customers and accepted customer orders for products prior to purchasing necessary raw materials, or have existing fixed‑price contracts, we may be unable to raise the price of products to cover all or part of the increased cost of the raw materials.

The manufacturing of the majority of our products is a complex process and requires long lead times. We may experience delays or shortages in the supply of raw materials. If we are unable to obtain adequate and timely deliveries of required raw materials, we may be unable to timely manufacture sufficient quantities of products. This could cause us to lose sales, incur additional costs, delay new product introductions or suffer harm to our reputation.

We value our inventory using the FIFO method, which could put pressure on our margins.

The cost of our inventories is determined using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. Under the FIFO inventory costing method, the cost of materials included in cost of sales may be different than the current market price at the time of sale of finished product due to the length of time from the acquisition of raw material to the sale of the finished product.  In a period of decreasing raw material costs, the FIFO inventory valuation normally results in higher costs of sales as compared to the last-in, first-out method.  This could result in compression of the gross margin on our product sales. 

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Changes in tax rules and regulations, or interpretations thereof, may adversely affect our effective tax rates.

We are a U.S. based company with customers and suppliers in foreign countries. We import various raw materials used in our production processes, and we export goods to our foreign customers. The United States, the European Commission, countries in the EU and other countries where we do business have been considering changes in relevant tax, border tax, accounting and other laws, regulations and interpretations, that may unfavorably impact our effective tax rate or result in other costs to us.  In addition, the Company has deferred tax assets on its balance sheet which could be subjected to unfavorable impacts if tax rates are reduced, such as those that occurred at the end of calendar 2017. 

 

Failure to successfully develop, commercialize, market and sell new applications and new products could adversely affect our business.

We believe that our proprietary alloys and metallurgical manufacturing expertise provide us with a competitive advantage over other high‑performance alloy producers. Our ability to maintain this competitive advantage depends on our ability to continue to offer products that have equal or better performance characteristics than competing products at competitive prices. Our future growth will depend, in part, on our ability to address the increasingly demanding needs of our customers by enhancing the properties of our existing alloys, by timely developing new applications for our existing products, and by timely developing, commercializing, marketing and selling new products. If we are not successful in these efforts, or if our new products and product enhancements do not adequately meet the requirements of the marketplace and achieve market acceptance, our business could be negatively affected.

We are subject to risks relating to our cybersecurity measures and to misappropriation of information generally.

We have put in place a number of systems, processes and practices designed to protect against intentional or unintentional misappropriation or corruption of our systems and information or disruption of our operations. These include, for example, the appropriate encryption of network access. Despite such efforts, we are subject to breaches of security systems which may result in unauthorized access, misappropriation, corruption or disruption of the information we are trying to protect, in which case we could suffer material harm. Access to our proprietary information regarding new alloy formulations would allow our competitors to use that information in the development of competing products. Current employees have, and former employees may have, access to a significant amount of information regarding our operations which could be disclosed to our competitors or otherwise used to harm us. In addition, our systems could be subject to sabotage by employees or third parties, which could slow or stop production or otherwise adversely affect our business. Any misappropriation or corruption of our systems and information or disruption of our operations could have a material adverse effect on our business.

An interruption in energy services may cause manufacturing curtailments or shutdowns.

We rely upon third parties for our supply of energy resources consumed in the manufacture of our products. The prices for and availability of electricity, natural gas, oil and other energy resources are subject to volatile market conditions. These market conditions often are affected by political and economic factors beyond our control. Disruptions in the supply of energy resources could temporarily impair our ability to manufacture products for customers. Further, increases in energy costs, or changes in costs relative to energy costs paid by competitors, has and may continue to adversely affect our business. To the extent that these uncertainties cause suppliers and customers to be more cost sensitive, increased energy prices may have an adverse effect on our business.

We may be adversely affected by environmental, health and safety laws, regulations, costs and other liabilities.

We are subject to various foreign, federal, state and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing the discharge of pollutants into the environment, the storage, handling, use, treatment and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes and the health and safety of our employees. Under these laws and regulations, we may be held liable for all costs arising out of any release of hazardous substances on, under or from any of our current or former properties or any off‑site location to which we sent or arranged to be sent wastes for disposal or treatment, and such costs may be material. We could also be held liable for any and all consequences arising out of human exposure to such substances or other hazardous substances that may be attributable to our products or other environmental damage. In

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addition, some of these laws and regulations require our facilities to operate under permits that are subject to renewal or modification. These laws, regulations and permits can require expensive pollution control equipment or operational changes to limit actual or potential impacts to the environment. Violations of these laws, regulations or permits can also result in the imposition of substantial penalties, permit revocations and/or facility shutdowns.

We have received permits from the environmental regulatory authorities in Indiana and North Carolina to close and to provide post‑closure monitoring and care for certain areas of our Kokomo and Mountain Home facilities that were used for the storage and disposal of wastes, some of which are classified as hazardous under applicable regulations. We are required to monitor groundwater and to continue post‑closure maintenance of the former disposal areas at each site. As a result, we are aware of elevated levels of certain contaminants in the groundwater and additional corrective action could be required. Additionally, it is possible that we could be required to undertake other corrective action for any other solid waste management unit or other conditions existing or determined to exist at our facilities. We are unable to estimate the costs of any further corrective action, if required. However, the costs of future corrective action at these or any other current or former sites could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We may also incur liability for alleged environmental damages associated with the off‑site transportation and disposal of hazardous substances. Our operations generate hazardous substances, many of which we accumulate at our facilities for subsequent transportation and disposal or recycling by third parties off‑site. Generators of hazardous substances which are transported to disposal sites where environmental problems are alleged to exist are subject to liability under CERCLA and state counterparts. In addition, we may have generated hazardous substances disposed of at sites which are subject to CERCLA or equivalent state law remedial action. We have been named as a potentially responsible party at one site. CERCLA imposes strict, joint and several liabilities for investigatory and cleanup costs upon hazardous substance generators, site owners and operators and other potentially responsible parties regardless of fault. If we are named as a potentially responsible party at other sites in the future, the costs associated with those future sites could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Environmental laws are complex, change frequently and have tended to become increasingly stringent over time. While we have budgeted for future capital and operating expenditures to comply with environmental laws, changes in any environmental law may increase our costs of compliance and liabilities arising from any past or future releases of, or exposure to, hazardous substances and may materially adversely affect our business. See “Business—Environmental Matters.”

Increased regulation of greenhouse gases or other environmental issues could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Regulation and forms of legislation aimed at regulating environmental issues, including greenhouse gas emissions, have been and will likely continue to be considered globally.  As a high‑performance alloy manufacturer, we may be affected, both directly and indirectly, if environmental legislation requires the Company or its customers, suppliers or partners to adjust manufacturing or other relevant processes, or to otherwise incur costs of compliance, which could have a material adverse impact on our business.

Government regulation is increasing and if we fail to comply with such increased regulation, we could be subject to fines, penalties and expenditures.

The United States Congress has adopted several significant pieces of legislation, such as the Sarbanes‑Oxley Act of 2002 and the Dodd‑Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, that affect our operation as well as those of other publicly traded companies. In addition, regulations relating to data protection and privacy law have become increasingly stringent.  We may be subject to significant fines and penalties if we fail to comply with these laws or their implementing regulations, and the increasingly stringent regulations could require us to make additional unforeseen expenditures. Any such fines, penalties or expenditures could have a material adverse effect on our business.

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Regulations related to conflict minerals could adversely impact our business.

The Dodd‑Frank Act and related SEC rules require disclosure of the use of tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold, known as conflict minerals, in products manufactured by public companies. These rules require a reasonable country of origin inquiry to determine whether such minerals originated from the Democratic Republic of Congo (the “DRC”) or an adjoining country and, under some circumstances, whether such minerals helped finance the armed conflict in the DRC. Conflict minerals disclosures are required to be filed annually. There are costs associated with complying with these disclosure requirements, including costs to determine the origin of conflict minerals used in our products.  Also, we may face disqualification as a supplier for customers and reputational challenges if the procedures we implement do not satisfy all concerned stakeholders. In addition, these rules could adversely affect the sourcing, supply and pricing of materials used in our products.

Our business is affected by federal rules, regulations and orders applicable to some of our customers who are government contractors.

A number of our products are manufactured and sold to customers who are parties to U.S. government contracts or subcontracts. Consequently, we are indirectly subject to various federal rules, regulations and orders applicable to government contractors. From time to time, we are also subject to government inquiries and investigations of our business practices due to our participation in government programs. These inquiries and investigations are costly and consuming of internal resources. Violations of applicable government rules and regulations could result in civil liability, in cancellation or suspension of existing contracts or in ineligibility for future contracts or subcontracts funded in whole or in part with federal funds, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We could be required to make additional contributions to our defined benefit pension plans as a result of adverse changes in interest rates and the capital markets.

Our estimates of liabilities and expenses for pension benefits incorporate significant assumptions, including the rate used to discount the future estimated liability, the long‑term rate of return on plan assets and several assumptions relating to the employee workforce (salary increases, retirement age and mortality). We currently expect that we will be required to make future minimum contributions to our defined benefit pension plans. A decline in the value of plan investments in the future, an increase in costs or liabilities or unfavorable changes in laws or regulations that govern pension plan funding could materially change the timing and amount of required pension funding. A requirement to fund any deficit created in the future could have a material adverse effect on our business.

If we are unable to recruit, hire and retain skilled and experienced personnel, our ability to effectively manage and expand our business will be harmed.

Our success largely depends on the skills, experience and efforts of our officers and other key employees who may terminate their employment at any time. The loss of any of our senior management team could harm our business. The announcement of the loss of one of our key employees could negatively affect our stock price. Our ability to retain our skilled workforce and our success in attracting and hiring new skilled employees will be a critical factor in determining whether we will be successful in the future. We face challenges in hiring, training, managing and retaining employees in certain areas including metallurgical researchers, equipment technicians and sales and marketing staff. If we are unable to recruit, hire and retain skilled employees, our new product and alloy development and commercialization could be delayed and our marketing and sales efforts could be hindered, which would adversely impact our business.

The risks inherent in our international operations may adversely impact our revenues, results of operations and financial condition.

We anticipate that we will continue to derive a significant portion of our revenues from operations in international markets. As we continue to expand internationally, we will need to hire, train and retain qualified personnel for our direct sales efforts and retain distributors and train their personnel in countries where language, cultural or regulatory impediments may exist. Distributors, regulators or government agencies may not continue to accept our products, services and business practices. In addition, we purchase raw materials on the international market. The sale and shipment of our

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products and services across international borders, as well as the purchase of raw materials from international sources, subject us to the trade regulations of various jurisdictions. Compliance with such regulations is costly. Any failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory obligations could impact us in a variety of ways that include, but are not limited to, significant criminal, civil and administrative penalties, including imprisonment of individuals, fines and penalties, denial of export privileges, seizure of shipments and restrictions on certain business activities. Failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory obligations could result in the disruption of our shipping, sales and service activities. Our international sales operations expose us and our representatives, agents and distributors to risks inherent in operating in foreign jurisdictions any one or more of which may adversely affect our business, including:

·

our ability to obtain, and the costs associated with obtaining, U.S. export licenses and other required export or import licenses or approvals;

·

changes in duties and tariffs, taxes, trade restrictions, license obligations and other non‑tariff barriers to trade;

·

burdens of complying with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and a wide variety of foreign laws and regulations;

·

business practices or laws favoring local companies;

·

fluctuations in foreign currencies;

·

restrictive trade policies of foreign governments;

·

longer payment cycles and difficulties collecting receivables through foreign legal systems;

·

difficulties in enforcing or defending agreements and intellectual property rights; and

·

foreign political or economic conditions.

Any material decrease in our international revenues or inability to expand our international operations as a result of these or other factors would adversely impact our business.

Export sales could present risks to our business.

Export sales account for a significant percentage of our revenues, and we believe this will continue to be the case in the future. Risks associated with export sales include: political and economic instability, including weak conditions in the world’s economies; accounts receivable collection; export controls; changes in legal and regulatory requirements; policy changes affecting the markets for our products; changes in tax laws and tariffs; trade duties; and exchange rate fluctuations (which may affect sales to international customers and the value of profits earned on export sales when converted into dollars). Any of these factors could materially adversely affect our business.

Although collective bargaining agreements are in place for certain employees, union or labor disputes could still disrupt the manufacturing process.

Our operations rely heavily on our skilled employees. Any labor shortage, disruption or stoppage caused by any deterioration in employee relations or difficulties in the renegotiation of labor contracts could reduce our operating margins and income. Approximately 52% percent of our U.S. employees are affiliated with unions or covered by collective bargaining agreements. The Company entered into two collective bargaining agreements with the United Steel Workers of America which cover eligible hourly employees at the Company’s Arcadia, Louisiana and Kokomo, Indiana facilities. Failure to negotiate new labor agreements when required could result in a work stoppage at one or more of our facilities. In addition, other Company facilities could be subject to union organizing activity. Although we believe that our labor relations have generally been satisfactory, it is possible that we could become subject to additional work rules imposed by agreements with labor unions, or that work stoppages or other labor disturbances could occur in the future, any of which could reduce our operating margins and income and place us at a disadvantage relative to non‑union competitors.

Product liability and product warranty risks could adversely affect our operating results.

We produce many critical products for commercial and military aircraft, industrial gas turbines, chemical

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processing plants and pharmaceutical production facilities.  Failure of our products could give rise to substantial product liability and other damage claims. We maintain insurance addressing this risk, but there can be no assurance that the insurance coverage will be adequate or will continue to be available on terms acceptable to us.

Additionally, we manufacture our products to strict contractually‑established specifications using complex manufacturing processes. If we fail to meet the contractual requirements for a product, we may be subject to warranty costs to repair or replace the product itself and additional costs related to customers’ damages or the investigation and inspection of non‑complying products. These costs are generally not insured.

Our business subjects us to risk of litigation claims, including those that might not be covered by insurance.

Litigation claims may relate to the conduct of our business, including claims pertaining to product liability, commercial disputes, employment actions, employee benefits, compliance with domestic and federal laws and personal injury. Due to the uncertainties of litigation, we might not prevail on claims made against us in the lawsuits that we currently face, and additional claims may be made against us in the future. The outcome of litigation cannot be predicted with certainty, and some of these lawsuits, claims or proceedings may be determined adversely to us. The resolution in any reporting period of one or more of these matters could have a material adverse effect on our business, particularly in the event that adverse outcomes are not covered by insurance. 

Our insurance may not provide enough coverage. 

We maintain various forms of insurance, including insurance covering claims related to our properties and risks associated with our operations. Our existing property and liability insurance coverages contain exclusions and limitations on coverage. From time-to-time, in connection with renewals of insurance, we have experienced additional exclusions and limitations on coverage, larger self-insured retentions and deductibles and significantly higher premiums. As a result, in the future, our insurance coverage may not cover claims to the extent that it has in the past and the costs that we incur to procure insurance may increase significantly, either of which could have an adverse effect on our business.

We depend on our Information Technology (IT) infrastructure to support the current and future information requirements of our operations which exposes us to risk.

Management relies on IT infrastructure, including hardware, network, software, people and processes, to provide useful information to support assessments and conclusions about operating performance. We recently implemented an IT system change. If we do not effectively utilize the new system or it does not operate as envisioned, our business could be harmed. Our inability to produce relevant or reliable measures of operating performance in an efficient, cost‑effective and well‑controlled fashion may have significant negative impacts on our business.

Failure to protect our intellectual property rights could adversely affect our business.

We rely on a combination of confidentiality, invention assignment and other types of agreements and trade secret, trademark and patent law to establish, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights. Our efforts in regard to these measures may be inadequate, however, to prevent others from misappropriating our intellectual property rights. In addition, laws in some non-U.S. countries affecting intellectual property are uncertain in their application, which can affect the scope or enforceability of our intellectual property rights. Any of these events or factors could diminish or cause us to lose the competitive advantages associated with our intellectual property, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Any significant delay or problems in the expansion of our operations could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have undertaken significant capital projects in order to enhance, expand and/or upgrade our facilities and operational capabilities. Our ability to achieve the anticipated increased revenues or otherwise realize acceptable returns on these investments or other strategic capital projects that we may undertake is subject to a number of risks, many of which are beyond our control, including the ability of management to ensure the necessary resources are in place to properly execute these projects on time and in accordance with planned costs, the ability of key suppliers to deliver the necessary equipment according to schedule, customer demand and our ability to implement these projects with minimal impact to our existing operations. In addition, the cost to implement any given strategic capital project ultimately may prove to be greater than originally anticipated. If we are not able to achieve the anticipated results from the implementation

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of any of our strategic capital projects, or if we incur unanticipated implementation costs or delays, our business may be materially adversely affected.

We consider acquisition, joint ventures and other business combination opportunities, as well as possible business unit dispositions, as part of our overall business strategy, which involve uncertainties and potential risks that we cannot predict or anticipate fully.

We intend to continue to strategically position our businesses in order to improve our ability to compete. Strategies we may employ include seeking new or expanding existing specialty market niches for our products, expanding our global presence, acquiring businesses complementary to existing strengths and continually evaluating the performance and strategic fit of our existing business units. From time to time, management of the Company holds discussions with management of other companies to explore acquisitions, joint ventures and other business combination opportunities as well as possible business unit dispositions. As a result, the relative makeup of our business is subject to change. Acquisitions, joint ventures and other business combinations involve various inherent risks, such as: assessing accurately the value, strengths, weaknesses, contingent and other liabilities and potential profitability of acquisition or other transaction candidates; the potential loss of key personnel of an acquired business; our ability to achieve identified financial and operating synergies anticipated to result from an acquisition or other transaction; diversion of the attention of certain management personnel from their day-to-day duties; and unanticipated changes in business and economic conditions affecting an acquisition or other transaction. International acquisitions could be affected by many factors, including, without limitation, export controls, exchange rate fluctuations, domestic and foreign political conditions and deterioration in domestic and foreign economic conditions.

A global recession or disruption in global financial markets could adversely affect us.

A global recession or disruption in the global financial markets presents risks and uncertainties that we cannot predict.  During recessionary economic conditions or financial market disruptions, we face risks that may include:

·

declines in revenues and profitability from reduced or delayed orders by our customers;

·

supply problems associated with any financial constraints faced by our suppliers;

·

restrictions on our access to credit sources;

·

reductions to our banking group or to our committed credit availability due to combinations or failures of financial institutions; and

·

increases in corporate tax rates to finance government spending programs.

Political and social turmoil could adversely affect our business.

The war on terrorism, as well as political and social turmoil, could put pressure on economic conditions in the United States and worldwide. These political, social and economic conditions could make it difficult for us, our suppliers and our customers to forecast accurately and plan future business activities, and could adversely affect the financial condition of our suppliers and customers and affect customer decisions as to the amount and timing of purchases from us. As a result, our business could be materially adversely affected.

The carrying value of goodwill and other intangible assets may not be recoverable.

Goodwill and other intangible assets are recorded at fair value on the date of acquisition. We review these assets at least annually for impairment. Impairment may result from, among other things, deterioration in performance, adverse market conditions, adverse changes in applicable laws or regulations and a variety of other factors. Any future impairment of goodwill or other intangible assets could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Healthcare legislation has and may continue to impact our business.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and other recent legislation relating to healthcare have increased our annual employee healthcare cost obligations and are expected to continue to increase our annual employee healthcare cost obligations going forward.  This area of law is expected to continue to change, and we cannot predict the effect that healthcare legislation or regulation will ultimately have on our business.

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Our working capital requirements may negatively affect our liquidity and capital resources.

Our working capital requirements can vary significantly, depending in part on the timing of our delivery obligations under various customer contracts and the payment terms with our customers and suppliers. If our working capital needs exceed our cash flows from operations, we would look to our cash balances and availability for borrowings under our existing credit facility to satisfy those needs, as well as potential sources of additional capital, which may not be available on satisfactory terms and in adequate amounts, if at all.

 

Risks Related to Shares of Our Common Stock

Our stock price is subject to fluctuations that may not be related to our performance as a result of being traded on a public exchange.

The stock market can be highly volatile. The market price of our common stock is likely to be similarly volatile, and investors in our common stock may experience a decrease in the value of their stock, including decreases unrelated to our operating performance or prospects. The price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a number of factors, including, but not limited to, those described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section and those listed below:

·

fluctuations in the market price of nickel, raw materials or energy;

·

market conditions in the end markets into which our customers sell their products, principally aerospace, power generation and chemical processing;

·

announcements of technological innovations or new products and services by us or our competitors;

·

the operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors may deem comparable to us;

·

announcements by us of acquisitions, alliances, joint development efforts or corporate partnerships in the high‑temperature resistant alloy and corrosion‑resistant alloy markets;

·

market conditions in the technology, manufacturing or other growth sectors; and

·

rumors relating to us or our competitors.

Payment of dividends will depend on our future financial condition and performance.

Although our Board of Directors currently intends to continue the payment of regular quarterly cash dividends on shares of our common stock, the timing and amount of future dividends will depend on the Board’s assessment of our operations, financial condition, projected liabilities, compliance with contractual restrictions in our credit agreement, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors. We cannot guarantee that we will continue to declare dividends at the same or similar rates.

Provisions of our certificate of incorporation and by‑laws could discourage potential acquisition proposals and could deter or prevent a change in control.

Some provisions in our certificate of incorporation and by‑laws, as well as Delaware statutes, may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control. These provisions, including those regulating the nomination of directors, may make it more difficult for other persons, without the approval of our Board of Directors, to launch takeover attempts that a stockholder might consider to be in his or her best interest. These provisions could limit the price that some investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.

 

Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments

There are no unresolved comments by the staff of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

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Item 2.  Properties

Manufacturing Facilities.  The Company owns manufacturing facilities in the following locations:

·

Kokomo, Indiana—manufactures and sells all product forms, other than tubular and wire goods;

·

Arcadia, Louisiana—manufactures and sells welded and seamless tubular goods; and

·

Mountain Home, North Carolina—manufactures and sells high‑performance alloy wire.

The Kokomo plant, the Company’s primary production facility, is located on approximately 180 acres of industrial property and includes over 1.0 million square feet of building space. There are three sites consisting of (1) a headquarters and research laboratory; (2) primary and secondary melting, continuous annealing furnaces, forge press and several smaller hot mills; and (3) the Company’s four‑high Steckel rolling mill and sheet product cold working equipment, including two cold strip mills and three bright anneal furnaces.  All alloys and product forms other than tubular and wire goods are produced in Kokomo.

The Arcadia plant is located on approximately 42 acres of land and includes 202,500 square feet of buildings on a single site. Arcadia uses feedstock produced in Kokomo to fabricate welded and seamless high-performance alloy pipe and tubing and purchases extruded tube hollows to produce seamless titanium tubing. Manufacturing processes at Arcadia require cold pilger mills, weld mills, draw benches, annealing furnaces and pickling facilities.

The Mountain Home plant is located on approximately 29 acres of land and includes approximately 100,000 square feet of building space. The Mountain Home facility is primarily used to manufacture finished high‑performance alloy wire. Finished wire products are also warehoused at this facility.

The owned facilities located in the United States are subject to a mortgage which secures the Company’s obligations under its U.S. revolving credit facility with a group of lenders led by Wells Fargo Capital Finance, LLC. For more information, see Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Service and Sales Centers.  The service and sales centers, which stock and sell all product forms, contain equipment capable of precision laser and water jet processing services to cut and shape products to customers’ precise specifications.  The Company owns service and sales centers in the following locations:

·

Openshaw, England

·

Lenzburg, Switzerland

The Openshaw plant, located near Manchester, England, consists of approximately 5 acres of land and over 85,000 square feet of buildings on a single site.

In addition, the Company leases service and sales centers, which stock and sell all product forms, in the following locations:

·

La Mirada, California

·

Houston, Texas

·

LaPorte, Indiana

·

Shanghai, China

·

Windsor, Connecticut

Sales Centers.  The Company leases sales centers, which sell all product forms, in the following locations:

·

Paris, France

·

Zurich, Switzerland

27


 

·

Singapore

·

Milan, Italy

·

Tokyo, Japan

On January 1, 2015, the company entered into a capital lease agreement for the building that houses the assets and operations of LaPorte Custom Metal Processing (LCMP).  The capital asset and obligation are recorded at the present value of the minimum lease payments.  The asset is included in Property, plant and equipment, net on the Consolidated Balance Sheet and is depreciated over the 20 year lease term.  The long-term component of the capital lease obligation is included in Long-term obligations (See Note 18. Long-term Obligation).

 

All owned and leased service and sales centers not described in detail above are single site locations and are less than 100,000 square feet, except for the LaPorte service center which is approximately 230,000 square feet.  The Company is currently in the process of modifying its facilities to meet its current and anticipated future business needs.  Consistent therewith, in May 2016, the Company announced the relocation of its Lebanon, Indiana service center operations to LaPorte, Indiana which was completed during fiscal 2018.

 

Item 3.  Legal Proceedings

The Company is subject to extensive federal, state and local laws and regulations. Future developments and increasingly stringent regulations could require the Company to make additional unforeseen expenditures for these matters. The Company is regularly involved in litigation, both as a plaintiff and as a defendant, relating to its business and operations. Such litigation includes, without limitation, federal and state EEOC administrative and judicial actions, litigation of commercial matters and litigation and administrative actions relating to environmental matters. For more information, see “Item 1. Business—Environmental Matters.” Litigation and administrative actions may result in substantial costs and may divert management’s attention and resources, and the level of future expenditures for legal matters cannot be determined with any degree of certainty. Nonetheless, based on the facts presently known, management does not expect expenditures for pending legal proceedings to have a material effect on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or liquidity.

 

Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

 

 

28


 

Part II

Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

The Company’s common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Market (“NASDAQ”) and traded under the symbol “HAYN”.

 

As of November 1, 2018, there were approximately 42 holders of record of the Company’s common stock.

The Company has historically paid quarterly cash dividends.  While it is the Company’s intention to continue to pay quarterly cash dividends for fiscal 2019 and beyond, any decision to pay future cash dividends will be made by the Company’s Board of Directors and will depend upon the Company’s earnings, financial condition and other factors.

Cumulative Total Stockholder Return

The graph below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on the Company’s common stock to the cumulative total return of the Russell 2000 Index, S&P MidCap 400 Index, and Peer Groups for each of the last five fiscal years ended September 30. The cumulative total return assumes an investment of $100 on September 30, 2013 and the reinvestment of any dividends during the period. The Russell 2000 is a broad‑based index that includes smaller market capitalization stocks. The S&P MidCap 400 Index is the most widely used index for mid‑sized companies. Management believes that the S&P MidCap 400 is representative of companies with similar market and economic characteristics to Haynes. Furthermore, we also believe the Russell 2000 Index is representative of the Company’s current market capitalization status and this index is also provided on a comparable basis. The companies included in the New Peer Group Index: Allegheny Technologies, Inc., Arconic, Inc., Carpenter Technology Corp., Commercial Metals, Inc., Global Brass and Copper Holdings, Inc., Insteel Industries, Inc., Kaiser Aluminum Corporation, Materion Corporation, Olympic Steel, Inc., and Universal Stainless & Alloy Products, Inc.. The companies included in the Old Peer Group Index are: Allegheny Technologies, Inc., Universal Stainless & Alloy Products, Inc., A. M. Castle & Co. and Carpenter Technology Corp.  The Company chose to expand the number of companies into a new peer group as A.M. Castle & Co. ceased trading on a public exchange which left the old peer group with only three comparable companies.  Management believes that the companies included in the Peer Groups, taken as a whole, provide a meaningful comparison in terms of competition, product offerings and other relevant factors. The total stockholder return for the peer groups is weighted according to the respective issuer’s stock market capitalization at the beginning of each period.

 

29


 

COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN

Among Haynes, The Russell 2000 Index, The S&P MidCap 400

Index and our Peer Group

 

Picture 2

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

2013

    

2014

    

2015

    

2016

    

2017

    

2018

 

Haynes International, Inc.

 

100.00

 

103.37

 

86.79

 

87.39

 

86.59

 

87.60

 

Russell 2000

 

100.00

 

103.93

 

105.23

 

121.50

 

146.70

 

169.06

 

S&P MidCap 400

 

100.00

 

111.82

 

113.38

 

130.76

 

153.66

 

175.49

 

Old Peer Group

 

100.00

 

98.67

 

48.04

 

64.05

 

80.82

 

100.21

 

New Peer Group

 

100.00

 

143.96

 

91.25

 

105.45

 

123.37

 

128.31

 

 

 

Item 6.  Selected Financial Data

This information should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

30


 

Amounts below are in thousands, except backlog, which is in millions, share and per share information and average nickel price.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended September 30,

 

 

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

Statement of Operations Data:

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

 

Net revenues

 

$

455,410

 

$

487,635

 

$

406,359

 

$

395,209

 

$

435,326

 

Cost of sales

 

 

408,112

 

 

393,971

 

 

358,779

 

 

365,499

 

 

387,648

 

Selling, general and administrative expense

 

 

38,693

 

 

42,572

 

 

39,684

 

 

42,393

 

 

47,111

 

Research and technical expense

 

 

3,556

 

 

3,598

 

 

3,698

 

 

3,855

 

 

3,785

 

Operating income (loss)

 

 

5,049

 

 

47,494

 

 

4,198

 

 

(16,538)

 

 

(3,218)

 

Interest expense (income), net

 

 

(71)

 

 

318

 

 

447

 

 

679

 

 

836

 

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes

 

 

1,369

 

 

16,690

 

 

(1,269)

 

 

(7,027)

 

 

17,697

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

3,751

 

$

30,486

 

$

5,020

 

$

(10,190)

 

$

(21,751)

 

Net income (loss) per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

0.30

 

$

2.45

 

$

0.40

 

$

(0.83)

 

$

(1.75)

 

Diluted

 

$

0.30

 

$

2.45

 

$

0.40

 

$

(0.83)

 

$

(1.75)

 

Dividends declared per common share

 

$

0.88

 

$

0.88

 

$

0.88

 

$

0.88

 

$

0.88

 

Weighted average shares outstanding:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

 

12,291,881

 

 

12,331,805

 

 

12,361,483

 

 

12,397,099

 

 

12,419,564

 

Diluted

 

 

12,321,700

 

 

12,344,209

 

 

12,366,197

 

 

12,397,099

 

 

12,419,564

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30,

 

 

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

Balance Sheet Data:

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

 

Working capital

 

$

322,591

 

$

332,015

 

$

310,872

 

$

300,468

 

$

304,151

 

Property, plant and equipment, net

 

 

174,083

 

 

185,351

 

 

199,182

 

 

192,556

 

 

179,400

 

Total assets

 

 

610,771

 

 

638,191

 

 

649,601

 

 

621,819

 

 

588,694

 

Total debt

 

 

745

 

 

4,574

 

 

8,256

 

 

7,896

 

 

8,127

 

Long-term portion of debt

 

 

745

 

 

4,574

 

 

8,256

 

 

7,896

 

 

7,980

 

Accrued pension and postretirement benefits(1)

 

 

177,797

 

 

217,837

 

 

255,346

 

 

208,476

 

 

170,180

 

Stockholders’ equity

 

 

346,730

 

 

341,989

 

 

311,299

 

 

333,772

 

 

333,220

 

Cash dividends paid

 

 

10,906

 

 

10,952

 

 

10,988

 

 

11,009

 

 

11,013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

2014

    

2015

    

2016

    

2017

    

2018

 

Consolidated Backlog at Fiscal Quarter End(2):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1st quarter

 

$

180.2

 

$

215.5

 

$

204.7

 

$

167.3

 

$

205.7

 

2nd quarter

 

 

202.3

 

 

220.4

 

 

193.5

 

 

170.8

 

 

212.3

 

3rd quarter

 

 

204.7

 

 

192.9

 

 

187.2

 

 

180.9

 

 

220.6

 

4th quarter

 

 

221.3

 

 

185.8

 

 

168.3

 

 

177.3

 

 

216.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended September 30,

 

 

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

Average nickel price per pound(3)

    

$

8.20

    

$

4.49

    

$

4.63

    

$

5.10

    

$

5.68

 


(1)

Significant increases in the pension and postretirement benefits liability occurred in fiscal 2015, primarily due to a change to a new mortality table, and in fiscal 2016, which was mostly due to reductions in the discount rate used to value the future liability. Conversely, significant decreases occurred in fiscal 2017 and fiscal 2018 primarily due to the increase in the discount rate used to value the future liability.  This has been reflected actuarially as a change to the Pension and Postretirement Benefits Liability and a corresponding change to the accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss account. On a prospective basis, if interest rates were to rise, this would cause a decrease in the liability and accumulated other comprehensive loss.

(2)

The Company defines backlog to include firm commitments from customers for delivery of product at established prices. There are orders in the backlog at any given time which include prices that are subject to adjustment based on changes in raw material costs, which can vary from approximately 30%-50% of the orders.  Historically, approximately 75% of the backlog orders have shipped within six months and approximately 90% have shipped within 12 months. The backlog figures do not typically reflect that portion of the business conducted at service

31


 

and sales centers on a spot or “just‑in‑time” basis.

(3)

Represents the average price for a cash buyer as reported by the London Metals Exchange for the 30 days ending on the last day of the period presented.

Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

Please refer to page 2 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K for a cautionary statement regarding forward‑looking information.

Overview of Business

The Company is one of the world’s largest producers of high‑performance nickel‑ and cobalt‑based alloys in flat product form, such as sheet, coil and plate. The Company is focused on developing, manufacturing, marketing and distributing technologically advanced, high‑performance alloys, which are used primarily in the aerospace, chemical processing and industrial gas turbine industries. The global specialty alloy market consists of three primary sectors: stainless steel, general-purpose nickel alloys and high‑performance nickel- and cobalt‑based alloys. The Company competes primarily in the high‑performance nickel- and cobalt‑based alloy sector, which includes high‑temperature resistant alloys, or HTA products, and corrosion‑resistant alloys, or CRA products. The Company believes it is one of the principal producers of high‑performance alloy flat products in sheet, coil and plate forms. The Company also produces its products as seamless and welded tubulars and in bar, billet and wire forms.

The Company has manufacturing facilities in Kokomo, Indiana; Arcadia, Louisiana; and Mountain Home, North Carolina. The Kokomo facility specializes in flat products, the Arcadia facility specializes in tubular products and the Mountain Home facility specializes in wire products. The Company distributes its products primarily through its direct sales organization, which includes 12 service and/or sales centers in the United States, Europe and Asia. All of these centers are Company‑operated.

32


 

Overview of Markets

The following table includes a breakdown of net revenues, shipments and average selling prices to the markets served by the Company for the periods shown.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended September 30,

 

 

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

% of

 

 

 

 

% of

 

 

 

 

% of

 

 

 

 

% of

 

 

 

 

% of

 

 

 

Amount

 

Total

 

Amount

 

Total

 

Amount

 

Total

 

Amount

 

Total

 

Amount

 

Total

 

Net Revenues

   

 

    

   

    

   

 

    

   

    

   

 

    

   

    

   

 

    

   

    

   

 

    

   

    

 

(dollars in millions)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aerospace

 

$

195.2

 

42.9

%  

$

215.1

 

44.1

%  

$

197.4

 

48.6

%  

$

192.5

 

48.7

%  

$

226.9

 

52.1

%  

Chemical processing

 

 

113.4

 

24.9

 

 

111.6

 

22.9

 

 

72.3

 

17.8

 

 

70.5

 

17.8

 

 

79.2

 

18.2

 

Industrial gas turbine

 

 

86.7

 

19.0

 

 

74.4

 

15.3

 

 

68.1

 

16.8

 

 

61.5

 

15.6

 

 

52.4

 

12.0

 

Other markets

 

 

44.4

 

9.8

 

 

59.8

 

12.2

 

 

45.0

 

11.0

 

 

43.2

 

10.9

 

 

53.4

 

12.3

 

Total product

 

 

439.7

 

96.6

 

 

460.9

 

94.5

 

 

382.8

 

94.2

 

 

367.7

 

93.0

 

 

411.9

 

94.6

 

Other revenue(1)

 

 

15.7

 

3.4

 

 

26.7

 

5.5

 

 

23.6

 

5.8

 

 

27.5

 

7.0

 

 

23.4

 

5.4

 

Net revenues

 

$

455.4

 

100.0

%  

$

487.6

 

100.0

%  

$

406.4

 

100.0

%  

$

395.2

 

100.0

%  

$

435.3

 

100.0

%  

U.S.

 

$

261.6

 

57.4

%  

$

287.7

 

59.0

%  

$

233.6

 

57.5

%  

$

235.5

 

59.6

%  

$

258.3

 

59.3

%  

Foreign

 

$

193.8

 

42.6

%  

$

199.9

 

41.0

%  

$

172.8

 

42.5

%  

$

159.7

 

40.4

%  

$

177.0

 

40.7

%  

Shipments by Market (millions of pounds)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aerospace

 

 

8.8

 

40.7

%  

 

9.2

 

45.3

%  

 

8.7

 

48.3

%  

 

8.8

 

48.6

%  

 

9.8

 

53.3

%  

Chemical processing

 

 

5.2

 

24.2

 

 

4.3

 

21.2

 

 

2.8

 

15.6

 

 

3.2

 

17.7

 

 

3.9

 

21.2

 

Industrial gas turbine

 

 

5.9

 

27.2

 

 

4.7

 

23.2

 

 

5.0

 

27.8

 

 

4.5

 

24.9

 

 

2.9

 

15.8

 

Other markets

 

 

1.7

 

7.9

 

 

2.1

 

10.3

 

 

1.5

 

8.3

 

 

1.6

 

8.8

 

 

1.8

 

9.8

 

Total Shipments

 

 

21.7

 

100.0

%  

 

20.3

 

100.0

%  

 

18.0

 

100.0

%  

 

18.1

 

100.0

%  

 

18.4

 

100.0

%