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EX-32.2 - EX-32.2 - RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.rytm-20180630ex3226fd998.htm
EX-32.1 - EX-32.1 - RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.rytm-20180630ex321b60492.htm
EX-31.2 - EX-31.2 - RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.rytm-20180630ex31257b6a7.htm
EX-31.1 - EX-31.1 - RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.rytm-20180630ex3115a84d2.htm
EX-10.4 - EX-10.4 - RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.rytm-20180630ex104e7e5b1.htm
EX-10.3 - EX-10.3 - RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.rytm-20180630ex10320a446.htm
EX-10.2 - EX-10.2 - RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.rytm-20180630ex10200080e.htm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549


FORM 10-Q


 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2018

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from           to         

Commission file number 001-38223


RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)


 

 

Delaware

46‑2159271

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

 

500 Boylston Street

11th Floor

Boston, MA 02116

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(857) 264‑4280

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Unchanged

(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes   No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes   No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No  .

 

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock as of August 3, 2018 was 34,175,137.

 

 

 


 

RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

FORM 10-Q

INDEX

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

Page No.

PART I 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1. Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

16

 

 

 

 

 

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

27

 

 

 

 

 

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

 

28

 

 

 

 

PART II 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

28

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

 

28

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

28

 

 

 

 

 

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

 

79

 

 

 

 

 

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities

 

80

 

 

 

 

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosure

 

80

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5. Other Information

 

80

 

 

 

 

 

Item 6. Exhibits

 

80

 

 

 

SIGNATURES 

 

82

 

2


 

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.Financial Statements.

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

 

December 31, 

 

    

2018

    

2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

210,484

 

$

34,236

Short-term investments

 

 

77,070

 

 

113,846

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

3,217

 

 

2,589

Total current assets

 

 

290,771

 

 

150,671

Property, plant and equipment, net

 

 

728

 

 

840

Restricted cash

 

 

250

 

 

225

Total assets

 

$

291,749

 

$

151,736

Liabilities, convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity

 

 

  

 

 

  

Current liabilities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Accounts payable

 

$

3,312

 

$

2,427

Deferred rent

 

 

86

 

 

83

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

3,849

 

 

4,210

Total current liabilities

 

 

7,247

 

 

6,720

Long-term liabilities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Deferred rent

 

 

185

 

 

228

Total liabilities

 

 

7,432

 

 

6,948

Commitments and contingencies

 

 

  

 

 

  

Preferred stock:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Convertible Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value: 10,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Common stock, $0.001 par value: 120,000,000 shares authorized; 34,173,137 and 27,284,140 shares issued and outstanding June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively

 

 

34

 

 

27

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

425,406

 

 

255,013

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(141,123)

 

 

(110,252)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

284,317

 

 

144,788

Total liabilities, convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity

 

$

291,749

 

$

151,736

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements

3


 

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three months ended June 30, 

 

Six months ended June 30, 

 

    

2018

    

2017

 

2018

    

2017

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

8,584

 

$

5,397

 

$

20,870

 

$

10,270

Selling, general, and administrative

 

 

6,437

 

 

1,357

 

 

11,152

 

 

2,873

Total operating expenses

 

 

15,021

 

 

6,754

 

 

32,022

 

 

13,143

Loss from operations

 

 

(15,021)

 

 

(6,754)

 

 

(32,022)

 

 

(13,143)

Other income (expense):

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Revaluation of  Series A Investor Instrument and Series A Investor Right/Obligation

 

 

 —

 

 

(82)

 

 

 —

 

 

(82)

Interest income, net

 

 

609

 

 

34

 

 

1,151

 

 

63

Total other income (expense):

 

 

609

 

 

(48)

 

 

1,151

 

 

(19)

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

$

(14,412)

 

$

(6,802)

 

$

(30,871)

 

$

(13,162)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

(14,412)

 

$

(8,008)

 

$

(30,871)

 

$

(15,534)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders per common share, basic and diluted

 

$

(0.52)

 

$

(0.79)

 

$

(1.12)

 

$

(1.52)

Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted

 

 

27,960,664

 

 

10,196,292

 

 

27,624,271

 

 

10,196,292

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements

 

 

 

 

4


 

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Six months ended June 30, 

 

    

2018

    

2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(30,871)

 

$

(13,162)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to cash used in operating activities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Non-cash research and development license expense

 

 

4,448

 

 

 —

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

2,474

 

 

698

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

122

 

 

108

Non-cash rent expense

 

 

(40)

 

 

(37)

Mark to market revaluation of series A investor instrument

 

 

 —

 

 

82

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

(833)

 

 

(68)

Deferred issuance costs

 

 

 —

 

 

(886)

Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

569

 

 

212

Due to related parties

 

 

 —

 

 

(105)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(24,131)

 

 

(13,158)

Investing activities

 

 

  

 

 

  

Purchases of short-term investments

 

 

(20,409)

 

 

(13,021)

Maturities of short-term investments

 

 

57,463

 

 

7,985

Purchases of property, plant and equipment

 

 

(10)

 

 

 —

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

 

 

37,044

 

 

(5,036)

Financing activities

 

 

  

 

 

  

Net proceeds from issuance of common stock

 

 

163,034

 

 

 —

Proceeds from the exercise of stock options

 

 

326

 

 

 —

Net proceeds from issuance of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock

 

 

 —

 

 

20,377

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

163,360

 

 

20,377

Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

176,273

 

 

2,183

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period

 

 

34,461

 

 

6,765

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

 

$

210,734

 

$

8,948

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements

5


 

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

(In thousands, except share and per share information)

1. Nature of Business

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company”), is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of therapeutics for the treatment of rare genetic disorders that result in severe, life‑threatening metabolic disorders. The Company's lead product candidate is setmelanotide (“RM‑493”), which is a potent, first‑in‑class, melanocortin‑4, or MC4, receptor, agonist peptide for the treatment of rare genetic disorders of obesity caused by MC4 pathway deficiencies. MC4 pathway deficiencies result in the disruption of satiety signals and energy homeostasis in the body, which, in turn, leads to intense feelings of hunger and to obesity. The Company is currently evaluating setmelanotide for the treatment of six single gene related, or monogenic, MC4 pathway deficiencies: pro‑opiomelanocortin, or POMC, leptin receptor, or LepR, Bardet‑Biedl syndrome, Alström syndrome, POMC heterozygous, and POMC epigenetic disorders for which there are currently no effective or approved treatments.  The Company believes that the MC4 pathway is a compelling target for treating these genetic disorders because of its critical role in regulating appetite and weight by promoting satiety and weight control, and that peptide therapeutics are uniquely suited for activating this target.

In March 2018 the Company acquired exclusive, worldwide rights from Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (“Takeda”) to develop and commercialize T-3525770 (now “RM-853”). RM-853 is a potent, orally available ghrelin o-acyltransferase (“GOAT”) inhibitor currently in preclinical development for Prader-Willi Syndrome (“PWS”). PWS is a rare genetic disorder that results in hyperphagia and early-onset, life-threatening obesity, for which there are no approved therapeutic options.

Corporate Reorganization

The Company is a Delaware corporation organized in February 2013 under the name Rhythm Metabolic, Inc. Prior to the Company's organization and the Corporate Reorganization referred to below, the Company was part of Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Predecessor Company”), a Delaware corporation which was organized in November 2008 and which commenced active operations in 2010.

In March 2013, the Predecessor Company underwent a corporate reorganization, (the “Corporate Reorganization”), pursuant to which all of the outstanding equity securities of the Predecessor Company were exchanged for units of Rhythm Holding Company, LLC, a newly‑organized limited liability company (the “LLC entity”). After the consummation of this exchange and as part of the Corporate Reorganization, the Predecessor Company contributed setmelanotide and the MC4R agonist program to the Company and distributed to the LLC entity all of the then issued and outstanding shares of the Company's stock. The result of the Corporate Reorganization was that the Company and the Predecessor Company became wholly‑owned subsidiaries of the LLC entity and the two product candidates and related programs that were originally held by the Predecessor Company were separated, with relamorelin and the ghrelin agonist program being retained by the Predecessor Company and setmelanotide and the MC4R agonist program being held by the Company. The Predecessor Company, after consummation of the Corporate Reorganization, is referred to within these Notes to Financial Statements as the Relamorelin Company and/or Motus.

On October 13, 2015, the Relamorelin Company changed its name to Motus Therapeutics, Inc. (“Motus”) and the Company changed its name to Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. On December 15, 2016, Motus was sold to a large pharmaceutical company. On August 21, 2017, the LLC entity distributed to its members all of its shares of the Company (see Note 5 for further discussion).

Liquidity

The Company has incurred operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception.  As of June 30, 2018, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $141,123.  The Company has primarily funded these losses

6


 

through capital contributions received from the LLC entity and the sale of preferred and common stock to outside investors. To date, the Company has no product revenue and management expects operating losses to continue for the foreseeable future. The Company has devoted substantially all of its resources to its drug development efforts, comprising research and development, manufacturing, conducting clinical trials for its product candidates, protecting its intellectual property and general and administrative functions relating to these operations. The future success of the Company is dependent on its ability to develop its product candidates and ultimately upon its ability to attain profitable operations. At June 30, 2018, the Company had $287,554 of cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments on hand, which reflects the $163,034 of net proceeds received in June 2018 from the sale of common stock.  In the future, the Company will be dependent on obtaining funding from third parties, such as proceeds from the issuance of debt, sale of equity, and funded research and development programs, to maintain the Company's operations and meet the Company's obligations. There is no guarantee that additional equity or other financings will be available to the Company on acceptable terms, or at all. If the Company fails to obtain additional funding when needed, the Company would be forced to scale back, terminate its operations or seek to merge with or be acquired by another company. Management believes that the Company's existing cash resources will be sufficient to fund the Company's operating plan into the second half of 2020.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The Company's unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative United States generally accepted accounting principles as found in the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) and Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”). As permitted under these rules, certain footnotes or other financial information that are normally required by GAAP have been condensed or omitted.

The accompanying interim balance sheet as of June 30, 2018, the statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, the statement of cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 and the related footnote disclosures are unaudited. In management's opinion, the unaudited interim financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited financial statements and include all adjustments, which include all normal recurring adjustments necessary for the fair presentation of the interim financial statements. The results for the six months ended June 30, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for the full fiscal year.

The Company has historically existed and functioned as part of the consolidated businesses of the Predecessor Company. As noted above, the Predecessor Company's setmelanotide and the MC4R agonist program were transferred to the Company as part of the Corporate Reorganization on March 21, 2013. These financial statements include the results of operations of setmelanotide and the MC4R agonist program from its inception.

On September 22, 2017, the Company's board of directors approved a 1-for-9.17 reverse stock split of the Company's issued and outstanding shares of common stock. All share and per share amounts in the financial statements have been retrospectively adjusted for all periods presented to give effect of the reverse stock split.

On October 5, 2017, the Company filed an amended and restated certificate of incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware to increase its authorized number of shares of common stock to 120,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share.

On October 10, 2017 the Company completed its initial public offering (“IPO”) of 8,107,500 shares of common stock at an offering price of $17.00 per share, which included the exercise in full by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 1,057,500 additional shares of common stock. The Company received gross proceeds of approximately $137,828 or net proceeds of $125,658 after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and estimated offering expenses. In connection with the IPO, the Company’s outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock were automatically converted into 17,406,338 shares of common stock.  

7


 

On June 25, 2018 the Company completed its public offering of 6,591,800 shares of common stock at an offering price of $26.42 per share, which included the exercise in full by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 859,800 additional shares of common stock. The Company received gross proceeds of approximately $174,155 or net proceeds of $163,034 after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and offering expenses.

 

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and other market‑specific or other relevant assumptions that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. This process may result in actual results differing materially from those estimated amounts used in the preparation of the financial statements if these results differ from historical experience, or other assumptions do not turn out to be substantially accurate, even if such assumptions are reasonable when made. Significant estimates relied upon in preparing these financial statements include accrued expenses, stock‑based compensation expense, the valuation allowance on the Company's deferred tax assets, and the fair value of the Series A Investor Instrument (see Note 4).

Principles of Consolidation

 

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Off‑Balance Sheet Risk and Concentrations of Credit Risk

Financial instruments, which potentially subject the Company to significant concentration of credit risk, consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments, which are maintained at two federally insured financial institutions. The deposits held at these two institutions are in excess of federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and management believes that the Company is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which those deposits are held. The Company has no off‑balance sheet risk, such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts, or other foreign hedging arrangements.

Segment Information

Operating segments are defined as components of an entity about which separate discrete information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision‑making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company views its operations and manages its business in one operating segment operating exclusively in the United States.

2017 Series A Investor Instrument

The Company has classified its 2017 Series A Investor Instrument (See Note 4) as a liability as it is a free‑standing financial instrument. The 2017 Series A Investor Instrument was recorded at fair value upon the issuance of the Company’s series A preferred stock in January 2017, and subsequently remeasured to fair value at each reporting period. Changes in fair value of the financial instrument is recognized as a component of other income (expense), net in the statement of operations and comprehensive loss. The Company estimated the fair value of the 2017 Series A Investor Right/Obligation as the probability‑weighted present value of the expected benefit of the investment.

The Company used the Black‑Scholes option‑pricing model, which incorporates assumptions and estimates, to value the 2017 Series A Investor Call Option and assessed these assumptions and estimates on a quarterly basis as additional information impacting the assumptions was obtained. Estimates and assumptions impacting the fair value measurement include the fair value per share of the underlying series A preferred stock, the expected term of the Series A Investor Call Option, risk‑free interest rate, expected dividend yield and expected volatility of the price of the underlying preferred stock. The Company determined the fair value per share of the underlying preferred stock by taking into

8


 

consideration the most recent sale of our convertible preferred stock and the investors' right to invest in a subsequent tranche. As the Company was a private company and lacked company‑specific historical and implied volatility information of its stock, it estimated its expected stock volatility based on the historical volatility of publicly traded peer companies for a term comparable to the estimated term of the Series A Investor Call Option. The risk‑free interest rate was determined by reference to the U.S. Treasury yield curve for time periods approximately equal to the estimated term of the Series A Investor Call Option. A dividend yield of zero was assumed.  The fair value of the Series A Investor Instrument is determined to be the sum of the fair values of the 2017 Series A Investor Right/Obligation and the 2017 Investor Call Option.

Net Loss Per Share Attributable to Common Shareholders

Basic net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is calculated by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for Common Stock equivalents. Net loss attributable to common stockholders is calculated by adjusting the net loss of the Company for cumulative preferred stock dividends. During periods of income, the Company allocates participating securities a proportional share of income determined by dividing total weighted average participating securities by the sum of the total weighted average common shares and participating securities (the “two class method”). The Company's convertible preferred stock participates in any dividends declared by the Company and are therefore considered to be participating securities. Participating securities have the effect of diluting both basic and diluted earnings per share during periods of income. During periods of loss, the Company allocates no loss to participating securities because they have no contractual obligation to share in the losses of the Company. Diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is calculated by adjusting weighted average shares outstanding for the dilutive effect of Common Stock equivalents outstanding for the period, determined using the treasury‑stock and if‑converted methods. For purposes of the diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders calculation, convertible preferred stock and stock options are considered to be Common Stock equivalents but have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, as their effect would be anti‑dilutive for all periods presented. Therefore, basic and diluted net loss per share were the same for all periods presented.

The following table includes the potential common shares, presented based on amounts outstanding at each period end, that were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders for the periods indicated:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

    

2018

    

2017

Stock options

 

 

2,616,126

 

 

1,433,254

Series A convertible preferred shares

 

 

 —

 

 

6,594,870

Total

 

 

2,616,126

 

 

8,028,124

 

Basic and diluted earnings per share is calculated as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

Six Months Ended

 

 

June 30, 

 

June 30, 

 

    

2018

    

2017

 

2018

    

2017

Numerator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(14,412)

 

$

(6,802)

 

$

(30,871)

 

$

(13,162)

Cumulative dividends on convertible preferred shares

 

 

 —

 

 

(1,206)

 

 

 —

 

 

(2,372)

Loss attributable to common shares—basic and diluted

 

$

(14,412)

 

$

(8,008)

 

$

(30,871)

 

$

(15,534)

Denominator:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Weighted-average number of common shares—basic and diluted

 

 

27,960,664

 

 

10,196,292

 

 

27,624,271

 

 

10,196,292

Loss per common share—basic and diluted

 

$

(0.52)

 

$

(0.79)

 

$

(1.12)

 

$

(1.52)

 

9


 

Subsequent Events

The Company considers events or transactions that occur after the balance sheet date but prior to the issuance of the financial statements to provide additional evidence for certain estimates or to identify matters that require additional disclosure. Subsequent events have been evaluated as required.

 

Application of New or Revised Accounting Standards

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB and adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the Company believes that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations upon adoption.

In April 2012, the Jump‑Start Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”) was signed into law. The JOBS Act contains provisions that, among other things, reduce certain reporting requirements for an “emerging growth company.” As an emerging growth company, the Company elected to not take advantage of the extended transition period afforded by the JOBS Act for the implementation of new or revised accounting standards, and as a result, will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non‑emerging growth companies.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016‑02, Leases (Topic 842). ASU 2016‑02 requires lessees to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities for those leases classified as operating leases under previous GAAP. A lessee should recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right‑of‑use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. For leases with a term of 12 months or less, a lessee is permitted to make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. The recognition, measurement, and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease by a lessee have not significantly changed from previous GAAP. There continues to be a differentiation between finance leases and operating leases. ASU 2016‑02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of adoption of ASU No. 2016‑02 on its financial position and results of operations.

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016‑18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (“ASU 2016-18”) that changes the presentation of restricted cash and cash equivalents on the statement of cash flows. Restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents will be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning‑of‑period and end‑of‑period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. This amendment is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company adopted ASU on January 1, 2018 and has applied its content to the statement of cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 presented herein.

In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017‑09, Compensation‑Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting, (“ASU 2017-09”). ASU 2017‑09 provides clarity and reduces both (1) diversity in practice and (2) cost and complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718, to a change to the terms or conditions of a share‑based payment award. The amendments in ASU 2017‑09 should be applied prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date. This ASU is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on the Company's financial position or results of operations.

In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018‑07, Compensation‑Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, (“ASU 2018-07”). ASU 2018‑07 expands the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees.  An entity should apply the requirements of Topic 718 to nonemployee awards except for certain exemptions specified in the amendment.  This ASU is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of adoption of ASU 2018‑07 on its financial position and results of operations.

 

10


 

3. Accrued Expenses

Accrued expenses consisted of the following:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

December 31, 

 

    

2018

    

2017

Research and development costs

 

$

2,238

 

$

2,771

Professional fees

 

 

742

 

 

327

Payroll related

 

 

839

 

 

1,094

Other

 

 

30

 

 

18

Accrued expenses

 

$

3,849

 

$

4,210

 

 

4. Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liability

As of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments was $287,554 and $148,082, respectively, which approximates fair value. Cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments includes investments in money market funds that invest in U.S. government securities that are valued using quoted market prices. Accordingly, money market funds and government funds are categorized as Level 1 and had a total balance of $209,966 and $34,698 as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively.  The financial assets valued based on level 2 inputs consist of corporate debt securities and commercial paper, which consist of investments in highly-rated investment-grade corporations.

A financial liability was recognized by the Company during the six months ended June 30, 2017 related to the 2017 Series A Investor Instrument. The liability was valued based on significant inputs not observable in the market, which represents a Level 3 measurement within the fair value hierarchy. Upon the closing of the second tranche of the 2017 Series A preferred financing in August 2017, this liability was settled.

The following tables present information about the Company's financial assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis and indicate the level of the fair value hierarchy utilized to determine such fair values:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair value Measurements as of

 

 

June 30, 2018 using:

 

    

Level 1

    

Level 2

    

Level 3

    

Total

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash Equivalents:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Corporate Debt Securities and Commercial Paper

 

$

 —

 

$

4,983

 

$

 —

 

$

4,983

Money Market Funds

 

 

203,481

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

203,481

Marketable Securities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Corporate Debt Securities and Commercial Paper

 

 

 —

 

 

70,585

 

 

 —

 

 

70,585

U.S. Treasury Securities

 

 

6,485

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

6,485

Total

 

$

209,966

 

$

75,568

 

$

 —

 

$

285,534

 

11


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair value Measurements as of

 

 

December 31, 2017 using:

 

    

Level 1

    

Level 2

    

Level 3

    

Total

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash Equivalents:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Corporate Debt Securities

 

$

 —

 

$

15,104

 

$

 —

 

$

15,104

Money Market Funds

 

 

17,753

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

17,753

Marketable Securities:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Corporate Debt Securities

 

 

 —

 

 

96,901

 

 

 —

 

 

96,901

U.S. Treasury Securities

 

 

16,945

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

16,945

Total

 

$

34,698

 

$

112,005

 

$

 —

 

$

146,703

 

Marketable Securities

The following tables summarize the Company's marketable securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

Gross

 

Gross

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

Fair

 

    

Cost

    

Gains

    

Losses

    

Value

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate Debt Securities and Commercial Paper (due within 1 year)

 

$

70,679

 

$

 —

 

$

(94)

 

$

70,585

U.S. Treasury Securities (due within 1 year)

 

 

6,492

 

 

 —

 

 

(7)

 

 

6,485

 

 

$

77,171

 

$

 —

 

$

(101)

 

$

77,070

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

Gross

 

Gross

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

Fair

 

    

Cost

    

Gains

    

Losses

    

Value

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate Debt Securities (due within 1 year)

 

$

97,029

 

$

 —

 

$

(128)

 

$

96,901

U.S. Treasury Securities (due within 1 year)

 

 

16,958

 

 

 —

 

 

(13)

 

 

16,945

 

 

$

113,987

 

$

 —

 

$

(141)

 

$

113,846

 

Below is a roll forward of the fair value of the 2017 Series A Investor Instrument for the six months ended June 30, 2017:

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017 Series A Investor

 

    

Instrument

Fair value at December 31, 2016

 

$

 —

Fair value upon the January 2017 Initial Closing, net

 

 

328

Change in fair value

 

 

82

Fair value at June 30, 2017

 

$

410

 

The fair value of the Series A Investor Instrument is the sum of the probability‑weighted fair value of the 2017 Investor Right/Obligation and the 2017 Series A Call Option.

12


 

The following assumptions and inputs were used in determining the fair value of the 2017 Series A Investor Call Option valued using the Black‑ Scholes option pricing model:

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

June 30, 2017

 

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock Exercise Price

 

$

1.00

 

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock Fair Value

 

$

1.30

 

Expected term

 

 

3.5 months

 

Expected volatility

 

 

72.0

%

Expected interest rate

 

 

1.03

%

Expected dividend yield

 

 

 —

 

 

In August 2017, upon the closing of the second tranche of the series A preferred stock financing, the 2017 Series A Investor Call Option expired unexercised.

The Company estimated the fair value of the 2017 Series A Investor Right/Obligation as the probability‑weighted present value of the expected benefit of the investment. The expected benefit is the difference between the expected future value of shares issued upon the second tranche closing and the investment price for the second tranche closing. The expected future value is estimated as a weighted average of IPO and remain private scenarios, and the future value is converted to a present value assuming a closing date of October 15, 2017 and a nominal, risk‑free discount rate.

5. Preferred and Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Upon the closing of the IPO, the series A convertible preferred stock automatically converted into shares of common stock on a 9.17‑for‑1 basis.

Common Stock

In March 2013, the Company issued 10,196,292 shares of common stock at a purchase price of $0.001 per share. Prior to August, 2017, the LLC entity owned all of these shares.

On August 21, 2017, the LLC entity exchanged 8,578,646 of its shares of the Company's common stock for 78,666,209 shares of the Company's series A‑1 junior preferred stock and the LLC entity distributed all of its shares of the Company's series A‑1 junior preferred stock to the holders of its preferred units and the remaining 1,617,646 shares of its common stock to the holders of its common units. Following this distribution, the LLC entity no longer owns any of the Company's shares. The series A‑1 junior preferred stock is not redeemable and does not have a stated dividend or liquidation preference. These shares converted to common stock on a 9.17‑to‑1 basis upon the closing of the IPO in October 2017. 

In September 2017, the Company's board of directors approved a 1-for-9.17 reverse stock split of the Company's issued and outstanding shares of common stock. All shares and per share amounts in the financial statements have been retrospectively adjusted for all periods presented to give effect of the reverse stock split.

 

On October 10, 2017 the Company completed its IPO of 8,107,500 shares of common stock at an offering price of $17.00 per share, which included the exercise in full by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 1,057,500 additional shares of common stock. The Company received gross proceeds of approximately $137,828 or net proceeds of $125,658 after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and estimated offering expenses. In connection with the IPO, the Company’s outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock were automatically converted into 17,406,338 shares of common stock.

On April 3, 2018, in association with the Takeda license agreement, the Company issued 223,544 shares of common stock.  See Note 6 for further discussion.

 

13


 

On June 25, 2018 the Company completed its public offering of 6,591,800 shares of common stock at an offering price of $26.42 per share, which included the exercise in full by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 859,800 additional shares of common stock. The Company received gross proceeds of approximately $174,155 or net proceeds of $163,034 after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and offering expenses.

 

6. Significant Agreements

License Agreements

The Predecessor Company entered into a license agreement on February 26, 2010 with Ipsen Pharma, S.A.S. (“Ipsen”) that granted full worldwide right for two programs that include the clinical candidates setmelanotide, which is in Phase 3 clinical trials, and relamorelin. As a result of the Corporate Reorganization described in Note 1, the Ipsen license was converted to separate license agreements for the setmelanotide program held by the Company and the relamorelin program held by the Relamorelin Company, respectively. Under the terms of the setmelanotide Ipsen license agreement, assuming that setmelanotide is successfully developed, receives regulatory approval and is commercialized, Ipsen may receive aggregate payments of up to $40,000 upon the achievement of certain development and commercial milestones and royalties on future product sales in the mid‑single digits. Substantially all of such aggregate payments of up to $40,000 are for milestones that may be achieved no earlier than first commercial sale of setmelanotide. In the event that the Company executes a sublicense agreement, it shall make payments to Ipsen, depending on the date of such sublicense agreement, ranging from 10% to 20% of all revenues actually received under such sublicense agreement.

In July 2017, the Company made a prepayment on the first milestone event associated with this license agreement. The first milestone relates to the initiation of a Phase 3 study for setmelanotide in a pivotal multi-center human clinical trial in a large number of patients. The prepayment associated with this milestone was $1,000 and was recorded as research and development expenses during the three months ended March 31, 2018 when the milestone criteria was met in full.

In January 2016, the Company entered into a license agreement with Camurus AB, or Camurus, for the use of Camurus’ drug delivery technology. The contract includes a non‑refundable and non‑creditable signing fee of $500, which was paid during January 2016. The Camurus agreement also includes up to $7,750 in one‑time, non‑refundable development milestones achievable upon certain regulatory successes. The Company is also required to pay to Camurus, mid to mid‑high single digit royalties, on a product‑by‑product and country‑by‑country basis of annual net sales, until the later of (i) 10 years after the date of first commercial sale of such product in such country; or (ii) the expiration of the last to expire valid claim of all licensed patent rights in such country covering such product. The Company is also required to pay one‑time, non‑refundable, non‑creditable sales milestones upon the achievement of certain sales levels for such product that cannot be in excess of $57,000.

In March 2017, the Company achieved the first milestone event associated with this license agreement. The Company completed the first manufactured batch using the Camurus drug delivery technology and filed an investigational new drug application with the FDA. The fee associated with this milestone was $250.

In December 2017, the Company achieved the second milestone event associated with this license agreement. The Company completed the Phase I proof of concept study using the Camurus drug delivery technology. The fee associated with this second milestone was $1,000 and was recorded as research and development expense.

In March 2018, the Company entered into a license agreement with Takeda, for the rights of a program that includes the clinical candidate RM-853, which is a GOAT inhibitor, which is currently in preclinical development for PWS.  Pursuant to the license agreement the Company was required to pay a non‑refundable and non‑creditable signing fee, which the Company settled by issuing on April 3, 2018, 223,544 shares of common stock valued at $4,448.  Under the terms of the license agreement, assuming that RM-853 is successfully developed, receives regulatory approval and is commercialized, the Company is also required to pay up to $70,000 in one‑time, non‑refundable development milestone payments upon the  achievement of certain clinical and regulatory milestones. The Company is also required to pay up to $70,000 in one‑time, non‑refundable, non‑creditable sales milestone payments upon the achievement of certain sales levels.  The Company is also required to pay to Takeda, mid to mid‑high single digit royalties (subject to certain potential reductions over time), on a product‑by‑product and country‑by‑country basis of annual net sales, of each product in such

14


 

country, beginning on the first commercial sale of a product in such country, and continuing until the latest of (i) 10 years after the date of first commercial sale of such product in such country; or (ii) the expiration of the last to expire valid claim of a Takeda patents covering the composition or use of such product in such country; or (iii) the expiration of all regulatory exclusivity for such product in such country. The Company recorded the fair value of the common stock to be issued to the licensors as research and development expense, as the license does not have a future alternative use, in accordance with ASC Topic 730, Research and Development. 

 

 

7. Related‑Party Transactions

Expenses paid directly to consultants considered to be related parties amounted to $504, $357, $976 and $586 for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Outstanding payments due to these related parties as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 were $131 and $112, respectively, and were included within accounts payable on the balance sheet.

8. Income Taxes

For the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company did not have a current or deferred income tax expense or benefit as the entity has incurred losses since inception and has provided a full valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets.

9. Subsequent Events

In August 2018, the Company amended its existing Lease Agreement for its head office facility in Boston, Massachusetts. The new lease term will commence in August 2019 and has a term of six years with a five-year renewal option to extend the lease.

 

 

 

 

15


 

Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. In addition to historical information, this discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including statements regarding our financial performance, including our expectations regarding our existing cash, operating losses, expenses and sources of future financing; statements regarding our ability to hire and retain necessary personnel; statements regarding patient enrollments and the timing thereof; statements regarding the timing of announcements regarding results of clinical trials; statements regarding our ability to protect our intellectual property; statements regarding our ability to negotiate our collaboration agreements, if needed; statements regarding our marketing, commercial sales, and revenue generation; and other statements identified by words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “likely,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “seeks,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” or similar expressions and the negatives of those terms include forward looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements are not promises or guarantees of future performance, and are subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, and which could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated in such forward-looking statements. These factors include those set forth in Part II, Item 1A under the heading “Risk Factors” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors. We discuss factors that we believe could cause or contribute to these differences below and elsewhere in this report, including those set forth in Part II, Item 1A under the heading “Risk Factors” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. 

Overview

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of therapeutics for the treatment of rare genetic disorders that result in severe, life‑threatening metabolic disorders. Our lead peptide product candidate is setmelanotide, a potent, first‑in‑class melanocortin-4 receptor, or MC4R, agonist for the treatment of rare genetic disorders of obesity. We believe setmelanotide, for which we have exclusive worldwide rights, has the potential to serve as replacement therapy for the treatment of melanocortin-4, or MC4, pathway deficiencies. MC4 pathway deficiencies result in the disruption of satiety signals and energy homeostasis in the body, which, in turn, leads to intense feelings of hunger and to obesity.  Our development efforts are initially focused on obesity related to six single gene-related, or monogenic, MC4 pathway deficiencies, pro-opiomelanocortin, or POMC, leptin receptor, or LepR, Bardet‑Biedl syndrome, Alström syndrome, POMC heterozygous and POMC epigenetic disorders for which there are currently no effective or approved treatments. We believe that the MC4 pathway is a compelling target for treating these genetic disorders because of its critical role in regulating appetite and weight by promoting satiety and weight control, and that peptide therapeutics are uniquely suited for activating this target.

We have demonstrated proof of concept in Phase 2 clinical trials in POMC deficiency obesity, LepR deficiency obesity, Bardet‑Biedl syndrome and Alström syndrome, four genetic disorders of extreme and unrelenting appetite and obesity, in which setmelanotide dramatically reduced both weight and hunger.  The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, has acknowledged the importance of these results by giving setmelanotide Breakthrough Therapy designation for the treatment of obesity associated with genetic defects upstream of the MC4 receptor in the leptin melanocortin pathways.  The Breakthrough Therapy designation currently covers indications for: POMC deficiency obesity, LepR deficiency obesity, Bardet‑Biedl syndrome and Alström Syndrome.  Setmelanotide is currently in Phase 3 development for POMC deficiency obesity and LepR deficiency obesity, and we are initiating a combined Phase 3 trial for Bardet-Biedl and Alström syndrome.  We have completed enrollment in the pivotal cohorts for both our POMC deficiency obesity Phase 3 clinical trial and our LepR deficiency obesity Phase 3 clinical trial.  We expect to report initial Phase 3 data from these trials in the third quarter of 2019, and subsequently plan to file for regulatory approval for these two indications concurrently.  We believe that we have demonstrated proof of concept in our Phase 2 clinical trial in Bardet‑Biedl syndrome and Alström syndrome, and met with the FDA in May 2018 to discuss a combined pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial in these indications.  Based on these preliminary discussions with the FDA, we currently plan to initiate this trial and enroll patients in 2018. We have an ongoing Phase 2 clinical trial in POMC heterozygous deficiency obesity and POMC epigenetic disorders.  We reported initial, preliminary results in these additional Phase 2 indications in June 2018, and plan to provide a further update for these indications early in 2019.  In total, approximately 300 obese subjects and patients

16


 

have been treated with setmelanotide in previous and ongoing clinical trials in which setmelanotide demonstrated statistically significant weight loss with good tolerability.

We have leveraged skilled experts, consultants, contract research organizations, or CROs, and contractors to manage our clinical operations under the leadership and direction of our management. We expect to expand our infrastructure to manage our clinical, finance and commercial operations with a higher proportion of full‑time employees. We have forty-three employees. Of these employees, twenty-eight are engaged in research and development activities, six are engaged in pre-commercialization activities and nine are engaged in support administration, including business development and finance. In the near‑term, we expect to significantly expand our clinical, commercial and finance personnel, in particular, and will incur increased expenses as a result.

In March 2018 we acquired exclusive, worldwide rights from Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, or Takeda, to develop and commercialize T-3525770 (now “RM-853”). RM-853 is a potent, orally available ghrelin o-acyltransferase, or GOAT, inhibitor currently in preclinical development for Prader-Willi Syndrome, or PWS. PWS is a rare genetic disorder that results in hyperphagia and early-onset, life-threatening obesity, for which there are no approved therapeutic options.  We will assume sole responsibility for the global product development and commercialization of RM-853. Takeda received an upfront fee of $4.4 million which we settled in April 2018 with shares of our common stock, and will receive back-end development milestones, and single-digit royalties on future RM-853 sales.

Our operations to date have been limited primarily to conducting research and development activities for setmelanotide. To date, we have not generated any product revenue and have financed our operations primarily through capital contributions from the Predecessor Company, the Relamorelin Company and the LLC entity and the private placement of equity securities to outside investors. On October 10, 2017 we completed our initial public offering, or IPO, of 8,107,500 shares of common stock at an offering price of $17.00 per share, which included the exercise in full by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 1,057,500 additional shares of common stock. We received gross proceeds of approximately $137.8 million, before deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and offering related transaction costs. In connection with the IPO, our outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock were automatically converted into 17,406,338 shares of common stock.  On June 25, 2018 we completed our public offering of 6,591,800 shares of common stock at an offering price of $26.42 per share, which included the exercise in full by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 859,800 additional shares of common stock. We received gross proceeds of approximately $174.2 million before deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and offering expenses.  We will not generate revenue from product sales until we successfully complete development and obtain regulatory approval for setmelanotide, which we expect will take a number of years and is subject to significant uncertainty. We expect to continue to fund our operations through the sale of equity, debt financings or other sources. We intend to build our own marketing and commercial sales infrastructure and we may enter into collaborations with other parties for certain markets outside the United States. However, we may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into such other arrangements when needed on favorable terms, or at all. If we fail to raise capital or enter into such other arrangements as, and when, needed, we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of setmelanotide.

As of June 30, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of $141.1 million. Our net losses were $14.4 million, $6.8 million, $30.9 million and $13.2 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses over the foreseeable future. We expect our expenses will increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, as we:

·

continue to conduct clinical trials for setmelanotide;

·

engage contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, for the manufacture of setmelanotide for clinical trials;

·

seek regulatory approval for setmelanotide;

·

expand our clinical and financial operations and build a marketing and commercialization infrastructure; and

17


 

·

operate as a public company.

As of June 30,2018, our existing cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments were approximately $287.6 million. We expect that our existing cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments will enable us to fund our operating expenses into the second half of 2020.

Corporate Background and Distribution

We are a Delaware corporation organized in February 2013 under the name Rhythm Metabolic, Inc., and as of October 2015, under the name Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Prior to our organization and the Corporate Reorganization referred to below, we were part of Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation which was organized in November 2008 and which commenced active operations in 2010. We refer to this corporation as the Predecessor Company.

In March 2013, the Predecessor Company underwent a corporate reorganization, which we refer to as the Corporate Reorganization, pursuant to which all of the outstanding equity securities of the Predecessor Company were exchanged for units of Rhythm Holding Company, LLC, a newly‑organized limited liability company, which we refer to as the LLC entity. After the consummation of this exchange and as part of the Corporate Reorganization, the Predecessor Company contributed setmelanotide and the MC4R agonist program to us and distributed to the LLC entity all of the then issued and outstanding shares of our stock. The result of the Corporate Reorganization was that we and the Predecessor Company became wholly‑owned subsidiaries of the LLC entity and the two product candidates and related programs that were originally held by the Predecessor Company were separated, with relamorelin and the ghrelin agonist program being retained by the Predecessor Company and setmelanotide and the MC4R agonist program being held by us. We refer to the Predecessor Company after consummation of the Corporate Reorganization as the Relamorelin Company. The Predecessor Company filed the Investigational New Drug Application, or IND, for setmelanotide in October 2011 and conducted the setmelanotide clinical trials up until the Corporate Reorganization, after which all clinical trials have been conducted by us.

In October 2014, the LLC entity granted to Actavis plc, now owned by Allergan, Inc., or Allergan, an exclusive option to acquire the Relamorelin Company. The transaction was limited to the acquisition of the Relamorelin Company and did not include our company. In October 2016, the option to acquire the Relamorelin Company was exercised and the sale to Allergan closed on December 15, 2016.

In January 2017 and August 2017, we sold 20,475,001 shares and 20,474,998 shares, respectively, of our series A convertible preferred stock to certain investors. Following the closing of our series A convertible preferred stock financings, the LLC entity remained our largest stockholder, with the balance of our stock being owned by our series A investors. In August 2017, the LLC entity exchanged 8,578,646 of its shares of our common stock for 78,666,209 newly‑issued shares of our series A‑1 junior preferred stock and the LLC entity distributed all of its shares of our series A‑1 junior preferred stock to the holders of its preferred units and the remaining 1,617,646 shares of our common stock to the holders of its common units. We refer to the exchange and distribution as the Distribution. The series A‑1 junior preferred stock converted into shares of our common stock on a 9.17‑for‑1 basis upon the closing of our IPO. Following the Distribution, the LLC entity did not own any of our common stock.

In connection with our IPO, we effected a 1‑for‑9.17 reverse stock split of our outstanding common stock on September 29, 2017.  All share and per share amounts in the financial statements have been retrospectively adjusted for all periods presented to give effect of the reverse stock split.

Financial Operations Overview

Revenue

To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of setmelanotide for at least several years. We cannot predict if, when, or to what extent we will generate revenues from the commercialization and sale of setmelanotide. Setmelanotide is currently our only product candidate, and we may

18


 

never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for setmelanotide or any other product candidate that we decide to pursue in the future.

Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, including our drug discovery efforts, and the development of setmelanotide, which include:

·

expenses incurred under agreements with third parties, including CROs that conduct research and development and preclinical activities on our behalf, and the cost of consultants and CMOs that manufacture drug products for use in our preclinical studies and clinical trials;

·

employee‑related expenses including salaries, benefits, and stock‑based compensation expense;

·

the cost of lab supplies and acquiring, developing, and manufacturing preclinical study materials; and

·

facilities, depreciation, and other expenses, which include rent and maintenance of facilities, insurance and other operating costs.

We expense research and development costs to operations as incurred. Nonrefundable advance payments for goods or services to be received in the future for use in research and development activities are recorded as prepaid expenses. The capitalized amounts are expensed as the related goods are delivered or the services are performed.

The following table summarizes our current research and development expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

Six Months Ended

 

 

June 30, 

 

June 30, 

Research and development summary

    

2018

    

2017

    

2018

    

2017

Research and development expense

 

$

8,584

 

$

5,397

 

$

20,870

 

$

10,270

 

We are unable to predict the duration and costs of the current or future clinical trials of setmelanotide. The duration, costs, and timing of clinical trials and development of setmelanotide will depend on a variety of factors, including:

·

the scope, rate of progress, and expense of our ongoing, as well as any additional, clinical trials and other research and development activities;

·

the rate of enrollment in clinical trials;

·

the safety and efficacy demonstrated by setmelanotide in future clinical trials;

·

changes in regulatory requirements;

·

changes in clinical trial design; and

·

the timing and receipt of any regulatory approvals.

A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of setmelanotide would significantly change the costs and timing associated with its development and potential commercialization.

Research and development activities are central to our business model. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later‑stage clinical trials. We expect research and development costs to

19


 

increase significantly for the foreseeable future as our setmelanotide development program progresses. However, we do not believe that it is possible at this time to accurately project total program‑specific expenses to commercialization and there can be no guarantee that we can meet the funding needs associated with these expenses.

Selling, general and administrative expenses

Selling expenses consist of professional fees related to preparation for the eventual commercialization of setmelanotide, if approved, as well as salaries and related benefits for commercial employees, including stock‑based compensation.  As we accelerate our preparation for commercialization and, if it is approved, start to market setmelanotide and as we explore new collaborations to develop and commercialize setmelanotide, we anticipate that these expenses will materially increase.

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other related costs, including stock‑based compensation, relating to our full‑time employees.  Other significant costs include rent, legal fees relating to patent and corporate matters and fees for accounting and consulting services.

The following table summarizes our current selling, general and administrative expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

Six Months Ended

 

 

June 30, 

 

June 30, 

Selling, general and administrative summary

    

2018

    

2017

    

2018

    

2017

Selling, general and administrative expense

 

$

6,437

 

$

1,357

 

$

11,152

 

$

2,873

 

We anticipate that our selling, general and administrative expenses will increase in the future to support continued and expanding development efforts, potential commercialization of setmelanotide and increased costs of operating as a public company. These increases will likely include increased costs related to the hiring of additional personnel and fees to outside consultants, lawyers and accountants, compliance with exchange listing and SEC expenses, insurance and investor relations costs, among other expenses.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our financial statements, which we have prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those described in greater detail below. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

While our significant accounting policies are described in more detail in the notes to our financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, we believe that the following accounting policies are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our financial condition and results of operations.

Accrued research and development expenses

As part of the process of preparing our financial statements, we are required to estimate the value associated with goods and services received in the period in connection with research and development activities. This process involves reviewing quotations and contracts, identifying services that have been performed on our behalf and estimating the level of service performed and the associated cost incurred for the service when we have not yet been invoiced or otherwise notified of the actual cost, or alternatively, the deferral of amounts paid for goods or services to be incurred in the future. The majority of our service providers invoice us monthly in arrears for services performed or when contractual milestones are met. We make estimates of our accrued expenses or prepaid expenses as of each balance sheet date in our financial

20


 

statements based on facts and circumstances known to us at the time those financial statements are prepared. We periodically confirm the accuracy of our estimates with the service providers and make adjustments if necessary. The significant estimates in our accrued research and development expenses include fees paid to CROs and CMOs in connection with research and development activities.

We accrue our expenses related to CROs and CMOs based on our estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to quotes and contracts with CROs and CMOs that conduct research and development and manufacturing on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. The allocation of CRO upfront expenses for both clinical trials and preclinical studies generally tracks actual work activity. However, there may be instances in which payments made to our vendors will exceed the level of services provided and result in a prepayment of the research and development expense. In accruing service fees delivered over a period of time, we estimate the time period over which services will be performed and the level of effort to be expended in each period. If the actual timing of the performance of services or the level of effort varies from our estimate, we adjust accrued or prepaid expense accordingly. Although we do not expect our estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, if our estimates of the status and timing of services performed differ from the actual status and timing of services performed, it could result in us reporting amounts that are too high or too low in any particular period. To date, there have been no material differences between our estimates of such expenses and the amounts actually incurred.

2017 Series A Investor Instrument

Pursuant to the 2017 series A preferred stock purchase agreement, by and among us and certain purchasers, and as part of an initial tranche closing, we issued 20,475,001 shares of series A preferred stock at a purchase price of $1.00 per share in January 2017. The series A preferred stock purchase agreement provided for the delayed issuance by us of up to an additional 20,474,998 shares of series A preferred stock as part of a second tranche closing at a purchase price of $1.00 per share. The series A investors had the obligation, upon notification by us, or the 2017 Series A Investor Right/Obligation, to purchase 20,474,998 additional shares of series A preferred stock as part of a second tranche of financing at such time as: (1) our cash, cash equivalents and short‑term investments balance, net of accounts payable and accrued liabilities, falling below $5.0 million and (2) our satisfaction of contractual and customary representations and warranties, or the 2017 Second Tranche Milestone. On August 18, 2017, the series A investors waived the $5.0 million cash balance requirement of the 2017 second tranche milestone and such second tranche financing was consummated. As a result of these two tranches, we issued 40.95 million shares of our series A preferred stock, resulting in aggregate gross proceeds of $40.95 million.

We have classified our 2017 Series A Investor Instrument (See Note 4 to our financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q) as a liability as it is a free‑standing financial instrument. The 2017 Series A Investor Instrument was recorded at fair value upon the issuance of our series A preferred stock in January 2017, and subsequently remeasured to fair value at each reporting period. Changes in fair value of this financial instrument is recognized as a component of other income (expense), net in the statement of operations and comprehensive loss. We estimated the fair value of the 2017 Series A Investor Right/Obligations as the probability‑weighted present value of the expected benefit of the investment.

We used the Black‑Scholes option‑pricing model, which incorporates assumptions and estimates, to value the 2017 Series A Investor Call Option and assessed these assumptions and estimates on a quarterly basis as additional information impacting the assumptions was obtained. Estimates and assumptions impacting the fair value measurement include the fair value per share of the underlying series A preferred stock, the expected term of the 2017 Series A Investor Call Option, risk‑free interest rate, expected dividend yield and expected volatility of the price of the underlying preferred stock. We determined the fair value per share of the underlying preferred stock by taking into consideration the most recent sale of our convertible preferred stock and the investors' right to invest in a subsequent tranche. As we were a private company and lacked company‑specific historical and implied volatility information of our stock, we estimated our expected stock volatility based on the historical volatility of publicly traded peer companies for a term comparable to the estimated term of the 2017 Series A Investor Call Option. The risk‑free interest rate was determined by reference to the U.S. Treasury yield curve for time periods approximately equal to the estimated term of the 2017 Series A Investor Call

21


 

Option. A dividend yield of zero was assumed.  The fair value of the Series A Investor Instrument is determined to be the sum of the fair values of the 2017 Series A Investor Right/Obligation and the 2017 Investor Call Option.

Stock-based compensation

In August 2015, our Board of Directors and our stockholders approved and we adopted the 2015 equity incentive plan, as amended and in effect prior to the closing of our IPO, or the 2015 Plan, which we terminated upon consummation of our IPO and replaced with the 2017 equity incentive plan, or the 2017 Plan. The 2017 Plan provides for the grant of incentive and non-qualified stock options and restricted stock and stock grants to employees, consultants, advisors and directors, as determined by the Board of Directors. We have reserved 5,109,904 shares of common stock under the 2017 Plan. The first option grants issued by us under the 2015 Plan were issued in the fourth quarter of 2015. Shares of common stock issued upon exercise of stock options are generally issued from authorized but unissued shares. The 2017 Plan provides that the exercise price of incentive stock options cannot be less than 100% of the fair market value of the common stock on the date of the award for participants who own less than 10% of the total combined voting power of stock, and not less than 110% for participants who own more than 10% of the voting power. Options and restricted stock granted under the 2017 Plan will vest over periods as determined by our Compensation Committee and approved by our Board of Directors.

We estimate the fair value of our stock-based awards to employees and non-employees using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including (a) the expected volatility of our stock, (b) the expected term of the award, (c) the risk-free interest rate, and (d) expected dividends. Previously due to the lack of a public market for the trading of our common stock and a lack of company-specific historical and implied volatility data, we have based our estimate of expected volatility on the historical volatility of a group of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries in a similar stage of development as us and that are publicly traded. For these analyses, we have selected companies with comparable characteristics to ours including enterprise value, risk profiles and with historical share price information sufficient to meet the expected life of the stock-based awards. We compute the historical volatility data using the daily closing prices for the selected companies' shares during the equivalent period of the calculated expected term of our stock-based awards. We will continue to apply this process until a sufficient amount of historical information regarding the volatility of our own stock price becomes available. We have estimated the expected life of our employee stock options using the "simplified" method, whereby, the expected life equals the average of the vesting term and the original contractual term of the option. The risk-free interest rates for periods within the expected life of the option are based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect during the period the options were granted. Upon adopting ASU 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share‑Based Payment Accounting (Topic 718) on January 1, 2017, we have elected to account for forfeitures as they occur.

Income taxes

Income taxes have been calculated on a separate tax return basis. Certain of our activities and costs have been included in the tax returns filed by the Relamorelin Company and the LLC entity. Prior to the Corporate Reorganization, our operations were included in the tax returns filed by the Predecessor Company. We have filed tax returns on our own behalf since the Corporate Reorganization.

We account for uncertain tax positions in accordance with the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 740, Accounting for Income Taxes, or ASC 740. When uncertain tax positions exist, we recognize the tax benefit of tax positions to the extent that the benefit will more likely than not be realized. The determination as to whether the tax benefit will more likely than not be realized is based upon the technical merits of the tax position as well as consideration of the available facts and circumstances. As of December 31, 2017, we do not have any uncertain tax positions.

Income taxes are recorded in accordance with ASC 740, which provides for deferred taxes using an asset and liability approach. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. We determine our deferred tax assets and liabilities based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, which are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided, if

22


 

based upon the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

As of December 31, 2017, we had net operating loss carryforwards to reduce federal and state incomes taxes of approximately $73.1 million and $3.8 million, respectively. If not utilized, these carryforwards begin to expire in 2033. At December 31, 2017, we also had available research and development tax credits for federal and state income tax purposes of approximately $1.9 million and $0.5 million, respectively. The federal and state credits begin to expire in 2033 and 2028, respectively.  Additionally, as of December 31, 2017, we had a federal orphan drug credits related to qualifying research of $2.3 million.  These tax credit carryforwards begin to expire in 2033 for federal purposes and 2028 for state purposes. 

Utilization of the net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards may be subject to a substantial annual limitation due to ownership change limitations that have occurred previously or that could occur in the future, as provided by Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, or Section 382, as well as similar state provisions and other provisions of the Code. Ownership changes may limit the amount of net operating losses and tax credit carryforwards that can be utilized annually to offset future taxable income and tax, respectively. In general, an ownership change, as defined by Section 382, results from transactions that increase the ownership of 5.0% stockholders in the stock of a corporation by more than 50% in the aggregate over a three-year period.

Results of Operations

Comparison of the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017

 

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, together with the changes in those items in dollars and as a percentage:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

Change

 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

$

    

%

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Statement of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating Expenses:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

  

 

Research and development

 

$

8,584

 

$

5,397

 

$

3,187

 

59

%

Selling, general, and administrative

 

 

6,437

 

 

1,357

 

 

5,080

 

374

%

Total operating expenses

 

 

15,021

 

 

6,754

 

 

8,267

 

122

%

Loss from operations

 

 

(15,021)

 

 

(6,754)

 

 

(8,267)

 

122

%

Other (expense) income, net

 

 

609

 

 

(48)

 

 

657

 

NM

%

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

$

(14,412)

 

$

(6,802)

 

$

(7,610)

 

112

%

 

Research and development expense. Research and development expense increased by $3.2 million to $8.6 million in 2018 from $5.4 million in 2017, an increase of 59%. The increase was primarily due to $1.5 million in employee related costs due to the hiring of additional personnel during the past year, an increase of $1.3 million related to the creation of our US Medical Science Liaison field force and a $0.3 million increase in manufacturing expenses.

Selling, general and administrative expense. Selling, general and administrative expense increased by $5.1 million to $6.4 million in 2018 from $1.4 million in 2017, an increase of 374%. The increase was primarily due to a $1.3 million increase of employee related costs attributable to hiring additional personnel to support our growing organization, and an increase of $2.1 million for the development and building of our commercial organization to drive patient identification, as well as increased professional and consultings fees associated with being a public company. 

Comparison of the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, together with the changes in those items in dollars and as a percentage:

23


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Six Months Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 

 

Change

 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

$

 

%

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Statement of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating Expenses:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

  

 

Research and development

 

$

20,870

 

$

10,270

 

$

10,600

 

103

%

Selling, general, and administrative

 

 

11,152

 

 

2,873

 

 

8,279

 

288

%

Total operating expenses

 

 

32,022

 

 

13,143

 

 

18,879

 

144

%

Loss from operations

 

 

(32,022)

 

 

(13,143)

 

 

(18,879)

 

144

%

Other income (loss)

 

 

1,151

 

 

(19)

 

 

1,170

 

NM

%

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

$

(30,871)

 

$

(13,162)

 

$

(17,709)

 

135

%

 

Research and development expense. Research and development expense increased by $10.6 million to $20.9 million in 2018 from $10.3 million in 2017, an increase of 103%. The increase was primarily due to the $4.4 million non-cash expense related to the license acquired from Takeda for RM-853, a $1.0 million milestone expense associated with the license agreement with Ipsen and a $2.6 million increase in employee related costs due the hiring of additional clinical and development personnel during the second half of 2017.

Selling, general and administrative expense. Selling, general and administrative expense increased by $8.3 million to $11.2 million in 2018 from $2.9 million in 2017, an increase of 288%. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $2.4 million  in employee related costs due to the hiring of additional support personnel, and an increase of $3.2 million for the development and building of our commercial organization to drive patient identification, as well as increased professional and consultings fees associated with being a public company.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

As of June 30, 2018, our existing cash and cash equivalents and short‑term investments were approximately $287.6 million.

Cash flows

The following table provides information regarding our cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30, 

 

    

2018

    

2017

 

 

(in thousands)

Net cash provided by (used in):

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating activities

 

$

(24,131)

 

$

(13,158)

Investing activities

 

 

37,044

 

 

(5,036)

Financing activities

 

 

163,360

 

 

20,377

Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

$

176,273

 

 

2,183

 

Net cash used in operating activities

The use of cash in all periods resulted primarily from our net losses adjusted for non‑cash charges and changes in components of working capital.

Net cash used in operating activities was $24.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and consisted primarily of a net loss of $23.9 million adjusted for non‑cash items, which consisted of the non-cash research and development license expense for RM-853, stock‑based compensation, depreciation and amortization and deferred rent expense.  The change in operating assets and liabilities reflected a total use of cash of approximately $0.3 million for an increase in prepaid expenses.

24


 

Net cash used in operating activities was $13.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017, and consisted primarily of a net loss of $12.3 million adjusted for non‑cash items, which consisted of stock‑based compensation, depreciation and amortization, deferred rent expense and the mark to market revaluation of the Series A Investor Instrument. The change in operating assets and liabilities reflected a total use of cash of approximately $0.8 million with deferred issuance costs and accounts payables. 

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

Net cash provided by investing activities for the six months ended June 30, 2018 relates to the net maturities of short‑term investments of $37.1 million.

Net cash used in investing activities for the six months ended June 30, 2017 relates to the net purchases of short‑term investments of $5.0 million.

Net cash provided by financing activities

Net cash provided by financing activities was $163.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018, which represents net proceeds from our public offering in June 2018.

Net cash provided by financing activities was $20.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017, which represents the net proceeds from the first tranche of our issuance of series A preferred stock in January 2017.

Funding requirements

We expect our expenses to increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we continue the clinical development of and seek marketing approval for setmelanotide. In addition, if we obtain marketing approval for setmelanotide, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution to the extent that such sales, marketing and distribution are not the responsibility of potential collaborators. We also expect to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company.

We expect that our existing cash and cash equivalents will enable us to fund our operating expenses into the second half of 2020. We may need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our research and development activities and any continuing operations thereafter. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on favorable terms, we would be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our research and development programs or future commercialization efforts.

Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:

·

the scope, progress, results and costs of clinical trials for our setmelanotide program;

·

the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our setmelanotide program;

·

the obligations owed to Ipsen Pharma S.A.S., or Ipsen, Camurus AB, or Camurus, and Takeda, pursuant to our license agreements;

·

the extent to which we acquire or in‑license other product candidates and technologies;

·

the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending intellectual property‑related claims; and

·

our ability to establish and maintain additional collaborations on favorable terms, if at all.

25


 

Developing our setmelanotide program is a time‑consuming, expensive and uncertain process that may take years to complete, and we may never generate the necessary data or results required to obtain marketing approval and achieve product sales. In addition, setmelanotide, if approved, may not achieve commercial success. Our commercial revenues, if any, will be derived from sales of setmelanotide that we do not expect to be commercially available for several years, if at all. Accordingly, we will need to continue to rely on additional financing to achieve our business objectives. Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.

Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements. In August 2015, December 2015, January 2017 and August 2017, respectively, we issued 25,000,000, 15,000,000, 20,475,001 and 20,474,998, shares of series A preferred stock, respectively, at a price of $1.00 per share, resulting in gross proceeds of $81.0 million. In October 2017 we completed our IPO in which we received net proceeds of $125.7 million.  In June 2018 we completed another public offering of our common shares in which we received net proceeds of $163.0 million.

To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interest of our stockholders will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of our common stockholders. Debt financing, if available, involves agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends.

If we raise funds through additional collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our setmelanotide program on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market our setmelanotide program that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.

Contractual obligations

We enter into agreements in the normal course of business with CROs and CMOs for clinical trials and clinical supply manufacturing and with vendors for clinical research studies and other services and products for operating purposes. We do not classify these as contractual obligations where the contracts are cancelable at any time by us, generally upon 30 days' prior written notice to the vendor.

Milestone a