Attached files

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EX-32.1 - EXHIBIT 32.1 - American Homes 4 Renta123116exhibit321.htm
EX-31.2 - EXHIBIT 31.2 - American Homes 4 Renta123116exhibit312.htm
EX-31.1 - EXHIBIT 31.1 - American Homes 4 Renta123116exhibit311.htm
EX-23.1 - EXHIBIT 23.1 - American Homes 4 Renta123116exhibit231.htm
EX-21.1 - EXHIBIT 21.1 - American Homes 4 Renta123116exhibit211.htm
EX-12.1 - EXHIBIT 12.1 - American Homes 4 Renta123116exhibit121.htm
EX-10.26 - EXHIBIT 10.26 - American Homes 4 Renta123116exhibit1026.htm
EX-3.8 - EXHIBIT 3.8 - American Homes 4 Renta123116exhibit38.htm

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
ý
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016
OR
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                        to                       

Commission File Number 001-36013

AMERICAN HOMES 4 RENT
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Maryland
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
46-1229660
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
 
30601 Agoura Road, Suite 200
Agoura Hills, California
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
91301
(Zip Code)
(805) 413-5300
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Class A common shares of beneficial interest, $.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
 
Series A participating preferred shares of beneficial interest, $.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
 
Series B participating preferred shares of beneficial interest, $.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
 
Series C participating preferred shares of beneficial interest, $.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
 
Series D perpetual preferred shares of beneficial interest, $.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
 
Series E perpetual preferred shares of beneficial interest, $.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý    No o

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No ý

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý    No o

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ý
 
Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer o
 (Do not check if a
smaller reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o    No ý

The aggregate market value of the Class A common shares of American Homes 4 Rent held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $4.7 billion based on the closing price for such shares on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2016.

There were 242,999,945 Class A common shares, $0.01 par value per share, and 635,075 Class B common shares, $0.01 par value per share, outstanding on February 22, 2017.
Documents Incorporated by Reference

Portions of the Definitive Proxy Statement for our 2017 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report. We expect to file our proxy statement within 120 days after December 31, 2016.
 



AMERICAN HOMES 4 RENT

 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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Certain Terms Used in This Annual Report on Form 10-K

Unless the context otherwise requires or indicates, we define certain terms in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as follows:

"We," "our company," "the Company," "the REIT," "our" and "us" refer to American Homes 4 Rent, a Maryland real estate investment trust, or REIT, and its subsidiaries taken as a whole (including our operating partnership and its subsidiaries).

"Our operating partnership" refers to American Homes 4 Rent, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership, and its subsidiaries taken as a whole.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Various statements contained in this document, including those that express a belief, expectation or intention, as well as those that are not statements of historical fact, are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements may include projections and estimates concerning the timing and success of specific projects and our future production, revenues, income and capital spending. Our forward-looking statements are generally accompanied by words such as "estimate," "project," "predict," "believe," "expect," "intend," "anticipate," "potential," "plan," "goal" or other words that convey the uncertainty of future events or outcomes. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and assumptions about future events. While our management considers these expectations and assumptions to be reasonable, they are inherently subject to significant business, economic, competitive, regulatory and other risks, contingencies and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. These and other important factors, including those discussed under "Business," "Risk Factors," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and elsewhere in this document may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

While forward-looking statements reflect our good faith beliefs, assumptions and expectations, they are not guarantees of future performance, and you should not unduly rely on them. The forward-looking statements in this document speak only as of the date of this document. We are not obligated to update or revise these statements as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, unless required by law.


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PART I

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS

Overview

American Homes 4 Rent is an internally managed Maryland real estate investment trust ("REIT") formed on October 19, 2012. We are focused on acquiring, renovating, leasing and operating single-family homes as rental properties. We commenced operations in November 2012 to continue the investment activities of American Homes 4 Rent LLC ("AH LLC"), which was founded by our chairman, B. Wayne Hughes, in 2011 to take advantage of the dislocation in the single-family home market, and was liquidated during August 2016 with its ownership interests in the operating partnership distributed to its members. Mr. Hughes has over 40 years of experience in the real estate business and a successful track record as co-founder and former chairman and chief executive officer of Public Storage, a REIT listed on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE"). We completed our initial public offering on the NYSE in August 2013.

As of December 31, 2016, we owned 48,422 single-family properties in 22 states, including 1,119 properties held for sale, and had an additional 47 properties in escrow that we expect to acquire, subject to customary closing conditions, for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $8.9 million. As of December 31, 2016, 44,798, or 94.7% of our total properties (excluding held for sale properties) were leased. We have an integrated operating platform that consists of 953 personnel dedicated to property management, acquisitions, construction, marketing, leasing, financial and administrative functions.

From our formation through June 10, 2013, we were externally managed and advised by American Homes 4 Rent Advisor, LLC (the "Advisor") and the leasing, managing and advertising of our properties were overseen and directed by American Homes 4 Rent Management Holdings, LLC (the "Property Manager"), both of which were subsidiaries of AH LLC. Until December 10, 2014, our acquisition and renovation functions were performed by AH LLC, to whom we previously paid an acquisition and renovation fee. We internalized the management and advisory functions in June 2013 and the acquisition and renovation functions in December 2014.

We believe we have become a leader in the single-family home rental industry by aggregating a geographically diversified portfolio of high quality single-family homes and developing "American Homes 4 Rent" into a nationally recognized brand that is well-known for quality, value and tenant satisfaction and is well respected in our communities. In addition to single-family properties, we also may seek to invest in condominium units, townhouses and real estate-related debt investments. Our investments may be made directly or through investment vehicles with third-party investors. In addition to individual property purchases, we may pursue bulk acquisitions from financial institutions, government agencies and competitors. Our objective is to generate attractive, risk-adjusted returns for our shareholders through dividends and capital appreciation.

We believe that we have been organized and operate in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under U.S. federal income tax laws for each of our taxable years commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2012, through the current taxable year ended December 31, 2016. We expect to satisfy the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the U.S. federal income tax laws for our taxable year ending December 31, 2017, and subsequent taxable years.

Our principal executive office is located at 30601 Agoura Road, Suite 200, Agoura Hills, California 91301. Our main telephone number is (805) 413-5300. Our website address is www.americanhomes4rent.com. The information contained on our website is not part of or incorporated by reference in this report.

Our Business and Growth Strategies

Our primary objective is to generate attractive risk-adjusted returns for our shareholders through dividends and capital appreciation by acquiring, renovating, leasing and operating single-family homes as rental properties. We believe we can achieve this objective by pursuing the following strategies:

Secure early-mover advantage and position us as a dominant owner/operator of single-family rental properties.  Historically, the single-family home rental market has been extremely fragmented, comprised primarily of private and individual property investors in local markets. Until recently, there have been no large-scale, national market owners/operators primarily due to the challenge of efficiently scaling the acquisition and management of many individual homes. With an opportunity to continue acquiring homes at attractive prices, we intend to continue to leverage our expertise and experience in rapidly building an institutional-quality, professionally-managed business. We believe that being one of the first in our industry to do so on a large scale has provided us the "early-mover" advantage to

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continue aggregating a large, geographically diversified portfolio of high quality properties at prices that provide attractive potential yields and capital appreciation.

Employ a disciplined property acquisition process.  We are focused on acquiring homes with a number of key property characteristics, including: (i) construction after 1990; (ii) three or more bedrooms; (iii) two or more bathrooms; (iv) a range of $100,000 estimated minimum valuation to $350,000 maximum bid price; and (v) estimated renovation costs not in excess of 25% of estimated value. We target areas with above average median household incomes, well-regarded school districts and access to desirable lifestyle amenities. We believe that homes in these areas will attract tenants with strong credit profiles, produce high occupancy and rental rates and generate long-term property appreciation. Not all of the homes we acquire meet all of these criteria, especially if acquired as part of a bulk purchase. We have an established acquisition and renovation platform to acquire high quality single-family homes. To date, we have primarily acquired properties at foreclosure auctions and through broker sales (primarily multiple listing service ("MLS") and short sales) and, more recently, through bulk portfolio purchases. In the future, we may source a larger proportion of our property acquisitions through portfolio (or bulk) sales from government agencies, financial institutions and competitors. Historically through December 10, 2014, our acquisition and renovation activities were handled by AH LLC. We paid AH LLC a fee equal to 5% of the sum of the purchase price and initial renovation costs of each property that we acquired and AH LLC paid all expenses related to acquisition and renovation personnel, including all internal and third-party costs related to the investigation of properties not acquired by us. In December 2014, we internalized these functions and employed all of AH LLC's acquisition and renovation personnel and we no longer pay the 5% fee to AH LLC.

Assemble a geographically diversified portfolio.  We monitor and manage the diversification of our portfolio in order to reduce the risks associated with adverse developments affecting a particular market. We currently are focusing on acquiring single-family homes in selected sub-markets of metropolitan statistical areas ("MSAs") within 22 states, with an emphasis on achieving critical mass within each target market. We continually evaluate potential new markets where we may invest and establish operations as opportunities emerge. We select our markets based on steady population growth, strong rental demand and a desirable level of distressed sales of homes that can be acquired below replacement cost, providing for attractive potential yields and capital appreciation. In addition, if we are unable to gain desired critical mass within a market to operate efficiently, then we may pursue ways to exit those markets in a manner designed to maximize shareholder value.

Efficiently manage and operate properties.  Building on the experience at Public Storage of our executive team and our significant in-house property management capabilities, we believe we have created a leading, comprehensive single-family home property management business. As was the case with the self-storage industry, we believe the key to efficiently managing a large number of relatively low-cost properties is to strike the appropriate balance between centralization and decentralization. We believe that in-house property management enables us to optimize rental revenues, effectively manage expenses, realize significant economies of scale, standardize brand consistency and maintain direct contact with our tenants. Our property management platform has local leasing agents and property managers in each of our markets. Corporate-level functions are centralized, including management, accounting, legal, marketing and call centers to handle leasing calls and maintenance calls. These centralized services allow us to provide all markets with the benefits of these functions without the burden of staffing each function in every market. In addition, by having a national property management operation, we have the ability to negotiate favorable terms on services and products with many of our contractors and vendors, including national contractors and vendors. We have completed the internalization of 100% of our property management functions, which we believe provides us with consistency of service, control and branding in the operation of our properties.

Establish a nationally recognized brand.  We continue to strive toward establishing "American Homes 4 Rent" as a nationally recognized brand because we believe that establishing a brand well-known for quality, value and tenant satisfaction will help attract and retain tenants and qualified personnel, as well as support higher rental rates. Based on our executive team's experience at Public Storage, we believe that creating brand awareness will facilitate the growth and success of our company. We have established a toll-free number serviced by our call center and a website to provide a direct portal to reach potential tenants and to drive our brand presence. We believe our brand has gained recognition within a number of our markets.

Optimize capital structure.  We may use leverage to increase potential returns to our shareholders, but we will seek to maintain a conservative and flexible balance sheet. We believe that preferred shares provide an attractive source of permanent capital. We also completed three asset-backed securitization transactions during 2014 and two asset-backed securitization transactions during 2015. We also may participate in investment vehicles with third-party investors as an alternative source of equity to grow our business. Our executive officers have substantial experience organizing and managing investment vehicles with third-party investors.

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Recent Developments

On February 29, 2016, the Company completed a merger with American Residential Properties, Inc. ("ARPI") (the "ARPI Merger"), in which ARPI merged with and into a wholly owned subsidiary of us in a stock-for-stock transaction, with our subsidiary continuing as the surviving entity. As a result of the ARPI Merger, each holder of ARPI common stock received 1.135 of our Class A common shares for each share of ARPI common stock and each holder of limited partnership interests in ARPI's operating partnership received 1.135 Class A units of our operating partnership. We issued 36,546,170 Class A common shares and 1,343,843 Class A units in connection with the ARPI Merger, representing 12.7% of the total Class A common shares, Class B common shares and units of our operating partnership, collectively, as of the acquisition date (see Note 11).

Our Business Activities

Property Acquisition, Renovation, Leasing and Property Management

Property Acquisition.  We have a disciplined acquisition platform that is capable of deploying large amounts of capital across all acquisition channels and in multiple markets simultaneously. Our acquisition process begins with an analysis of housing markets. Target markets are selected based on steady population growth, strong rental demand and a desirable level of newer homes that can be acquired at or below replacement cost, providing for attractive potential yields and potential capital appreciation. Our target markets currently include selected sub-markets of MSAs in 22 states. Within our target markets, our system allows us to screen broadly and rapidly for potential acquisitions and is designed to identify highly targeted sub-markets at the neighborhood and street levels.

We purchase properties through a variety of acquisition channels, including foreclosure auctions, broker sales and portfolio (bulk) sales. To date, foreclosure auctions and broker sales (primarily MLS and short sales) have presented the most attractive channels to access a significant supply of quality homes at attractive prices. We have developed an efficient process for bidding on a large number of homes at auctions consistent with local and state laws, which has contributed to our significant pace of capital deployment. Properties become available at auction when a party with a lien on the property forecloses on the lien. The property is then sold at auction, either by a court or trustee, in order to satisfy the debt owed to the lien holder. Auction processes vary significantly between jurisdictions driven by differences in state and local laws. While properties acquired at foreclosure auctions have a limited time frame for due diligence, we have developed a proprietary process that rigorously focuses on the material issues that we believe will affect potential yields before determining a maximum bid amount. Significant issues considered in underwriting homes going through the trustee sale process include an evaluation of our acquisition parameters, as well as the property's location. This evaluation includes a drive-by inspection of the property. Potential eviction and renovation costs are estimated, as well as expected rents and expenses. The property is also researched for the existence of any senior liens. Our local teams have experience in evaluating homes in foreclosure, conducting due diligence and bidding at auctions, which we believe positions us to bid effectively against other competitors. In addition, we underwrite acquisition candidates and have implemented an efficient bid management system and closing and transfer processes that we believe result in properties acquired at an attractive total investment.

We have and will continue to source property acquisition opportunities through broker sales (including traditional MLS, real estate owned ("REO") sales and short sales) and portfolio (or bulk) sales from government agencies, financial institutions and competitors. In particular, we have developed an extensive network of real estate brokers that facilitate a large volume of acquisitions through broker sales. We have a team dedicated to identifying opportunities for homes sold in bulk by institutions or competitors. Acquisitions through these channels generally allow more time for underwriting to determine the expected rents, expenses and renovation costs, obtain title insurance and review local covenant conditions and restrictions.

Existing Occupant Transition.  Upon acquisition, we often must interact with and replace existing occupants of the homes acquired, whether they are prior homeowners or existing tenants. Our primary objective in this process is to quickly transition these occupants to our tenants, and, if that is not possible, to arrange for them to voluntarily vacate the home promptly. Occasionally, we may offer a modest incentive to existing occupants to vacate. Such a cost is viewed as appropriate in relation to the value gained from accelerating our access to the home to begin renovation. As a last resort, the existing occupants will be evicted. We have attorneys on staff familiar with the laws of the locales of our properties to handle this process.

Existing occupants who are tenants sometimes have a bona fide lease under state and federal regulations that must be honored. In these instances, we will honor such leases, while continuing to work with the tenants to transition them to a

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lease under our form and rental structure at the conclusion of the existing lease. Renovations are typically not conducted in these instances.

Property Renovation.  We have a team of dedicated personnel to oversee the renovation process. This team focuses on maximizing the benefit of our investment in property renovation. Once a home is acquired, if it is not occupied, we promptly begin the renovation process, during which each property is thoroughly evaluated. Any resulting work is presented for bid to approved contractors in each of our markets. We have negotiated substantial quantity discounts in each of our markets for products that we regularly use during the renovation process, such as paint, window blinds, carpet and flooring. By establishing and enforcing best practices and quality consistency, we believe that we are able to reduce the costs of both materials and labor. We have found that a rapid response to renovating our homes improves our relationship with the local communities and homeowners' associations ("HOAs") enhancing the "American Homes 4 Rent" brand recognition and loyalty. For homes that are occupied, property renovation is generally delayed. In general, property renovations are completed within approximately 50 to 70 days after gaining initial access to a property and properties are typically leased approximately 20 to 40 days after completing the renovation process. If a home that is acquired remains occupied, the renovation process may be postponed. However, an assessment is made of potential renovation work that must be addressed once the property can be accessed.

Property Management.  We have developed an extensive in-house property management infrastructure, with modern systems, dedicated personnel and local offices in certain of our target markets. In these markets, property managers employed by us execute all property management functions. We directly manage all of our properties without the engagement of a third-party manager.

Marketing and Leasing.  We are responsible for establishing rental rates, marketing and leasing properties (including screening prospective tenants) and collecting and processing rent. We establish rental rates centrally, using data-driven pricing models, supported by analysis from the local property management teams in each market. Factors considered in establishing the rental rates include a competitive analysis of rents, the size and age of the house, and many qualitative factors, such as neighborhood characteristics and access to quality schools, transportation and services. We advertise the available properties through multiple channels, including our website, Craigslist, MLS, yard signs and local brokers. The majority of our homes are shown using technology driven "self-guided" showings. However, in some markets we utilize a network of local real estate agents to show homes to prospective tenants.

Prospective tenants may submit an application through our website, Craigslist posting or in person. We evaluate prospective tenants in a standardized manner. Our application and evaluation process includes obtaining appropriate identification, a thorough evaluation of credit and household income, a review of the applicant's rental history, and a background check for criminal activity. Although we require a minimum household credit score and income to rent ratio, all factors are taken into consideration during the tenant evaluation process, including an emphasis on rental payment history. On average, household credit scores and income to rent ratios of approved applicants are significantly in excess of our minimum requirements. We are generally able to complete our application and evaluation process the same day the prospective tenant submits a complete rental application. We collect the majority of rent electronically via Automated Clearing House transfer or direct debit to the tenant's checking account via a secure tenant portal on our website. An auto-pay feature is offered to facilitate rent payment. Tenants' charges and payment history are available to tenants online through the tenant portal. Tenants who do not pay rent by the late payment date (typically within five calendar days of the due date) will receive notification and are assessed a late fee. Eviction is a last resort, and the eviction process is managed in compliance with local and state regulations. The eviction process is documented through a property management system with all correspondence and documentation stored electronically.

Tenant Relations and Property Maintenance.  We also are responsible for property repairs and maintenance and tenant relations. We offer a 24/7 emergency line to handle after hours issues, and our tenants can contact us through our local property management office or call center. As part of our ongoing property management, we conduct routine repairs and maintenance as appropriate to maximize long-term rental income and cash flows from our portfolio, and are increasingly performing this work using in-house employees as opposed to third party vendors. In addition, our local property managers are involved in periodic visits to our properties to help foster positive, long-term relationships with our tenants, to monitor the condition and use of our homes and to ensure compliance with HOA rules and regulations.

Systems and Technology.  Effective systems and technology are essential components of our process. Significant investments have been made in our lease management, accounting and asset management systems. They have been designed to be scalable to accommodate continued growth in our portfolio of homes. Our website is fully integrated into the tenant accounting and leasing system. From the website, which is accessible from mobile devices, prospective tenants can browse homes available for rent, request additional information and apply to rent a specific home. Through

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the tenant portal existing tenants can set up automatic payments. The system is designed to handle the accounting requirements of residential property accounting, including accounting for security deposits and paying property-level expenses. The system obtains credit information from the major credit bureaus (Experian, Transunion or Equifax), which is used to evaluate prospective tenant rental applications. We have worked with a search engine optimization firm to ensure we place high in search engine lists and will continue to monitor our placement on search engines. In addition, sponsored key words are generally purchased in selected markets as needed.

Other Business Activities

In February 2016, as a result of the ARPI Merger, the Company acquired investments in three joint ventures, which invested in nonperforming and performing loans. The Company had a remaining investment of $13.2 million as of December 31, 2016, in the joint ventures. Additionally, as a result of the ARPI Merger, the Company acquired investments in various mortgage loans, of which the Company had a remaining investment of $0.2 million as of December 31, 2016. We do not currently plan to pursue additional acquisitions of residential mortgage assets.

In September 2013, we announced the formation of AMIP Management, LLC ("AMIP"), a joint venture between us and Johnson Capital Residential Investments, LLC, for the purpose of managing multiple distressed residential mortgage asset investment funds, including one previously consolidated, 100% owned fund, which was liquidated during 2016. As of December 31, 2016, the Company had a remaining investment of $4.2 million in an unconsolidated fund managed by AMIP.

Risk Management

We face various forms of risk in our business ranging from broad economic, housing market and interest rate risks, to more specific factors, such as credit risk related to our tenants, re-leasing of properties and competition for properties. We believe that the systems and processes developed by our experienced executive team since commencing our operations in November 2012 allow us to monitor, manage and ultimately navigate these risks.

Insurance

We maintain property, liability and corporate level insurance coverage related to our business, including crime and fidelity, property management errors and omissions, trustees' and officers' errors and omissions, cyber liability, employment practice liability and workers' compensation. We believe the policy specifications and insured limits under our insurance program are appropriate and adequate for our business and properties given the relative risk of loss, the cost of the coverage and industry practice. However, our insurance coverage is subject to substantial deductibles and carveouts, and we will be self-insured up to the amount of such deductibles and carveouts. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We are self-insured against many potential losses, and uninsured or underinsured losses relating to properties may adversely affect our financial condition, operating results, cash flows and ability to make distributions on our preferred and common shares" and "Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Real Estate Industry—Environmentally hazardous conditions may adversely affect our financial condition, cash flows and operating results."

Competition

We face competition from different sources in each of our two primary activities: acquiring properties and renting our properties. We believe our primary competitors in acquiring our target properties through individual acquisitions are individual investors, small private investment partnerships looking for one-off acquisitions of investment properties that can either be rented or restored and sold, and larger investors, including private equity funds and other REITs, that are seeking to capitalize on the same market opportunity that we have identified. Our primary competitors in acquiring portfolios include large and small private equity investors, public and private REITs and other sizeable private institutional investors. These same competitors may also compete with us for tenants. Competition may increase the prices for properties that we would like to purchase, reduce the amount of rent we may charge at our properties, reduce the occupancy of our portfolio and adversely impact our ability to achieve attractive yields. However, we believe that our acquisition platform, our extensive in-house property management infrastructure and market knowledge in markets that meet our selection criteria provide us with competitive advantages.

Regulation

General

Our properties are subject to various covenants, laws and ordinances, and certain of our properties are also subject to the rules of the various HOAs where such properties are located. We believe that we are in material compliance with such covenants, laws,

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ordinances and rules, and we also require that our tenants agree to comply with such covenants, laws, ordinances and rules in their leases with us.

Fair Housing Act

The Fair Housing Act ("FHA") and its state law counterparts, and the regulations promulgated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development ("HUD") and various state agencies, prohibit discrimination in housing on the basis of race or color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status (including children under the age of 18 living with parents or legal custodians, pregnant women and people securing custody of children under the age of 18), handicap or, in some states, financial capability. We believe that our properties are in substantial compliance with the FHA and other regulations.

Environmental Matters

As a current or prior owner of real estate, we are subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws, regulations and ordinances, and we could be liable to third parties as a result of environmental contamination or noncompliance at our properties, even if we no longer own such properties. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Contingent or unknown liabilities could adversely affect our financial condition, cash flows and operating results" and "Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Real Estate Industry—Environmentally hazardous conditions may adversely affect our financial condition, cash flows and operating results."

REIT Qualification

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT, which commenced with our first taxable year ended December 31, 2012. Our qualification as a REIT, and maintenance of such qualification, will depend upon our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, various complex requirements under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code"), relating to, among other things, the sources of our gross income, the composition and values of our assets, our distributions to our shareholders and the concentration of ownership of our equity shares. We believe that, commencing with our initial taxable year ended December 31, 2012, we have been organized in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT.

As a REIT, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our REIT taxable income that we currently distribute to our shareholders, but taxable income generated by any taxable REIT subsidiary ("TRS") that we may form or acquire will be subject to federal, state and local income tax. Under the Code, REITs are subject to numerous organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement that they distribute annually at least 90% of their REIT taxable income to their shareholders. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year and do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, our income would be subject to U.S. federal income tax, and we would likely be precluded from qualifying for treatment as a REIT until the fifth calendar year following the year in which we fail to qualify. Even if we qualify as a REIT, we may still be subject to certain U.S. federal, state and local taxes on our income and assets and to U.S. federal income and excise taxes on our undistributed income.

Investment Company Act of 1940

We intend to conduct our operations so that neither we nor any of our subsidiaries are required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940.

Employees

As of December 31, 2016, we have 953 dedicated full-time personnel. None of our personnel are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.

Seasonality

We believe that our business and related operating results will be impacted by seasonal factors throughout the year. In particular, we have experienced higher levels of tenant move-outs during the summer months, which impacts both our rental revenues and related turnover costs. Further, our property operating costs are seasonally impacted in certain markets for expenses such as snow removal and heating during the winter season and HVAC repairs and expenses during the summer season.

Available Information

Our website address is www.americanhomes4rent.com. We make available free of charge on or through our website our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the report with or furnish it to the SEC. This information is also available in print

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to any shareholder who requests it, with any such requests addressed to Investor Relations, American Homes 4 Rent, 30601 Agoura Road, Suite 200, Agoura Hills, CA 91301. We also make available free of charge on our website our Corporate Governance Guidelines, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and the charters of our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of our board of trustees. We intend to disclose on our website any changes to, or waivers from, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics. The information contained on our website shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this or any other report we file with, or furnish to, the SEC.

ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS

Risks Related to Our Business

Set forth below are the risks that we believe are material to our shareholders. You should consider these risks carefully when evaluating our company and our business. The risks described below may not be the only risks we face. Additional risks of which we are currently unaware or that we currently consider immaterial also may impact our business. If any of the following events or circumstances actually occur, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and ability to satisfy our debt obligations and make distributions to our shareholders could be materially and adversely affected, and you could lose all or part of your investment in our securities. Some statements in the following risk factors are forward-looking statements. See the section entitled "Forward-Looking Statements."

We are employing a business model with a limited track record, which may make our business difficult to evaluate.

Until 2012, the single-family rental business consisted primarily of private and individual investors in local markets and was managed individually or by small, local property managers. Our investment strategy involves purchasing, renovating, maintaining and managing a large number of residential properties and leasing them to suitable tenants. Large, well-capitalized investors have only recently entered this business and, as a result, there are not peer companies with an established long-term track record to assist us in predicting whether our investment strategy can be implemented and sustained successfully over time. It will be difficult for you to evaluate our potential future performance without the benefit of established long-term track records from companies implementing a similar business model. We may encounter unanticipated problems implementing our investment strategy, which may adversely affect our results of operations and ability to make distributions to our shareholders and cause our share price to decline significantly. We believe the acquisition, operation and management of multi-family residential real estate is the most comparable established model for our business, but in contrast to multi-family operations, the geographic dispersion of single-family properties (even within a local clustering) creates significantly greater operational and maintenance challenges and, potentially, significantly higher per-unit operating costs. In addition, since each home has unique features, appliances and building materials, renovations, maintenance, marketing and operational tasks will be far more varied and demanding than in a typical multi-family setting. We may be unable to operate a large portfolio of single-family rental properties in a cost-effective and profitable manner and our business plan may not succeed. We also can provide no assurance that we will be able to successfully achieve our objective of providing attractive risk-adjusted returns to our shareholders.

We have a limited operating history, and we may not be able to successfully operate our business or generate sufficient cash flows to make or sustain distributions on our preferred and common shares.

We commenced operations in November 2012. We may not be able to successfully operate our business or implement our operating policies and investment strategy. Furthermore, we may not be able to generate sufficient cash flows to pay our operating expenses, service any debt and make distributions to our shareholders. Our ability to successfully operate our business and implement our operating policies and investment strategy depends on many factors, including:

the availability of, and our ability to identify, attractive acquisition opportunities consistent with our investment strategy;

our ability to effectively manage renovation, maintenance, marketing and other operating costs for our properties;

our ability to maintain high occupancy rates and target rent levels;

our ability to compete with other investors entering the single-family sector;

costs that are beyond our control, including title litigation, litigation with tenants or tenant organizations, legal compliance, real estate taxes, HOA fees and insurance;

judicial and regulatory developments affecting landlord-tenant relations that may affect or delay our ability to dispossess or evict occupants or increase rents;

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judicial and regulatory developments affecting banks' and other mortgage holders' ability to foreclose on delinquent borrowers;

reversal of population, employment or homeownership trends in target markets;

interest rate levels and volatility, such as the accessibility of short-term and long-term financing on desirable terms; and

economic conditions in our target markets, including changes in employment and household earnings and expenses, as well as the condition of the financial and real estate markets and the economy in general.

In addition, we face significant competition in acquiring attractive properties on advantageous terms, and the value of the properties that we acquire may decline substantially after we purchase them. Any one or more of these factors could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may not be able to effectively manage our growth, and any failure to do so may have an adverse effect on our business and operating results.

From commencement of our operations in November 2012 through December 31, 2016, we have acquired 48,422 single-family properties in 22 states. Our future operating results may depend on our ability to effectively manage our rapid growth, which is dependent, in part, upon our ability to:

stabilize and manage a rapidly increasing number of properties and tenant relationships while maintaining a high level of tenant satisfaction and building and enhancing our brand;

identify and supervise a large number of suitable third parties on which we rely to provide certain services outside of property management to our properties;

attract, integrate and retain new management and operations personnel as our organization grows in size and complexity;

continue to improve our operational and financial controls and reporting procedures and systems; and

scale our technology and other infrastructure platforms to adequately service new properties.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to achieve these results or that we may otherwise be able to manage our growth effectively, or without incurring significant additional expenses. Any failure to do so may have an adverse effect on our business and operating results.

We intend to continue to expand our scale of operations and make acquisitions even if the rental and housing markets are not as favorable as they were when we commenced operations, which could adversely impact anticipated yields.

Our long-term growth depends, in part, on the availability of acquisition opportunities in our target markets at attractive pricing levels. We believe various factors and market conditions in the last several years have made homes available for purchase at prices that are below replacement costs. We believe home prices have stabilized in many areas and expect that in the future, housing prices will continue to stabilize and return to more normalized levels, and therefore future acquisitions may be more costly. The following factors, among others, are making acquisitions more expensive:

improvements in the overall economy and job market;

a resumption of consumer lending activity and greater availability of consumer credit;

improvements in the pricing and terms of mortgage-backed securities;

the emergence of increased competition for single-family assets from private investors and entities with similar investment objectives to ours; and

tax or other government incentives that encourage homeownership.


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We have not adopted and do not expect to adopt a policy of making future acquisitions only if they are accretive to existing yields and distributable cash. We plan to continue acquiring properties as long as we believe such properties offer an attractive total return opportunity. Accordingly, future acquisitions may have lower yield characteristics than recent past and present opportunities and if such future acquisitions are funded through equity issuances, the yield and distributable cash per share will be reduced, and the value of our common and preferred shares may decline.

Our future growth depends, in part, on the availability of additional debt or equity financing. If we cannot obtain additional financing on terms favorable or acceptable to us, our growth may be limited.

Part of our business strategy may involve the use of debt and equity financing to increase potential returns to our shareholders in the future. Our inability in the future to obtain additional financing on attractive terms, or at all, could adversely impact our ability to execute our business strategy, which could adversely affect our growth prospects and future shareholder returns. Our access to capital depends, in part, on:

general business conditions;

financial market conditions;

the market's perception of our business prospects and growth potential;

the market prices of our common and preferred shares;

our current debt levels; and

our current and expected earnings, cash flow and distributions.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain debt or equity financing on terms favorable or acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to do so, then we may have to curtail our investment activities, which could limit our growth prospects, and we may be forced to dispose of assets at inopportune times in order to maintain our REIT qualification. We continue to seek additional sources of financing for our acquisitions. Our pace of acquisitions may depend on the level of funds available for investment. In addition, if we are unable to obtain debt financing, then we may have to rely more heavily on additional equity issuances, which may be dilutive to our shareholders, or on less efficient forms of debt financing that require a larger portion of our cash flow from operations, thereby reducing funds available for our operations, future business opportunities, cash distributions to our shareholders and other purposes.

Our revenue and expenses are not directly correlated, and because a large percentage of our costs and expenses are fixed, we may not be able to adapt our cost structure to offset declines in our revenue.

Most of the expenses associated with our business, such as acquisition costs, repairs and maintenance costs, real estate taxes, HOA fees, insurance, utilities, personal and ad valorem taxes, employee wages and benefits and other general corporate expenses, are relatively inflexible and will not necessarily decrease with a reduction in revenue from our business. Some components of our fixed assets depreciate more rapidly and will require a significant amount of ongoing capital expenditures. Our expenses and ongoing capital expenditures also will be affected by inflationary increases, and certain of our cost increases may exceed the rate of inflation in any given period. By contrast, our rental income is affected by many factors beyond our control such as the availability of alternative rental housing and economic conditions in our target markets. In addition, state and local regulations may require us to maintain properties that we own, even if the cost of maintenance is greater than the value of the property or any potential benefit from renting the property. As a result, we may not be able to fully offset rising costs and capital spending by raising rental rates, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash available for distribution.

We are dependent on our executive officers and dedicated personnel, and the departure of any of our key personnel could materially and adversely affect us. We also face intense competition for highly skilled managerial, investment, financial and operational personnel.

We rely on a small number of individuals to carry out our business and investment strategies. Any of our senior management may cease to provide services to us at any time. The loss of the services of any of our key management personnel, or our inability to recruit and retain qualified personnel in the future, could have an adverse effect on our business and financial results.

In addition, as we expand our operations, we will continue to need to attract and retain additional qualified personnel but may not be able to do so on acceptable terms or at all. Competition for highly skilled managerial, investment, financial and operational personnel is intense. As additional large real estate investors have entered the single-family rental business, we have faced increased

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challenges in hiring and retaining personnel, and we cannot assure our shareholders that we will be successful in attracting and retaining such skilled personnel. If we are unable to hire and retain qualified personnel as required, our growth and operating results could be adversely affected.

Our investments are and are expected to continue to be concentrated in our markets and in the single-family properties sector of the real estate industry, which exposes us to seasonal fluctuations in rental demand and downturns in our markets or in the single-family properties sector.

Our investments in real estate assets are and are expected to continue to be concentrated in our target markets and in the single-family properties sector of the real estate industry. A downturn or slowdown in the rental demand for single-family housing caused by adverse economic, regulatory or environmental conditions, or other events, in our markets may have a greater impact on the value of our properties or our operating results than if we had more fully diversified our investments. We believe that there are seasonal fluctuations in rental demand with demand higher in the spring and summer than in the late fall and winter. Such seasonal fluctuations may impact our operating results.

In addition to general, regional, national and international economic conditions, our operating performance will be impacted by the economic conditions in our markets. We acquire, renovate and rent single-family properties in our target markets, which currently include MSAs within 22 states. As of December 31, 2016, approximately 60% of our properties in operation were concentrated in five states—Texas, North Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Tennessee. We base a substantial part of our business plan on our belief that property values and operating fundamentals for single-family properties in these markets will improve significantly over the next several years. However, each of these markets has experienced substantial economic downturns in recent years and could experience similar or worse economic downturns in the future. We can provide no assurance as to the extent property values and operating fundamentals in these markets will improve, if at all. If the recent economic downturn in these markets returns or if we fail to accurately predict the timing of economic improvement in these markets, the value of our properties could decline and our ability to execute our business plan may be adversely affected, which could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and ability to make distributions to our shareholders and cause the value of our outstanding securities to decline.

We may not be able to effectively control the timing and costs relating to the renovation of properties, which may adversely affect our operating results and our ability to make distributions on our preferred and common shares.

Nearly all of our properties require some level of renovation immediately upon their acquisition or in the future following expiration of a lease or otherwise. We may acquire properties that we plan to renovate extensively. We also may acquire properties that we expect to be in good condition only to discover unforeseen defects and problems that require extensive renovation and capital expenditures. To the extent properties are leased to existing tenants, renovations may be postponed until the tenant vacates the premises, and we will pay the costs of renovating. In addition, from time to time, in order to reposition properties in the rental market, we will be required to make ongoing capital improvements and replacements and perform significant renovations and repairs that tenant deposits and insurance may not cover.

Our properties have infrastructure and appliances of varying ages and conditions. Consequently, we routinely retain independent contractors and trade professionals to perform physical repair work and are exposed to all of the risks inherent in property renovation and maintenance, including potential cost overruns, increases in labor and materials costs, delays by contractors in completing work, delays in the timing of receiving necessary work permits, certificates of occupancy and poor workmanship. If our assumptions regarding the costs or timing of renovation and maintenance across our properties prove to be materially inaccurate, our operating results and ability to make distributions to our shareholders may be adversely affected.

We face significant competition for acquisitions of our target properties, which may limit our strategic opportunities and increase the cost to acquire those properties.

We face significant competition for attractive acquisition opportunities in our target markets from other large real estate investors, some of which have greater financial resources and a lower cost of capital than we do. We also compete with individual private home buyers and small scale investors. Several REITs and other funds have deployed, and others may in the future deploy, significant amounts of capital to purchase single-family homes and may have investment objectives that overlap and compete with ours, including in our target markets. This activity has adversely impacted our level of purchases in certain of our target markets. If our business model or a similar model proves to be successful, we can expect competition to intensify significantly. As a result, the purchase price of potential acquisition properties may be significantly elevated, or we may be unable to acquire properties on desirable terms or at all.


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We face significant competition in the leasing market for quality tenants, which may limit our ability to rent our single-family homes on favorable terms or at all.

We depend on rental income for substantially all of our revenues and to succeed, must attract and retain qualified tenants. We face competition for tenants from other lessors of single-family properties, apartment buildings and condominium units, and the continuing development of single-family properties, apartment buildings and condominium units in many of our markets increases the supply of housing and exacerbates competition for tenants. Competing properties may be newer, better located and more attractive to tenants. Potential competitors may have lower rates of occupancy than we do or may have superior access to capital and other resources than we do, which may result in competitive properties offered at lower rental rates than we might offer. Many of these competitors may successfully attract tenants with better incentives and amenities, which could adversely affect our ability to obtain quality tenants and lease our single-family properties on favorable terms or at all. Additionally, some competing housing options may qualify for government subsidies that may make such options more affordable and therefore more attractive than our properties.
    
In addition, increases in unemployment levels and other adverse changes in economic conditions in our markets may adversely affect the creditworthiness of potential residents, which may decrease the overall number of qualified residents for our properties within such markets. We could also be adversely affected by accelerating development of competing properties or high vacancy rates of homes in our markets, which could result in an excess supply of homes and reduce occupancy and rental rates.    

Improving economic conditions, along with the availability of low residential mortgage interest rates and government sponsored programs to promote home ownership, have made home ownership more affordable and more accessible for potential renters who have strong credit. These factors may encourage potential renters to purchase residences rather than lease them, thereby causing a decline in the number and quality of potential tenants available to us.

As of December 31, 2016, we owned 48,422 single-family properties, including 1,119 properties held for sale. As of December 31, 2016, 44,798, or 94.7% of our total properties (excluding held for sale properties) were leased. No assurance can be given that we will be able to attract and retain qualified tenants. Our operating results and ability to make distributions to our shareholders would be adversely affected if we are not able to lease our properties on favorable terms or at all.

Our evaluation of properties involves a number of assumptions that may prove inaccurate, which could result in us paying too much for properties we acquire or overvaluing our properties or our properties failing to perform as we expect.

In determining whether a particular property meets our investment criteria, we make a number of assumptions, including assumptions related to estimated time of possession and estimated renovation costs and time frames, annual operating costs, market rental rates and potential rent amounts, time from purchase to leasing and tenant default rates. These assumptions may prove inaccurate. As a result, we may pay too much for properties we acquire or overvalue our properties, or our properties may fail to perform as anticipated. Adjustments to the assumptions we make in evaluating potential purchases may result in fewer properties qualifying under our investment criteria, including assumptions related to our ability to lease properties we have purchased. Reductions in the supply of properties that meet our investment criteria may adversely affect our ability to implement our investment strategy and operating results.

Furthermore, the properties that we acquire vary materially in terms of time to possession, renovation, quality and type of construction, location and hazards. Our success depends on our ability to acquire properties that can be quickly possessed, renovated, repaired, upgraded and rented with minimal expense and maintained in rentable condition. Our ability to identify and acquire such properties is fundamental to our success. In addition, the recent market and regulatory environments relating to single-family residential properties have been changing rapidly, making future trends difficult to forecast. For example, an increasing number of homeowners now wait for an eviction notice or eviction proceedings to commence before vacating foreclosed premises, which significantly increases the time period between the acquisition and leasing of a property. Such changes affect the accuracy of our assumptions and, in turn, may adversely affect our operating results.

Purchasing single-family properties through the foreclosure auction process subjects us to significant risks that could adversely affect our operating results, cash flows and ability to make distributions on our preferred and common shares.

Our business plan involves acquiring single-family properties through the foreclosure auction process simultaneously in a number of markets, which involves monthly foreclosure auctions on the same day of the month in certain markets. In these instances, we are only able to visually inspect properties from the street and must purchase these properties without a contingency period and in "as is" condition with the risk that unknown defects in the property may exist. We also may encounter unexpected legal challenges and expenses in the foreclosure process. Upon acquiring a new property, we may have to evict residents who are in unlawful possession before we can secure possession and control of the property. The holdover occupants may be the former owners or tenants of a

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property, or they may be squatters or others who are illegally in possession. Securing control and possession from these occupants can be both costly and time-consuming.

Further, when acquiring properties on an "as is" basis, title commitments are often not available prior to purchase, and title reports or title information may not reflect all senior liens, which may increase the possibility of acquiring houses outside predetermined acquisition and price parameters, purchasing residences with title defects and deed restrictions, HOA restrictions on leasing or underwriting or purchasing the wrong residence. The policies, procedures and practices we implement to assess the state of title and leasing restrictions prior to purchase may not be effective, which could lead to a material if not complete loss on our investment in such properties. For properties we acquire through the foreclosure auction process, we do not obtain title commitments prior to purchase, and we are not able to perform the type of title review that is customary in acquisitions of real property. As a result, our knowledge of potential title issues will be limited, and no title insurance protection will be in place. This lack of title knowledge and insurance protection may result in third parties having claims against our title to such properties that may materially and adversely affect the values of the properties or call into question the validity of our title to such properties. Without title insurance, we are fully exposed to, and would have to defend ourselves against, such claims. Further, if any such claims are superior to our title to the property we acquired, we risk loss of the property purchased. Any of these risks could adversely affect our operating results, cash flows and ability to make distributions to our shareholders.

Claims of deficiencies in the foreclosure process may result in rescission of our purchases at auction or reduce the supply of foreclosed properties available to us.

Allegations of deficiencies in foreclosure practices could result in claims challenging the validity of some foreclosures that have occurred to date, potentially placing our claim of ownership to the properties at risk. Since we do not have title insurance policies for properties we acquire through the foreclosure auction process, such instances or such proceedings may result in a complete loss without compensation.

Each state has its own laws governing the procedures to foreclose on mortgages and deeds of trust, and state laws generally require strict compliance with these laws in both judicial and non-judicial foreclosures. Recently, courts and administrative agencies have been more actively involved in enforcing state laws governing foreclosures, and in some circumstances have imposed new rules and requirements regarding foreclosures. Some courts have delayed or prohibited foreclosures based on alleged failures to comply with proper transfers of title, notice, identification of parties in interest, documentation and other legal requirements. Further, foreclosed owners and their representatives, including some prominent and well-financed legal firms, have brought litigation questioning the validity and finality of foreclosures that have already occurred. These developments may slow or reduce the supply of foreclosed houses available to us for purchase and may call into question the validity of our title to houses acquired at foreclosure, or result in rescission rights or other borrower remedies, which could result in a loss of a property purchased by us, an increase in litigation costs incurred with respect to properties obtained through foreclosure, or delays in stabilizing and leasing such properties promptly after acquisition.

Bulk portfolio acquisitions may subject us to the risk of acquiring properties that do not fit our target investment criteria and may be costly or time consuming to divest, which may adversely affect our operating results.

We have occasionally acquired and may continue to acquire properties purchased as portfolios in bulk from other owners of single-family homes. To the extent the management and leasing of such properties has not been consistent with our property management and leasing standards, we may be subject to a variety of risks, including risks relating to the condition of the properties, the credit quality and employment stability of the tenants and compliance with applicable laws, among others. In addition, financial and other information provided to us regarding such portfolios during our due diligence may be inaccurate, and we may not discover such inaccuracies until it is too late to seek remedies against such sellers. To the extent we timely pursue such remedies, we may not be able to successfully prevail against the seller in an action seeking damages for such inaccuracies. If we conclude that certain properties purchased in bulk portfolios do not fit our target investment criteria, we may decide to sell, rather than renovate and rent, these properties, which could take an extended period of time and may not result in a sale at an attractive price. We may also experience delays in integrating the information systems and property and tenant information of the acquired properties which could adversely affect operating results.

Single-family properties that are being sold through short sales or foreclosure sales are subject to risks of theft, mold, infestation, vandalism, illegal activity on the premises, deterioration or other damage that could require extensive renovation prior to renting and adversely impact our operating results.

When a single-family property is put into foreclosure due to a default by the homeowner on its mortgage obligations or the value of the property is substantially below the outstanding principal balance on the mortgage and the homeowner decides to seek a short sale, the homeowner may abandon the property or cease to maintain the property as rigorously as the homeowner normally

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would. Neglected and vacant properties are subject to increased risks of theft, mold, infestation, vandalism, illegal activity on the premises, general deterioration and other maintenance problems that may persist without appropriate attention and remediation. If we begin to purchase a large volume of properties in bulk portfolio acquisitions and are not able to inspect them immediately before closing on the purchase, we may purchase properties that may be subject to these problems, which may result in maintenance and renovation costs and time frames that far exceed our estimates. These circumstances could substantially impair our ability to quickly renovate and lease such properties in a cost efficient manner or at all, which would adversely impact our operating results.

If occupancy levels and rental rates in our target markets do not increase sufficiently to keep pace with rising costs of operations, our rental income and distributable cash will decline.

The success of our business model depends, in part, on conditions in the single-family rental market in our target markets. Our asset acquisitions are premised on assumptions about occupancy levels and rental rates, and if those assumptions prove to be inaccurate, our cash flows and profitability will be reduced. A continuation of the recent strengthening of the U.S. economy and job growth, coupled with government programs designed to keep homeowners in their homes and/or other factors may contribute to an increase in homeownership rather than renting. In addition, we expect that as investors like us increasingly seek to capitalize on opportunities to purchase housing assets at below replacement costs and convert them to productive uses, the supply of single-family rental properties will decrease and the competition for tenants may intensify. A softening of the rental market in our target areas would reduce our rental income and profitability.

Eminent domain could lead to material losses on our investments in our properties.

Governmental authorities may exercise eminent domain to acquire land on which our properties are built in order to build roads and other infrastructure. Any such exercise of eminent domain would allow us to recover only the fair value of the affected properties. Our investment strategy is premised on the concept that this "fair value" will be substantially less than the real value of the property for a number of years, and we could effectively have no profit potential from properties acquired by the government through eminent domain.

We depend on our tenants and their willingness to renew their leases for substantially all of our revenues. Poor tenant selection and defaults and nonrenewals by our tenants may adversely affect our reputation, financial performance and ability to make distributions on our preferred and common shares.

We depend on rental income from tenants for substantially all of our revenues. As a result, our success depends in large part upon our ability to attract and retain qualified tenants for our properties. Our reputation, financial performance and ability to make distributions to our shareholders would be adversely affected if a significant number of our tenants fail to meet their lease obligations or fail to renew their leases. For example, tenants may default on rent payments, make unreasonable and repeated demands for service or improvements, make unsupported or unjustified complaints to regulatory or political authorities, use our properties for illegal purposes, damage or make unauthorized structural changes to our properties that are not covered by security deposits, refuse to leave the property upon termination of the lease, engage in domestic violence or similar disturbances, disturb nearby residents with noise, trash, odors or eyesores, fail to comply with HOA regulations, sublet to less desirable individuals in violation of our lease or permit unauthorized persons to live with them. Damage to our properties may delay re-leasing after eviction, necessitate expensive repairs or impair the rental income or value of the property resulting in a lower than expected rate of return. Increases in unemployment levels and other adverse changes in the economic conditions in our markets could result in substantial tenant defaults. In the event of a tenant default or bankruptcy, we may experience delays in enforcing our rights as landlord at that property and will incur costs in protecting our investment and re-leasing the property.

Short-term leases of residential property may expose us to the risk that we may have to re-lease our properties frequently, which we may be unable to do on attractive terms, on a timely basis or at all, which may adversely affect our operating results and our ability to make distributions on our preferred and common shares.

Substantially all of our new leases have a duration of one year. As these leases permit tenants to leave at the end of the lease term without penalty, we anticipate our rental revenues may be affected by declines in market rents more quickly than if our leases were for longer terms. Short-term leases may result in high turnover, which involves costs such as restoring the properties, marketing costs and lower occupancy levels. Our tenant turnover rate and related cost estimates may be less accurate than if we had more operating data upon which to base such estimates. Moreover, we cannot assure you that our leases will be renewed on equal or better terms or at all. If our tenants do not renew their leases or the rental rates for our properties decrease, our operating results and ability to make distributions to our shareholders could be adversely affected.

Declining real estate values and impairment charges could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.


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We periodically review the carrying value of our properties to determine whether their value, based on market factors, projected income and generally accepted accounting principles, has permanently decreased such that it is necessary or appropriate to take an impairment loss in the relevant accounting period. Such a loss would cause an immediate reduction of net income in the applicable accounting period and would be reflected in a decrease in our balance sheet assets. The reduction of net income from impairment losses could lead to a reduction in our dividends and distributions, both in the current and future accounting periods. Impairment charges would adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

Our net income and FFO may decrease as a result of costs of providing services on a self-managed basis.

Because we are self-managed, our expenses include the compensation and benefits of our officers, dedicated personnel and consultants, as well as overhead previously paid by AH LLC and its affiliates. Beginning on December 10, 2014, acquisition and renovation services, which were previously provided by AH LLC and its affiliates, were internalized and there can be no assurances that we will be able provide those services at the same level or for the same costs as provided by subsidiaries of AH LLC, and there may be unforeseen costs, expenses and difficulties associated with internalizing those services on a self-managed basis. If the expenses we assume as a result of internalizing these activities are higher than any corresponding increase in revenues or decrease in other expenses, our net income and funds from operations ("FFO") may be lower than they otherwise would have been.

We are self-insured against many potential losses, and uninsured or underinsured losses relating to properties may adversely affect our financial condition, operating results, cash flows and ability to make distributions on our preferred and common shares.

We attempt to ensure that our properties are adequately insured to cover casualty losses. However, many of the policies covering casualty losses may be subject to substantial deductibles and carveouts, and we will be self-insured up to the amount of the deductibles and carveouts. There are also some losses, including losses from floods, windstorms, fires, earthquakes, acts of war, acts of terrorism or riots, that may not always be insured against or that are not generally fully insured against because it is not deemed economically feasible or prudent to do so. In addition, changes in the cost or availability of insurance could expose us to uninsured casualty losses.

In the event that any of the properties we acquire incur a casualty loss that is not fully covered by insurance, the value of our assets will be reduced by the amount of any such uninsured loss, and we could experience a significant loss of capital invested and potential revenues in these properties and could potentially remain obligated under any recourse debt associated with the property. Inflation, changes in building codes and ordinances, environmental considerations and other factors might also keep us from using insurance proceeds to replace or renovate a property after it has been damaged or destroyed. Under those circumstances, the insurance proceeds we receive might be inadequate to restore our economic position on the damaged or destroyed property. Any such losses could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results, cash flows and ability to make distributions on our preferred and common shares. In addition, we may have no source of funding to repair or reconstruct the damaged property, and we cannot assure you that any such sources of funding will be available to us for such purposes in the future.

Contingent or unknown liabilities could adversely affect our financial condition, cash flows and operating results.

We may acquire properties that are subject to contingent or unknown liabilities for which we may have limited or no recourse against the sellers. Unknown or contingent liabilities might include liabilities for or with respect to liens attached to properties, unpaid real estate tax, utilities or HOA charges for which a subsequent owner remains liable, clean-up or remediation of environmental conditions or code violations, claims of customers, vendors or other persons dealing with the acquired entities and tax liabilities, among other things. Purchases of single-family properties acquired at auction, in short sales, from lenders or in bulk purchases typically involve few or no representations or warranties with respect to the properties. Such properties often have unpaid tax, utility and HOA liabilities for which we may be obligated but fail to anticipate. In each case, our acquisition may be without any, or with only limited, recourse against the sellers with respect to unknown liabilities or conditions. As a result, if any such liability were to arise relating to our properties, or if any adverse condition exists with respect to our properties that is in excess of our insurance coverage, we might have to pay substantial amounts to settle or cure it, which could adversely affect our financial condition, cash flows and operating results.

In addition, the properties we acquire may be subject to covenants, conditions or restrictions that restrict the use or ownership of such properties, including prohibitions on leasing or requirements to obtain the approval of HOAs prior to leasing. We may not discover such restrictions during the acquisition process, and such restrictions may adversely affect our ability to utilize such properties as we intend.

We are highly dependent on information systems and systems failures and delays could significantly disrupt our business, which may, in turn, negatively affect us and the value of our common stock.


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Our operations are dependent upon our resident portal and property management platforms, including Yardi, which include certain automated processes that require access to telecommunications or the Internet, each of which is subject to system security risks. Certain critical components of our platform are dependent upon third-party service providers and a significant portion of our business operations are conducted over the Internet. As a result, we could be severely impacted by a catastrophic occurrence, such as a natural disaster or a terrorist attack, or a circumstance that disrupted access to telecommunications, the Internet of operations at our third-party service providers, including viruses or hackers that could penetrate network security defenses and cause system failures and disruptions of operations. Even though we believe we utilize appropriate duplication and back-up procedures, a significant outage in telecommunications, the Internet or at our third-party service providers could negatively impact our operations.

In addition, if we acquire a bulk portfolio or merge with another single-family rental home company, we must quickly integrate information systems and property management platforms. These systems we seek to integrate may be different platforms, may have inaccurate data or otherwise be difficult to integrate. Delays in ensuring the accuracy of the data or in integrating the systems may negatively affect our operations.

Conversions of financial and property management systems involve risks that may result in business disruption.

We rely on financial and property management software systems. Following portfolio acquisitions, we typically must convert the systems and information used for the acquired properties to our system, which may result in delays and disruption to our business operations due to data input errors, system incompatibilities and delays in obtaining and processing information. In addition, we may decide in the future to implement or transition to new financial and property management software systems to facilitate our operations. While most system conversions result in temporary inefficiencies during the period of transition, in the event we experience an extended or pervasive interruption of operations, our business could be adversely affected.

Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information systems and expose us to liability, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.

Information security risks have generally increased in recent years due to the rise in new technologies and the increased sophistication and activities of perpetrators of cyber attacks. In the ordinary course of our business we acquire and store sensitive data, including intellectual property, our proprietary business information and personally identifiable information of our prospective and current tenants, our employees and third-party service providers in our branch offices and on our networks and website. The secure processing and maintenance of this information is critical to our operations and business strategy. Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, regulatory penalties, disruption to our operations and the services we provide to customers or damage our reputation, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations and competitive position.

A significant number of our properties are part of HOAs, and we and our tenants are subject to the rules and regulations of such HOAs, which may be arbitrary or restrictive, and violations of such rules may subject us to additional fees and penalties and litigation with such HOAs that would be costly.

A significant number of our properties are part of HOAs, which are private entities that regulate the activities of, and levy assessments on properties in, a residential subdivision. HOAs in which we own properties may have or enact onerous or arbitrary rules that restrict our ability to renovate, market or lease our properties or require us to renovate or maintain such properties at standards or costs that are in excess of our planned operating budgets. Such rules may include requirements for landscaping, limitations on signage promoting a property for lease or sale, or the use of specific construction materials in renovations. The number of HOAs that impose limits on the number of property owners who may rent their homes is increasing. Such restrictions limit acquisition opportunities and could cause us to incur additional costs to resell the property and opportunity costs of lost rental income. Furthermore, many HOAs impose restrictions on the conduct of occupants of homes and the use of common areas and we may have tenants who violate HOA rules and for which we may be liable as the property owner and for which we may not be able to obtain reimbursement from the resident. Additionally, the boards of directors of the HOAs in which we own properties may not make important disclosures about the properties or may block our access to HOA records, initiate litigation, restrict our ability to sell our properties, impose assessments or arbitrarily change the HOA rules. We may be unaware of or unable to review or comply with HOA rules before purchasing the property and any such excessively restrictive or arbitrary regulations may cause us to sell such property at a loss, prevent us from renting such property or otherwise reduce our cash flow from such property, which would have an adverse effect on our returns on these properties.


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Joint venture investments that we make may limit our ability to invest in certain markets and could be adversely affected by our lack of sole decision-making authority, our reliance on joint venture partners' financial condition and disputes between us and our joint venture partners.

We have co-invested, and may continue to co-invest in the future, with third parties through partnerships, joint ventures or other entities, acquiring non-controlling interests in or sharing responsibility for managing the affairs of a property, partnership, joint venture or other entity. As a result, we may be subject to restrictions that prohibit us from making investments in certain markets until all of the funds in such partnership, joint venture or other entity are invested or committed, and we would not be in a position to exercise sole decision-making authority regarding the property, partnership, joint venture or other entity which could, among other things, impact our ability to satisfy the REIT requirements. Investments in partnerships, joint ventures or other entities may, under certain circumstances, involve risks not present were a third party not involved, including the possibility that joint venture partners might become bankrupt or fail to fund their share of required capital contributions. Joint venture partners may have economic or other business interests or goals that are inconsistent with our business interests or goals, and may be in a position to take actions contrary to our policies or objectives. Such investments also may have the potential risk of impasses on decisions, such as a sale, because neither we nor our partners would have full control over the partnership or joint venture. Disputes between us and our partners may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase our expenses and prevent our officers and/or trustees from focusing their time and effort on our business. Consequently, actions by, or disputes with, our partners might result in subjecting properties owned by the partnership or joint venture to additional risk. In addition, we may in certain circumstances be liable for the actions of our third-party partners or co-venturers.

We are involved in a variety of litigation.

We are involved in a range of legal actions in the ordinary course of business. These actions may include, among others, eviction proceedings and other landlord-tenant disputes, challenges to title and ownership rights (including actions brought by prior owners alleging wrongful foreclosure by their lender or servicer), disputes arising over potential violations of HOA rules and regulations and issues with local housing officials arising from the condition or maintenance of the property and outside vendor disputes. These actions can be time consuming and expensive and may adversely affect our reputation. For example, eviction proceedings by owners and operators of single-family homes for lease have recently been the focus of negative media attention. While we intend to vigorously defend any non-meritorious action or challenge, we cannot assure you that we will not be subject to expenses and losses that may adversely affect our operating results.

We may be adversely affected by lawsuits alleging trademark infringement as such lawsuits could materially harm our brand name, reputation and results of operations.

Several other companies in the United States, including companies in the real estate industry, may use words, phrases or logos similar to those we develop as part of our brand. As a result, we may face potential claims that the use of our brand infringes on their existing trademarks. The defense of any trademark infringement claim can be both costly and disruptive of the time and resources of our management, even if the claim against us is without merit. If we are unable to successfully defend against such a claim, we may be required to pay substantial damages or settlement costs to resolve the claim. In addition, we may be required to re-brand or incur substantial marketing costs to revise our brand to avoid future disputes. Any such trademark infringement claims and potential remedial measures could materially harm our brand name, reputation and results of operations.

Our board of trustees has approved a very broad investment policy, subject to management oversight, and does not review or approve each acquisition decision made by the Company.

We are authorized to follow a very broad investment policy established by our board of trustees and subject to oversight by our management. Our board of trustees periodically reviews and updates the investment policy and also reviews our portfolio of residential real estate, but it does not review or approve the Company's specific property acquisitions. In addition, in conducting periodic reviews, our board of trustees may rely primarily on information provided to them by the Company and our management. Furthermore, acquisitions may be costly, difficult or impossible to unwind by the time they are reviewed by our board of trustees. The Company has great latitude within the broad parameters of the investment policy set by our board of trustees in determining our acquisition strategies, which could result in net returns that are substantially below expectations or that result in material losses, which would adversely affect our business and operating results.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of integrated internal controls, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results.

In connection with operating as a public company, we are required to provide reliable financial statements and reports to our shareholders. To monitor the accuracy and reliability of our financial reporting, we have established an internal audit function that

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oversees our internal controls. In addition, we have developed policies and procedures with respect to company-wide business processes and cycles in order to implement effective internal control over financial reporting. While we have undertaken substantial work to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we cannot be certain that we will continue to be successful in maintaining effective internal control over our financial reporting and may determine in the future that our existing internal controls need improvement. If we fail to comply with proper overall controls, we could be materially harmed or we could fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, the existence of a material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal controls could result in errors in our financial statements that could require a restatement, cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations, result in increased costs to remediate any deficiencies, attract regulatory scrutiny or lawsuits and cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, leading to a substantial decline in the market price of our preferred and common shares.

Future debt service obligations could adversely affect our operating results, may require us to sell properties and could adversely affect our ability to make distributions on our preferred and common shares.

Our financing strategy contemplates the use of secured and unsecured debt to finance long-term growth. While we intend to limit the sum of the outstanding principal amount of our consolidated indebtedness to up to 50% of our total assets, our governing documents contain no limitations on the amount of debt that we may incur, and our board of trustees may change our financing strategy at any time without shareholder approval. As a result, we may be able to incur substantial additional debt in the future.

Incurring debt could subject us to many risks, including the risks that:

our cash flows from operations will be insufficient to make required payments of principal and interest;

our debt may increase our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;

we may be required to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to payments on our debt, thereby reducing cash available for distribution to our shareholders, funds available for operations and capital expenditures, future business opportunities or other purposes;

we violate restrictive covenants in the documents that govern our indebtedness, which would entitle our lenders to accelerate our debt obligations;

refinancing of the debt may not be available on favorable terms or at all; and

the use of leverage could adversely affect our ability to make distributions to our shareholders and the market price of our preferred and common shares.

If we incur debt in the future and do not have sufficient funds to repay our debt at maturity, it may be necessary to refinance the debt through additional debt or equity financings. If, at the time of any refinancing, prevailing interest rates or other factors result in higher interest rates on refinancings, increases in interest expense could adversely affect our operating results and cash flows and, consequently, cash available for distribution to our shareholders. If we are unable to refinance our debt on acceptable terms, we may be forced to dispose of substantial numbers of properties on disadvantageous terms, potentially resulting in losses. To the extent we cannot meet any future debt service obligations, we will risk losing some or all of our properties that may be pledged to secure our obligations to foreclosure. Any unsecured debt agreements we enter into may contain specific cross-default provisions with respect to specified other indebtedness, giving the unsecured lenders the right to declare a default if we are in default under other loans in some circumstances. Defaults under our debt agreements could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our revolving credit and term loan facilities, securitizations, and secured note payable contain financial and operating covenants that could restrict our business and investment activities. Failure to satisfy these covenants could result in a default under our revolving credit and term loan facilities that could accelerate the maturity of our debt obligations or, with respect to our securitizations and secured note payable, also require that all cash flow generated from operations service only the indebtedness and the possible foreclosure of the properties securing the indebtedness, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, liquidity, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to make distributions on our preferred and common shares.

Our revolving credit and term loan facilities, securitizations and secured note payable contain financial and operating covenants, such as, with respect to our revolving credit and term loan facilities, debt ratios, minimum liquidity, occupancy rates, unencumbered asset value and adjusted tangible net worth tests and, with respect to our securitizations, a minimum debt yield on the portfolio securing the obligations for our floating-rate securitization and a minimum debt service coverage ratio for our fixed-rate

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securitizations and secured note payable, and other limitations that may restrict our ability to make distributions or other payments to our shareholders and may restrict our investment activities. Among others, our revolving credit and term loan facilities requires that we maintain financial covenants relating to the following matters: (i) a minimum tangible net worth of $4.1 billion plus 85% of net proceeds of all equity issuances effected at any time after June 30, 2016, (ii) total indebtedness to total asset value to not exceed 0.60 to 1.00 at any time, (iii) adjusted EBITDA for the period of four consecutive fiscal quarters most recently ended to fixed charges for such period to be no less than 1.75 to 1.00 as of the last day of such period, (iv) secured indebtedness to total asset value to not exceed 0.50 to 1.00 at any time, (v) unsecured indebtedness to unencumbered asset value to not exceed 0.50 to 1.00 at any time, (vi) unencumbered net operating income ("NOI") for the period of four consecutive fiscal quarters most recently ended to unsecured interest expense for such period, to be no less than 2.00 to 1.00 as of the last day of such period, (vii) recourse indebtedness to total asset value to not exceed 0.15 to 1.00, (viii) recourse indebtedness that is unsecured indebtedness having an initial term of five years or less to total asset value to not exceed 0.05 to 1.00, (ix) occupancy rate to be no less than 80.0% and (x) unencumbered asset value to be no less than $1.0 billion at any time.

Our securitizations require, among other things, that a cash management account controlled by the lender collect all rents and cash generated by the properties securing the portfolio. Upon the occurrence of an event of default or failure to satisfy the required minimum debt yield or debt service coverage ratio, the lender may apply any excess cash as the lender elects, including prepayment of principal and amounts due under the loans. These covenants may restrict our ability to engage in transactions that we believe would otherwise be in the best interests of our shareholders. Further, such restrictions could make it difficult for us to satisfy the requirements necessary to maintain our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Failure to meet our financial covenants could result from, among other things, changes in our results of operations, the incurrence of additional debt, substantial impairments in the value of our properties or changes in general economic conditions. If we violate covenants in our revolving credit and term loan facilities, securitizations, secured note payable or future agreements, we could be required to repay all or a portion of our indebtedness before maturity at a time when we might be unable to arrange financing for such repayment on attractive terms or at all.

Our revolving credit and term loan facilities permit us to incur significant indebtedness, which could require that we generate significant cash flow to satisfy the payment and other obligations under our revolving credit and term loan facilities.

We may incur significant indebtedness in connection with draws under our revolving credit and term loan facilities. This indebtedness may exceed our cash on hand and/or our cash flows from operating activities. Our ability to meet the payment and other obligations under our revolving credit and term loan facilities depends on our ability to generate sufficient cash flow in the future. Our ability to generate cash flow, to some extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative and regulatory factors, as well as other factors that are beyond our control. It is possible that our business will not generate cash flow from operations, or that future borrowings will be available to us, in amounts sufficient to enable us to meet our payment obligations under our revolving credit and term loan facilities. If we are not able to generate sufficient cash flow to service our revolving credit and term loan facilities and other debt obligations, as well as satisfy the REIT distribution requirement, we may need to refinance or restructure our debt, reduce or delay capital investments, or seek to raise additional capital. If we are unable to implement one or more of these alternatives, we may not be able to meet our payment obligations under our revolving credit and term loan facilities, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity.

We have and may continue to utilize non-recourse long-term asset-backed securitizations, and such structures may expose us to risks not prevalent in unsecured debt financings, which could result in losses to us.

We have and may continue to utilize non-recourse long-term asset-backed securitizations of pools of homes which we own, if and when they become available and to the extent consistent with the maintenance of our REIT qualification, in order to generate cash for funding new investments. As of December 31, 2016, the principal amount of such indebtedness was $2.5 billion. These securitizations involve conveying a pool of homes from the Company's portfolio to a special purpose vehicle that obtains a loan from a third-party lender represented by a promissory note. The promissory note is immediately transferred by the third-party lender to a subsidiary of the Company and then to a Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit ("REMIC") trust in exchange for classes of single-family rental pass-through certificates representing all the beneficial ownership interests in the loan and the trust. Upon receipt of the certificates, the subsidiary of the Company sells the certificates to investors. The securitization of our pools of homes in our portfolio investments can magnify our exposure to losses on those investments because any equity interest we retain in the issuing entity would be subordinate to the certificates issued to investors and we would, therefore, absorb all of the losses sustained with respect to a securitized pool of assets before the investors experience any losses. In addition, accounting rules for securitizations are complex and involve significant judgment and assumptions. These complexities and possible changes in accounting rules, interpretations or our assumptions could undermine our ability to prepare timely and accurate financial statements. Moreover, we cannot be assured that we will be able to access the securitization market, or be able to do so at favorable rates. The inability to consummate securitizations of our portfolio to finance our investments on a long-term basis could require us to seek other forms of potentially less attractive financing or to liquidate assets at an inopportune time or price, which could adversely affect our
performance and our ability to grow our business.

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Disruptions in the financial markets may materially and adversely affect our ability to secure additional financing.

The credit markets continue to experience significant price volatility, dislocations and liquidity disruptions, the concern of which has led many lenders and institutional investors to reduce, and in some cases cease, to provide credit to businesses and has caused spreads on prospective debt financings to widen considerably. Continued uncertainty in these markets may affect our ability to obtain additional debt financing at all or on terms favorable or acceptable to us. These events also may make it more difficult or costly for us to raise capital through the issuance of our equity securities. Our inability to secure additional financing may impede our ability to acquire new properties. Disruptions in the financial markets could have a material adverse effect on us, including our business, results of operations and our financial condition.

Interest expense on our debt may limit our cash available to fund our growth strategies and shareholder distributions.

Higher interest rates could increase debt service requirements on our floating rate debt and could reduce funds available for operations, distributions to our shareholders, future business opportunities or other purposes. If we need to repay existing debt during periods of rising interest rates, we could be required to liquidate one or more of our investments in properties at times which may not permit realization of the maximum return on such investments and could result in significant losses.

Failure to hedge effectively against interest rate changes may adversely affect our results of operations and our ability to make shareholder distributions.

Subject to complying with the requirements for REIT qualification, we may continue to obtain in the future one or more forms of interest rate protection in the form of swap agreements, interest rate cap contracts or other similar agreements to hedge against the possible negative effects of interest rate fluctuations. However, we cannot assure you that any hedging will adequately relieve the adverse effects of interest rate increases or that counterparties under these agreements will honor their obligations thereunder. In addition, we may be subject to risks of default by hedging counterparties. Adverse economic conditions could also cause the terms on which we borrow to be unfavorable. We could be required to liquidate one or more of our investments at times which may not permit us to receive an attractive return on our investments in order to meet our debt service obligations.

Risks Related to the Real Estate Industry

Our performance and the value of our properties are subject to general economic conditions and risks associated with our real estate assets.

If the properties we acquire do not generate income sufficient to meet operating expenses, including debt service and capital expenditures, our ability to make distributions to our shareholders could be adversely affected. There are significant expenditures associated with an investment in real estate (such as debt service, real estate taxes, insurance and maintenance costs) that generally do not decline when circumstances reduce the income from the property. Income from and the value of the properties we acquire may be adversely affected by the following factors:

downturns in international, national, regional and local economic conditions (particularly increases in unemployment), including recent and ongoing disruptions in the oil and gas industry, which have impacted certain markets in which our properties are located;

the attractiveness of the properties we acquire to potential tenants and competition from other properties;

increases in the supply of, or decreases in the demand for, similar or competing properties in our target markets;

unemployment, bankruptcies, financial difficulties or lease defaults by our tenants;

declines in the value of residential real estate;

changes in interest rates, availability and terms of debt financing;

increases in property-level maintenance and operating costs and expenses and our ability to control rents;

changes in, or increased costs of compliance with, governmental laws, rules, regulations and fiscal policies, including changes in tax, real estate, environmental and zoning laws, and our potential liability thereunder and the rules and

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regulations of government or private parties, including HOAs, to discourage or deter the purchase or rental of single-family properties by entities owned or controlled by institutional investors;

our ability to provide adequate management and maintenance;

changes in the cost or availability of insurance, including coverage for mold or asbestos;

costs resulting from the clean-up of and liability to third parties for damages resulting from environmental problems, such as mold;

tenant turnover and the inability to lease or re-lease homes on a timely basis, attractive terms or at all;;

costs and time period required to convert acquisitions to rental homes and to prepare homes for re-leasing;

the short-term nature of most residential leases and the costs and potential delays in re-leasing;

the failure of tenants to pay rent when due or otherwise perform their lease obligations;

unanticipated repairs, capital expenditures or other costs;

the illiquidity of real estate investments generally;

the geographic mix of our properties;

residents' perceptions of the safety, convenience and attractiveness of our properties and the neighborhoods where they are acquired;

the ongoing need for capital improvements, particularly in older properties;

the ability or unwillingness of residents to pay rent increases;

civil unrest, acts of God, including earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters, which may result in uninsured losses, and acts of war or terrorism; and

rent control or rent stabilization or other housing laws, which could prevent us from raising rents.

For these and other reasons, we cannot assure you that we will be profitable or that we will realize growth in the value of our real estate properties.

Environmentally hazardous conditions may adversely affect our financial condition, cash flows and operating results.

Under various federal, state and local environmental laws, a current or previous owner or operator of real property may be liable for the cost of removing or remediating hazardous or toxic substances on such property. Such laws often impose liability whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. Even if more than one person may have been responsible for the contamination, each person covered by applicable environmental laws may be held responsible for all of the clean-up costs incurred. In addition, third parties may sue the owner or operator of a site for damages based on personal injury, natural resources or property damage or other costs, including investigation and clean-up costs, resulting from the environmental contamination. The presence of hazardous or toxic substances on one of our properties, or the failure to properly remediate a contaminated property, could give rise to a lien in favor of the government for costs it may incur to address the contamination, or otherwise adversely affect our ability to sell or lease the property or borrow using the property as collateral. Environmental laws also may impose restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated. A property owner who violates environmental laws may be subject to sanctions which may be enforced by governmental agencies or, in certain circumstances, private parties. In connection with the acquisition and ownership of our properties, we may be exposed to such costs. The cost of defending against environmental claims, of compliance with environmental regulatory requirements or of remediating any contaminated property could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and, consequently, amounts available for distribution to our shareholders.

Compliance with new or more stringent environmental laws or regulations or stricter interpretation of existing laws may require material expenditures by us. We may be subject to environmental laws or regulations relating to our properties, such as those

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concerning lead-based paint, mold, asbestos, proximity to power lines or other issues. We cannot assure you that future laws, ordinances or regulations will not impose any material environmental liability, or that the current environmental condition of our properties will not be affected by the operations of residents, existing conditions of the land, operations in the vicinity of the properties or the activities of unrelated third parties. In addition, we may be required to comply with various local, state and federal fire, health, life-safety and similar regulations. Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could result in fines and/or damages, suspension of personnel, civil liability and/or other sanctions.

Tenant relief laws, including laws regulating evictions, rent control laws and other regulations that limit our ability to increase rental rates may negatively impact our rental income and profitability.

As landlord of numerous properties, we are involved regularly in evicting tenants who are not paying their rent or are otherwise in material violation of the terms of their lease. Eviction activities impose legal and managerial expenses that raise our costs. The eviction process is typically subject to legal barriers, mandatory "cure" policies and other sources of expense and delay, each of which may delay our ability to gain possession and stabilize the property. Additionally, state and local landlord-tenant laws may impose legal duties to assist tenants in relocating to new housing, or restrict the landlord's ability to recover certain costs or charge tenants for damage tenants cause to the landlord's premises. Because such laws vary by state and locality, we and any regional and local property managers we hire will need to be familiar with and take all appropriate steps to comply with all applicable landlord tenant laws, and we will need to incur supervisory and legal expenses to ensure such compliance. To the extent that we do not comply with state or local laws, we may be subjected to civil litigation filed by individuals, in class actions or by state or local law enforcement. We may be required to pay our adversaries' litigation fees and expenses if judgment is entered against us in such litigation, or if we settle such litigation.

Furthermore, rent control laws or other regulations that may limit our ability to increase rental rates may affect our rental income. Especially in times of recession and economic slowdown, rent control initiatives can acquire significant political support. If rent controls unexpectedly became applicable to certain of our properties, our revenue from and the value of such properties could be adversely affected.

Class action, tenant rights and consumer demands, litigation and adverse media publicity could directly limit and constrain our operations and may result in significant litigation expenses.

Numerous tenants' rights and consumers' rights organizations exist throughout the country and operate in our target markets, and as we grow in scale, we may attract attention from some of these organizations and become a target of legal demands, litigation and adverse media publicity. Many of such consumer organizations have become more active and better funded in connection with mortgage foreclosure-related issues, and with the large settlements identified below in the risk factor entitled "Mortgage loan modification programs and future legislative action may adversely affect the number of available properties that meet our investment criteria" and the increased market for single-family rentals arising from displaced homeownership, some of these organizations may shift their litigation, lobbying, media efforts, fundraising and grass roots organizing activities to focus on landlord-tenant issues. While we intend to conduct our business lawfully and in compliance with applicable landlord-tenant and consumer laws, such organizations might work in conjunction with trial and pro bono lawyers in one state or multiple states to attempt to bring claims against us on a class action basis for damages or injunctive relief and to seek to publicize our activities in a negative light. We cannot anticipate what form such legal actions might take, or what remedies they may seek.

Additionally, these organizations may lobby local county and municipal attorneys or state attorneys general to pursue enforcement or litigation against us, may lobby state and local legislatures to pass new laws and regulations to constrain our business operations or may generate unfavorable publicity for our business. If they are successful in any such endeavors, they could directly limit and constrain our operations, adversely impact our business and may impose on us significant litigation expenses, including settlements to avoid continued litigation or judgments for damages or injunctions.

Acquiring properties during periods when the single-family home sector is experiencing substantial inflows of capital and intense competition may result in inflated purchase prices and increase the likelihood that our properties will not appreciate in value and may, instead, decrease in value.

The allocation of substantial amounts of capital for investment in the single-family home sector and significant competition for income producing real estate may inflate the purchase prices for such assets. To the extent we purchased, or in the future purchase, real estate in such an environment, it is possible that the value of our properties may not appreciate and may, instead, decrease in value, perhaps significantly, below the amount we paid for such properties. In addition to macroeconomic and local economic factors, technical factors, such as a decrease in the amount of capital allocated to the single-family home sector and the number of investors participating in the sector, could cause the value of our properties to decline.


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Mortgage loan modification programs and future legislative action may adversely affect the number of available properties that meet our investment criteria.

The U.S. government, through the Federal Reserve, the FHA and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC"), has implemented a number of programs designed to provide homeowners with assistance in avoiding residential mortgage loan foreclosures, including the Home Affordable Modification Program, which seeks to provide relief to homeowners whose mortgages are in or may be subject to foreclosure, and the Home Affordable Refinance Program, which allows certain borrowers who are underwater on their mortgage but current on their mortgage payments to refinance their loans. Several states, including states in which our current target markets are located, have adopted or are considering similar legislation. These programs and other loss mitigation programs may involve, among other things, modifying or refinancing mortgage loans or providing homeowners with additional relief from loan foreclosures. Such loan modifications and other measures are intended and designed to lead to fewer foreclosures, which will decrease the supply of properties that meet our investment criteria.

The pace of residential foreclosures is subject to numerous factors. Recently, there has been a backlog of foreclosures due to a combination of volume constraints and legal actions, including those brought by the U.S. Department of Justice ("DOJ"), HUD and State Attorneys General, against mortgage servicers alleging wrongful foreclosure practices. Financial institutions also have been subjected to regulatory restrictions and limitations on foreclosure activity by the FDIC. Legal claims brought or threatened by DOJ, HUD and 49 State Attorneys General against the five largest residential mortgage servicers in the country were settled in 2012 for $25 billion. In 2013, the DOJ announced the settlement of a legal claim relating to mortgage backed securities with J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. for $13 billion. Settlements such as these help homeowners avoid foreclosure through mortgage modifications, and servicers are often required to adopt specified measures to reduce mortgage obligations in certain situations. It is expected that settlements such as these will help many homeowners to avoid foreclosures that would otherwise have occurred in the near term, and with lower monthly payments and mortgage debts, for years to come. It is also foreseeable that other residential mortgage servicing companies will agree to similar settlements that will further reduce the supply of houses in the process of foreclosure.

In addition, numerous federal and state legislatures have considered, proposed or adopted legislation to constrain foreclosures, or may do so in the future. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act also created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, which supervises and enforces federal consumer protection laws as they apply to banks, credit unions and other financial companies, including mortgage servicers. It remains uncertain as to whether any of these measures will have a significant impact on foreclosure volumes or what the timing of that impact would be. If foreclosure volumes were to decline significantly, we would expect REO inventory levels to decline or to grow at a slower pace, which would make it more difficult to find target assets at attractive prices and might constrain our growth or reduce our long-term profitability. Also, the number of families seeking rental housing might be reduced by such legislation, reducing rental housing demand in our target markets.

We may have difficulty selling our real estate investments, and our ability to distribute all or a portion of the net proceeds from such sale to our shareholders may be limited.

Real estate investments are relatively illiquid and, as a result, we may have a limited ability to sell our properties. When we sell any of our properties, we may recognize a loss on such sale. We may elect not to distribute any proceeds from the sale of properties to our shareholders. Instead, we may use such proceeds for other purposes, including:

purchasing additional properties;

repaying debt or buying back shares;

buying out interests of any co-venturers or other partners in any joint venture in which we are a party;

creating working capital reserves; or

making repairs, maintenance or other capital improvements or expenditures to our remaining properties.

Our ability to sell our properties may also be limited by our need to avoid the 100% prohibited transactions tax that is imposed on gain recognized by a REIT from the sale of property characterized as dealer property. In order to ensure that we avoid such characterization, we may be required to hold our properties for a minimum period of time and comply with certain other requirements in the Code or dispose of our properties through a TRS.


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Risks Related to Our Ownership, Organization and Structure

Our fiduciary duties as the general partner of our operating partnership could create conflicts of interest, which may impede business decisions that could benefit our shareholders.

As the sole general partner of our operating partnership, we have a fiduciary duty to the other limited partners in our operating partnership, the discharge of which may conflict with the interests of our shareholders. The limited partners of our operating partnership, have agreed that, in the event of a conflict in the fiduciary duties owed by us to our shareholders and in our capacity as the general partner of our operating partnership, to such limited partner, we are under no obligation to give priority to the interests of such limited partner.

In addition, the limited partners have the right to vote on certain amendments to our operating partnership agreement and to approve certain amendments that would adversely affect their rights. These voting rights may be exercised in a manner that conflicts with the interests of our shareholders.

Our senior management, trustees and their affiliates may have significant voting influence due to their stock ownership.

                Members of the Company’s senior management, trustees and their affiliates hold significant amounts of our Class A and Class B common shares and convertible units in our operating partnership. Each Class A common share is entitled to one vote. Each Class B common share is entitled to 50 votes and converts into Class A common shares on a one for one basis for every 49 partnership units converted. Generally, convertible units in our operating partnership are nonvoting. The Company's dual class structure was put in place when the Company was organized to provide voting rights to holders of units in the Company's operating partnership corresponding with their equity ownership. All members of the Company’s senior management, trustees and their affiliates hold Class A common shares and Class B common shares that represent approximately 21.7% of the current voting power of the Company as of December 31, 2016. Assuming the conversion of all of our partnership units held by these individuals and the corresponding conversion of all Class B common shares into Class A common shares, they would own approximately 27.6% of the voting power of the Company based on the Company’s outstanding common shares as of December 31, 2016. They have and are expected to continue to have the ability to significantly influence all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, including electing trustees, changing our charter documents and approving extraordinary transactions, such as mergers. Their interest in such matters may differ from other shareholders and may also make it more difficult for another party to acquire or control the Company with their votes.

Provisions of our declaration of trust may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of us by authorizing our board of trustees to issue additional securities.

Our board of trustees may, without shareholder approval, amend our declaration of trust to increase or decrease the aggregate number of our shares or the number of shares of any class or series that we have the authority to issue and to classify or reclassify any unissued common or preferred shares, and set the preferences, rights and other terms of the classified or reclassified shares. As a result, our board of trustees may authorize the issuance of additional shares or establish a series of common or preferred shares that may delay or prevent a change in control of our company, including transactions at a premium over the market price of our shares, even if our shareholders believe that a change in control is in their interest. These provisions, along with the restrictions on ownership and transfer contained in our declaration of trust and certain provisions of Maryland law, could discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or make it more difficult for a third party to gain control of us, which could adversely affect the market price of our securities.

Provisions of Maryland law may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of us by requiring our board of trustees or shareholders to approve proposals to acquire our company or effect a change in control.

Certain provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law ("the MGCL") applicable to Maryland real estate investment trusts may have the effect of inhibiting a third party from making a proposal to acquire us or of impeding a change in control under circumstances that otherwise could provide our shareholders with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then-prevailing market price of their shares, including:

"business combination" provisions that, subject to limitations, prohibit certain business combinations between us and an "interested shareholder" (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of our outstanding voting shares or an affiliate or associate of ours who, at any time within the two-year period immediately prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of our then outstanding shares) or an affiliate of any interested shareholder for five years after the most recent date on which the shareholder becomes an interested shareholder, and thereafter imposes two super-majority shareholder voting requirements on these combinations, unless, among other conditions, our common shareholders receive a minimum price, as defined in the MGCL, for their

23


shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested shareholder for its shares; and

"control share" provisions that provide that our "control shares" (defined as voting shares that, when aggregated with all other shares controlled by the shareholder, entitle the shareholder to exercise one of three increasing ranges of voting power in electing trustees) acquired in a "control share acquisition" (defined as the direct or indirect acquisition of ownership or control of issued and outstanding "control shares") have no voting rights except to the extent approved by our shareholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares owned by the acquirer, by our officers or by our employees who are also trustees of our company.

By resolution of our board of trustees, we have opted out of the business combination provisions of the MGCL and provided that any business combination between us and any other person is exempt from the business combination provisions of the MGCL, provided that the business combination is first approved by our board of trustees (including a majority of trustees who are not affiliates or associates of such persons). In addition, pursuant to a provision in our bylaws, we have opted out of the control share provisions of the MGCL. However, our board of trustees may by resolution elect to opt in to the business combination provisions of the MGCL and we may, by amending our bylaws, opt in to the control share provisions of the MGCL in the future.
    
In addition, the "unsolicited takeover" provisions of Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL permit the board of trustees of a Maryland REIT, without shareholder approval and regardless of what is currently provided in its declaration of trust or bylaws, to implement certain takeover defenses, including adopting a classified board or increasing the vote required to remove a trustee. Such takeover defenses may have the effect of inhibiting a third party from making an acquisition proposal for us or of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us under the circumstances that otherwise could provide our common shareholders with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then-current market price. In July 2013, our board of trustees and our shareholders approved an amendment to our declaration of trust under which we elected not to be subject to these provisions. Therefore, any revocation or modification of this opt-out would require an amendment to our declaration of trust that is first recommended by our board of trustees and then approved by a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of trustees.

Our rights and the rights of our shareholders to take action against our trustees and officers are limited, which could limit your recourse in the event of actions not in your best interests.

Under Maryland law, generally, a trustee will not be liable if he or she performs his or her duties in good faith, in a manner he or she reasonably believes to be in our best interests and with the care that an ordinarily prudent person in a like position would use under similar circumstances. In addition, our declaration of trust limits the liability of our trustees and officers to us and our shareholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from:

actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or

active and deliberate dishonesty by the trustee or officer that was established by a final judgment as being material to the cause of action adjudicated.

Our declaration of trust authorizes us to indemnify our trustees and officers for actions taken by them in those capacities to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law. Our bylaws require us to indemnify each trustee and officer, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of his or her service to us. In addition, we may be obligated to advance the defense costs incurred by our trustees and officers. As a result, we and our shareholders may have more limited rights against our trustees and officers than might otherwise exist absent the current provisions in our declaration of trust and bylaws or that might exist with other companies.

Our board of trustees may change our strategy or investment policies, financing strategy or leverage policies without shareholder consent.

Our board of trustees may change any of our strategies, policies or procedures with respect to property acquisitions and divestitures, asset allocation, growth, operations, indebtedness, investments, lines of business, financing and distributions at any time without the consent of shareholders, which could result in the acquisition of properties or investment in business activities that are different from, and possibly riskier than, the types of single-family residential real estate investments that we have historically acquired. These changes could adversely affect our financial condition, risk profile, results of operations, the market price of our common and preferred shares and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.

Risks Related to Qualification and Operation as a REIT


24


Qualifying as a REIT involves highly technical and complex provisions of the Code.

Qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which only limited judicial and administrative authorities exist. Even a technical or inadvertent violation could jeopardize our REIT qualification. Our qualification as a REIT depends upon our satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, shareholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis. New legislation, court decisions or administrative guidance, in each case possibly with retroactive effect, may make it more difficult or impossible for us to qualify as a REIT. Certain rules applicable to REITs are particularly difficult to interpret or to apply in the case of REITs investing in real estate mortgage loans that are acquired at a discount, subject to work-outs or modifications, or reasonably expected to be in default at the time of acquisition. In addition, our ability to satisfy the requirements to qualify as a REIT depends in part on the actions of third parties over which we have no control or only limited influence, including in cases where we own an equity interest in an entity that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Complying with REIT requirements may limit our ability to hedge effectively and may cause us to incur tax liabilities.

The REIT provisions of the Code may limit our ability to hedge our assets and operations. Under these provisions, any income that we generate from transactions intended to hedge our interest rate risk will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the REIT 75% and 95% gross income tests if the instrument hedges interest rate risk on liabilities used to carry or acquire real estate assets (each such hedge, a "Borrowings Hedge") or manages the risk of certain currency fluctuations (each such hedge, a "Currency Hedge"), and such instrument is properly identified under applicable Treasury Regulations. Income from hedging transactions that do not meet these requirements will generally constitute non-qualifying income for purposes of both the REIT 75% and 95% gross income tests. Effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, this exclusion from the 75% and 95% gross income tests also will apply if we previously entered into a Borrowings Hedge or a Currency Hedge, a portion of the hedged indebtedness or if a property is disposed of, and in connection with such extinguishment or disposition we enter into a new properly identified hedging transaction to offset the prior hedging position. As a result of these rules, we may have to limit our use of hedging techniques that might otherwise be advantageous or implement those hedges through a TRS. This could increase the cost of our hedging activities because our TRS would be subject to tax on gains or expose us to greater risks associated with changes in interest rates than we would otherwise want to bear. In addition, losses in our TRS will generally not provide any tax benefit, except for being carried back or forward against past or future taxable income in the TRS.

Complying with the REIT requirements may cause us to forgo and/or liquidate otherwise attractive investments.

To qualify as a REIT, we must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the sources of our income, the nature and diversification of our assets, the amounts that we distribute to our shareholders and the ownership of our shares. To meet these tests, we may be required to take or forgo taking actions that we would otherwise consider advantageous. For instance, in order to satisfy the gross income or asset tests applicable to REITs under the Code, we may be required to forgo investments that we otherwise would make. Furthermore, we may be required to liquidate from our portfolio otherwise attractive investments. In addition, we may be required to make distributions to our shareholders at disadvantageous times or when we do not have funds readily available for distribution. These actions could reduce our income and amounts available for distribution to our shareholders. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our investment performance.

Failure to qualify as a REIT, or failure to remain qualified as a REIT, would cause us to be taxed as a regular corporation, which would substantially reduce funds available for distribution to our shareholders.

We believe that we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT and that our current organization and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to qualify as a REIT. However, we have not requested and do not intend to request a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (the "IRS") that we qualify as a REIT. As a result, we cannot assure you that we qualify or that we will remain qualified as a REIT.

If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, and we do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, we will face serious tax consequences that will substantially reduce the funds available for distributions to our shareholders because:

we would not be allowed a deduction for dividends paid to our shareholders in computing our taxable income and would be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates;

we could be subject to the federal alternative minimum tax and possibly increased state and local taxes; and

unless we are entitled to relief under certain U.S. federal income tax laws, we could not re-elect REIT status until the fifth calendar year after the year in which we failed to qualify as a REIT.

25



In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will no longer be required to make distributions to our shareholders and may choose to deploy available cash in a different manner. As a result of all these factors, our failure to qualify as a REIT could impair our ability to expand our business and raise capital, and it could adversely affect the value of our preferred and common shares.

Even if we qualify as a REIT, we may face other tax liabilities that reduce our cash flow.

Even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we may be subject to certain U.S. federal, state and local taxes on our income and assets, including taxes on any undistributed income, tax on income from some activities conducted as a result of a foreclosure, and state or local income, property and transfer taxes. In addition, we could, in certain circumstances, be required to pay an excise or penalty tax (which could be significant in amount) in order to utilize one or more relief provisions under the Code to maintain our qualification as a REIT. Any of these taxes would decrease cash available for distribution to our shareholders. In addition, in order to meet the REIT qualification requirements, or to avert the imposition of a 100% tax that applies to certain gains derived by a REIT from dealer property or inventory, we hold some of our assets through a TRS or other subsidiary corporations that are subject to corporate-level income tax at regular rates. Our TRS may have tax liability with respect to "phantom income" if it is treated as a "dealer" for U.S. federal income tax purposes which would require the TRS to mark to market its assets at the end of each taxable year. In addition, our TRS is subject to federal, state and local corporate taxes. Any of these taxes would decrease cash available for distribution to our shareholders.

Failure to make required distributions would subject us to U.S. federal corporate income tax.

In order to qualify as a REIT, we generally are required to distribute at least 90% of our "REIT taxable income," determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding any net capital gain, each year to our shareholders. To the extent that we satisfy this distribution requirement, but distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, we will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our undistributed net taxable income. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if the actual amount that we distribute to our shareholders in a calendar year is less than a minimum amount specified under the Code.

Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends, which could adversely affect the value of our shares if they are perceived as less attractive investments.

The maximum rate applicable to "qualified dividend income" paid by regular "C" corporations to U.S. shareholders that are individuals, trusts and estates generally is 20%. Dividends payable by REITs, however, generally are not eligible for the current reduced rate, except to the extent that certain holding requirements have been met and a REIT's dividends are attributable to dividends received by a REIT from taxable corporations (such as a TRS), to income that was subject to tax at the REIT/corporate level, or to dividends properly designated by the REIT as "capital gains dividends." Although the reduced rates applicable to dividend income from regular "C" corporations do not adversely affect the taxation of REITs or dividends payable by REITs, it could cause investors who are non-corporate taxpayers to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the shares of regular "C" corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of our preferred and common shares.

The prohibited transactions tax may limit our ability to engage in sale transactions.

A REIT's income from "prohibited transactions" is subject to a 100% tax. In general, "prohibited transactions" are sales or other dispositions of property other than foreclosure property, held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. We may be subject to the prohibited transactions tax equal to 100% of net gain upon a disposition of real property or debt instruments that we hold. Although a safe harbor is available, for which certain sales of property by a REIT are not subject to the 100% prohibited transaction tax, we cannot assure you that we can comply with the safe harbor or that we will avoid owning property that may be characterized as held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. Consequently, we may choose not to engage in certain sales of our properties or debt instruments or we may conduct such sales through our TRS, which would be subject to U.S. federal and state income taxation. In addition, we may have to sell numerous properties to a single or a few purchasers, which could cause us to be less profitable than would be the case if we sold properties on a property-by-property basis. For example, if we decide to acquire properties or debt instruments opportunistically to renovate in anticipation of immediate resale, we will need to conduct that activity through our TRS to avoid the 100% prohibited transactions tax.

The 100% tax described above may limit our ability to enter into transactions that would otherwise be beneficial to us. For example, if circumstances make it not profitable or otherwise uneconomical for us to remain in certain states or geographical markets, the 100% tax could delay our ability to exit those states or markets by selling our assets in those states or markets other than through a TRS, which could harm our operating profits and the trading price of our shares. In addition, in order to avoid the prohibited transactions tax, we may be required to limit the structures we utilize for our securitization transactions, even though the sales or structures might otherwise be beneficial to us.

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If our operating partnership fails to qualify as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we could fail to qualify as a REIT and suffer other adverse consequences.

As a partnership, our operating partnership is not subject to U.S. federal income tax on its income. Instead, each of the partners is allocated its share of our operating partnership's income. No assurance can be provided, however, that the IRS will not challenge our operating partnership's status as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. If the IRS was successful in treating our operating partnership as an association or publicly traded partnership taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we would fail to meet the gross income tests and certain of the asset tests applicable to REITs and, accordingly, would cease to qualify as a REIT. Also, the failure of our operating partnership to qualify as a partnership would cause it to become subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax, which would reduce significantly the amount of its cash available for distribution to its partners, including us.

The ability of our board of trustees to revoke our REIT qualification without shareholder approval may cause adverse consequences to our shareholders.

Our declaration of trust provides that our board of trustees may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without shareholder approval, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interest to continue to qualify as a REIT. If we cease to qualify as a REIT, we would become subject to U.S. federal income tax on our net taxable income and would no longer be required to distribute most of our taxable income to our shareholders, which may have adverse consequences on our total return to our shareholders.

Our ownership of our TRSs is subject to limitations and our transactions with our TRSs will cause us to be subject to a 100% penalty tax on certain income or deductions if those transactions are not conducted on arm's-length terms.

The Code provides that no more than 25% (20% for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017) of the value of a REIT's assets may consist of shares or securities of one or more TRSs. Our TRSs earn income that otherwise would be nonqualifying income if earned by us. Our TRSs also hold certain properties the sale of which may not qualify for the safe harbor for prohibited transactions described above. The limitation on ownership of TRS stock could limit the extent to which we can conduct these activities and other activities through TRSs. In addition, the Code limits the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a TRS to its parent REIT to assure that the TRS is subject to an appropriate level of corporate taxation. The Code also imposes a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm's-length basis. There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the TRS limitation or avoid application of the 100% excise tax.

You may be restricted from acquiring or transferring certain amounts of our shares.

The share ownership restrictions of the Code for REITs, the 8.0% common share ownership limit that applies to all shareholders, other than the Hughes family, which is subject to the "excepted holder limit" (as defined in the declaration of trust), and "designated investment entities" (as defined in the declaration of trust), which are subject to a 9.9% common share ownership limit, and the 9.9% preferred share ownership limit, all as provided in our declaration of trust may inhibit market activity in our equity shares and restrict our business combination opportunities.

In order to qualify as a REIT, for each taxable year beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 2013, five or fewer individuals, as defined in the Code, may not own, beneficially or constructively, more than 50% in value of our issued and outstanding equity shares at any time during the last half of a taxable year. Attribution rules in the Code determine if any individual or entity beneficially or constructively owns our equity shares under this requirement. Additionally, at least 100 persons must beneficially own our equity shares during at least 335 days of a taxable year for each taxable year after 2012. To help insure that we meet these tests, our declaration of trust restricts the acquisition and ownership of our equity shares.

Our declaration of trust, with certain exceptions, authorizes our board of trustees to take such actions as are necessary and desirable to preserve our qualification as a REIT. Unless exempted by our board of trustees, our declaration of trust prohibits any person, other than the Hughes family, which is subject to the "excepted holder limit" (as defined in the declaration of trust), and "designated investment entities" (as defined in the declaration of trust), from beneficially or constructively owning more than 8.0% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding common shares and more than 9.9% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of any class or series of our preferred shares. Our board of trustees may not grant an exemption from these restrictions to any proposed transferee whose ownership in excess of the applicable ownership limit would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT. These restrictions on ownership and transfer will not apply, however, if our board of trustees determines that it is no longer in our best interest to continue to qualify as a REIT.


27


We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes that could reduce the market price of our outstanding common or preferred shares.

At any time, the U.S. federal income tax laws governing REITs or the administrative interpretations of those laws may be amended, possibly with retroactive effect. We cannot predict when or if any new U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, or any amendment to any existing U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, will be adopted, promulgated or become effective and whether any such law, regulation, or interpretation may take effect retroactively. Legislative and regulatory changes, including comprehensive tax reform, may be more likely in the 115th Congress, which convened in January 2017, because the Presidency and both Houses of Congress will be controlled by the same political party. We and our shareholders could be adversely affected by any such change in, or any new, U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation.

We may be required to report taxable income for certain investments in excess of the economic income that we ultimately realize from them.

We and our TRS may invest in mortgages, including non-performing loans, for less than their face amount. The amount of such discount is generally treated as "market discount" for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accrued market discount is reported as income when, and to the extent that, any payment of principal of the debt instrument is made, unless we elect to include accrued market discount in income as it accrues. Principal payments on certain loans are made monthly, and consequently accrued market discount may have to be included in income each month as if the debt instrument were assured of ultimately being collected in full. If we collect less on the debt instrument than our purchase price plus the market discount we had previously reported as income, then we may not be able to benefit from any offsetting loss deductions.

In the event that any debt instruments acquired by us are delinquent as to mandatory principal and interest payments, or in the event payments with respect to a particular debt instrument are not made when due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income as it accrues, despite doubt as to its ultimate collectability. While we would in general ultimately have an offsetting loss deduction available to us when such interest was determined to be uncollectible, the utility of that deduction could depend on our having taxable income in that later year or thereafter.

Finally, we or our TRS may recognize taxable "phantom income" as a result of modifications, pursuant to agreements with borrowers, of debt instruments that we acquire if the amendments to the outstanding debt are "significant modifications" under the applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations. In addition, our TRS may be treated as a "dealer" for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in which case the TRS would be required to mark to market its assets at the end of each taxable year and recognize taxable gain or loss on those assets even though there has been no actual sale of those assets.

The “fast-pay stock” rules could apply if we issue preferred shares in a reopening.

We have, and may continue to have, series of preferred shares outstanding with respect to which we have the ability to issue additional preferred shares of that series without shareholder approval (referred to as a “reopening” of the preferred shares). For example, we have the ability to reopen our Series B participating preferred shares of beneficial interest (“Series B preferred shares”), our Series C participating preferred shares of beneficial interest (“Series C preferred shares”), our Series D cumulative redeemable perpetual preferred shares of beneficial interest, and our Series E cumulative redeemable perpetual preferred shares of beneficial interest. We may issue additional series of preferred shares in the future with the reopening feature.

If we issue preferred shares in a reopening at a price that exceeds the redemption price of such preferred shares by more than a de minimis amount, then those shares could be considered to be “fast-pay stock” under the applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations. Whether those regulations would apply would depend upon all of the facts and circumstances. If (i) the redemption (and conversion) price for the preferred shares issued in a reopening is less than the issue price for such shares and (ii) the Company expects that during the entire period that such shares are redeemable (or subject to conversion) the redemption (or conversion) price will be less than the issue price, it may be difficult to determine whether the fast-pay stock rules would apply. In the case of the Series B and Series C preferred shares, a factor that would need to be considered in the fast-pay stock analysis is whether the amount that the Series B or Series C preferred shares may be redeemed or converted includes the “HPA Adjustment.” The Company believes that, if at the time the Series B or Series C preferred shares are issued in a reopening (i) the redemption (and conversion) price (including any HPA Adjustment) for such shares is equal to or greater than the issue price for such shares and (ii) the Company expects that during the entire period that such shares are redeemable (or subject to conversion) the redemption (or conversion) price (including any HPA Adjustment) will equal or exceed the issue price, it is likely that the fast-pay stock rules would not apply. However, under a facts and circumstances analysis, there can be no assurance that the fast-pay stock rules would not be determined to apply.


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If the fast-pay stock rules were determined to apply to the issuance of preferred shares in a reopening, then the consequences could include:

The holders of our common shares and other preferred shares (including preferred shares not subject to the fast-pay stock rules) being treated as collectively having acquired from us financial instruments (which may be treated as debt or equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, depending on the facts) with the same terms as the additional shares of preferred shares being issued, with the result that they will be taxed on payments made on those shares as and when made, even though they will not receive those payments.

The holders of the additional shares of preferred shares issued instead having acquired, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, financial instruments (as described above) issued directly to them by the holders of our common shares and other preferred shares in exchange for the price paid for those shares, rather than our shares, with the holders of our common shares and other preferred shares making payments to them with respect to those financial instruments as and when the payments with respect to the additional preferred shares are made.

There is virtually no guidance as to the consequences to the purchasers of the preferred shares in a reopening of payments deemed to be coming to them from the holders of our common shares and other preferred shares with respect to the deemed financial instruments that they purchased from such holders, instead of the payments being considered made by us to them with respect to our preferred shares.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES

The table below summarizes certain information with respect to our properties as of December 31, 2016:
Market
 
Number of Single-Family Properties (1)
 
% of Total Single-Family Properties
 
Gross Book Value (millions)
 
% of Gross Book Value Total
 
Avg. Gross Book Value per Property
 
Avg.
Sq. Ft.
 
Avg. Property Age (years)
 
Avg. Year
Purchased
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX
 
4,342
 
9.2
%
 
$
701.4

 
8.6
%
 
$
161,536

 
2,121
 
13.2
 
2014
Atlanta, GA
 
4,039
 
8.5
%
 
661.2

 
8.1
%
 
163,705

 
2,109
 
15.8
 
2014
Houston, TX
 
3,153
 
6.7
%
 
512.3

 
6.3
%
 
162,471

 
2,114
 
11.1
 
2014
Indianapolis, IN
 
2,901
 
6.1
%
 
438.1

 
5.4
%
 
151,021

 
1,933
 
14.2
 
2013
Phoenix, AZ
 
2,773
 
5.9
%
 
448.0

 
5.5
%
 
161,551

 
1,814
 
14.2
 
2014
Charlotte, NC
 
2,861
 
6.0
%
 
500.2

 
6.2
%
 
174,823

 
2,031
 
13.5
 
2014
Nashville, TN
 
2,428
 
5.1
%
 
481.2

 
5.9
%
 
198,175

 
2,093
 
12.5
 
2014
Greater Chicago area, IL and IN
 
2,048
 
4.3
%
 
369.2

 
4.5
%
 
180,263

 
1,897
 
15.3
 
2013
Cincinnati, OH
 
1,952
 
4.1
%
 
335.7

 
4.1
%
 
171,969

 
1,846
 
14.7
 
2013
Raleigh, NC
 
1,830
 
3.9
%
 
322.0

 
4.0
%
 
175,930

 
1,845
 
12.2
 
2014
All Other (2)
 
18,976
 
40.2
%
 
3,357.8

 
41.4
%
 
176,962

 
1,893
 
13.8
 
2014
Total / Average
 
47,303
 
100.0
%
 
$
8,127.1

 
100.0
%
 
$
171,810

 
1,960
 
13.8
 
2014

(1) Excludes 1,119 held for sale properties as of December 31, 2016.
(2) Represents 32 markets in 19 states.

As of December 31, 2016, we had an additional 47 properties in escrow that we expected to acquire, subject to customary closing conditions, for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $8.9 million.

Property and Management

We lease office space in Agoura Hills, California for our company headquarters, own commercial real estate in Las Vegas, Nevada for our property management headquarters and lease property management office space in 18 locations in 12 states.

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS


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The Company currently is not subject to any material litigation nor, to management's knowledge, is any material litigation currently threatened against the Company other than routine litigation and administrative proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT:

Listed below are the executive officers of the Company. Our executive officers are appointed by, and serve at the discretion of, our board of trustees. There are no family relationships between any of the executive officers, and there is no arrangement or understanding between any executive officer and any other person pursuant to which the executive officer was selected.

David P. Singelyn, age 55, has served as our Chief Executive Officer and a Trustee since October 2012. Mr. Singelyn co-founded AH LLC with Mr. Hughes in June 2011 and served as the Chief Executive Officer of our former manager prior to our internalization of senior management in June 2013. From 2003 through April 2013, Mr. Singelyn was Chairman and President of Public Storage Canada, a real estate company previously listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange, where he built a management team that restructured the operations of the company, including building an operations team and installing accounting and operating computer systems. In 2010, Mr. Singelyn facilitated the restructuring of the ownership entity that was traded on the Toronto stock exchange resulting in the company "going private." In 2005, Mr. Singelyn, along with Mr. Hughes, founded American Commercial Equities ("ACE"), a private real estate company specializing in the acquisition and management of retail property, and he now serves as a co-manager of ACE. Mr. Singelyn is also a director of the William Lawrence and Blanche Hughes Foundation, a non-profit organization dedicated to research of pediatric cancer. Mr. Singelyn served as the Treasurer for Public Storage (NYSE:PSA) from 1989 through 2003, where he was responsible for equity capital raising, debt issuances, corporate cash management and financial management for Public Storage and its subsidiary operations. During his tenure, and with his direct involvement, Public Storage raised funds through the public and institutional marketplaces, including from a number of state pensions. Mr. Singelyn started his career at the accounting firm Arthur Young and Company (now a part of Ernst & Young LLP) and also served as Controller of Winchell's Donut Houses where he was responsible for all accounting functions. Mr. Singelyn earned a Bachelor of Science in Accounting and a Bachelor of Science in Computer Information Systems from California Polytechnic University—Pomona.

John "Jack" Corrigan, age 56, has served as our Chief Operating Officer and a Trustee since October 2012. Since November 2011, Mr. Corrigan was the Chief Operating Officer of our former manager prior to our internalization of senior management in June 2013. From 2006 to 2011, Mr. Corrigan was the Chief Executive Officer of A & H Property and Investments, a full service leasing and property management company in Los Angeles County with a portfolio of residential, retail, industrial and office properties where he was responsible for acquisitions, dispositions, development, financing and management operations. Mr. Corrigan served as Chief Financial Officer of PS Business Parks Inc. (NYSE: PSB), a publicly-traded REIT specializing in office and industrial properties throughout the United States, from 1998 to 2004. Prior to his tenure at PS Business Parks, Mr. Corrigan was a partner in the accounting firm of LaRue, Corrigan & McCormick, where he was responsible for the audit and consulting practice of that firm. Mr. Corrigan started his career at Arthur Young and Company (now a part of Ernst & Young LLP) and also served as Vice President and Controller of Storage Equities, Inc. (a predecessor entity to Public Storage). Mr. Corrigan earned a Bachelor of Science in Accounting from Loyola Marymount University.

Diana M. Laing, age 62, has served as our Chief Financial Officer since May 2014. Ms. Laing previously served as Chief Financial Officer and Secretary of Thomas Properties Group, Inc., a publicly traded real estate operating company engaged in the development, redevelopment and operation of Class A office properties in the United States from May 2004 until it merged with Parkway Properties in December 2013. Before that, she held a number of senior executive finance positions in the real estate industry, including as Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Corporate Secretary of Arden Realty (NYSE: ARI), a REIT engaged in the ownership and operation of commercial office properties, from 1996 to 2000. She is also a member of the Board of Directors of The Macerich Company, a real estate investment trust that owns and operates shopping centers, where she is a member of the Audit Committee. Ms. Laing graduated from Oklahoma State University with a B.S in Accounting.


30


David Goldberg, age 67, has served as our Executive Vice President since October 2012. Mr. Goldberg held the same position with the Advisor from 2011 until our internalization of senior management in June 2013. Since 2006, Mr. Goldberg has been a co-manager of ACE, and since 2006 he has served as a legal consultant and senior counsel for Public Storage. From 1991 until 2005, Mr. Goldberg held various legal positions with Public Storage, including Senior Vice President and General Counsel. In such capacity, Mr. Goldberg was responsible for all Public Storage securities, real estate and property management activities and was involved in capital raising, real estate acquisition, corporate reorganization and property management transactions. From 1974 until 1991, Mr. Goldberg was an associate and a partner in the law firm of Agnew, Miller & Carlson and a partner with the law firm of Sachs & Phelps and with the law firm of Hufstedler, Miller, Carlson & Beardsley. Mr. Goldberg earned an A.B. in History and Social Studies from Boston University and a Juris Doctorate from the University of California, Berkeley (Boalt School of Law) and is a member of the California State Bar.

Bryan Smith, age 43, has served as our Executive Vice President—President of Property Management since February 2015 and is responsible for property management operations nationwide. Previously, he served as Senior Vice President—Director of Property Management from 2012 to 2015 and Senior Vice President of Acquisitions for our former manager from 2011 to 2012. From 2009 to 2011, Mr. Smith was a Partner at the Tax Review Group, a real estate consulting firm that focused on reducing the tax liabilities of large residential and commercial real estate properties. Prior to joining the Tax Review Group, he was a Partner and Chief Financial Officer at the Watermark Group, a residential and commercial real estate development firm, from 2006 to 2009. Mr. Smith began his career at the accounting firm Deloitte & Touche LLP. Mr. Smith earned a B.A. in Business Economics from the University of California, Los Angeles, an M.B.A. from the UCLA Anderson School of Management and is a Certified Public Accountant (inactive) in California.

Sara H. Vogt-Lowell, age 41, has served as our Chief Legal Officer since October 2012. As Chief Legal Officer she coordinates legal matters and real estate transactions, guides the defense of our company against prospective and pending claims and lawsuits and monitors applicable legal, regulatory and compliance developments. From 2011 until our internalization of senior management in June 2013, Ms. Vogt-Lowell held the same position with the Advisor. From March 2006 through April 2013, she has served as General Counsel for Malibu Management, a property management company, Public Storage Canada and ACE. Ms. Vogt-Lowell began her legal career at the law firm of Latham & Watkins LLP in 2002 as a member of the finance department where she specialized in real estate transactions. There, she represented a variety of clients, including lenders, residential and commercial developers, landlords, tenants, buyers, sellers and owners of commercial, industrial, residential and other real estate projects, with specific experience in multi-site, multi-state property portfolios. Ms. Vogt-Lowell earned a B.A. in Political Science from the University of California, Los Angeles and a Juris Doctorate from the University of California, Berkeley (Boalt School of Law). Ms. Vogt-Lowell is a member of the California State Bar.

31


PART II

ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

Our Class A common shares have traded on the NYSE under the symbol "AMH" since August 1, 2013. Prior to that date, there was no public trading market for our Class A common shares. Our Class B common shares are not publicly traded. The following table sets forth the quarterly high and low trading prices per Class A common share as reported on the NYSE and the distributions declared by us with respect to our Class A and Class B common shares for each such period:
2016
 
High
 
Low
 
Per Share
Distribution
 
2015
 
High
 
Low
 
Per Share
Distribution
First quarter
 
$
16.54

 
$
13.16

 
$
0.05

 
First quarter
 
$
17.55

 
$
15.91

 
$
0.05

Second quarter
 
$
20.48

 
$
15.36

 
$
0.05

 
Second quarter
 
$
17.39

 
$
15.89

 
$
0.05

Third quarter
 
$
22.99

 
$
20.38

 
$
0.05

 
Third quarter
 
$
16.99

 
$
15.09

 
$
0.05

Fourth quarter
 
$
21.65

 
$
19.63

 
$
0.05

 
Fourth quarter
 
$
17.34

 
$
15.80

 
$
0.05


On February 22, 2017, the last reported sales price per share of our Class A common shares was $23.19.

Shareholders

As of the close of business on February 22, 2017, there were approximately 25 holders of record of our Class A common shares (excludes beneficial owners whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees) and one shareholder of record of our Class B common shares.

Distributions

Our board of trustees declared total distributions of $0.20 per Class A and Class B common share during each of the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015. Future distributions on our Class A and Class B common shares will be determined by and at the sole discretion of our board of trustees and will be based on a variety of factors, which may include among others: our actual and projected results of operations; our liquidity, cash flows and financial condition; revenue from our properties; our operating expenses; economic conditions; debt service requirements; limitations under our financing arrangements; applicable law; capital requirements; the REIT requirements of the Code, and such other factors as our board of trustees deems relevant. To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we must make annual distributions to our shareholders of at least 90% of our taxable income for the current taxable year, determined without regard to deductions for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gains. We intend to pay quarterly dividends to our shareholders, which in the aggregate are approximately equal to or exceed our net taxable income in the relevant year. However, our cash available for distribution may be less than the amount required to meet the distribution requirements for REITs under the Code and we may be required to borrow money, sell assets or make taxable distributions of our equity shares or debt securities to satisfy the distribution requirements. No distributions can be paid on our Class A and Class B common shares unless we have paid all cumulative dividends on our Series A, Series B and Series C participating preferred shares and on our Series D and Series E perpetual preferred shares. The distribution preference of our Series A, Series B and Series C participating preferred shares and our Series D and Series E perpetual preferred shares could limit our ability to make distributions to the holders of our Class A and Class B common shares.


32


The following tables display the income tax treatment of distributions on our Class A and B common shares, Series A, Series B and Series C participating preferred shares and Series D and Series E perpetual preferred shares for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015:
2016
 
Ordinary income (1)
 
Return of capital
 
Capital gains
 
Total
Common Shares
 
92.5
%
 
%
 
7.5
%
 
100.0
%
Participating Preferred Shares:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Series A
 
92.5
%
 
%
 
7.5
%
 
100.0
%
Series B
 
92.5
%
 
%
 
7.5
%
 
100.0
%
Series C
 
92.5
%
 
%
 
7.5
%
 
100.0
%
Perpetual Preferred Shares:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Series D
 
92.5
%
 
%
 
7.5
%
 
100.0
%
Series E
 
92.5
%
 
%
 
7.5
%
 
100.0
%
2015
 
Ordinary income (1)
 
Return of capital
 
Capital gains
 
Total
Common Shares
 
65.3
%
 
34.7
%
 
%
 
100.0
%
Participating Preferred Shares:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Series A
 
100.0
%
 
%
 
%
 
100.0
%
Series B
 
100.0
%
 
%
 
%
 
100.0
%
Series C
 
100.0
%
 
%
 
%
 
100.0
%

(1) Ordinary income dividends do not constitute "qualified dividend income."


33


Stock Performance Graph
    
This performance graph shall not be deemed "filed" for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be incorporated by reference into any filing by us under the Securities Act except as expressly set forth in such filing.

The following graph compares the cumulative total return on our Class A common shares from August 1, 2013 (the date that our Class A common shares commenced trading on the NYSE) to the NYSE closing price per share on December 31, 2016, with the cumulative total returns on the Standard & Poor's 500 Composite Stock Price Index (the "S&P 500 Index") and the MSCI U.S. REIT Index. The graph assumes the investment of $100 in our Class A common shares and each of the indices on August 1, 2013, and the reinvestment of all dividends. The return shown on the graph is not necessarily indicative of future performance.

Comparison of Cumulative Total Return
Among American Homes 4 Rent, the S&P 500 Index and the MSCI US REIT Index
a123116-10k_chartx52940.jpg
The following table provides the same information in tabular form:
Index
 
8/1/13
 
12/31/13
 
12/31/14
 
12/31/15
 
12/31/16
American Homes 4 Rent
 
$
100.00

 
$
104.17

 
$
110.78

 
$
109.72

 
$
139.66

S&P 500
 
$
100.00

 
$
109.30

 
$
124.26

 
$
125.98

 
$
141.04

MSCI U.S. REIT
 
$
100.00

 
$
95.96

 
$
125.11

 
$
128.26

 
$
139.29


Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

On September 21, 2015, the Company announced that our board of trustees approved a share repurchase program authorizing us to repurchase up to $300.0 million of our outstanding Class A common shares from time to time in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. The program does not have an expiration date, but may be suspended or discontinued at any time without notice. All repurchased shares are constructively retired and returned to an authorized and unissued status. During the three months ended December 31, 2016, we did not repurchase any of our Class A common shares. As of December 31, 2016, we had a remaining repurchase authorization of $146.7 million under the program.

ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following table presents selected historical consolidated financial information as of and for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013 and 2012. The selected financial data below has been derived from our consolidated financial statements, as adjusted for the impact of subsequent accounting changes requiring retrospective application, if any, and should be read

34


in conjunction with "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and our consolidated financial statements, including the related notes, included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our selected financial data may not be indicative of our future results.
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share data)
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Operating Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rents from single-family properties
 
$
757,603

 
$
559,719

 
$
376,385

 
$
132,722

 
$
4,540

Fees from single-family properties
 
10,234

 
7,646

 
5,968

 
3,639

 

Tenant charge-backs
 
95,254

 
56,546

 
14,931

 
1,588

 

Other
 
15,798

 
6,665

 
1,590

 
1,083

 

Total revenues
 
878,889

 
630,576

 
398,874

 
139,032

 
4,540

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Property operating expenses
 
386,474

 
292,155

 
184,814

 
73,752

 
3,590

General and administrative expense
 
30,992

 
24,906

 
21,947

 
8,845

 
7,199

Advisory fees
 

 

 

 
6,352

 
937

Interest expense
 
130,847

 
89,413

 
19,881

 
370

 

Noncash share-based compensation expense
 
3,636

 
3,125

 
2,586

 
1,079

 
70

Acquisition fees and costs expensed
 
11,443

 
19,577

 
22,386

 
4,799

 
869

Depreciation and amortization
 
298,677

 
242,848

 
165,516

 
70,987

 
2,111

Other
 
11,978

 
3,770

 
3,559

 

 

Total expenses
 
874,047

 
675,794

 
420,689

 
166,184

 
14,776

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gain on remeasurement of equity method investment
 

 

 

 
10,945

 

Gain on sale of single-family properties, net
 
14,569

 

 

 

 

Loss on early extinguishment of debt
 
(13,408
)
 

 

 

 

Gain on conversion of Series E units
 
11,463

 

 

 

 

Remeasurement of Series E units
 

 
2,100

 
(5,119
)
 
(2,057
)
 

Remeasurement of preferred shares
 
(7,020
)
 
(4,830
)
 
(6,158
)
 
(1,810
)
 

Income (loss) from continuing operations
 
10,446

 
(47,948
)
 
(33,092
)
 
(20,074
)
 
(10,236
)
Income from discontinued operations
 

 

 

 
1,008

 

Net income (loss)
 
10,446

 
(47,948
)
 
(33,092
)
 
(19,066
)
 
(10,236
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Noncontrolling interest
 
3,751

 
14,353

 
14,965

 
13,245

 

Dividends on preferred shares
 
40,237

 
22,276

 
18,928

 
1,160

 

Conversion of preferred units
 

 

 

 
10,456

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss attributable to common shareholders
 
$
(33,542
)
 
$
(84,577
)
 
$
(66,985
)
 
$
(43,927
)
 
$
(10,236
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted-average shares outstanding - basic and diluted
 
234,010,168

 
210,600,111
 
196,348,757
 
123,592,086
 
7,225,512
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss per share - basic and diluted:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Loss from continuing operations
 
$
(0.14
)
 
$
(0.40
)
 
$
(0.34
)
 
$
(0.37
)
 
$
(1.42
)
Income from discontinued operations
 

 

 

 
0.01

 

Net loss attributable to common shareholders per share - basic and diluted
 
$
(0.14
)
 
$
(0.40
)
 
$
(0.34
)
 
$
(0.36
)
 
$
(1.42
)

35


 
 
As of December 31,
(Amounts in thousands)
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Balance Sheet Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Single-family properties, net
 
$
7,547,856

 
$
6,289,938

 
$
5,710,671

 
$
3,861,422

 
$
505,713

Total assets
 
$
8,107,210

 
$
6,751,219

 
$
6,188,815

 
$
4,224,144

 
$
921,458

Revolving credit facilities and term loan facility, net
 
$
321,735

 
$

 
$
207,000

 
$
375,000

 
$

Asset-backed securitizations, net
 
$
2,442,863

 
$
2,473,643

 
$
1,480,854

 
$

 
$

Exchangeable senior notes, net
 
$
108,148

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

Secured note payable
 
$
49,828

 
$
50,752

 
$
51,644

 
$

 
$

Total liabilities
 
$
3,169,590

 
$
2,815,986

 
$
2,019,221

 
$
573,485

 
$
16,294

Total shareholders' equity
 
$
4,192,936

 
$
3,259,345

 
$
3,450,101

 
$
2,934,944

 
$
904,674

Noncontrolling interest
 
$
744,684

 
$
675,888

 
$
719,493

 
$
715,715

 
$
490

Total equity
 
$
4,937,620

 
$
3,935,233

 
$
4,169,594

 
$
3,650,659

 
$
905,164


 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
(Amounts in thousands, except per share data)
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Other Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash flows provided by (used for):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
 
$
278,867

 
$
212,307

 
$
175,504

 
$
42,602

 
$
(6,549
)
Investing activities
 
$
(522,398
)
 
$
(861,800
)
 
$
(1,864,951
)
 
$
(2,369,371
)
 
$
(97,470
)
Financing activities
 
$
324,804

 
$
632,476

 
$
1,700,013

 
$
2,104,990

 
$
501,217

Distributions declared per common share
 
$
0.20

 
$
0.20

 
$
0.20

 
$
0.05

 
$

Distributions declared per Series A participating preferred share
 
$
1.25

 
$
1.25

 
$
1.25

 
$
0.23

 
$

Distributions declared per Series B participating preferred share
 
$
1.25

 
$
1.25

 
$
1.29

 
$

 
$

Distributions declared per Series C participating preferred share
 
$
1.38

 
$
1.38

 
$
0.91

 
$

 
$

Distributions declared per Series D perpetual preferred share
 
$
0.98

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

Distributions declared per Series E perpetual preferred share
 
$
0.80

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$


36


ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon our current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including, but not limited to, those set forth under "Item 1A. Risk Factors" in this report.

Overview

We are a Maryland REIT focused on acquiring, renovating, leasing and operating single-family homes as rental properties. We commenced operations in November 2012 to continue the investment activities of AH LLC, which was founded by our chairman, B. Wayne Hughes, in 2011 to take advantage of the dislocation in the single-family home market. Effective August 31, 2016, AH LLC was liquidated and its ownership interests in the operating partnership were distributed to its members.

As of December 31, 2016, we owned 48,422 single-family properties in selected sub-markets of MSAs in 22 states, including 1,119 properties held for sale, of which 981 properties were former ARPI properties, compared to 38,780 single-family properties in 22 states, including 45 properties held for sale, as of December 31, 2015. As of December 31, 2016, we had an additional 47 properties in escrow that we expected to acquire, subject to customary closing conditions, for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $8.9 million. As of December 31, 2016, 44,798, or 94.7%, of our total properties (excluding held for sale properties) were leased, compared to 36,403, or 94.0%, of our total properties (excluding held for sale properties) as of December 31, 2015. As of December 31, 2016, our portfolio of single-family properties was internally managed through our proprietary property management platform.

Our Properties and Key Operating Metrics

The following table provides a summary of our single-family properties as of December 31, 2016:
Market
 
Number of Single-Family Properties (1)
 
% of Total Single-Family Properties
 
Gross Book Value (millions)
 
% of Gross Book Value Total
 
Avg. Gross Book Value per Property
 
Avg.
Sq. Ft.
 
Avg. Property Age (years)
 
Avg. Year
Purchased
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX
 
4,342

 
9.2
%
 
$
701.4

 
8.6
%
 
$
161,536

 
2,121

 
13.2

 
2014
Atlanta, GA
 
4,039

 
8.5
%
 
661.2

 
8.1
%
 
163,705

 
2,109

 
15.8

 
2014
Houston, TX
 
3,153

 
6.7
%
 
512.3

 
6.3
%
 
162,471

 
2,114

 
11.1

 
2014
Indianapolis, IN
 
2,901

 
6.1
%
 
438.1

 
5.4
%
 
151,021

 
1,933

 
14.2

 
2013
Phoenix, AZ
 
2,773

 
5.9
%
 
448.0

 
5.5
%
 
161,551

 
1,814

 
14.2

 
2014
Charlotte, NC
 
2,861

 
6.0
%
 
500.2

 
6.2
%
 
174,823

 
2,031

 
13.5

 
2014
Nashville, TN
 
2,428

 
5.1
%
 
481.2

 
5.9
%
 
198,175

 
2,093

 
12.5

 
2014
Greater Chicago area, IL and IN
 
2,048

 
4.3
%
 
369.2

 
4.5
%
 
180,263

 
1,897

 
15.3

 
2013
Cincinnati, OH
 
1,952

 
4.1
%
 
335.7

 
4.1
%
 
171,969

 
1,846

 
14.7

 
2013
Raleigh, NC
 
1,830

 
3.9
%
 
322.0

 
4.0
%
 
175,930

 
1,845

 
12.2

 
2014
All Other (2)
 
18,976

 
40.2
%
 
3,357.8

 
41.4
%
 
176,962

 
1,893

 
13.8

 
2014
Total / Average
 
47,303

 
100.0
%
 
$
8,127.1

 
100.0
%
 
$
171,810

 
1,960

 
13.8

 
2014

(1)
Excludes 1,119 held for sale properties as of December 31, 2016.
(2)
Represents 32 markets in 19 states.


37


The following table summarizes certain key leasing metrics as of December 31, 2016:
 
 
Total Single-family Properties (1)
Market
 
Not Rent Ready (2)
 
Leased Percentage (3)
 
Occupancy Percentage (3)
 
Avg. Contractual Monthly Rent Per Property (3)
 
Avg. Original Lease Term (months) (3)
 
Avg. Remaining Lease Term (months) (3)
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX
 
3

 
95.2
%
 
94.7
%
 
$
1,612

 
12.0
 
6.3
Atlanta, GA
 
84

 
93.9
%
 
93.3
%
 
1,413

 
12.0
 
6.1
Houston, TX
 
1

 
94.3
%
 
94.1
%
 
1,586

 
12.7
 
7.2
Indianapolis, IN
 

 
96.0
%
 
95.8
%
 
1,320

 
13.4
 
6.8
Phoenix, AZ
 

 
96.6
%
 
96.1
%
 
1,186

 
12.3
 
7.0
Charlotte, NC
 
36

 
93.6
%
 
92.7
%
 
1,457

 
12.0
 
6.4
Nashville, TN
 
31

 
93.0
%
 
92.4
%
 
1,607

 
12.1
 
6.3
Greater Chicago area, IL and IN
 

 
96.6
%
 
96.3
%
 
1,740

 
13.5
 
6.4
Cincinnati, OH
 
1

 
97.4
%
 
97.0
%
 
1,485

 
13.0
 
6.2
Raleigh, NC
 

 
94.4
%
 
94.2
%
 
1,411

 
12.0
 
6.2
All Other (4)
 
156

 
94.3
%
 
93.7
%
 
1,484

 
12.2
 
6.5
Total / Average
 
312

 
94.7
%
 
94.2
%
 
$
1,482

 
12.4
 
6.5

(1)
Leasing information excludes held for sale properties.
(2)
Includes properties under initial renovation and excludes vacant properties available for lease or in the turn process.
(3)
Leased percentage, occupancy percentage, average contractual monthly rent per property, average original lease term and average remaining lease term are reflected as of period end.
(4)
Represents 32 markets in 19 states.

Key Transactions in 2016

Merger with American Residential Properties, Inc.

On February 29, 2016, the Company completed the ARPI Merger, in which ARPI merged with and into a wholly owned subsidiary of us in a stock-for-stock transaction, with our subsidiary continuing as the surviving entity. As a result of the ARPI Merger, each holder of ARPI common stock received 1.135 of our Class A common shares for each share of ARPI common stock and each holder of limited partnership interests in ARPI’s operating partnership received 1.135 Class A units of our operating partnership. We issued 36,546,170 Class A common shares and 1,343,843 Class A units in connection with the ARPI Merger, representing 12.7% of the total Class A common shares, Class B common shares and units of our operating partnership, collectively, as of the acquisition date (see Note 11).

Perpetual Preferred Shares

During June 2016, the Company issued 9,200,000 6.35% Series E perpetual preferred shares in an underwritten public offering, raising gross proceeds of $230.0 million before offering costs of $7.5 million.

During May 2016, the Company issued 10,750,000 6.5% Series D perpetual preferred shares in an underwritten public offering and concurrent private placement, raising gross proceeds of $268.8 million before offering costs of $8.5 million.

Credit Facilities

During August 2016, the Company entered into a $1.0 billion credit agreement providing for a revolving credit facility in an aggregate principal amount of $650.0 million and a delayed draw term loan facility in an aggregate principal amount of $350.0 million (see Note 6).

Factors That Affect Our Results of Operations and Financial Condition

Our results of operations and financial condition are affected by numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control. Key factors that impact our results of operations and financial condition include our ability to identify and acquire properties; our pace of property acquisitions; the time and cost required to gain access to the properties and then to renovate and lease a newly acquired property at acceptable rental rates; occupancy levels; rates of tenant turnover; the length of vacancy in properties between tenant leases; our expense ratios; our ability to raise capital; and our capital structure.


38


Property Acquisitions and Dispositions

Since our formation, we have rapidly but systematically grown our portfolio of single-family homes. Our ability to identify and acquire single-family homes that meet our investment criteria is impacted by home prices in our target markets, the inventory of properties available-for-sale through our acquisition channels, competition for our target assets and our available capital. Our level of acquisition activity has fluctuated based on the number of suitable investments and the level of capital available to invest. During the year ended December 31, 2016, our total portfolio increased by 9,642 homes, including 8,936 homes acquired after completing the ARPI Merger, 859 homes acquired through trustee acquisitions, 346 homes acquired through broker acquisitions, 223 homes acquired through bulk acquisitions and net of 722 homes sold or rescinded, of which 418 properties were former ARPI properties. During the fourth quarter of 2016, our total portfolio increased by 269 homes, including 189 homes acquired through broker acquisitions, 158 homes acquired through trustee acquisitions, 51 homes acquired through bulk acquisitions and net of 129 homes sold or rescinded, of which 78 properties were former ARPI properties. Rescinded properties represent properties for which the sale has been unwound, as in certain jurisdictions, our purchases of single-family properties at foreclosure and judicial auctions are subject to the right of rescission, which is generally caused by the borrower filing for bankruptcy.

Prior to December 10, 2014, we paid an acquisition and renovation fee to AH LLC equal to 5% of all costs and expenses incurred in connection with the initial acquisition, repair and renovation of our single-family properties for its services in identifying, evaluating, acquiring and overseeing the renovation of our properties. On December 10, 2014, AH LLC ceased providing acquisition and renovation services for us, we stopped paying AH LLC an acquisition and renovation fee and we hired all of AH LLC's acquisition and renovation personnel necessary for our operations. No termination or other fee was paid to AH LLC in connection with the termination of AH LLC providing such services. As a result of the internalization of AH LLC's acquisition and renovation personnel, a larger proportion of the internalized cost structure is expensed in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"), compared to the 5% acquisition and renovation fee previously paid to AH LLC, which was primarily capitalized related to asset acquisitions in accordance with GAAP and included in the cost basis of our single-family properties.

Property Operations

The acquisition of properties involves expenditures in addition to payment of the purchase price, including property inspections, closing costs, liens, title insurance, transfer taxes, recording fees, broker commissions, property taxes and HOA fees, when applicable. In addition, we typically incur costs between $10,000 and $25,000 to renovate a home to prepare it for rental. Renovation work varies, but may include paint, flooring, carpeting, cabinetry, appliances, plumbing hardware and other items required to prepare the home for rental. The time and cost involved in initially accessing our homes to prepare them for rental can impact our financial performance and varies among properties based on several factors, including the source of acquisition channel, whether the property is located in a judicial or non-judicial foreclosure state, if applicable, and whether or not the home is occupied at the time of acquisition. This process of finalizing the acquisition and gaining initial access to the home can range from immediate access to multiple months and, on average, takes approximately 20 to 30 days. Additionally, after gaining access to the home, the time to renovate a property can vary significantly among properties and is most impacted by the age and condition of the property. On average, it takes approximately 50 to 70 days to complete the renovation process after gaining initial access to the home. Our operating results are also impacted by the amount of time it takes to market and lease a property, which can vary greatly among properties, and is impacted by local demand, our marketing techniques and the size of our available inventory. On average, it takes approximately 20 to 40 days to lease a property after completing the renovation process. Lastly, our operating results are impacted by the length of stay of our tenants and the amount of time it takes to prepare and re-lease a property after a tenant vacates. This process, which we refer to as "turnover," is impacted by numerous factors, including the condition of the home upon move-out of the previous tenant, and by local demand, our marketing techniques and the size of our available inventory at the time of the turnover. On average, it takes approximately 45 to 55 days to complete the turnover process.

Revenue

Our revenue is derived primarily from rents collected under lease agreements with tenants for our single-family properties. These include short-term leases that we enter into directly with our tenants, which typically have a term of one year. Our rental rates and occupancy levels are affected by macroeconomic factors and local and property-level factors, including market conditions, seasonality and tenant defaults, and the amount of time it takes to renovate and re-lease properties when tenants vacate. Additionally, our ability to collect revenues and related operating results are impacted by the credit worthiness and quality of our tenants. On average, our tenants have household incomes ranging from $70,000 to $100,000 and primarily consist of families with approximately two adults and one or more children.

In addition to rental revenues, we receive fees and other reimbursements, referred to as "tenant charge-backs," from our tenants, which are primarily designed to recover costs for certain items, such as utilities, damages and maintenance. In accordance with GAAP, these fees and tenant charge-backs are presented gross in the consolidated statements of operations.

39



As our total portfolio occupancy is now essentially stabilized, our ability to maintain and grow revenues will be dependent on our ability to retain tenants and increase rental rates. We believe that our platform will allow us to achieve strong tenant retention and lease renewal rates at our properties. The average increase in rent for renewals was 3.7% and 3.2%, respectively, and the average increase in rent for re-leases was 5.1% and 3.5%, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015. Based on our Same-Home population of properties, we experienced retention rates of 67.5% and 68.5%, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015.

Expenses

We monitor the following categories of expenses that we believe most significantly affect our results of operations.

Property Operating Expenses

Once a property is available for lease, which we refer to as "rent-ready," we incur ongoing property-related expenses, primarily HOA fees (when applicable); property taxes; insurance; marketing expenses; repairs and maintenance; and turnover costs, which may not be subject to our control.

Property Management Expenses

As we internally manage our portfolio of single-family properties through our proprietary property management platform, we incur costs such as salary expenses for property management personnel, lease expenses and operating costs for property management offices and technology expenses for maintaining the property management platform. As part of developing our property management platform, we have made significant investments in our infrastructure, systems and technology. We believe that these investments will enable the costs of our property management platform to become more efficient over time and as our overall portfolio grows in size.

Seasonality

We believe that our business and related operating results will be impacted by seasonal factors throughout the year. In particular, we have experienced higher levels of tenant move-outs and move-ins during the late spring and summer months, which impacts both our rental revenues and related turnover costs. Further, our property operating costs are seasonally impacted in certain markets for expenses such as HVAC repairs, turn costs and landscaping expenses during the summer season.

General and Administrative Expense

General and administrative expense primarily consists of payroll and personnel costs, trustees' and officers' insurance expenses, audit and tax fees, state taxes, trustee fees and other expenses associated with our corporate and administrative functions.

Results of Operations

Net loss attributable to common shareholders was $33.5 million, or $0.14 per basic and diluted share, for the year ended December 31, 2016, compared to a net loss attributable to common shareholders of $84.6 million, or $0.40 per basic and diluted share, for the year ended December 31, 2015. This improvement was primarily attributable to higher revenues, a net gain on the sale of single-family properties and a gain on the conversion of Series E convertible units into Series D convertible units, partially offset by increases in property operating and depreciation expenses resulting from growth in our property count, a rise in interest expense due to higher outstanding borrowings and a loss on the early extinguishment of debt. Net loss attributable to common shareholders was $84.6 million, or $0.40 per basic and diluted share, for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to a net loss attributable to common shareholders of $67.0 million, or $0.34 per basic and diluted share, for the year ended December 31, 2014. This decrease was primarily attributable to increases in property operating and depreciation expenses resulting from growth in our property count and a rise in interest expense due to higher outstanding borrowings, partially offset by higher revenues.

As we continue to grow our portfolio with many of our homes still recently acquired and/or renovated, we distinguish our portfolio of homes between Same-Home properties, Non-Same-Home and Other properties and Former ARPI properties in evaluating our operating performance. We classify a property as Same-Home if it has been stabilized longer than 90 days prior to the beginning of the earliest period presented under comparison, which allows the performance of these properties to be compared between periods. Single-family properties that we acquire individually (i.e., not through a bulk purchase) are classified as either stabilized or non-stabilized. A property is classified as stabilized once it has been renovated and then initially leased or available for rent for a period greater than 90 days. We classify a property as Former ARPI if it was acquired through the ARPI Merger and is not classified as held

40


for sale as of the end of the current period. All other properties, including those classified as held for sale, are classified as Non-Same-Home and Other.

One of the primary financial measures we use in evaluating the operating performance of our single-family properties is core net operating income (“Core NOI”), which we define as rents and fees from single-family properties, net of bad debt expense, less property operating expenses for single-family properties, excluding expenses reimbursed by tenant charge-backs and bad debt expense.  We use Core NOI as a primary financial measure as it reflects the economic operating performance of our single-family properties without the impact of certain tenant reimbursed operating expenses that are presented gross in the consolidated statements of operations in accordance with GAAP.


41


Comparison of the Year Ended December 31, 2016, to the Year Ended December 31, 2015

The following table presents a summary of Core NOI for our Same-Home properties, Non-Same-Home and Other properties, Former ARPI properties and total properties for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 (in thousands):
 
For the Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
Same-Home
Properties (1)
 
% of
Revenue
 
Non-Same-Home and Other Properties
 
% of
Revenue
 
Former ARPI Properties
 
% of Revenue
 
Total
Portfolio
 
% of
Revenue
Rents from single-family properties
$
424,547

 
 
 
$
234,304

 
 
 
$
98,752

 
 
 
$
757,603

 
 
Fees from single-family properties
5,398

 
 
 
3,607

 
 
 
1,229

 
 
 
10,234

 
 
Bad debt
(3,585
)
 
 
 
(2,528
)
 
 
 
(856
)
 
 
 
(6,969
)
 
 
Core revenues from single-family properties
426,360

 
 
 
235,383

 
 
 
99,125

 
 
 
760,868

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Property operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Property tax expense
77,968

 
18.3
%
 
41,700

 
17.7
%
 
17,667

 
17.8
%
 
137,335

 
18.0
%
HOA fees, net of tenant charge-backs
8,160

 
1.9
%
 
4,678

 
2.0
%
 
2,379

 
2.4
%
 
15,217

 
2.0
%
Maintenance and turnover costs, net of tenant charge-backs
30,488

 
7.1
%
 
15,477

 
6.6
%
 
7,604

 
7.7
%
 
53,569

 
7.0
%
In-house maintenance
3,574

 
0.8
%
 
1,972

 
0.8
%
 
977

 
1.0
%
 
6,523

 
0.9
%
Insurance
4,569

 
1.1
%
 
2,998

 
1.3
%
 
1,244

 
1.3
%
 
8,811

 
1.2
%
Property management expenses
35,267

 
8.3
%
 
19,367

 
8.2
%
 
8,162

 
8.2
%
 
62,796

 
8.3
%
Core property operating expenses
160,026

 
37.5
%
 
86,192

 
36.6
%
 
38,033

 
38.4
%
 
284,251

 
37.4
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Core net operating income
$
266,334

 
62.5
%
 
$
149,191

 
63.4
%
 
$