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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 2016
COMMISSION FILE NUMBER 1-4802
BECTON, DICKINSON AND COMPANY
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
New Jersey
  
22-0760120
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
1 Becton Drive
Franklin Lakes, New Jersey
(Address of principal executive offices)
  
07417-1880
(Zip code)
(201) 847-6800
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
  
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $1.00
  
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  þ        No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨        No  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  þ        No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  þ        No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer þ
 
Accelerated filer ¨
 
Non-accelerated filer ¨
 
Smaller reporting company ¨
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  ¨        No  þ
As of March 31, 2016, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $32,175,610,976.



As of October 31, 2016, 212,319,588 shares of the registrant’s common stock were outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held January 24, 2017 are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.
 



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 



PART I
Item  1.    Business.
General
Becton, Dickinson and Company (also known as “BD”) was incorporated under the laws of the State of New Jersey in November 1906, as successor to a New York business started in 1897. BD’s executive offices are located at 1 Becton Drive, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey 07417-1880, and its telephone number is (201) 847-6800. All references in this Form 10-K to “BD” refer to Becton, Dickinson and Company and its domestic and foreign subsidiaries, unless otherwise indicated by the context.
BD is a global medical technology company engaged in the development, manufacture and sale of a broad range of medical supplies, devices, laboratory equipment and diagnostic products used by healthcare institutions, life science researchers, clinical laboratories, the pharmaceutical industry and the general public. We provide customer solutions that are focused on improving medication management and patient safety; supporting infection prevention practices; equipping surgical and interventional procedures; improving drug delivery; aiding anesthesiology care; enhancing the diagnosis of infectious diseases and cancers; advancing cellular research and applications; and supporting the management of diabetes.
Business Segments
BD’s operations consist of two worldwide business segments: BD Medical and BD Life Sciences. Information with respect to BD’s business segments is included in Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, and is incorporated herein by reference.
BD Medical
BD Medical produces a broad array of medical technologies and devices that are used to help improve healthcare delivery in a wide range of settings. The primary customers served by BD Medical are hospitals and clinics; physicians’ office practices; consumers and retail pharmacies; governmental and nonprofit public health agencies; pharmaceutical companies; and healthcare workers. BD Medical consists of the following business units:
Business Unit
Principal Product Lines
Diabetes Care
Syringes, pen needles and IV sets for the injection or infusion of insulin and other drugs used in the treatment of diabetes.
Medication and Procedural Solutions
Needles, syringes and intravenous catheters for medication delivery (including safety-engineered and auto-disable devices); prefilled IV flush syringes; regional anesthesia needles and trays; sharps disposal containers; closed-system transfer devices; skin antiseptic products; and surgical and laproscopic instrumentation.
Medication Management Solutions
Intravenous medication safety and infusion therapy delivery systems, including infusion pumps and dedicated disposables; medication compounding workflow systems; and automated medication dispensing and supply management systems.
Pharmaceutical Systems
Prefillable drug delivery systems provided to pharmaceutical companies and sold to end-users as drug/device combinations.

BD Life Sciences
BD Life Sciences provides products for the safe collection and transport of diagnostics specimens, and instruments and reagent systems to detect a broad range of infectious diseases, healthcare-associated infections (“HAIs”) and cancers. In addition, BD Life Sciences produces research and clinical tools that facilitate the study of cells, and the components of cells, to gain a better understanding of normal and disease processes. That information is used to aid the discovery and development of new drugs and vaccines, and to improve the diagnosis and management of diseases. The primary customers served by BD Life Sciences are hospitals, laboratories and clinics; blood banks; healthcare workers; public health agencies; physicians’ office practices; academic and government institutions; and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. BD Life Sciences consists of the following business units:


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Business Unit
Principal Product Lines
Preanalytical Systems
Integrated systems for specimen collection; safety-engineered blood collection products and systems.
Diagnostic Systems
Automated blood culturing and tuberculosis culturing systems; molecular testing systems for infectious diseases and women’s health; microorganism identification and drug susceptibility systems; liquid-based cytology systems for cervical cancer screening; rapid diagnostic assays; microbiology laboratory automation; and plated media.
Biosciences
Fluorescence-activated cell sorters and analyzers; monoclonal antibodies and kits for performing cell analysis; reagent systems for life science research; molecular indexing and next-generation sequencing sample preparation for genomics research; clinical oncology, immunological (HIV) and transplantation diagnostic/monitoring reagents and analyzers; and cell culture media supplements for biopharmaceutical manufacturing.
Acquisitions and Divestitures
On March 17, 2015, BD completed the acquisition of CareFusion Corporation (“CareFusion”), a global medical technology company with a comprehensive portfolio of products in the areas of medication management, infection prevention, operating room and procedural effectiveness, and respiratory care. The CareFusion acquisition positions BD as a global leader in medication management. CareFusion product lines are included in our Medical Segment, which is discussed below.
In March 2016, BD signed a definitive agreement to sell 50.1% of its Respiratory Solutions business and form a joint venture with respect to this business.  The Respiratory Solutions business was acquired in the CareFusion acquisition in 2015 and was a component of the Medical segment.  Upon closing of the transaction, which occurred on October 3, 2016, the Company transferred the Respiratory Solutions business to a new standalone entity, retaining a 49.9% non-controlling interest.  The buyer controls the operations and governance of the new entity. 
Additional information regarding this Respiratory Solutions transaction is contained in Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, which is incorporated herein by reference. 
International Operations
BD’s products are manufactured and sold worldwide. For reporting purposes, we organize our operations outside the United States as follows: Europe, EMA (which includes the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Middle East and Africa); Greater Asia (which includes Japan and Asia Pacific); Latin America (which includes Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean and South America); and Canada. The principal products sold by BD outside the United States are hypodermic needles and syringes; insulin syringes and pen needles; BD Hypak™ brand prefillable syringe systems; infusion therapy products including Alaris® infusion pumps; pharmacy automation equipment including Pyxis™ systems; BD Vacutainer™ brand blood collection products; diagnostic systems and laboratory equipment and products; flow cytometry instruments and reagents. BD has manufacturing operations outside the United States in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, China, Dominican Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Singapore, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Geographic information with respect to BD’s operations is included under the heading “Geographic Information” in Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, and is incorporated herein by reference.
Foreign economic conditions and exchange rate fluctuations have caused the profitability related to foreign revenues to fluctuate more than the profitability related to domestic revenues. BD believes its activities in some countries outside the United States involve greater risk than its domestic business due to the factors cited herein, as well as the economic environment, local commercial and economic policies and political uncertainties. See further discussion of this risk in Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Distribution
BD’s products are marketed in the United States and internationally through independent distribution channels and directly to end-users by BD and independent sales representatives. Order backlog is not material to BD’s business inasmuch as orders for BD products generally are received and filled on a current basis, except for items temporarily out of stock. BD’s worldwide sales are not generally seasonal, with the exception of certain medical devices in the Medication and Procedural Solutions Business Unit, and respiratory and flu diagnostic products in the Diagnostic Systems Business Unit, which relate to seasonal diseases such as influenza.
Raw Materials

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BD purchases many different types of raw materials, including plastics, glass, metals, textiles, paper products, agricultural products, electronic and mechanical sub-assemblies and various biological, chemical and petrochemical products. BD seeks to ensure continuity of raw material supply by securing multiple options for sourcing. However, there are situations where raw materials are only available from one supplier, which are referred to as sole sourced. The use of sole sourced materials may be due to sourcing of proprietary and/or patented technology and processes that are intended to provide a unique market differentiation to our product. In other cases, while a raw material can be sourced from multiple manufacturers, only one supplier is qualified due to quality assurance, cost or other considerations. In order to provide alternate sources of raw materials, BD must complete a rigorous qualification process, which most often includes completion of regulatory registration and approval. If clinical trials are not required, this qualification process can take 3-18 months depending on the criticality of the change. When clinical trials are required, this process may lengthen the qualification phase from one to three years. BD continuously assesses its sole sourced raw materials and maintains business continuity plans with our suppliers. BD’s continuity plans may include securing secondary supply with alternate suppliers, qualification of alternate manufacturing facilities, maintaining contingency stock, internal development of supply and establishment of technology escrow accounts. While BD works closely with its suppliers, there may nonetheless be events that cause supply interruption, reduction or termination that adversely impacts BD’s ability to manufacture and sell certain products.
Research and Development
BD conducts its research and development (“R&D”) activities at its operating units and at BD Technologies in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The majority of BD’s R&D activities are conducted in North America. Outside North America, BD conducts R&D activities in China, France, India, Ireland and Singapore. BD also collaborates with certain universities, medical centers and other entities on R&D programs and retains individual consultants and partners to support its efforts in specialized fields. BD spent approximately $828 million, $632 million and $550 million on research and development during the fiscal years ended September 30, 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.
Intellectual Property and Licenses
BD owns significant intellectual property, including patents, patent applications, technology, trade secrets, know-how, copyrights and trademarks in the United States and other countries. BD is also licensed under domestic and foreign patents, patent applications, technology, trade secrets, know-how, copyrights and trademarks owned by others. In the aggregate, these intellectual property assets and licenses are of material importance to BD’s business. BD believes, however, that no single patent, technology, trademark, intellectual property asset or license is material in relation to BD’s business as a whole, or to any business segment.
Competition
BD operates in the increasingly complex and challenging medical technology marketplace. Technological advances and scientific discoveries have accelerated the pace of change in medical technology, the regulatory environment of medical products is becoming more complex and vigorous, and economic conditions have resulted in a challenging market. Companies of varying sizes compete in the global medical technology field. Some are more specialized than BD with respect to particular markets, and some have greater financial resources than BD. New companies have entered the field, particularly in the areas of molecular diagnostics, safety-engineered devices and in the life sciences, and established companies have diversified their business activities into the medical technology area. Other firms engaged in the distribution of medical technology products have become manufacturers of medical devices and instruments as well. Acquisitions and collaborations by and among companies seeking a competitive advantage also affect the competitive environment. In addition, the entry into the market of manufacturers located in China and other low-cost manufacturing locations are creating increased pricing pressures, particularly in developing markets. Some competitors have also established manufacturing sites or have contracted with suppliers located in these countries as a means to lower their costs.
BD competes in this evolving marketplace on the basis of many factors, including price, quality, innovation, service, reputation, distribution and promotion. The impact of these factors on BD’s competitive position varies among BD’s various product offerings. In order to remain competitive in the industries in which it operates, BD continues to make investments in research and development, quality management, quality improvement, product innovation and productivity improvement in support of its core strategy - to increase revenue growth by focusing on products that deliver greater benefits to patients, healthcare workers and researchers.
Third-Party Reimbursement
A majority of BD’s customers rely on third-party payers, including government programs and private health insurance plans, to reimburse some or all of the cost of the procedures, products and services they provide. Our technologies are subject to worldwide regulations regarding reimbursement developed by government agencies, including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) in the United States; the National Health Service in the United Kingdom; the Joint Federal Committee in Germany; the Commission d’Evaluation des Produits et prestations in France; the Ministry for Health, Labor and

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Welfare in Japan; the Ministry of Health and the National Development and Reform Commission in China; among many others. In addition, our technologies are also subject to reimbursement policies issued by private insurance companies and managed care organizations.
BD is actively engaged in identifying and communicating value propositions of its products for payer, provider, and patient stakeholders, and it employs various efforts and resources to positively impact coverage, coding and payment pathways. However, BD has no direct control over payer decision-making with respect to coverage and payment levels for BD products. The manner and level of reimbursement in any given case may depend on the site of care, the procedure(s) performed, the final patient diagnosis, the device(s) and/or drug(s) utilized, the available budget, or a combination of these factors, and coverage and payment levels are determined at each payer’s discretion. As BD’s product offerings are diverse across a variety of healthcare settings, they are affected to varying degrees by the many payment pathways that impact the decisions of healthcare providers regarding which medical products they purchase and the prices they are willing to pay for those products. Therefore, changes in reimbursement levels or methods may either positively or negatively impact sales of BD products in any given country for any given product.
As government programs seek to expand healthcare coverage for their citizens, they have at the same time sought to control costs by limiting the amount of reimbursement they will pay for particular procedures, products or services. Many third-party payers have developed specific payment and delivery mechanisms to support these cost control efforts and to focus on paying for value. These mechanisms include payment reductions, pay for performance measures, quality-based performance payments, restrictive coverage policies, bidding and tender mechanics, studies to compare the effectiveness of therapies and use of technology assessments. These changes have created an increased emphasis on the delivery of more cost-effective and quality-driven healthcare.
In addition, as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“PPACA”), the U.S. is now moving beyond value based payment methodologies and seeking to create alternative payment models such as bundled payments to continue to drive improved value. We see other governments around the world considering similar bundling reform measures, including the development of the Diagnosis Related Group (“DRG”) as a payment mechanism to drive toward quality and resource based reimbursement.

See Item 1A. Risk Factors for a further discussion.
Regulation
BD’s medical technology products and operations are subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) and various other federal and state agencies, as well as by foreign governmental agencies. These agencies enforce laws and regulations that govern the development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, advertising, marketing and distribution, and market surveillance of BD’s medical products. The scope of the activities of these agencies, particularly in the Europe, Japan, and Asia Pacific regions in which BD operates, has been increasing.
BD actively maintains FDA/ISO Quality Systems that establish standards for its product design, manufacturing, and distribution processes. Prior to marketing or selling most of its products, BD must secure approval from the FDA and counterpart non-U.S. regulatory agencies. Following the introduction of a product, these agencies engage in periodic reviews and inspections of BD’s quality systems, as well as product performance and advertising and promotional materials. These regulatory controls, as well as any changes in FDA policies, can affect the time and cost associated with the development, introduction and continued availability of new products. Where possible, BD anticipates these factors in its product development and planning processes. These agencies possess the authority to take various administrative and legal actions against BD, such as product recalls, product seizures and other civil and criminal sanctions. BD also undertakes voluntary compliance actions such as voluntary recalls.
BD also is subject to various federal and state laws, and laws outside the United States, concerning healthcare fraud and abuse (including false claims laws and anti-kickback laws), global anti-corruption, transportation, safety and health, and customs and exports. Many of the agencies enforcing these laws have increased their enforcement activities with respect to medical device manufacturers in recent years. This appears to be part of a general trend toward increased regulation and enforcement activity within and outside the United States.
In addition, as part of PPACA, the federal government has enacted the Sunshine Act provisions requiring BD to publicly report gifts and payments made to physicians and teaching hospitals. Many of these provisions are new and uncertain, and failure to comply could result in a range of fines, penalties and/or other sanctions.
Our infusion pump business unit is operating under an amended consent decree entered into by CareFusion with the FDA in 2007. CareFusion’s consent decree with the FDA related to its Alaris SE infusion pumps. In February 2009, CareFusion and the FDA amended the consent decree to include all infusion pumps manufactured by or for CareFusion 303, Inc., the business unit that manufactures and sells infusion pumps in the United States. The amended consent decree does not apply to intravenous administration sets and accessories.

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While this BD business unit remains subject to the amended consent decree, which includes the requirements of the original consent decree, it has made substantial progress in its compliance efforts. However, we cannot predict the outcome of this matter, and the amended consent decree authorizes the FDA, in the event of any violations in the future, to order us to cease manufacturing and distributing infusion pumps, recall products and take other actions. We may be required to pay damages of $15,000 per day per violation if we fail to comply with any provision of the amended consent decree, up to $15 million per year.
We also cannot currently predict whether additional monetary investment will be incurred to resolve this matter or the matter’s ultimate impact on our business. We may be obligated to pay more costs in the future because, among other things, the FDA may determine that we are not fully compliant with the amended consent decree and therefore impose penalties under the amended consent decree, and/or we may be subject to future proceedings and litigation relating to the matters addressed in the amended consent decree. As of September 30, 2016, we do not believe that a loss is probable in connection with the amended consent decree, and accordingly, we have no accruals associated with compliance with the amended consent decree.
See also Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
Employees
As of September 30, 2016, BD had 50,928 employees, of which 18,480 were employed in the U.S. (including Puerto Rico). BD believes that its employee relations are satisfactory.
Available Information
BD maintains a website at www.bd.com. BD also makes available its Annual Reports on Form 10-K, its Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and its Current Reports on Form 8-K (and amendments to those reports) as soon as reasonably practicable after those reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These filings may be obtained and printed free of charge at www.bd.com/investors. In addition, the written charters of the Audit Committee, the Compensation and Management Development Committee, the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee, the Executive Committee and the Science, Marketing, Innovation and Technology Committee of the Board of Directors, BD’s Corporate Governance Principles and its Code of Conduct, are available at BD’s website at www.bd.com/investors/corporate_governance/. Printed copies of these materials, this 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K, and BD’s reports and statements filed with, or furnished to, the SEC, may be obtained, without charge, by contacting the Corporate Secretary, BD, 1 Becton Drive, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey 07417-1880, telephone 201-847-6800. In addition, the SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
BD also routinely posts important information for investors on its website at www.bd.com/investors. BD may use this website as a means of disclosing material, non-public information and for complying with its disclosure obligations under Regulation FD adopted by the SEC. Accordingly, investors should monitor the Investor Relations portion of BD’s website noted above, in addition to following BD’s press releases, SEC filings, and public conference calls and webcasts. Our website and the information contained therein or connected thereto shall not be deemed to be incorporated into this Annual Report.
Forward-Looking Statements
BD and its representatives may from time-to-time make certain forward-looking statements in publicly-released materials, both written and oral, including statements contained in filings with the SEC and in its reports to shareholders. Additional information regarding BD’s forward-looking statements is contained in Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
 
Item  1A.    Risk Factors.
An investment in BD involves a variety of risks and uncertainties. The following describes some of the significant risks that could adversely affect BD’s business, financial condition, operating results or cash flows.

Risks Relating to the Company
Global economic conditions could adversely affect our operations.
Deterioration in the global economic environment, particularly in emerging markets and countries with government-sponsored healthcare systems, may cause decreased demand for our products and services and increased competition, which could result in lower sales volume and downward pressure on the prices for our products, longer sales cycles, and slower adoption of new technologies. A weakening of macroeconomic conditions may also adversely affect our suppliers, which could result in interruptions in supply. We have also previously experienced delays in collecting government receivables in certain countries in Western Europe due to economic conditions, and we may experience similar delays in the future in these and other countries or regions experiencing financial problems.

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The medical technology industry is very competitive.
We are a global company that faces significant competition from a wide range of companies. These include large medical device companies with multiple product lines, some of which may have greater financial and marketing resources than we do, and firms that are more specialized than we are with respect to particular markets or product lines. We face competition across all our product lines and in each market in which our products are sold on the basis of product features, clinical outcomes, product quality, price, services and other factors. In addition, we face changing customer preferences and requirements, including increased customer demand for more environmentally-friendly products.
The medical technology industry is also subject to rapid technological change and discovery. The development of new or improved products, processes or technologies by other companies (such as needle-free injection technology) may render our products or proposed products obsolete or less competitive. In some instances, competitors, including pharmaceutical companies, also offer, or are attempting to develop, alternative therapies for disease states that may be delivered without a medical device. The entry into the market of manufacturers located in China and other low-cost manufacturing locations has also created pricing pressure, particularly in developing markets.
We are subject to foreign currency exchange risk.
A substantial amount of our revenues are derived from international operations, and we anticipate that a significant portion of our sales will continue to come from outside the U.S. in the future. The revenues we report with respect to our operations outside the United States may be adversely affected by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. A discussion of the financial impact of exchange rate fluctuations and the ways and extent to which we may attempt to address any impact is contained in Item 7., Management’s Discussion of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. Any hedging activities we engage in may only offset a portion of the adverse financial impact resulting from unfavorable changes in foreign currency exchange rates. We cannot predict with any certainty changes in foreign currency exchange rates or the degree to which we can mitigate these risks.
Changes in reimbursement practices of third-party payers could affect the demand for our products and the prices at which they are sold.
Our sales depend, in part, on the extent to which healthcare providers and facilities are reimbursed by government authorities, private insurers and other third-party payers for the costs of our products. The coverage policies and reimbursement levels of third-party payers, which can vary among public and private sources and by country, may affect which products customers purchase and the prices they are willing to pay for those products in a particular jurisdiction. Reimbursement rates can also affect the acceptance rate of new technologies and products. Legislative or administrative reforms to reimbursement systems in the United States or abroad, changes in reimbursement rates by private payers, or adverse decisions relating to our products by administrators of these systems could significantly reduce reimbursement for procedures using our products or result in denial of reimbursement for those products, which would adversely affect customer demand or the price customers are willing to pay for such products. See “Third-Party Reimbursement” under Item 1., Business.
Federal healthcare reform may adversely affect our results of operations.
The PPACA imposes on medical device manufacturers, such as BD, a 2.3% excise tax on U.S. sales of certain medical devices. While the excise tax has been suspended until the end of 2017, it may be reinstated in 2018 or beyond. In addition, the PPACA, among other things, reduces Medicare and Medicaid payments to hospitals, clinical laboratories and pharmaceutical companies, and could otherwise reduce the volume of medical procedures. These factors, in turn, could result in reduced demand for our products and increased downward pricing pressure. It is also possible that the PPACA will result in lower reimbursement rates for our products. Other provisions in the law may significantly change the practice of health care and could adversely affect aspects of our business.
Consolidation in the healthcare industry could adversely affect our future revenues and operating income.
The medical technology industry has experienced a significant amount of consolidation, resulting in companies with greater market presence. Health care systems and other health care companies are also consolidating, resulting in greater purchasing power for these companies. As a result, competition among medical device suppliers to provide goods and services has increased. Group purchasing organizations and integrated health delivery networks have also served to concentrate purchasing decisions for some customers, which has led to downward pricing pressure for medical device suppliers. Further consolidation in the industry could intensify competition among medical device suppliers and exert additional pressure on the prices of our products.
Cost volatility could adversely affect our operations.
Our results of operations could be negatively impacted by volatility in the cost of raw materials, components, freight and energy that increases the costs of producing and distributing our products. New laws or regulations adopted in response to

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climate change could also increase energy costs as well as the costs of certain raw materials and components. In particular, we purchase supplies of resins, which are oil-based components used in the manufacture of certain products, and any significant increases in resin costs could adversely impact future operating results. Increases in oil prices can also increase our packaging and transportation costs. We may not be able to offset any increases in these operational costs.
Breaches of our information technology systems could have a material adverse effect on our operations.
We rely on information technology systems to process, transmit, and store electronic information in our day-to-day operations, including sensitive personal information and proprietary or confidential information. In addition, some of our products include information technology that collects data regarding patients and patient therapy on behalf of our customers and some connect to our systems for maintenance purposes.  Our information technology systems have been subjected to attack via malicious code execution, cyber- or phishing- attacks, and we have experienced instances of unauthorized access to our systems in the past and expect to be subject to similar attacks in the future. In addition to our own information, in the course of doing business, we sometimes store information with third parties that could be subject to these types of attacks.  Cyber-attacks could result in our intellectual property and other confidential information being accessed or stolen.  Likewise, we could suffer disruption of our operations and other significant negative consequences including increased costs for security measures or remediation, diversion of management attention, and adverse impact on our relationships with vendors, business partners and customers.  Unauthorized tampering, adulteration or interference with our products may also create issues with product functionality that could result in a loss of data, risk to patient safety, and product recalls or field actions.  Our lack of success in preventing unauthorized access to our systems and products could also result in actions by regulatory bodies or civil litigation.  While we will continue to dedicate significant resources to protect the company against unauthorized access to our systems and work with government authorities to detect and reduce the risk of future cyber incidents, cyber-attacks are becoming more sophisticated frequent, and adaptive. There can be no assurances that our protective measures will prevent future attacks that could have a material adverse impact on our business.
Our future growth is dependent in part upon the development of new products, and there can be no assurance that such products will be developed.
A significant element of our strategy is to increase revenue growth by focusing on product offerings that deliver greater benefits to patients, healthcare workers and researchers. The development of these products requires significant investment in research and development, clinical trials and regulatory approvals. The results of our product development efforts may be affected by a number of factors, including our ability to anticipate customer needs, innovate and develop new products and technologies, successfully complete clinical trials, obtain regulatory approvals and reimbursement in the United States and abroad, manufacture products in a cost-effective manner, obtain appropriate intellectual property protection for our products, and gain and maintain market acceptance of our products. In addition, patents attained by others can preclude or delay our commercialization of a product. There can be no assurance that any products now in development or that we may seek to develop in the future will achieve technological feasibility, obtain regulatory approval or gain market acceptance.
We cannot guarantee that any of our strategic acquisitions, investments or alliances will be successful.
We may seek to supplement our internal growth through strategic acquisitions, investments and alliances. Such transactions are inherently risky, and the integration of any newly-acquired business requires significant effort and management attention. The success of any acquisition, investment or alliance may be affected by a number of factors, including our ability to properly assess and value the potential business opportunity or to successfully integrate any business we may acquire into our existing business. There can be no assurance that any past or future transaction will be successful.
The international operations of our business may subject us to certain business risks.
A substantial amount of our sales come from our operations outside the United States, and we intend to continue to pursue growth opportunities in foreign markets, especially in emerging markets. Our foreign operations subject us to certain risks, including the effects of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange (discussed above), the effects of local economic and political conditions, foreign regulatory requirements or changes in such requirements, local product preferences and product requirements, difficulty in establishing, staffing and managing foreign operations, differing labor regulations, changes in tax laws, potential political instability, weakening or loss of the protection of intellectual property rights in some countries, import or export licensing requirements, trade protection measures and restrictions on the transfer of capital across borders. The success of our operations outside the United States depends, in part, on our ability to acquire or form and maintain alliances with local companies and make necessary infrastructure enhancements to, among other things, our production facilities and sales and distribution networks.
The June 2016 referendum by British voters to exit the European Union (“EU”) (commonly known as “Brexit”) has created uncertainties affecting business operations in the United Kingdom (“UK”) and the EU. Following the vote, there was a significant decline in the value of the British pound compared to the U.S. dollar, and there may be continued volatility in exchange rates and economic conditions as the UK negotiates its exit from the EU. Until the terms and timing of the UK’s exit

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from the EU are determined, it is difficult to predict its impact. It is possible that the referendum and proposed withdrawal could, among other things, affect the legal and regulatory schemes to which our businesses are subject, impact trade between the UK and the EU and other parties and create economic uncertainty in the region.
In addition, our international operations are governed by the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-corruption laws outside the U.S. Global enforcement of anti-corruption laws has increased substantially in recent years, with more enforcement proceedings by U.S. and foreign governmental agencies and the imposition of significant fines and penalties. While we have implemented policies and procedures to enhance compliance with these laws, our international operations, which often involve customer relationships with foreign governments, create the risk that there may be unauthorized payments or offers of payments made by employees, consultants, sales agents or distributors. Any alleged or actual violations of these laws may subject us to government investigations, significant criminal or civil sanctions and other liabilities, and negatively affect our reputation.
Under the U.S. tax code, we may also be subject to additional taxation to the extent we repatriate earnings from our foreign operations to the U.S. In the event we require more capital in the United States than is generated by our U.S. operations to fund acquisitions or other activities and elect to repatriate earnings from foreign jurisdictions, our effective tax rate may be higher as a result.
Reductions in customers’ research budgets or government funding may adversely affect our business.
We sell products to researchers at pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, government laboratories and private foundations. Research and development spending of our customers can fluctuate based on spending priorities and general economic conditions. A number of these customers are also dependent for their funding upon grants from U.S. government agencies, such as the U.S. National Institutes of Health (“NIH”) and agencies in other countries. The level of government funding of research and development is unpredictable. For instance, there have been instances where NIH grants have been frozen or otherwise unavailable for extended periods. The availability of governmental research funding may be adversely affected by economic conditions and governmental spending reductions. Any reduction or delay in governmental funding could cause our customers to delay or forego purchases of our products.
A reduction or interruption in the supply of certain raw materials and components would adversely affect our manufacturing operations and related product sales.
We purchase many different types of raw materials and components used in our products. Certain raw materials and components are not available from multiple sources. In addition, for quality assurance, cost-effectiveness and other reasons, we elect to purchase certain raw materials and components from sole suppliers. The supply of these materials can be disrupted for a number of reasons, including economic conditions as described above. While we work with suppliers to ensure continuity of supply, no assurance can be given that these efforts will be successful. In addition, due to regulatory requirements relating to the qualification of suppliers, we may not be able to establish additional or replacement sources on a timely basis or without excessive cost. The termination, reduction or interruption in supply of these sole-sourced raw materials and components could adversely impact our ability to manufacture and sell certain of our products.
Interruption of our manufacturing operations could adversely affect our future revenues and operating income.
We have manufacturing sites all over the world. In some instances, however, the manufacturing of certain of our product lines is concentrated in one or more of our plants. Damage to one or more of these facilities from weather or natural disasters, or issues in our manufacturing process, equipment failure or other factors, could adversely affect our ability to manufacture these products, resulting in lost revenues and damage to our relationships with customers.
We are subject to lawsuits.
We are or have been a defendant in a number of lawsuits, including purported class action lawsuits for alleged antitrust violations and suits alleging patent infringement, and could be subject to additional lawsuits in the future. A more detailed description of these lawsuits is contained in note 5 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8., Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. Given the uncertain nature of litigation generally, we are not able in all cases to estimate the amount or range of loss that could result from an unfavorable outcome of the litigation to which we are a party. In view of these uncertainties, we could incur charges in excess of any currently established accruals and, to the extent available, excess liability insurance. Any such future charges, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to extensive regulation.
Our operations are global and are affected by complex state, federal and international laws relating to healthcare, environmental protection, antitrust, anti-corruption, fraud and abuse (including anti-kickback and false claims laws), export control, employment and other areas. Violations of these laws can result in criminal or civil sanctions, including substantial

8


fines and, in some cases, exclusion from participation in health care programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. Environmental laws, particularly with respect to the emission of greenhouse gases, are also becoming more stringent throughout the world, which may increase our costs of operations or necessitate changes in our manufacturing plants or processes or those of our suppliers, or result in liability to BD if we violate such laws. The enactment of additional laws in the future may increase our compliance costs or otherwise adversely impact our operations.
We are also subject to extensive regulation by the FDA pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, by comparable agencies in foreign countries, and by other regulatory agencies and governing bodies. Most of our products must receive clearance or approval from the FDA or counterpart regulatory agencies in other countries before they can be marketed or sold. The process for obtaining marketing approval or clearance may take a significant period of time and require the expenditure of substantial resources, and these have been increasing due to increased requirements from the FDA for supporting data for submissions. The process may also require changes to our products or result in limitations on the indicated uses of the products. Governmental agencies may also impose new requirements regarding registration, labeling or prohibited materials that may require us to modify or re-register products already on the market or otherwise impact our ability to market our products in those countries. Once clearance or approval has been obtained for a product, there is an obligation to ensure that all applicable FDA and other regulatory requirements continue to be met. Following the introduction of a product, these agencies also periodically review our manufacturing processes and product performance. Our failure to comply with the applicable good manufacturing practices, adverse event reporting, clinical trial and other requirements of these agencies could delay or prevent the production, marketing or sale of our products and result in fines, delays or suspensions of regulatory clearances, closure of manufacturing sites, seizures or recalls of products and damage to our reputation. More stringent oversight by the FDA and other agencies in recent years has resulted in increased enforcement activity, which increases the compliance risk for us and other companies in our industry.
As a result of the CareFusion acquisition, we are operating under a consent decree with the FDA that was entered into by CareFusion in 2009, that affects our infusion pump business in the United States. For more information regarding the consent decree, see “Regulation” under Item 1, “Business”.
Product defects could adversely affect the results of our operations.
The design, manufacture and marketing of medical devices involve certain inherent risks. Manufacturing or design defects, unapproved use of our products, or inadequate disclosure of risks or other information relating to the use of our products can lead to injury or other adverse events. These events could lead to recalls or safety alerts relating to our products (either voluntary or required by the FDA or similar governmental authorities in other countries), and could result, in certain cases, in the removal of a product from the market. A recall could result in significant costs and lost sales, as well as negative publicity and damage to our reputation that could reduce future demand for our products. Personal injuries relating to the use of our products can also result in significant product liability claims being brought against us. In some circumstances, such adverse events could also cause delays in regulatory approval of new products.
Our operations are dependent in part on patents and other intellectual property assets.
Many of our businesses rely on patent, trademark and other intellectual property assets. These intellectual property assets, in the aggregate, are of material importance to our business. We can lose the protection afforded by these intellectual property assets through patent expirations, legal challenges or governmental action. Patents attained by competitors, particularly as patents on our products expire, may also adversely affect our competitive position. In addition, competitors may seek to invalidate patents on our products or claim that our products infringe upon their intellectual property, which could result in a loss of competitive advantage or the payment of significant legal fees, damage awards and past or future royalties, as well as injunctions against future sales of our products. We also operate in countries that do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as in the U.S., which could make it easier for competitors to compete with us in those countries. The loss of a significant portion of our portfolio of intellectual property assets may have an adverse effect on our earnings, financial condition or cash flows.
Natural disasters, war and other events could adversely affect our future revenues and operating income.
Natural disasters (including pandemics), war, terrorism, labor disruptions and international conflicts, and actions taken by the United States and other governments or by our customers or suppliers in response to such events, could cause significant economic disruption and political and social instability in the United States and areas outside of the United States in which we operate. These events could result in decreased demand for our products, adversely affect our manufacturing and distribution capabilities, or increase the costs for or cause interruptions in the supply of materials from our suppliers.
We need to attract and retain key employees to be competitive.
Our ability to compete effectively depends upon our ability to attract and retain executives and other key employees, including people in technical, marketing, sales and research positions. Competition for experienced employees, particularly for

9


persons with specialized skills, can be intense. Our ability to recruit such talent will depend on a number of factors, including compensation and benefits, work location and work environment. If we cannot effectively recruit and retain qualified executives and employees, our business could be adversely affected.

Risks Relating To Our Acquisition of CareFusion
The integration process with CareFusion may be more difficult, costly or time consuming than expected and the anticipated benefits and cost savings of the merger may not be realized.
The success of our acquisition of CareFusion, including anticipated benefits and cost savings, will depend, in part, on our ability to successfully combine and integrate our business with the business of CareFusion. It is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of key employees, higher than expected costs, diversion of management attention and resources, the disruption of ongoing businesses or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies that adversely affect the combined company’s ability to maintain relationships with customers, vendors and employees or to achieve the anticipated benefits and cost savings of the merger. As part of the integration process, we intend to move assets within our combined company to create efficiencies and may seek to opportunistically divest certain assets of the combined company, which may change the profile of the combined company, and which may not be possible on favorable terms, or at all. If we experience difficulties with the integration process, the anticipated benefits of the merger may not be realized fully or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected. These integration matters could have an adverse effect on the combined company for an undetermined period going forward. In addition, the actual cost savings of the merger could be less than anticipated.
In connection with the CareFusion transactions, we incurred and assumed significant additional indebtedness, which could adversely affect us, including by decreasing our business flexibility.
We have substantially increased indebtedness following completion of the CareFusion acquisition in comparison to that of BD on a recent historical basis, which has increased our interest expense and could have the effect, among other things, of reducing our flexibility to respond to changing business and economic conditions. The amount of cash required to pay interest on our increased indebtedness following the merger, and thus the demands on our cash resources, is greater than the amount of cash flows required to service our indebtedness prior to the acquisition. Our increased levels of indebtedness could also reduce funds available for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, funding research and development or future expansion of our business, and other general corporate purposes and may create competitive disadvantages for BD relative to other companies with lower debt levels. If we do not achieve the expected benefits and cost savings from the transaction, or if the financial performance of the combined company does not meet current expectations, then our ability to service this indebtedness may be adversely impacted.
Certain of the indebtedness incurred in connection with the acquisition bears interest at variable interest rates. If interest rates increase, variable rate debt will create higher debt service requirements, which could adversely affect our cash flows.
In addition, our credit ratings affect the cost and availability of future borrowings and, accordingly, our cost of capital. Our ratings reflect each rating organization’s opinion of our financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet our debt obligations. Our ratings were downgraded in connection with the indebtedness incurred and assumed in the acquisition of CareFusion, and there can be no assurance that we will achieve a particular rating or maintain a particular rating in the future. Moreover, we may be required to raise substantial additional financing to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate requirements. Our ability to arrange additional financing or refinancing will depend on, among other factors, our financial position and performance, as well as prevailing market conditions and other factors beyond our control. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain additional financing or refinancing on terms acceptable to us or at all.
The agreements that govern the indebtedness incurred or assumed in connection with the acquisition contain various covenants that impose restrictions on us and certain of our subsidiaries that may affect our ability to operate our businesses.
The agreements that govern the indebtedness incurred or assumed in connection with the CareFusion transaction contain various affirmative and negative covenants that may, subject to certain significant exceptions, restrict our ability and the ability of certain of our subsidiaries (including CareFusion) to, among other things, have liens on their property, transact business with affiliates and/or merge or consolidate with any other person or sell or convey certain of our assets to any one person. In addition, some of the agreements that govern our indebtedness contain financial covenants that will require us to maintain certain financial ratios. Our ability and the ability of our subsidiaries to comply with these provisions may be affected by events beyond our control. Failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could accelerate our repayment obligations.


10



Item  1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
Item 2.    Properties.
BD’s executive offices are located in Franklin Lakes, New Jersey. As of October 31, 2016, BD owned or leased 255 facilities throughout the world, comprising approximately 19,796,011 square feet of manufacturing, warehousing, administrative and research facilities. The U.S. facilities, including those in Puerto Rico, comprise approximately 7,459,856 square feet of owned and 2,923,257 square feet of leased space. The international facilities comprise approximately 7,189,652 square feet of owned and 2,223,245 square feet of leased space. Sales offices and distribution centers included in the total square footage are also located throughout the world.
Operations in each of BD’s business segments are conducted at both U.S. and international locations. Particularly in the international marketplace, facilities often serve more than one business segment and are used for multiple purposes, such as administrative/sales, manufacturing and/or warehousing/distribution. BD generally seeks to own its manufacturing facilities, although some are leased. The following table summarizes property information by business segment.
Sites
Corporate 
BD Life Sciences 
BD Medical 
Mixed(A) 
Total 
Leased
11

19

75

92

195

Owned
3

15

31

121

60

Total
14

34

106

103

255

Square feet
1,425,720

4,337,963

9,891,908

4,140,420

19,796,011

(A)
Facilities used by more than one business segment.
BD believes that its facilities are of good construction and in good physical condition, are suitable and adequate for the operations conducted at those facilities, and are, with minor exceptions, fully utilized and operating at normal capacity.
The U.S. facilities are located in Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, D.C., Washington, Wisconsin and Puerto Rico.
The international facilities are as follows:
Europe, Middle East, Africa, which includes facilities in Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates and Zambia.
Greater Asia, which includes facilities in Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.
- Latin America, which includes facilities in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and the Dominican Republic.
- Canada.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings.
Information with respect to certain legal proceedings is included in Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, and is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.

11


Executive Officers of the Registrant
The following is a list of the executive officers of BD, their ages and all positions and offices held by each of them during the past five years. There is no family relationship between any executive officer or director of BD.
 
Name
Age
Position
Vincent A. Forlenza
63
Chairman since July 2012; Chief Executive Officer since October 2011; President since January 2009; and Chief Operating Officer from July 2010 to October 2011.
Gary M. Cohen
57
Executive Vice President and President, Global Health.
Alexandre Conroy
53
Executive Vice President and President, Europe, EMA and the Americas since June 2012; and prior thereto, President, Western Europe.
James Lim
52
Executive Vice President and President, Greater Asia since June 2012; and prior thereto, Vice President/General Manager, Central Asia Pacific and Operations.
Alberto Mas
55
Executive Vice President and President - Life Sciences Segment since October 2016; Worldwide President - Life Sciences, Diagnostic Systems from October 2013 to October 2016; and Worldwide President - BD Biosciences from October 2011 to October 2013.
Thomas E. Polen
43
Executive Vice President and President - Medical Segment since October 2014; Group President from October 2013 to October 2014; and Worldwide President - BD Diagnostic Systems from October 2010 to October 2013.
Christopher R. Reidy
59
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Chief Administrative Officer since July 2013; and prior thereto, Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of ADP Corporation.
Nabil Shabshab
51
Executive Vice President, Strategic Planning and Chief Marketing Officer.
Jeffrey S. Sherman
61
Executive Vice President and General Counsel.
Stephen Sichak
59
Executive Vice President, Integrated Supply Chain.
Ellen R. Strahlman, M.D.
59
Executive Vice President, Research and Development and Chief Medical Officer since April 2013; Senior Vice President, Office of the CEO and Global Head, Neglected Tropical Diseases of GlaxoSmithKline from March 2012 to May 2012, and prior thereto, Chief Medical Officer of GlaxoSmithKline plc.
Linda M. Tharby
48
Executive Vice President since October 2014 and Chief Human Resource Officer since October 2016; President - Life Sciences Segment from October 2014 to October 2016; Group President from October 2013 to October 2014; and prior thereto, Worldwide President - BD Medical, Diabetes Care.

12


PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
BD’s common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. As of October 31, 2016, there were approximately 13,734 shareholders of record.
Market and Market Prices of Common Stock (per common share)

 
2015
2016 
By Quarter
High 
Low 
High 
Low 
First
$141.26
$113.60
$156.53
$132.19
Second
$149.50
$138.08
$152.54
$132.88
Third
$145.57
$137.93
$172.19
$152.86
Fourth
$153.86
$130.40
$181.55
$169.64
Dividends (per common share)
By Quarter
2015
2016
First
$ 0.600

$ 0.660

Second
0.600

0.660

Third
0.600

0.660

Fourth
0.600

0.660

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The table below sets forth certain information regarding BD’s purchases of its common stock during the fiscal quarter ended September 30, 2016.
Period
Total Number of
Shares
Purchased(1)
 
Average
Price
Paid
per Share
 
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs(2)
 
Maximum Number
of Shares that
May Yet be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs(2)
July 1-31, 2016

 

 

 
9,147,060

August 1-31, 2016
2,364

 
$173.57

 

 
9,147,060

September 1-30, 2016

 

 

 
9,147,060

Total
2,364

 
$173.57
 

 
9,147,060

 
(1)
Represents shares purchased during the quarter in open market transactions by the trust relating to BD’s Deferred Compensation and Retirement Benefit Restoration Plan and 1996 Directors’ Deferral Plan.
(2)
Any repurchases would be made pursuant to the repurchase program authorized by the Board of Directors on September 24, 2013 for 10 million shares, for which there is no expiration date.

13


Item 6.    Selected Financial Data.
FIVE-YEAR SUMMARY OF SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Becton, Dickinson and Company
 
Years Ended September 30
 
  
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
Dollars in millions, except share and per share amounts
 
Operations
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
$
12,483

  
$
10,282

  
$
8,446

  
$
8,054

  
$
7,708

 
Gross Margin
5,991

  
4,695

  
4,301

  
4,171

  
3,953

 
Research and Development Expense
828

  
632

  
550

  
494

  
472

 
Operating Income
1,430

  
1,074

  
1,606

  
1,254

  
1,558

 
Interest Expense, Net
367

  
356

  
89

 
98

  
84

 
Income From Continuing Operations Before Income Taxes
1,074

(A) 
739

(B) 
1,522

(C) 
1,165

(D) 
1,472

(E) 
Income Tax Provision
97

 
44

 
337

 
236

 
363

 
Income from Continuing Operations
976

(A) 
695

(B) 
1,185

(C) 
929

(D)
1,110

(E) 
Net Income
976

 
695

 
1,185

 
1,293

 
1,170

 
Basic Earnings Per Share from Continuing Operations
4.59

 
3.43

 
6.13

 
4.76

 
5.40

 
Diluted Earnings Per Share from Continuing Operations
4.49

(A) 
3.35

(B) 
5.99

(C) 
4.67

(D)
5.30

(E) 
Dividends Per Common Share
2.64

  
2.40

  
2.18

  
1.98

  
1.80

 
Financial Position
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Current Assets
$
6,367

  
$
5,659

  
$
5,775

  
$
5,530

  
$
5,144

 
Total Current Liabilities
4,400

  
4,381

  
2,225

  
2,122

  
1,974

 
Total PPE, Net
3,901

  
4,060

  
3,605

  
3,476

  
3,304

 
Total Assets
25,586

  
26,478

  
12,384

  
12,029

  
11,376

 
Total Long-Term Debt
10,550

  
11,370

  
3,768

  
3,763

  
3,761

 
Total Shareholders’ Equity
7,633

  
7,164

  
5,053

  
5,043

  
4,136

 
Book Value Per Common Share
35.79

  
34.00

  
26.33

  
25.99

  
21.00

 
Financial Relationships
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross Profit Margin
48.0
%
 
45.7
%
 
50.9
%
 
51.8
%
 
51.3
%
 
Return on Revenues
7.8
%
 
6.8
%
 
14.0
%
 
11.5
%
(F) 
14.4
%
(F) 
Return on Total Assets(G)
5.6
%
 
5.7
%
 
13.6
%
 
11.1
%
(F) 
14.7
%
(F) 
Return on Equity
13.2
%
 
11.4
%
 
23.5
%
 
20.2
%
(F) 
24.8
%
(F) 
Debt to Capitalization(H)
57.2
%
 
59.4
%
 
43.6
%
 
43.6
%
(F) 
49.6
%
(F) 
Additional Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Number of Employees
50,900

  
49,500

  
30,600

  
30,000

  
29,600

 
Number of Shareholders
13,788

  
14,547

  
8,210

  
8,412

  
8,696

 
Average Common and Common Equivalent Shares Outstanding — Assuming Dilution (millions)
217.5

  
207.5

  
197.7

  
199.2

  
209.2

 
Depreciation and Amortization
$
1,114

  
$
891

  
$
562

  
$
546

  
$
511

 
Capital Expenditures
693

  
596

  
592

  
522

  
487

 
 
Refer to Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for additional discussion regarding the specified items referenced in notes (A) through (D) below.
(A)
Includes the impact of specified items totaling $1.261 billion ($892 million after-tax), or $4.10 diluted earnings per share from continuing operations, which affects comparisons of results across periods presented.

14


(B)
Includes the impact of specified items totaling $1.186 billion ($786 million after-tax), or $3.79 diluted earnings per share from continuing operations, which affects comparisons of results across periods presented.
(C)
Includes the impact of specified items totaling $153 million ($101 million after-tax), or $0.51 diluted earnings per share from continuing operations, which affects comparisons of results across periods presented.
(D)
Includes the impact of specified items totaling $442 million ($279 million after-tax), or $1.40 diluted earnings per share from continuing operations, which affects comparisons of results across periods presented.
(E)
There were no amounts reflected in the results of operations for the period which would significantly affect the comparisons of results across periods presented.
(F)
Excludes discontinued operations.
(G)
Earnings before interest expense and taxes as a percent of average total assets.
(H)
Total debt as a percent of the sum of total debt, shareholders’ equity and non-current deferred income tax liabilities.


Item 7.     Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following commentary should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Within the tables presented throughout this discussion, certain columns may not add due to the use of rounded numbers for disclosure purposes. Percentages and earnings per share amounts presented are calculated from the underlying amounts. References to years throughout this discussion relate to our fiscal years, which end on September 30.
Company Overview
Description of the Company and Business Segments

Becton, Dickinson and Company (“BD”) is a global medical technology company engaged in the development, manufacture and sale of a broad range of medical supplies, devices, laboratory equipment and diagnostic products used by healthcare institutions, life science researchers, clinical laboratories, the pharmaceutical industry and the general public. The Company's organizational structure is based upon two principal business segments, BD Medical (“Medical”) and BD Life Sciences (“Life Sciences”).

BD’s products are manufactured and sold worldwide. Our products are marketed in the United States and internationally through independent distribution channels and directly to end-users by BD and independent sales representatives. We organize our operations outside the United States as follows: Europe; EMA (which includes the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Middle East and Africa); Greater Asia (which includes Japan and Asia Pacific); Latin America (which includes Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America); and Canada. We continue to pursue growth opportunities in emerging markets, which include the following geographic regions: Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Latin America and certain countries within Asia Pacific. We are primarily focused on certain countries whose healthcare systems are expanding, in particular, China and India.
Strategic Objectives
BD remains focused on delivering sustainable growth and shareholder value, while making appropriate investments for the future. BD management operates the business consistent with the following core strategies:
To increase revenue growth by focusing on our core products, services and solutions that deliver greater benefits to patients, healthcare workers and researchers;
To continue investment in research and development for platform extensions and innovative new products;
To make investments in growing our operations in emerging markets;
To improve operating effectiveness and balance sheet productivity;
To drive an efficient capital structure and strong shareholder returns.
Our strategy focuses on four specific areas within healthcare and life sciences:
Enabling safer, simpler and more effective parenteral drug delivery;
Improving clinical outcomes through new, more accurate and faster diagnostics;
Providing tools and technologies to the research community that facilitate the understanding of the cell, cellular diagnostics and cell therapy;
Enhancing disease management in diabetes, women’s health and cancer, and infection control.

15


We continue to strive to improve the efficiency of our capital structure and follow these guiding principles:
To maintain an investment grade rating;
To ensure access to the debt market for strategic opportunities;
To optimize the cost of capital based on market conditions.
In assessing the outcomes of these strategies as well as BD’s financial condition and operating performance, management generally reviews quarterly forecast data, monthly actual results, segment sales and other similar information. We also consider trends related to certain key financial data, including gross profit margin, selling and administrative expense, investment in research and development, return on invested capital, and cash flows.
Acquisition of CareFusion

On March 17, 2015, BD acquired a 100% interest in CareFusion Corporation ("CareFusion"). CareFusion’s operating results were included in BD’s consolidated results of operations beginning on April 1, 2015 and as such, the consolidated results of operations for the first six months of fiscal year 2015 referenced in the commentary provided further below did not include CareFusion's results. CareFusion operates as part of our Medical segment.
Summary of Financial Results
Worldwide revenues in 2016 of $12.483 billion increased 21.4% from the prior year, compared with an increase of 21.7% in 2015. Revenue growth in 2016 largely reflected the impact from the inclusion of CareFusion’s sales in the Company's results for a full fiscal year in 2016 as compared with only half the fiscal year in 2015, as discussed above. Revenues in 2016 also reflected volume growth of approximately 4.2%, which included an unfavorable impact from the termination of a distribution agreement in the Respiratory Solutions unit. Revenue growth in 2016 additionally reflected an unfavorable foreign currency translation impact of approximately 3.1% and a relatively immaterial favorable impact from price. Revenue growth in 2015 reflected a 24.1% impact from the inclusion of CareFusion's sales in the Company's results from April 1, 2015, as discussed above, as well as volume growth of 5.1% and unfavorable foreign currency translation of 7.5%.
Volume growth in 2016 reflected the following:
Medical segment volume growth was driven by the Medication and Procedural Solutions unit's international sales of safety-engineered products, the Diabetes Care unit’s sales of pen needles and the Pharmaceutical Systems unit's sales of self-injection systems. Fiscal year 2016 revenues in the Respiratory Solutions unit were unfavorably impacted by the termination of a distribution contract, as noted above.
Life Sciences segment volume growth was driven by the Preanalytical Systems unit's global sales of safety-engineered products, the Diagnostic Systems unit's sales of automated platforms and the Biosciences unit’s U.S. sales of research instrument and reagent sales. The Biosciences unit's international fiscal year 2016 revenues were unfavorably impacted by pressure on sales of HIV-related clinical products in Africa.
U.S. Medical segment volume growth in 2016 primarily reflected the sales of infusion disposables and self-injection systems. U.S. Life Sciences segment volume growth in 2016 was driven by sales of safety-engineered products, microbiology platforms, molecular diagnostic platforms, and research reagents, as well as by research instrument placements.
The Medical segment's international volume growth in 2016 was driven by sales of safety-engineered and flush products. The Life Sciences segment's international volume growth in 2016 was driven by sales of safety-engineered products, microbiology and Women's Health and Cancer platforms, but was negatively impacted by pressure on HIV-related clinical products in Africa, as noted above.
Worldwide sales of safety-engineered products reflected volume growth that was attributable to both segments. Fiscal year 2016 sales in the United States of safety-engineered devices of $1.805 billion increased 22.8% and fiscal year 2016 international sales of safety-engineered devices of $1.231 billion grew 9.3% over the prior year’s period, inclusive of an estimated 7.5% unfavorable impact due to foreign currency translation.
We continue to invest in research and development, geographic expansion, and new product promotions to drive further revenue and profit growth. Our ability to sustain our long-term growth will depend on a number of factors, including our ability to expand our core business (including geographical expansion), develop innovative new products, and continue to improve operating efficiency and organizational effectiveness. While the economic environment for the healthcare industry has stabilized, pricing pressures continue for some of our products. Healthcare utilization has stabilized and slightly improved in the United States; however, any destabilization in the future could adversely impact our U.S. businesses. Additionally, macroeconomic challenges in Europe continue to constrain healthcare utilization, although we currently view the environment as stable. In emerging markets, the Company’s growth is dependent primarily on government funding for healthcare systems.

16


Our financial position remains strong, with cash flows from operating activities totaling $2.559 billion in 2016. At September 30, 2016, we had $1.6 billion in cash and equivalents and short-term investments. We continued to return value to our shareholders in the form of dividends. During fiscal year 2016, we paid cash dividends of $562 million. No shares were repurchased during fiscal year 2016.

Each reporting period, we face currency exposure that arises from translating the results of our worldwide operations to the U.S. dollar at exchange rates that fluctuate from the beginning of such period. The ongoing relative strength of the U.S. dollar resulted in an unfavorable foreign currency translation impact to our revenue growth during the fiscal year. We evaluate our results of operations on both a reported and a foreign currency-neutral basis, which excludes the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. As exchange rates are an important factor in understanding period-to-period comparisons, we believe the presentation of results on a foreign currency-neutral basis in addition to reported results helps improve investors’ ability to understand our operating results and evaluate our performance in comparison to prior periods. Foreign currency-neutral ("FXN") information compares results between periods as if exchange rates had remained constant period-over-period. We use results on a foreign currency-neutral basis as one measure to evaluate our performance. We calculate foreign currency-neutral percentages by converting our current-period local currency financial results using the prior-period foreign currency exchange rates and comparing these adjusted amounts to our current-period results. These results should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for, results reported in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). Results on a foreign currency-neutral basis, as we present them, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies and are not measures of performance presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
Results of Operations
Medical Segment
The following is a summary of Medical revenues by organizational unit:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2016 vs. 2015 (A)
 
2015 vs. 2014 (A)
(Millions of dollars)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
Total
Change
 
Estimated
FX
Impact
 
FXN Change
 
Total
Change
 
Estimated
FX
Impact
 
FXN Change
Medication and Procedural Solutions
$
3,413

 
$
2,850

 
$
2,307

 
19.8
 %
 
(3.6
)%
 
23.4
 %
 
23.5
 %
 
(6.4
)%
 
29.9
%
Medication Management Solutions
2,210

 
1,033

 

 
NM

 
NM

 
NM

 
NM

 
NM

 
NM

Diabetes Care
1,023

 
1,012

 
1,037

 
1.1
 %
 
(3.3
)%
 
4.4
 %
 
(2.4
)%
 
(6.7
)%
 
4.3
%
Pharmaceutical Systems
1,199

 
1,167

 
1,229

 
2.7
 %
 
(2.4
)%
 
5.1
 %
 
(5.0
)%
 
(10.1
)%
 
5.1
%
Respiratory Solutions
824

 
419

 

 
96.8
 %
 
(2.3
)%
 
99.1
 %
 
NM

 
NM

 
NM

Deferred revenue adjustment (B)
(14
)
 
(20
)
 

 
(29.3
)%
 
 %
 
(29.3
)%
 
NM

 
NM

 
NM

Total Medical revenues
$
8,654

 
$
6,460

 
$
4,573

 
34.0
 %
 
(3.0
)%
 
37.0
 %
 
41.3
 %
 
(8.5
)%
 
49.8
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Medical segment safety-engineered products
$
1,924

 
$
1,499

 
$
1,119

 
28.3
 %
 
(2.9
)%
 
31.2
 %
 
34.0
 %
 
(6.6
)%
 
40.6
%
(A)
"NM" denotes that the percentage is not meaningful.
(B)
In accordance with U.S. GAAP business combination accounting rules, CareFusion’s deferred revenue balance was written down to reflect a fair value measurement as of the acquisition date.  The deferred revenue adjustment represents the amortization of this write-down which primarily relates to software maintenance contracts in the United States. Revenues for these contracts is typically deferred and recognized over the term of the contracts.

Overall Medical segment revenue growth in 2016 largely reflected the inclusion of CareFusion’s sales for a full fiscal year in 2016 compared with half the fiscal year in 2015, as previously discussed. Medical segment revenue growth in 2016 additionally reflected the Medication and Procedural Solutions unit's international sales of safety-engineered products, the Diabetes Care unit’s sales of pen needles and the Pharmaceutical Systems unit’s sales of self-injection systems. Fiscal year 2016 Medical segment revenue growth was unfavorably impacted by the termination of a distribution contract, as previously discussed, in the Respiratory Solutions unit.

Overall Medical segment growth in 2015 reflected the inclusion of CareFusion's sales for the second half of the fiscal year. Medical segment growth in 2015 additionally reflected the Medication and Procedural Solutions unit's international sales of

17


safety-engineered products, the Diabetes Care unit’s sales of pen needles as well as international sales of safety-engineered products and favorable timing of ordering patterns in the Pharmaceutical Systems unit.
Medical segment operating income was as follows:
(Millions of dollars)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Medical segment operating income
$
2,052

 
$
1,530

  
$
1,291

 
 
 
 
 
 
Segment operating income as % of Medical revenues
23.7
%
 
23.7
%
 
28.2
%

The Medical segment's operating income is driven by its performance with respect to gross profit margin and operating expenses. The Medical segment's gross profit margin in 2016 was slightly higher as compared with 2015 primarily due to lower manufacturing costs resulting from continuous operations improvement projects which improved the efficiency of our operations, partially offset by the recognition of a full year of amortization relating to intangible assets acquired in the CareFusion transaction and by unfavorable foreign currency translation. The Medical segment's gross profit margin as a percentage of revenues was lower in 2015 as compared with 2014 primarily due to the amortization of intangible assets acquired in the CareFusion transaction and the amortization of the acquisition-date write-down of CareFusion’s deferred revenue balance, as previously discussed. These unfavorable impacts on gross margin in 2015 were partially offset primarily by lower manufacturing costs resulting from continuous improvement projects. Selling and administrative expense in 2016 as a percentage of Medical revenues primarily reflected the suspension of the medical device excise tax imposed under the U.S. Patient Protection Affordable Care Act. Selling and administrative expense as a percentage of revenues in 2015 primarily reflected the inclusion of CareFusion’s spending, as well as depreciation of fixed assets acquired in the CareFusion acquisition, in the second half of 2015 results. Research and development expenses in 2016 increased $172 million, or 63% from 2015, which reflected the inclusion of CareFusion spending for a full fiscal year, as well as increased investment in new products and platforms. Research and development expenses in 2015 increased $85 million, or 46% from 2014, primarily due to the inclusion of CareFusion's costs in the second half of 2015 results.
Life Sciences Segment
The following is a summary of Life Sciences revenues by organizational unit:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2016 vs. 2015
 
2015 vs. 2014
 (Millions of dollars)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
Total
Change
 
Estimated
FX
Impact
 
FXN Change
 
Total
Change
 
Estimated
FX
Impact
 
FXN Change
Preanalytical Systems
$
1,409

 
$
1,391

 
$
1,412

 
1.3
 %
 
(3.9
)%
 
5.2
%
 
(1.5
)%
 
(6.4
)%
 
4.9
%
Diagnostic Systems
1,301

 
1,299

 
1,301

 
0.1
 %
 
(3.2
)%
 
3.3
%
 
(0.2
)%
 
(6.5
)%
 
6.3
%
Biosciences
1,119

 
1,132

 
1,159

 
(1.2
)%
 
(2.7
)%
 
1.5
%
 
(2.4
)%
 
(6.0
)%
 
3.6
%
Total Life Sciences revenues
$
3,829

 
$
3,822

 
$
3,872

 
0.2
 %
 
(3.2
)%
 
3.4
%
 
(1.3
)%
 
(6.3
)%
 
5.0
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Life Sciences segment safety-engineered products
$
1,113

 
$
1,097

 
$
1,104

 
1.4
 %
 
(3.7
)%
 
5.1
%
 
(0.7
)%
 
(6.3
)%
 
5.6
%
The Life Sciences segment's 2016 revenue growth was driven by the Preanalytical Systems unit's U.S. and international sales of safety-engineered products. Segment revenue growth in 2016 also reflected the Diagnostic Systems unit's sales of automated platforms, including BD Kiestra™, BD MAXTM, and BD BACTECTM blood culture systems as well as SurePathTM reagents. Fiscal year 2016 revenues in the Life Sciences segment additionally reflected the Biosciences unit’s research instrument and reagent sales, primarily in the United States, which were partially offset by pressure on sales of the Biosciences unit's HIV-related clinical products in Africa, as previously discussed.
The Life Sciences segment's 2015 revenue growth was driven by the Preanalytical Systems unit's international sales of safety-engineered products as well as by the Diagnostic Systems unit's worldwide sales of its BD Veritor™ platform, due to a stronger than normal influenza season, and its automated platforms, including BD Kiestra™, BD MAXTM, and BD BACTECTM blood culture systems. This growth was partially offset by share losses related to the Diagnostic Systems unit's BD ProbeTec™ and BD Viper™ systems. The Life Sciences segment's revenue growth in 2015 also reflected the Biosciences unit’s research instrument and reagent sales in the United States, partially offset by weaker international sales due to lower levels of research funding in Japan.

18


Life Sciences segment operating income was as follows:
(Millions of dollars)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Life Sciences segment operating income
$
793

 
$
839

 
$
861

 
 
 
 
 
 
Segment operating income as % of Life Sciences revenues
20.7
%
 
21.9
%
 
22.2
%

The Life Sciences segment's operating income is driven by its performance with respect to gross profit margin and operating expenses.  The Life Sciences segment's gross profit margin as a percentage of revenues was lower in fiscal year 2016 primarily due to unfavorable foreign currency translation, partially offset by lower manufacturing costs resulting from operations improvement projects which improved the efficiency of our operations. The Life Sciences segment's gross profit margin as a percentage of revenues was lower in fiscal year 2015 compared with 2014 primarily due to unfavorable foreign currency translation, as well as various immaterial items. Selling and administrative expense as a percentage of Life Sciences revenues in 2016 was also lower compared to 2015 primarily due to the suspension of the medical device excise tax. Selling and administrative expense as a percentage of Life Sciences revenues decreased in 2015 compared with 2014, which reflected a charge to terminate a distributor arrangement. Research and development expense in 2016 increased by $14 million, or 5% above spending in 2015, which reflected increased investment in new products and platforms. Research and development expense in 2015 was flat compared with research and development expense in 2014. Research and development expense in 2015 reflected increased investment in new products and platforms, including the BD ViperTM and BD MaxTM platforms, and increased spending relating to acquisitions completed in 2015, which was offset by the prior-year impact of a $20 million asset write-off and costs associated with workforce reduction actions.
Geographic Revenues
BD’s worldwide revenues by geography are provided below.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2016 vs. 2015
 
2015 vs. 2014
(Millions of dollars)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
Total
Change
 
Estimated
FX
Impact
 
FXN Change
 
Total
Change
 
Estimated
FX
Impact
 
FXN Change
United States
$
6,893

 
$
5,069

 
$
3,417

 
36.0
%
 

 
36.0
%
 
48.4
%
 

 
48.4
%
International
5,590

 
5,213

 
5,029

 
7.2
%
 
(6.2
)%
 
13.4
%
 
3.6
%
 
(12.6
)%
 
16.2
%
Total revenues
$
12,483

 
$
10,282

 
$
8,446

 
21.4
%
 
(3.1
)%
 
24.5
%
 
21.7
%
 
(7.5
)%
 
29.2
%
The Medical segment's U.S. revenue growth in 2016 primarily reflected the inclusion of CareFusion's U.S. sales for the full fiscal year. U.S. Medical segment revenues also reflected growth in sales of the segment's legacy products, particularly the Medication and Procedural Solutions unit's infusion disposables and the Pharmaceutical Systems unit's self-injection systems. U.S. Life Sciences revenue growth in 2016 was driven by sales of the Preanalytical Systems unit's safety-engineered products and the Diagnostic Systems unit's microbiology and molecular diagnostic platforms, as well as by research instrument placements and research reagent sales in the Biosciences unit. U.S. Life Sciences growth in 2016 was partially offset by a milder influenza season in 2016 as compared to 2015.
The Medical segment's U.S. revenue growth in 2015 reflected the inclusion of CareFusion’s U.S. sales of approximately $1.5 billion in results for the second half of 2015, as well as overall strength in the segment's legacy product portfolio, which was particularly driven by sales of infusion disposables and safety-engineered products. U.S. Life Sciences revenue growth in 2015 benefited from a stronger than normal influenza season, as discussed previously, and growth in the Biosciences unit’s research reagents and instrument placements, reflecting a favorable funding environment in the U.S. market. U.S. Life Sciences growth in 2015 was unfavorably impacted by share losses related to the BD ProbeTec™ and BD Viper™ systems.
The Medical segment's international revenue growth in 2016 was driven by the inclusion of CareFusion's sales for the full fiscal year, as well as by sales of the Medication and Procedural Solutions unit's safety-engineered products and flush products. The Life Sciences segment's fiscal year 2016 revenue growth was driven by the Preanalytical Systems unit's sales of safety-engineered products primarily in Western Europe and Asia Pacific, as well as by the Diagnostic Systems unit's sales of microbiology and Women's Health and Cancer platforms in Western Europe and Latin America. The Biosciences unit 2016 international revenue growth was negatively impacted by the pressure on sales of HIV-related clinical products in Africa.
International Medical segment revenue growth in 2015 reflected the inclusion of CareFusion’s sales in results for the second half of 2015, as well as growth of sales in emerging markets and sales of safety-engineered products in the Medication and Procedural Solutions and Pharmaceutical Systems units. The Medical segment's international revenue growth in 2015 additionally reflected sales of flush products as well as sales of pen needles in the Diabetes Care unit. International Life Sciences revenue growth in 2015 was largely driven by growth in emerging markets as well as by sales of safety-engineered

19


products. International Life Sciences revenue growth in 2015 also benefited from growth in sales of microbiology products, including lab automation products, but was partially offset by weaker Biosciences unit sales primarily due to lower levels of research funding in Japan.

Effective October 1, 2015, we changed the composition of countries that we define as emerging markets within the Asia Pacific region. On this redefined basis, emerging market revenues were $1.9 billion, $1.8 billion and $1.7 billion in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Unfavorable foreign currency translation impacted emerging market revenues in 2016 and 2015 by an estimated $156 million and $142 million, respectively. Emerging market revenue growth in 2016 reflected the inclusion of CareFusion's sales for the full fiscal year, as well as growth in China and Latin America, partially offset by declines in the Middle East and Africa. Emerging market revenues in 2015 primarily reflected the inclusion of CareFusion's revenues in the second half of 2015.
Specified Items
Reflected in the financial results for 2016, 2015 and 2014 were the following specified items:
(Millions of dollars)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Financing costs (A)
$

 
$
107

 
$

Transaction costs (A)
10

 
59

 
6

Integration costs (A)
192

 
95

 

Restructuring costs (A)
526

 
271

 

Purchase accounting (B)
527

 
645

 
74

Research and development charges (C)

 

 
26

Pension settlement charges
6

 

 
3

Other, net (D)

 
7

 
44

Total specified items
1,261

 
1,186

 
153

Tax impact of specified items
369

 
400

 
52

After-tax impact of specified items
$
892

 
$
786

 
$
101

 
(A)
Represents financing, transaction, integration and restructuring costs substantially associated with the CareFusion acquisition and portfolio rationalization. The financing costs were recorded in Interest expense. The transaction, integration and restructuring costs were recorded in Acquisitions and other restructurings. For further discussion of these charges, refer to Notes 1, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
(B)
Primarily represents non-cash amortization expense associated with acquisition-related identifiable intangible assets. BD’s amortization expense is primarily recorded in Cost of products sold. Amortization and depreciation expense relating to assets acquired in the CareFusion transaction was $492 million in 2016 compared with $284 million in 2015. The adjustments in 2016 also included a net decrease in the fair value of certain contingent consideration liabilities of $25 million. The adjustments in 2015 included a fair value step-up adjustment of $293 million recorded relative to CareFusion’s inventory on the acquisition date and a pre-tax acquisition-date accounting gain of $9 million on a previously held investment.
(C)
Represents charges incurred in 2014 by the Medical and Life Sciences segments of $6 million and $20 million, respectively, in connection with the segments' terminations of certain development programs.
(D)
The amount in 2015 represents a charge for plaintiff attorneys’ fees, recorded in Selling and administrative expense associated with the antitrust and false advertising lawsuit Retractable Technologies, Inc. filed against BD, partially offset by an adjustment to reduce a liability for employee termination costs recorded relative to workforce reduction actions taken in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2014. The amount in 2014 primarily represented the $36 million charge recorded relative to workforce reduction actions. For further discussion of these charges, refer to Notes 5 and 8 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

20


Gross Profit Margin
The comparison of gross profit margins in 2016 and 2015 and the comparison of gross profit margins in 2015 and 2014 reflected the following impacts:
 
2016
 
2015
Gross profit margin % prior-year period
45.7
 %
 
50.9
 %
CareFusion acquisition-related asset depreciation and amortization
0.6
 %
 
(5.5
)%
Operating performance
2.5
 %
 
0.8
 %
Foreign currency translation
(0.8
)%
 
(0.5
)%
Gross profit margin % current-year period
48.0
 %
 
45.7
 %

Gross profit margin in 2016 benefited from a favorable comparison to 2015, which reflected the fair value step-up adjustment recorded relative to CareFusion’s inventory on the acquisition date, as previously discussed, partially offset by the recognition in 2016 of a full year of amortization relating to CareFusion's intangible assets. The operating performance impacts in 2016 and 2015 primarily reflected lower manufacturing costs resulting from continuous operations improvement projects which improved the efficiency of our operations.
Operating Expenses
Operating expenses in 2016, 2015 and 2014 were as follows:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Increase (decrease) in basis points
(Millions of dollars)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016 vs. 2015
 
2015 vs. 2014
Selling and administrative expense
$
3,005

 
$
2,563

 
$
2,145

 
 
 
 
% of revenues
24.1
%
 
24.9
%
 
25.4
%
 
(80
)
 
(50
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development expense
$
828

 
$
632

 
$
550

 
 
 
 
% of revenues
6.6
%
 
6.1
%
 
6.5
%
 
50

 
(40
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acquisitions and other restructurings
$
728

 
$
426

 
$

 
 
 
 
Selling and administrative
Selling and administrative expense as a percentage of revenues in 2016 reflected synergies resulting from the CareFusion acquisition, as well as favorable foreign currency translation and a suspension of the medical device excise tax, as previously discussed. Selling and administrative expense as a percentage of revenues in 2016 was unfavorably impacted by higher selling expenses relating to product launches and higher shipping expenses. Selling and administrative expense as a percentage of revenues in 2015 reflected favorable foreign currency translation, partially offset by the impacts of increased spending relating to the expansion of our business in emerging markets, a charge relating to the RTI litigation matter, as previously discussed, as well as depreciation of fixed assets acquired in the CareFusion acquisition.
Research and development
Research and development expense in 2016 reflected the inclusion of CareFusion’s research and development expenses in the Company's results for the full fiscal year 2016 and increased investment in high growth opportunities. Research and development expense in 2015 reflected the inclusion of CareFusion’s research and development expenses in the results for the second half of fiscal year 2015. Research and development expense as a percentage of revenues in 2015 was lower in comparison to 2014, which included a workforce reduction charge, asset write-offs and program termination charges as well as ongoing investment in new products and platforms within the Medical segment.
Acquisitions and other restructurings

Costs relating to acquisitions and other restructurings represented transaction, integration and restructuring costs substantially associated with the CareFusion acquisition and portfolio rationalization. The transaction and integration costs specifically included advisory, legal, and other costs substantially incurred in connection with the CareFusion acquisition. Restructuring costs in 2016 included a $214 million charge recorded to impair capitalized internal-use software assets held for sale as a result of the information technology function transformation efforts. For further disclosures regarding the costs relating

21


to acquisitions and other restructurings, refer to Notes 1, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Net Interest Expense
(Millions of dollars)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Interest expense
$
(388
)
 
$
(371
)
 
$
(135
)
Interest income
21

 
15

 
46

Net interest expense
$
(367
)
 
$
(356
)
 
$
(89
)

The increase in interest expense in 2016 reflected a full year of increased financing costs associated with the CareFusion acquisition, including interest on $6.2 billion of senior unsecured notes issued in December 2014, in anticipation of closing the CareFusion acquisition. This increase in financing costs was partially offset by the full year impact of favorable amortization of the acquisition-date fair value step-up on CareFusion’s long-term debt as well as by the prior-year impact of commitment fees incurred for a bridge loan facility that was terminated in March 2015. The increase in interest expense in 2015 compared with 2014 primarily reflected interest associated with the $6.2 billion of senior unsecured notes and the commitment fees for the bridge loan facility, as discussed above. These increases in interest expense in fiscal year 2015 were partially offset by favorable amortization of the fair value step-up recorded on CareFusion’s long-term debt beginning on April 1, 2015. Additional disclosures regarding these financing arrangements and our debt instruments are provided in Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

The increase in interest income in 2016 reflected the realization of investment gains on assets related to our deferred compensation plans, compared with the realization of losses in 2015, partially offset by lower cash levels outside of the United States. The offsetting movements in the deferred compensation plan liability were recorded in Selling and administrative expense. The decrease in interest income in 2015 compared with 2014 reflected lower cash levels outside of the United States as well as investment losses on assets related to our deferred compensation plan.
Income Taxes

The income tax rates in 2016, 2015 and 2014 were as follows:
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Effective income tax rate
9.1
%
 
5.9
%
 
22.1
%

The increase in the effective income tax rate from 2015 to 2016 is primarily due to the decrease in tax benefits on specified items. The tax benefits of the specified items shown earlier reduced the income tax rates in 2016 and 2015 by 1,090 and 1,720 basis points, respectively, as the tax benefits on these specified items were primarily incurred in higher tax jurisdictions. The income tax rates in fiscal years 2016 and 2015 also reflected the extension of the U.S. research and development income tax credit, which was partially offset by the unfavorable impact of one-time discrete items.  The effective income tax rate in 2014 reflected our decision to change our position of permanent reinvestment with respect to the unremitted earnings of Brazil and certain other Latin American jurisdictions, the impact of which was more than offset by the benefits resulting from discrete one-time items and geographic mix.
Net Income and Diluted Earnings per Share
Net Income and Diluted Earnings per Share in 2016, 2015 and 2014 were as follows:
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Net income (Millions of dollars)
$
976

 
$
695

 
$
1,185

Diluted Earnings per Share
$
4.49

 
$
3.35

 
$
5.99

 
 
 
 
 
 
Unfavorable impact-specified items
$
(4.10
)
 
$
(3.79
)
 
$
(0.51
)
Unfavorable impact-foreign currency translation
$
(0.64
)
 
$
(0.69
)
 
$
(0.22
)
Dilutive impact from shares issued as consideration for the CareFusion acquisition (prior to the inclusion of CareFusion in consolidated results of operations)
$

 
$
(0.02
)
 
$


22


Financial Instrument Market Risk
We selectively use financial instruments to manage market risk, primarily foreign currency exchange risk and interest rate risk relating to our ongoing business operations. The counterparties to these contracts are highly rated financial institutions. We do not enter into financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
Foreign Exchange Risk
BD and its subsidiaries transact business in various foreign currencies throughout Europe, Greater Asia, Canada and Latin America. We face foreign currency exposure from the effect of fluctuating exchange rates on payables and receivables relating to transactions that are denominated in currencies other than our functional currency. These payables and receivables primarily arise from intercompany transactions. We hedge substantially all such exposures, primarily through the use of forward contracts. We also face currency exposure that arises from translating the results of our worldwide operations, including sales, to the U.S. dollar at exchange rates that have fluctuated from the beginning of a reporting period. From time to time, we may purchase forward contracts and options to hedge certain forecasted transactions that are denominated in foreign currencies in order to partially protect against a reduction in the value of future earnings resulting from adverse foreign exchange rate movements. Gains or losses on derivative instruments are largely offset by the gains or losses on the underlying hedged transactions. We did not enter into contracts to hedge cash flows against foreign currency fluctuations in fiscal year 2016 or 2015.
Derivative financial instruments are recorded on our balance sheet at fair value. For foreign currency derivatives, market risk is determined by calculating the impact on fair value of an assumed change in foreign exchange rates relative to the U.S. dollar. Fair values were estimated based upon observable inputs, specifically spot currency rates and foreign currency prices for similar assets and liabilities.
With respect to the foreign currency derivative instruments outstanding at September 30, 2016 and 2015, the impact changes in the U.S. dollar would have on pre-tax earnings was estimated as follows:
 
Increase (decrease)
(Millions of dollars)
2016
 
2015
10% appreciation in U.S. dollar
$
(67
)
 
$
(28
)
10% depreciation in U.S. dollar
$
67

 
$
28

These calculations do not reflect the impact of exchange gains or losses on the underlying transactions that would substantially offset the results of the derivative instruments.
Interest Rate Risk
Our primary interest rate risk relates to U.S. dollar borrowings which are partially offset by U.S. dollar cash investments. When managing interest rate exposures, we strive to achieve an appropriate balance between fixed and floating rate instruments. We may enter into interest rate swaps to help maintain this balance and manage debt and interest-bearing investments in tandem, since these items have an offsetting impact on interest rate exposure. For interest rate derivative instruments, fair values are measured based upon the present value of expected future cash flows using market-based observable inputs including credit risk and interest rate yield curves. Market risk for these instruments is determined by calculating the impact to fair value of an assumed change in interest rates across all maturities. 
With respect to the interest rate derivatives outstanding at September 30, 2016 and 2015, the impact changes in the interest rate would have on the fair value of these derivatives was estimated as follows:
 
Increase (decrease)
(Millions of dollars)
2016
 
2015
10% increase in interest rates
$
5

 
$
(3
)
10% decrease in interest rates
$
(5
)
 
$
3

Based on our overall interest rate exposure at September 30, 2016 and 2015, a 10% change in interest rates would not have a material effect on our earnings or cash flows over a one-year period.

23


Liquidity and Capital Resources

The following table summarizes our consolidated statement of cash flows in 2016, 2015 and 2014:
(Millions of dollars)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Net cash provided by (used for)
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
2,559

 
$
1,730

 
$
1,746

Investing activities
$
(669
)
 
$
(8,318
)
 
$
(948
)
Financing activities
$
(1,761
)
 
$
6,190

 
$
(807
)
Net Cash Flows from Operating Activities

The fiscal year 2016, 2015 and 2014 changes in net cash provided by operating activities was primarily attributable to net income, as adjusted for depreciation and amortization and other non-cash items. The fiscal year 2016 change in operating assets and liabilities was a net source of cash and primarily reflected higher levels of accounts payable and accrued expenses as well as lower levels of inventory, prepayments and financing receivables, partially offset by higher levels of accounts receivables. The fiscal year 2015 change in operating assets and liabilities was a net source of cash and primarily reflected lower levels of inventory and higher levels of accounts payable and accrued expenses, partially offset by higher levels of prepayments. The lower levels of inventory reflected the impact, primarily recognized in the third quarter of fiscal year 2015, of the acquisition fair value step-up adjustment recorded relative to CareFusion’s inventory on the acquisition date. Net cash provided by operating activities in 2016 was reduced by changes in the pension obligation resulting primarily from a discretionary cash contribution of $100 million. Net cash provided by operating activities in 2015 increased by changes in the pension obligation as current-year expense was partially offset by discretionary contributions of $40 million. The previously discussed non-cash charge recorded to impair capitalized internal-use software assets held for sale is included as other operating activities.
Net Cash Flows from Investing Activities
Capital expenditures
Our investments in capital expenditures are focused on projects that enhance our cost structure and manufacturing capabilities, and support our strategy of geographic expansion with select investments in growing markets. Capital expenditures of $693 million, $596 million, $592 million in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, primarily related to manufacturing capacity expansions and details of spending by segment are contained in Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Investments
Cash inflows from the sales of investments of $840 million in 2015 were attributable to the maturities of time deposits in Europe, Latin America and Asia Pacific. 
Acquisitions of Businesses
Cash outflows relating to acquisitions in 2015 and 2014 were $8.4 billion and $40 million, respectively. Cash outflows relating to acquisitions in 2015 were primarily attributable to the completion of the CareFusion acquisition in the second quarter of fiscal year 2015. Cash outflows relating to acquisitions in 2014 represented cash paid to acquire Alverix, Inc. in the second quarter of fiscal year 2014. For further discussion, refer to Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Net Cash Flows from Financing Activities

Net cash used for financing activities in 2016 included a net $500 million reduction of our commercial paper program balance and the third quarter repayment of $750 million of floating rate notes due on June 15, 2016. Net cash provided by financing activities in 2015 included the proceeds, which were used to finance our acquisition of CareFusion, from $6.2 billion of notes issued in December 2014 and $500 million total proceeds from net borrowings under commercial paper programs. For additional information regarding these financing arrangements, refer to Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data and for additional information regarding the CareFusion acquisition, refer to Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

24


Debt-Related Activities

Certain measures relating to our total debt were as follows:
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Total debt
$
11,551

 
$
12,822

 
$
3,971

 
 
 
 
 
 
Short-term debt as a percentage of total debt
8.7
%
 
11.3
%
 
5.1
%
Weighted average cost of total debt
3.6
%
 
3.3
%
 
3.7
%
Total debt as a percentage of total capital (A)
57.2
%
 
59.4
%
 
43.6
%
(A)
 Represents shareholders’ equity, net non-current deferred income tax liabilities, and debt.

The ratio of short-term debt as a percentage of total debt at September 30, 2016 primarily reflected the reclassifications, from long-term debt to short-term debt, of $500 million of 1.75% notes due on November 8, 2016 and $300 million of 1.450% notes due May 15, 2017, offset by the repayment of $750 million of floating rate notes, as previously discussed. The ratio of short-term debt as a percentage of total debt at September 30, 2015 reflected the reclassification, from long-term debt to short-term debt, of $750 million of floating rate notes due on June 15, 2016. The ratios of debt as a percentage of total capital at September 30, 2015 and 2014 also reflect adjustments to the consolidated balance sheet resulting from our adoption of revised presentation requirements relating to deferred taxes. Additional information regarding this adoption is provided in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Cash and Short-term Investments
At September 30, 2016, total worldwide cash and short-term investments were $1.568 billion, of which $966 million was held in jurisdictions outside of the United States. We regularly review the amount of cash and short-term investments held outside the United States and currently intend to use such amounts to fund our international operations and their growth initiatives. In addition, if these amounts were repatriated from foreign jurisdictions to the United States, there could be adverse tax consequences.
Credit Facilities

We have in place a commercial paper borrowing program which is available to meet our short-term financing needs, including working capital requirements. In February 2016, we increased the size of this program by $500 million so that it allows us to issue a maximum of $1.5 billion in notes. Borrowings outstanding under this program were $200 million at September 30, 2016, which reflected a net reduction of $500 million from our outstanding balance of commercial paper borrowings at September 30, 2015, as previously discussed.

In January 2016, we replaced an existing $1 billion syndicated credit facility with a $1.5 billion syndicated credit facility that has an expiration date of January 2021. There were no borrowings outstanding under this credit facility at September 30, 2016. The credit facility, under which we may issue up to $100 million in letters of credit, provides backup support for our commercial paper program and can also be used for other general corporate purposes. It includes a provision that enables BD, subject to additional commitments made by the lenders, to access up to an additional $500 million in financing through the facility for a maximum aggregate commitment of $2 billion. The credit facility includes a single financial covenant that requires BD to maintain an interest expense coverage ratio of not less than 5-to-1 for the most recent four consecutive fiscal quarters. We were in compliance with this covenant as of September 30, 2016. We also have informal lines of credit outside the United States.

In November 2016, we announced that we commenced tender offers for certain of our senior unsecured notes. We expect to finance the tender offer through an issuance of senior notes, cash on hand and other sources of liquidity.
Access to Capital and Credit Ratings
Our ability to generate cash flow from operations, issue debt, enter into other financing arrangements and attract long-term capital on acceptable terms could be adversely affected in the event there was a material decline in the demand for our products, deterioration in our key financial ratios or credit ratings, or other significantly unfavorable changes in conditions.

25


BD’s credit ratings at September 30, 2016 were as follows:
 
  
Standard & Poor’s
  
Moody’s
Ratings:
  
 
  
 
Senior Unsecured Debt
  
BBB+
  
Baa2
Commercial Paper
  
A-2
  
P-2
Outlook
  
Stable
  
Stable
Subsequent to BD’s completion of the CareFusion acquisition in 2015, Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services, one of the major corporate debt rating organizations, downgraded BD’s long-term debt and commercial paper ratings from A to BBB+ and from A-1 to A-2, respectively. Another major corporate debt rating organization, Moody’s Investors Service, downgraded BD’s long-term debt rating, from A3 to Baa2. There were no changes to BD's long-term debt and commercial paper ratings with either rating organization during 2016.
BD’s credit ratings remained investment grade after these downgrades and while such downgrades in our credit ratings may increase the costs associated with maintaining and borrowing under our existing credit arrangements, the downgrades do not affect our ability to draw on these credit facilities, nor do they result in an acceleration of the scheduled maturities of any outstanding debt. We believe that given our debt ratings, our financial management policies, our ability to generate cash flow and the non-cyclical, geographically diversified nature of our businesses, we would have access to additional short-term and long-term capital should the need arise. A rating reflects only the view of a rating agency and is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities. Ratings can be revised upward or downward at any time by a rating agency if such rating agency decides that circumstances warrant such a change.
Contractual Obligations
In the normal course of business, we enter into contracts and commitments that obligate us to make payments in the future. The table below sets forth BD’s significant contractual obligations and related scheduled payments as of September 30, 2016:
 
Total
 
2017
 
2018 to
2019
 
2020 to
2021
 
2022 and
Thereafter
 
(Millions of dollars)
Short-term debt
$
801

 
$
801

 
$

 
$

 
$

Long-term debt(A)
14,679

 
398

 
3,381

 
2,468

 
8,432

Operating leases
278

 
74

 
103

 
68

 
33

Purchase obligations(B)
1,413

 
851

 
468

 
85

 
10

Unrecognized tax benefits(C)

 

 

 

 

Total(D)
$
17,172

 
$
2,125

 
$
3,951

 
$
2,622

 
$
8,475

 
(A)
Long-term debt obligations include expected principal and interest obligations.
(B)
Purchase obligations are for purchases made in the normal course of business to meet operational and capital requirements.
(C)
Unrecognized tax benefits at September 30, 2016 of $457 million were all long-term in nature. Due to the uncertainty related to the timing of the reversal of these tax positions, the related liability has been excluded from the table.
(D)
Required funding obligations for 2016 relating to pension and other postretirement benefit plans are not expected to be material.
Critical Accounting Policies
The following discussion supplements the descriptions of our accounting policies contained in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires management to use estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, as well as the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements. Some of those judgments can be subjective and complex and, consequently, actual results could differ from those estimates. Management bases its estimates and judgments on historical experience and on various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. For any given estimate or assumption made by management, it is possible that other people applying reasonable judgment to the same facts and circumstances could develop different estimates. Actual results that differ from management’s estimates could have an unfavorable effect on our

26


consolidated financial statements. Management believes the following critical accounting policies reflect the more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements:
Revenue Recognition
Some of our sales transactions qualify as multiple-element arrangements which require us to identify separate units of accounting within the arrangement and allocate the transaction consideration across these separate accounting units. For arrangements that include software and non-software elements, the transaction consideration is allocated to the software elements as a group as well as to the individual non-software elements that have been separately identified. The identification of accounting units and the allocation of total transaction consideration for multiple-element arrangements may be subjective and requires a degree of management judgment. Management’s judgments relative to multiple-element arrangements may affect the timing of revenue recognition.
Transaction consideration for separately identified non-software units of accounting within an arrangement is recognized upon the completion of each deliverable based on its relative selling price. When applying the relative selling price method, the selling price of each deliverable is determined based upon the following hierarchy of evidence: vendor-specific objective evidence, which is generally based upon historical prices in stand-alone transactions; third-party evidence, which is generally based on market data on sales of similar products and services, if available; and management’s best estimate of selling price. Management’s best estimate of selling price is generally based upon the following considerations: stand-alone sales prices, established price lists, costs to produce, profit margins for similar products, market conditions, and customer stratification.
For software and software-related products, we use the relative fair value method to allocate transaction consideration to each unit of accounting; whereby the evidence used in the determination of fair value estimates are based solely on vendor-specific objective evidence. To the extent that vendor specific objective evidence does not exist for delivered elements of the transaction, we apply the residual method.
The revenue allocated to equipment or instruments in multiple-element arrangements is recognized upon transfer of title and risk of loss to the customer. The revenue allocated to extended warranty contracts and software maintenance contracts is deferred and recognized as these deliverables are performed under the arrangement. The majority of deferred revenue relating to extended warranty contracts is generally recognized within a few years whereas deferred revenue relating to software maintenance contracts is generally recognized over a longer period.
Accounting for Sales-Type Leases
Our accounting for sales-type leases is based upon certain assumptions including the economic life of our leased products and the fair value of our leased products, which is used to determine the interest rate implicit to the lease. These assumptions affect that amount of gross investment in the lease, unearned income, and the sales price that is recognized relative to each sales-type lease transaction. Based upon our anticipation of future technological advances of our products or that of our competitors, the economic life of our leased products is five years as this is the estimated period during which the leased product is expected to be economically usable, without limitation by the lease term. Additionally, five years represents the most frequent contractual lease term for our leased products. Our product configurations are customized for each customer’s specifications, and as such, there is no significant after-market for our used equipment. Residual values, if any, are established at lease inception using estimates of the fair value of reclaimable component parts of the products at the end of the lease term.
The fair value of our leased products is estimated on a quarterly basis, based upon transacted cash sales prices during the preceding 12-month period, and represents normal selling price, reflecting any volume or trade discounts that may apply. Because our products are sold as part of customized systems to a diverse range of customers, many of which are affiliated with a group purchasing organization or integrated delivery network, there is a wide range of negotiated cash selling prices for our products. Accordingly, we stratify our cash selling transactions based on product configuration and customer class to determine a best estimate of fair value for each product specific, within determined customer classes. Based upon this stratification, we calculate the weighted average selling price of each configured product using the interquartile range methodology and remove outliers from the population of normal cash selling prices, which narrows the range of selling prices within each stratified customer class. The resulting weighted average selling price is the single point estimate of fair value that we use as the normal selling price and this fair value estimate is used to determine the implicit interest rate for each product subject to a sales-type lease arrangement. In certain instances, we do not have sufficient corresponding historical cash selling transactions to support fair values of specific combinations of product configurations and customer classes. In these instances, fair value is estimated by applying the average discount percentage given to the respective customer class, over the trailing 12 months, to the list price of the products whose fair value was not determined using the interquartile range methodology described above. The resulting fair value(s) is then used to derive the implicit rate of the lease. The interest rate implicit to the lease is then used to determine the amount of revenue recognized at the inception of the lease and the revenue recognized over the life of the lease.
Our net investment in sales-type leases primarily arises from the leasing of dispensing equipment and as such, the methodology for determining the relating allowance for credit losses is based on the collective population and is not stratified

27


by class or portfolio segment. The allowance for credit losses is based on historical experience loss rates as well as on management’s judgments regarding the potential impact of anticipated changes in business practices, market dynamics, and economic conditions. These assumptions are inherently subjective and it is possible that we will experience actual credit losses that are different from our current estimates.
Accounting for Software Products
We sell and lease products with embedded software and as such, we must evaluate these products to determine if industry-specific revenue recognition requirements apply to these sales transactions. This evaluation process is often complex and subject to significant judgment. If software is considered not essential to the non-software elements of a product but is considered more than incidental to a product as a whole, the product’s software elements must be separated from its non-software elements under the requirements relating to multiple-element arrangements. The product’s software elements must be accounted for under software industry-specific revenue recognition requirements and the application of these requirements may significantly affect the timing and amount of revenue recognized.
While we have determined that the software embedded in the following product groupings is more than incidental to the products as a whole, the non-software elements (i.e., hardware) and software elements work together to deliver the essential functionality of these products as a whole. As such, the accounting for these product offerings does not fall within the scope of software industry-specific accounting requirements:
Infusion products (when sold with safety software, patient identification products and certain diagnostic equipment) within our Medication Management Solutions unit;
Dispensing products within our Medication Management Solutions unit;
Research and clinical instruments within our Biosciences unit.
Our standalone software application sales and any related post-contract support related to these sales are accounted for under the software industry-specific revenue recognition requirements.
Impairment of Assets
Goodwill and in-process research and development assets are subject to impairment reviews at least annually, or whenever indicators of impairment arise. Intangible assets with finite lives, including developed technology, and other long-lived assets, are periodically reviewed for impairment when impairment indicators are present.
We assess goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level, which is defined as an operating segment or one level below an operating segment, referred to as a component. Our reporting units generally represent one level below reporting segments and we aggregate components within an operating segment that have similar economic characteristics. Potential impairment of goodwill is identified by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying value. Our annual goodwill impairment test performed on July 1, 2016 did not result in any impairment charges, as the fair value of each reporting unit exceeded its carrying value.
We generally use the income approach to derive the fair value for impairment assessments. This approach calculates fair value by estimating future cash flows attributable to the assets and then discounting these cash flows to a present value using a risk-adjusted discount rate. We selected this method because we believe the income approach most appropriately measures our income producing assets. This approach requires significant management judgment with respect to future volume, revenue and expense growth rates, changes in working capital use, appropriate discount rates and other assumptions and estimates. The estimates and assumptions used are consistent with BD’s business plans. The use of alternative estimates and assumptions could increase or decrease the estimated fair value of the asset, and potentially result in different impacts to BD’s results of operations. Actual results may differ from management’s estimates.
Income Taxes
BD maintains valuation allowances where it is more likely than not that all or a portion of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. Changes in valuation allowances are included in our tax provision in the period of change. In determining whether a valuation allowance is warranted, management evaluates factors such as prior earnings history, expected future earnings, carry back and carry forward periods, and tax strategies that could potentially enhance the likelihood of realization of a deferred tax asset.
BD conducts business and files tax returns in numerous countries and currently has tax audits in progress in a number of tax jurisdictions. In evaluating the exposure associated with various tax filing positions, we record accruals for uncertain tax positions based on the technical support for the positions, our past audit experience with similar situations, and the potential interest and penalties related to the matters. BD’s effective tax rate in any given period could be impacted if, upon resolution with taxing authorities, we prevailed in positions for which reserves have been established, or we were required to pay amounts in excess of established reserves.

28


BD has reviewed its needs in the U.S. for possible repatriation of undistributed earnings of its foreign subsidiaries and, with exception for certain countries, continues to invest foreign subsidiaries earnings outside of the U.S. to fund foreign investments or meet foreign working capital and property, plant and equipment expenditure needs. Deferred taxes are not provided on undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries that are indefinitely reinvested. At September 30, 2016, the cumulative amount of such undistributed earnings indefinitely reinvested outside the United States was $8.7 billion. The determination of the amount of the unrecognized deferred tax liability related to the undistributed earnings is not practicable because of the complexities associated with its hypothetical calculation.
Contingencies
We are involved, both as a plaintiff and a defendant, in various legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of business, including, without limitation, product liability, antitrust and environmental matters, as further discussed in Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. We assess the likelihood of any adverse judgments or outcomes to these matters as well as potential ranges of probable losses. We establish accruals to the extent probable future losses are estimable (in the case of environmental matters, without considering possible third-party recoveries). A determination of the amount of accruals, if any, for these contingencies is made after careful analysis of each individual issue and, when appropriate, is developed after consultation with outside counsel. The accruals may change in the future due to new developments in each matter or changes in our strategy in dealing with these matters.
Given the uncertain nature of litigation generally, we are not able in all cases to estimate the amount or range of loss that could result from an unfavorable outcome of the litigation to which we are a party. In view of these uncertainties, we could incur charges in excess of any currently established accruals and, to the extent available, excess liability insurance. In the opinion of management, any such future charges, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on BD’s consolidated results of operations and consolidated net cash flows.
Benefit Plans
We have significant net pension and other postretirement and postemployment benefit costs that are measured using actuarial valuations. These benefit costs include assumptions for the discount rate. Pension benefit costs also include an assumption for the expected return on plan assets. These assumptions have a significant effect on the amounts reported. In addition to the analysis below, see Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for additional discussion.
The discount rate is selected each year based on investment grade bonds and other factors as of the measurement date (September 30). Specifically for the U.S. pension plan, we will use a discount rate of 3.43% for 2017, which was based on an actuarially-determined, company-specific yield curve to measure liabilities as of the measurement date. To calculate the pension expense in 2017, we will apply the individual spot rates along the yield curve that correspond with the timing of each future cash outflow for benefit payments in order to calculate interest cost and service cost. Additional disclosures regarding the method to be used in calculating the interest cost and service cost components of pension expense for 2017 are provided in Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. The expected long-term rate of return on plan assets assumption, although reviewed each year, changes less frequently due to the long-term nature of the assumption. This assumption does not impact the measurement of assets or liabilities as of the measurement date; rather, it is used only in the calculation of pension expense. To determine the expected long-term rate of return on pension plan assets, we consider many factors, including our historical assumptions compared with actual results; benchmark data; expected returns on various plan asset classes, as well as current and expected asset allocations. We will use a long-term expected rate of return on plan assets assumption of 7.25% for the U.S. pension plan in 2017. We believe our discount rate and expected long-term rate of return on plan assets assumptions are appropriate based upon the above factors.
Sensitivity to changes in key assumptions for our U.S. pension and other postretirement and postemployment plans are as follows:
Discount rate — A change of plus (minus) 25 basis points, with other assumptions held constant, would have an estimated $4 million favorable (unfavorable) impact on the total U.S. net pension and other postretirement and postemployment benefit plan costs. This estimate assumes no change in the shape or steepness of the company-specific yield curve used to plot the individual spot rates that will be applied to the future cash outflows for future benefit payments in order to calculate interest and service cost.
Expected return on plan assets — A change of plus (minus) 25 basis points, with other assumptions held constant, would have an estimated $3 million favorable (unfavorable) impact on U.S. pension plan costs.
Share-Based Compensation
Compensation cost relating to share-based payment transactions is recognized in net income using a fair value measurement method. All share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, are recognized in

29


the statement of operations as compensation expense (based on their fair values) over the vesting period of the awards. We determine the fair value of certain share-based awards using a lattice-based binomial option valuation model that incorporates certain assumptions, such as the risk-free interest rate, expected volatility, expected dividend yield and expected life of the options. See Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for additional discussion.
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

BD and its representatives may from time to time make certain forward-looking statements in publicly released materials, both written and oral, including statements contained in filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, press releases, and our reports to shareholders. Forward-looking statements may be identified by the use of words such as “plan,” “expect,” “believe,” “intend,” “will,”, “may”, “anticipate,” “estimate” and other words of similar meaning in conjunction with, among other things, discussions of future operations and financial performance (including volume growth, sales and earnings per share growth, and cash flows) and statements regarding our strategy for growth, future product development, regulatory approvals, competitive position and expenditures. All statements that address our future operating performance or events or developments that we expect or anticipate will occur in the future are forward-looking statements.

Forward-looking statements are, and will be, based on management’s then-current views and assumptions regarding future events, developments and operating performance, and speak only as of their dates. Investors should realize that if underlying assumptions prove inaccurate, or risks or uncertainties materialize, actual results could vary materially from our expectations and projections. Investors are therefore cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Furthermore, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements after the date they are made, whether as a result of new information, future events and developments or otherwise, except as required by applicable law or regulations.
The following are some important factors that could cause our actual results to differ from our expectations in any forward-looking statements. For further discussion of certain of these factors, see Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Weakness in the global economy and financial markets, which could increase the cost of operating our business, weaken demand for our products and services, negatively impact the prices we can charge for our products and services, or impair our ability to produce our products.
Competitive factors that could adversely affect our operations, including new product introductions (for example, new forms of drug delivery) by our current or future competitors, increased pricing pressure due to the impact of low-cost manufacturers as certain competitors have established manufacturing sites or have contracted with suppliers in low-cost manufacturing locations as a means to lower their costs, patents attained by competitors (particularly as patents on our products expire), and new entrants into our markets.
The adverse financial impact resulting from unfavorable changes in foreign currency exchange rates.
Regional, national and foreign economic factors, including inflation, deflation, and fluctuations in interest rates, and the potential effect on our operating performance.
Our ability to achieve our projected level or mix of product sales, as our earnings forecasts are based on projected sales volumes and pricing of many product types, some of which are more profitable than others.
Changes in reimbursement practices of third-party payers or adverse decisions relating to our products by such payers, which could reduce demand for our products or the price we can charge for such products.
The impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in the United States, which implemented an excise tax on U.S. sales of certain medical devices (which has been suspended until January 1, 2018), and which could result in reduced demand for our products, increased pricing pressures or otherwise adversely affect our business.
Future healthcare reform in the United States and other countries in which we do business that may involve changes in government pricing and reimbursement policies or other cost containment reforms.
Changes in domestic and foreign healthcare industry practices that result in a reduction in procedures using our products or increased pricing pressures, including the continued consolidation among healthcare providers and trends toward managed care and healthcare cost containment.
Fluctuations in the cost and availability of oil-based resins and other raw materials, as well as certain components, used in our products, the ability to maintain favorable supplier arrangements and relationships (particularly with respect to sole-source suppliers), and the potential adverse effects of any disruption in the availability of such items.
Security breaches of our information technology systems or our products, which could impair our ability to conduct

30


business, result in the loss of BD trade secrets or otherwise compromise sensitive information of BD or its customers, suppliers and other business partners, or of customers' patients, or result in product efficacy or safety concerns for certain of our products.
Difficulties inherent in product development, including the potential inability to successfully continue technological innovation, successfully complete clinical trials, obtain regulatory approvals in the United States and abroad, obtain intellectual property protection for our products, obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement for new products, or gain and maintain market approval of products, as well as the possibility of infringement claims by competitors with respect to patents or other intellectual property rights, all of which can preclude or delay commercialization of a product. Delays in obtaining necessary approvals or clearances from the FDA or other regulatory agencies or changes in the regulatory process may also delay product launches and increase development costs.
The impact of business combinations, including any volatility in earnings relating to acquisition-related costs, and our ability to successfully integrate any business we may acquire.
Our ability to penetrate or expand our operations in emerging markets, which depends on local economic and political conditions, and how well we are able to acquire or form strategic business alliances with local companies and make necessary infrastructure enhancements to production facilities and distribution networks. Our international operations also increase our compliance risks, including risks under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws.
Political conditions in international markets, including civil unrest, terrorist activity, governmental changes, trade barriers, restrictions on the ability to transfer capital across borders and governmental expropriation of assets. This includes the possible impact of the June 2016 advisory referendum by British voters to exit the European Union, which has created uncertainties affecting business operations in the United Kingdom and the EU. 
Deficit reduction efforts or other actions that reduce the availability of government funding for healthcare and research, which could weaken demand for our products and result in additional pricing pressures, as well as create potential collection risks associated with such sales.
Fluctuations in university or U.S. and international governmental funding and policies for life sciences research.
Fluctuations in the demand for products we sell to pharmaceutical companies that are used to manufacture, or are sold with, the products of such companies, as a result of funding constraints, consolidation or otherwise.
The effects of events that adversely impact our ability to manufacture our products (particularly where production of a product line is concentrated in one or more plants) or our ability to source materials or components from suppliers (including sole-source suppliers) that are needed for such manufacturing.
Pending and potential future litigation or other proceedings adverse to BD, including antitrust, product liability, environmental and patent infringement, and the availability or collectability of insurance relating to any such claims.
New or changing laws and regulations affecting our domestic and foreign operations, or changes in enforcement practices, including laws relating to trade, monetary and fiscal policies, taxation (including tax reforms that could adversely impact multinational corporations), sales practices, environmental protection, price controls, and licensing and regulatory requirements for new products and products in the postmarketing phase. In particular, the U.S. and other countries may impose new requirements regarding registration, labeling or prohibited materials that may require us to re-register products already on the market or otherwise impact our ability to market our products. Environmental laws, particularly with respect to the emission of greenhouse gases, are also becoming more stringent throughout the world, which may increase our costs of operations or necessitate changes in our manufacturing plants or processes or those of our suppliers, or result in liability to BD.
Product efficacy or safety concerns regarding our products resulting in product recalls, regulatory action on the part of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or foreign counterparts, declining sales and product liability claims, particularly in light of the current regulatory environment, in which there has been increased enforcement activity by the FDA. As a result of the CareFusion acquisition, we are operating under a consent decree with the FDA relating to our U.S. infusion pump business. The consent decree authorizes the FDA, in the event of any violations in the future, to order us to cease manufacturing and distributing products, recall products or take other actions, and we may be required to pay significant monetary damages if we fail to comply with any provision of the consent decree.
Risks relating to our acquisition of CareFusion, including our ability to successfully combine and integrate the CareFusion operations in order to obtain the anticipated benefits and costs savings from the transaction, and the significant additional indebtedness we incurred in connection with the financing of the acquisition and the impact this increased indebtedness may have on our ability to operate the combined company.

31


The effect of adverse media exposure or other publicity regarding BD’s business or operations, including the effect on BD’s reputation or demand for its products.
The effect of market fluctuations on the value of assets in BD’s pension plans and on actuarial interest rate and asset return assumptions, which could require BD to make additional contributions to the plans or increase our pension plan expense.
Our ability to obtain the anticipated benefits of restructuring programs, if any, that we may undertake.
Issuance of new or revised accounting standards by the Financial Accounting Standards Board or the Securities and Exchange Commission.
The foregoing list sets forth many, but not all, of the factors that could impact our ability to achieve results described in any forward-looking statements. Investors should understand that it is not possible to predict or identify all such factors and should not consider this list to be a complete statement of all potential risks and uncertainties.
Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
The information required by this item is included in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and in Notes 1, 13 and 14 to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, and is incorporated herein by reference.


32


Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

Reports of Management
Management’s Responsibilities
The following financial statements have been prepared by management in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and include, where required, amounts based on the best estimates and judgments of management. The integrity and objectivity of data in the financial statements and elsewhere in this Annual Report are the responsibility of management.
In fulfilling its responsibilities for the integrity of the data presented and to safeguard the Company’s assets, management employs a system of internal accounting controls designed to provide reasonable assurance, at appropriate cost, that the Company’s assets are protected and that transactions are appropriately authorized, recorded and summarized. This system of control is supported by the selection of qualified personnel, by organizational assignments that provide appropriate delegation of authority and division of responsibilities, and by the dissemination of written policies and procedures. This control structure is further reinforced by a program of internal audits, including a policy that requires responsive action by management.
The Board of Directors monitors the internal control system, including internal accounting and financial reporting controls, through its Audit Committee, which consists of eight independent Directors. The Audit Committee meets periodically with the independent registered public accounting firm, the internal auditors and management to review the work of each and to satisfy itself that they are properly discharging their responsibilities. The independent registered public accounting firm and the internal auditors have full and free access to the Audit Committee and meet with its members, with and without management present, to discuss the scope and results of their audits including internal control, auditing and financial reporting matters.
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Securities Act of 1934. Management conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting based on the criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework). Based on this assessment and those criteria, management concluded that internal control over financial reporting was effective as of September 30, 2016.
The financial statements and internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm. Ernst & Young’s reports with respect to fairness of the presentation of the financial statements, and the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, are included herein.
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Vincent A. Forlenza
  
/s/ Christopher Reidy
  
/s/ John Gallagher
Vincent A. Forlenza
  
Christopher Reidy
  
John Gallagher
Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President
  
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Chief Administrative Officer
  
Senior Vice President, Corporate Finance, Controller and Treasurer


33


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and Board of Directors of
Becton, Dickinson and Company
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Becton, Dickinson and Company as of September 30, 2016 and 2015, and the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2016. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of Becton, Dickinson and Company at September 30, 2016 and 2015, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2016, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), Becton, Dickinson and Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2016, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated November 23, 2016 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
 
 
/s/ ERNST & YOUNG LLP
New York, New York
 
 
November 23, 2016
 
 



Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and Board of Directors of
Becton, Dickinson and Company
We have audited Becton, Dickinson and Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2016, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). Becton, Dickinson and Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
In our opinion, Becton, Dickinson and Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2016, based on the COSO criteria.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets of Becton, Dickinson and Company as of September 30, 2016 and 2015, and the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2016 of Becton, Dickinson and Company, and our report dated November 23, 2016 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
 
 
/s/ ERNST & YOUNG LLP
New York, New York
 
 
November 23, 2016
 
 



Consolidated Statements of Income
Becton, Dickinson and Company
Years Ended September 30
 
Millions of dollars, except per share amounts
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Revenues
$
12,483

 
$
10,282

 
$
8,446

 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of products sold
6,492

 
5,587

 
4,145

Selling and administrative expense
3,005

 
2,563

 
2,145

Research and development expense
828

 
632

 
550

Acquisitions and other restructurings
728

 
426

 

Total Operating Costs and Expenses
11,053

 
9,207

 
6,840

Operating Income
1,430

 
1,074

 
1,606

Interest expense
(388
)
 
(371
)
 
(135
)
Interest income
21

 
15

 
46

Other income, net
11

 
21

 
5

Income Before Income Taxes
1,074

 
739

 
1,522

Income tax provision
97

 
44

 
337

Net Income
$
976

 
$
695

 
$
1,185

 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic Earnings per Share
$
4.59

 
$
3.43

 
$
6.13

 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted Earnings per Share
$
4.49

 
$
3.35

 
$
5.99


Amounts may not add due to rounding.
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
36


Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
Becton, Dickinson and Company
Years Ended September 30
 
Millions of dollars
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Net Income
$
976

 
$
695

 
$
1,185

Other Comprehensive Income (Loss), Net of Tax
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
(50
)
 
(692
)
 
(344
)
Defined benefit pension and postretirement plans
(141
)
 
(36
)
 
(147
)
Net unrealized gains (losses) on cash flow hedges, net of reclassifications
1

 
(9
)
 
5

Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income, Net of Tax
(191
)
 
(737
)
 
(486
)
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
$
786

 
$
(42
)
 
$
699



Amounts may not add due to rounding.
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
37


Consolidated Balance Sheets
Becton, Dickinson and Company
September 30
 
Millions of dollars, except per share amounts and numbers of shares
2016
 
2015
Assets
 
 
 
Current Assets
 
 
 
Cash and equivalents
$
1,541

 
$
1,424

Short-term investments
27

 
20

Trade receivables, net
1,618

 
1,618

Current portion of net investment in sales-type leases
339

 
75

Inventories
1,719

 
1,959

Assets held for sale
642

 

Prepaid expenses and other
480

 
563

Total Current Assets
6,367

 
5,659

Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
3,901

 
4,060

Goodwill
7,419

 
7,537

Customer Relationships, Net
3,022

 
3,250

Developed Technology, Net
2,655

 
2,977

Other Intangibles, Net
604

 
797

Capitalized Software, Net
70

 
362

  Net Investment in Sales-Type Leases, Less Current Portion
796

 
1,118

Other Assets
753

 
717

Total Assets
$
25,586

 
$
26,478

Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity
 
 
 
Current Liabilities
 
 
 
Short-term debt
$
1,001

 
$
1,452

Accounts payable
665

 
631

Accrued expenses
1,575

 
1,624

Salaries, wages and related items
696

 
647

Income taxes
274

 
28

Liabilities held for sale
189

 

Total Current Liabilities
4,400

 
4,381

Long-Term Debt
10,550

 
11,370

Long-Term Employee Benefit Obligations
1,319

 
1,133

Deferred Income Taxes and Other
1,684

 
2,430

Commitments and Contingencies (See Note 5)


 


Shareholders’ Equity
 
 
 
Common stock — $1 par value: authorized — 640,000,000 shares; issued — 332,662,160 shares in 2016 and 2015.
333

 
333

Capital in excess of par value
4,693

 
4,475

Retained earnings
12,727

 
12,314

Deferred compensation
22

 
20

Common stock in treasury — at cost — 119,370,934 shares in 2016 and 121,966,516 shares in 2015.
(8,212
)
 
(8,239
)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(1,929
)
 
(1,738
)
Total Shareholders’ Equity
7,633

 
7,164

Total Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity
$
25,586

 
$
26,478


Amounts may not add due to rounding.
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
38


Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Becton, Dickinson and Company
Years Ended September 30
Millions of dollars
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Operating Activities
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
$
976

 
$
695

 
$
1,185

Adjustments to net income to derive net cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
1,114

 
891

 
562

Share-based compensation
196

 
166

 
113

Deferred income taxes
(426
)
 
(336
)
 
(32
)
Change in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
Trade receivables, net
(128
)
 
(2
)
 
(7
)
Net investment in sales-type leases
51

 
28

 

Inventories
69

 
200

 
(189
)
Prepaid expenses and other
39

 
(97
)
 
(120
)
Accounts payable, income taxes and other liabilities
368

 
145

 
199

Pension obligation
(32
)
 
28

 
(29
)
Other, net
332

 
11

 
62

Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities
2,559

 
1,730

 
1,746

Investing Activities
 
 
 
 
 
Capital expenditures
(693
)
 
(596
)
 
(592
)
Capitalized software
(25
)
 
(37
)
 
(61
)
(Purchases of) proceeds from investments, net
(1
)
 
840

 
(171
)
Acquisitions of businesses, net of cash acquired

 
(8,414
)
 
(40
)
Divestitures of businesses
158

 

 

Other, net
(108
)
 
(110
)
 
(84
)
Net Cash Used for Investing Activities
(669
)
 
(8,318
)
 
(948
)
Financing Activities
 
 
 
 
 
Change in short-term debt
(500
)
 
497

 
(4
)
Proceeds from long-term debt

 
6,164

 

Payments of debt
(752
)
 
(6
)
 

Repurchase of common stock

 

 
(400
)
Issuance of common stock and other, net
(32
)
 
(27
)
 
(9
)
Excess tax benefit from payments under share-based compensation plans
86

 
48

 
27

Dividends paid
(562
)
 
(485
)
 
(421
)
Net Cash (Used for) Provided by Financing Activities
(1,761
)
 
6,190

 
(807
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and equivalents
(12
)
 
(38
)
 
(20
)
Net Increase (Decrease) in Cash and Equivalents
117

 
(436
)
 
(29
)
Opening Cash and Equivalents
1,424

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