Attached files

file filename
EX-32.2 - EXHIBIT 32.2 - ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST INCaht2016q110-qxex322.htm
EX-31.1 - EXHIBIT 31.1 - ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST INCaht2016q110-qxex311.htm
EX-12 - EXHIBIT 12 - ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST INCaht2016q110-qxex12.htm
EX-31.2 - EXHIBIT 31.2 - ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST INCaht2016q110-qxex312.htm
EX-32.1 - EXHIBIT 32.1 - ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST INCaht2016q110-qxex321.htm

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q
þ
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2016
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ________________ to ________________

Commission file number: 001-31775

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Maryland
 
86-1062192
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(IRS employer identification number)
 
 
 
14185 Dallas Parkway, Suite 1100
 
 
Dallas, Texas
 
75254
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip code)

(972) 490-9600
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. þ Yes ¨ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). þ Yes ¨ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act):
Large accelerated filer
þ
 
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
¨
 
Smaller reporting company
¨
    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). ¨ Yes þ No

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share
 
95,686,492
(Class)
 
Outstanding at May 6, 2016




ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC
FORM 10-Q
FOR THE QUARTER ENDED MARCH 31, 2016

TABLE OF CONTENTS


 
 
 




PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(unaudited, in thousands, except share amounts)
 
March 31, 2016
 
December 31, 2015
Assets
 
Investments in hotel properties, net
$
4,393,701

 
$
4,419,684

Cash and cash equivalents
226,877

 
215,078

Restricted cash
162,146

 
153,680

Accounts receivable, net of allowance of $724 and $715, respectively
55,367

 
40,438

Inventories
4,785

 
4,810

Note receivable, net of allowance of $6,971 and $7,083, respectively
3,797

 
3,746

Investment in unconsolidated entities
60,983

 
62,568

Deferred costs, net
3,642

 
3,847

Prepaid expenses
22,693

 
12,458

Derivative assets, net
10,833

 
3,435

Other assets
12,303

 
10,647

Intangible assets, net
11,294

 
11,343

Due from Ashford Prime OP, net
13

 
528

Due from related party, net
1,865

 

Due from third-party hotel managers
17,783

 
22,869

Total assets
$
4,988,082

 
$
4,965,131

Liabilities and Equity
 
 
 
Liabilities:
 
 
 
Indebtedness, net
$
3,879,225

 
$
3,840,617

Accounts payable and accrued expenses
140,473

 
123,444

Dividends and distributions payable
22,890

 
22,678

Unfavorable management contract liabilities
2,861

 
3,355

Due to Ashford Inc., net
11,080

 
9,856

Due to related party, net

 
1,339

Due to third-party hotel managers
2,555

 
2,504

Intangible liabilities, net
16,396

 
16,494

Other liabilities
17,020

 
14,539

Total liabilities
4,092,500

 
4,034,826

Commitments and contingencies (note 13)


 


Redeemable noncontrolling interests in operating partnership
125,162

 
118,449

 
 
 
 
Equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value, 50,000,000 shares authorized:
 
 
 
Series A Cumulative Preferred Stock, 1,657,206 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015
17

 
17

Series D Cumulative Preferred Stock, 9,468,706 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015
95

 
95

Series E Cumulative Preferred Stock, 4,630,000 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015
46

 
46

Common stock, $0.01 par value, 200,000,000 shares authorized, 95,686,492 and 95,470,903 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, respectively
957

 
955

Additional paid-in capital
1,597,087

 
1,597,194

Accumulated deficit
(828,514
)
 
(787,221
)
Total stockholders’ equity of the Company
769,688

 
811,086

Noncontrolling interests in consolidated entities
732

 
770

Total equity
770,420

 
811,856

Total liabilities and equity
$
4,988,082

 
$
4,965,131

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

2


ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(unaudited, in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2016
 
2015
Revenue
 
Rooms
$
290,615

 
$
200,990

Food and beverage
63,055

 
39,553

Other hotel revenue
13,709

 
8,832

Total hotel revenue
367,379

 
249,375

Other
393

 
860

Total revenue
367,772

 
250,235

Expenses
 
 
 
Hotel operating expenses:
 
 
 
Rooms
63,102

 
43,153

Food and beverage
43,101

 
26,280

Other expenses
113,137

 
74,782

Management fees
13,695

 
9,657

Total hotel expenses
233,035

 
153,872

Property taxes, insurance, and other
18,612

 
11,594

Depreciation and amortization
62,162

 
37,864

Impairment charges
(111
)
 
(106
)
Transaction costs
95

 
499

Advisory services fee
10,903

 
9,567

Corporate, general, and administrative
1,673

 
4,840

Total expenses
326,369

 
218,130

Operating income
41,403

 
32,105

Equity in loss of unconsolidated entities
(3,585
)
 
(6,622
)
Interest income
63

 
16

Gain (loss) on acquisition of PIM Highland JV and sale of hotel properties
(114
)
 
380,705

Other income (expense)
(252
)
 
4,330

Interest expense and amortization of premiums and loan costs
(55,943
)
 
(34,635
)
Write-off of loan costs and exit fees

 
(4,767
)
Unrealized loss on marketable securities

 
(1,802
)
Unrealized gain (loss) on derivatives
6,918

 
(1,698
)
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes
(11,510
)
 
367,632

Income tax expense
(629
)
 
(825
)
Net income (loss)
(12,139
)
 
366,807

Loss from consolidated entities attributable to noncontrolling interest
38

 
25

Net (income) loss attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interests in operating partnership
2,112

 
(45,336
)
Net income (loss) attributable to the Company
(9,989
)
 
321,496

Preferred dividends
(8,490
)
 
(8,490
)
Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders
$
(18,479
)
 
$
313,006

 
 
 
 
Income (loss) per share - basic and diluted:
 
 
 
Basic:
 
 
 
Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders
$
(0.20
)
 
$
3.25

Weighted average common shares outstanding – basic
94,136

 
95,539

Diluted:
 
 
 
Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders
$
(0.20
)
 
$
3.13

Weighted average common shares outstanding – diluted
94,136

 
113,912

 
 
 
 
Dividends declared per common share
$
0.12

 
$
0.12

 
 
 
 
Amounts attributable to common stockholders:
 
 
 
Income (loss) from continuing operations, net of tax
$
(9,989
)
 
$
321,496

Preferred dividends
(8,490
)
 
(8,490
)
Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders
$
(18,479
)
 
$
313,006

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

3


ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(unaudited, in thousands)
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2016
 
2015
Net income (loss)
$
(12,139
)
 
$
366,807

Other comprehensive income, net of tax:
 
 
 
Total other comprehensive income

 

Comprehensive income (loss)
(12,139
)
 
366,807

Less: Comprehensive loss attributable to noncontrolling interest in consolidated entities
38

 
25

Less: Comprehensive (income) loss attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interests in operating partnership
2,112

 
(45,336
)
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to the Company
$
(9,989
)
 
$
321,496

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

4


ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF EQUITY
(unaudited, in thousands)
 
Preferred Stock
 
 
 
Additional
Paid In
Capital
 
 
 
Noncontrolling
Interests In
Consolidated
Entities
 
 
 

Noncontrolling
Interests in
Operating
Partnership
 
Series A
 
Series D
 
Series E
 
Common Stock
 
 
Accumulated
Deficit
 
 
 
 
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
 
 
 
Total
 
Balance at January 1, 2016
1,657

 
$
17

 
9,469

 
$
95

 
4,630

 
$
46

 
95,471

 
$
955

 
$
1,597,194

 
$
(787,221
)
 
$
770

 
$
811,856

 
$
118,449

Purchases of common shares

 

 

 

 

 

 
(124
)
 
(1
)
 
(740
)
 

 

 
(741
)
 

Equity-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
636

 

 

 
636

 
348

Forfeitures of restricted shares

 

 

 

 

 

 
(11
)
 

 

 

 

 

 

Issuance of restricted shares/units

 

 

 

 

 

 
350

 
3

 
(3
)
 

 

 

 
61

Dividends declared - common shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(11,521
)
 

 
(11,521
)
 

Dividends declared - preferred shares- Series A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(886
)
 

 
(886
)
 

Dividends declared - preferred shares- Series D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(5,000
)
 

 
(5,000
)
 

Dividends declared – preferred shares- Series E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(2,604
)
 

 
(2,604
)
 

Distributions to noncontrolling interests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(2,877
)
Redemption value adjustment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(11,293
)
 

 
(11,293
)
 
11,293

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(9,989
)
 
(38
)
 
(10,027
)
 
(2,112
)
Balance at March 31, 2016
1,657

 
$
17

 
9,469

 
$
95

 
4,630

 
$
46

 
95,686

 
$
957

 
$
1,597,087

 
$
(828,514
)
 
$
732

 
$
770,420

 
$
125,162

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

5


ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(unaudited, in thousands)
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2016
 
2015
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
 
Net income (loss)
$
(12,139
)
 
$
366,807

Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash flow provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
62,162

 
37,864

Impairment charges
(111
)
 
(106
)
Amortization of intangibles
(49
)
 

Bad debt expense
183

 
152

Equity in loss of unconsolidated entities
3,585

 
6,622

Distribution of earnings from unconsolidated entities

 
249

(Gain) loss on acquisition of PIM Highland JV and sale of properties, net
114

 
(380,705
)
Realized and unrealized gain on trading securities

 
(2,275
)
Purchases of marketable securities

 
(64,346
)
Sales of marketable securities

 
64,036

Net settlement of trading derivatives
(176
)
 
(1,367
)
Payments for derivatives
(231
)
 

Realized and unrealized (gains) losses on derivatives
(6,918
)
 
1,698

Amortization of loan costs and write-off of loan costs and exit fees
5,657

 
7,646

Equity-based compensation
984

 
171

Changes in operating assets and liabilities, exclusive of effect of hotel acquisitions and dispositions of hotel properties:
 
 
 
Restricted cash
(5,260
)
 
3,003

Accounts receivable and inventories
(13,709
)
 
(10,405
)
Prepaid expenses and other assets
(11,891
)
 
(6,690
)
Accounts payable and accrued expenses
17,527

 
13,780

Due to/from affiliates

 
3,473

Due to/from related party
(3,256
)
 
(6,315
)
Due to/from third-party hotel managers
5,137

 
(8,295
)
Due to/from Ashford Prime OP, net
515

 
561

Due to/from Ashford Inc., net
484

 
918

Other liabilities
2,116

 
3,851

Net cash provided by operating activities
44,724

 
30,327

Cash Flows from Investing Activities
 
 
 
Investment in unconsolidated entity
(2,000
)
 

Proceeds from sale/payments of note receivable
60

 
60

Acquisition of hotel properties, net of cash acquired

 
(287,618
)
Change in restricted cash related to improvements and additions to hotel properties
(3,206
)
 
49,703

Improvements and additions to hotel properties
(40,688
)
 
(28,812
)
Net proceeds from sales of assets/properties
2,484

 
7,502

Payments for initial franchise fees
(30
)
 
(175
)
Proceeds from property insurance
33

 
282

Net cash used in investing activities
(43,347
)
 
(259,058
)
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
 
 
 
Borrowings on indebtedness
37,500

 
1,581,032

Repayments of indebtedness
(3,625
)
 
(1,267,467
)
Payments of loan costs and exit fees
(764
)
 
(31,558
)
Payments of dividends and distributions
(22,676
)
 
(21,888
)
Repurchases of common shares
(1
)
 
(446
)
Payments for derivatives
(73
)
 
(1,250
)
Proceeds from common stock offering

 
110,939

Other
61

 
33

Net cash provided by financing activities
10,422

 
369,395

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents
11,799

 
140,664

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
215,078

 
215,063

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
$
226,877


$
355,727

Supplemental Cash Flow Information
 
 
 
Interest paid
$
48,809

 
$
26,543

Income taxes paid
305

 
197

Supplemental Disclosure of Non-Cash Investing and Financing Activity
 
 
 
Accrued but unpaid capital expenditures
$
7,026

 
$
6,522

Dividend receivable from Ashford Prime OP

 
249

Dividends and distributions declared but not paid
22,890

 
23,346

Common stock repurchase accrued but not paid
740

 


See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

6

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited)



1. Organization and Description of Business
Ashford Hospitality Trust, Inc., together with its subsidiaries (“Ashford Trust”), is a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) focused on investing in full service hotels in the upscale and upper-upscale segments in domestic and international markets that have revenue per available room (“RevPAR”) generally less than twice the national average, and in all methods including direct real estate, equity, and debt. Other than Ashford Hospitality Trust, Inc.’s investment in Ashford Inc. common stock, we own our lodging investments and conduct our business through Ashford Hospitality Limited Partnership (“Ashford Trust OP”), our operating partnership. Ashford OP General Partner LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ashford Trust, serves as the sole general partner of our operating partnership. In this report, terms such as the “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our” refer to Ashford Hospitality Trust, Inc. and all entities included in its consolidated financial statements.
We are advised by Ashford Hospitality Advisors LLC (“Ashford LLC”), a subsidiary of Ashford Inc., through an advisory agreement. All of the hotels in our portfolio are currently asset-managed by Ashford LLC. We do not have any employees. All of the services that might be provided by employees are provided to us by Ashford LLC.
As of March 31, 2016, we owned interests in the following assets:
132 consolidated hotel properties, including 130 directly owned and two owned through a majority-owned investment in a consolidated entity, which represent 27,977 total rooms (or 27,950 net rooms excluding those attributable to our partners);
85 hotel condominium units at WorldQuest Resort in Orlando, Florida;
a 29.8% ownership in Ashford Inc. common stock with a carrying value of $6.1 million;
a 52.4% ownership in Ashford Quantitative Alternatives (U.S.), LP (the “AQUA U.S. Fund”) previously named AIM Real Estate Hedged Equity (U.S.) Fund, LP (the “REHE Fund”) with a carrying value of $52.9 million and
a mezzanine loan with a carrying value of $3.8 million.
For federal income tax purposes, we have elected to be treated as a REIT, which imposes limitations related to operating hotels. As of March 31, 2016, our 132 hotel properties were leased or owned by our wholly owned subsidiaries that are treated as taxable REIT subsidiaries for federal income tax purposes (collectively, these subsidiaries are referred to as “Ashford TRS”). Ashford TRS then engages third-party or affiliated hotel management companies to operate the hotels under management contracts. Hotel operating results related to these properties are included in the consolidated statements of operations.
As of March 31, 2016, Remington Lodging & Hospitality, LLC, together with its affiliates (“Remington Lodging”), which is beneficially wholly owned by Mr. Monty J. Bennett, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, and Mr. Archie Bennett, Jr., our Chairman Emeritus, managed 89 of our 132 hotel properties and WorldQuest Resort. Third-party management companies managed the remaining hotel properties. On September 17, 2015, Remington Lodging and Ashford Inc. entered into an agreement pursuant to which Ashford Inc. will acquire all of the general partner interest and eighty percent of the limited partner interests in Remington Lodging. On April 12, 2016, Ashford Inc.’s stockholders approved the acquisition. The acquisition is subject to the satisfaction of various conditions, and if completed, will not impact our management agreements with Remington Lodging.

7

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

2. Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation—The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included. These consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Ashford Hospitality Trust, Inc., its majority-owned subsidiaries, and its majority-owned entities in which it has a controlling interest. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions between consolidated entities have been eliminated in these consolidated financial statements. We have condensed or omitted certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements presented in accordance with GAAP in the accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements. We believe the disclosures made herein are adequate to prevent the information presented from being misleading. However, the financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our 2015 Annual Report to Stockholders on Form 10-K and Form 10-K/A filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on February 29, 2016, and March 15, 2016, respectively.
Ashford Trust OP is considered to be a variable interest entity (“VIE”), as defined by authoritative accounting guidance. A VIE must be consolidated by a reporting entity if the reporting entity is the primary beneficiary because it has (i) the power to direct the VIE’s activities that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance, (ii) an implicit financial responsibility to ensure that a VIE operates as designed, and (iii) the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE or the right to receive benefits from the VIE. All major decisions related to Ashford Trust OP that most significantly impact its economic performance, including but not limited to operating procedures with respect to business affairs and any acquisitions, dispositions, financings, restructurings or other transactions with sellers, purchasers, lenders, brokers, agents and other applicable representatives, are subject to the approval of our wholly-owned subsidiary, Ashford Trust OP General Partner LLC, its general partner. As such, we consolidate Ashford Trust OP.
The following items affect reporting comparability related to our consolidated financial statements:
Historical seasonality patterns at some of our properties cause fluctuations in our overall operating results. Consequently, operating results for the three months ended March 31, 2016, are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2016.
On February 6, 2015, we acquired the Lakeway Resort & Spa, on February 25, 2015, we acquired the Memphis Marriott East hotel, on April 29, 2015, we acquired the Hampton Inn & Suites Gainesville, on June 3, 2015, we acquired the Le Pavillon Hotel, on June 17, 2015, we acquired a 9 hotel portfolio, on July 1, 2015, we acquired the W Atlanta Downtown hotel, on July 23, 2015, we acquired the Le Meridien Minneapolis, on August 5, 2015, we acquired the Hilton Garden Inn - Wisconsin Dells, on October 15, 2015, we acquired the Hotel Indigo, on November 10, 2015, we acquired the W Minneapolis Foshay. The results of these hotels are included in our results of operations as of their respective acquisition dates.
On March 6, 2015, we acquired the remaining approximate 28.26% interest in the 28 hotels of the PIM Highland JV. For the period from January 1, 2015 through March 5, 2015, the results of the PIM Highland JV are included in equity in loss of unconsolidated entities. Beginning March 6, 2015, we consolidated the results of operations of these hotels.
Use of Estimates—The preparation of these consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Impairment of Investments in Hotel Properties—Hotel properties are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. Recoverability of the hotel is measured by comparison of the carrying amount of the hotel to the estimated future undiscounted cash flows, which take into account current market conditions and our intent with respect to holding or disposing of the hotel. If our analysis indicates that the carrying value of the hotel is not recoverable on an undiscounted cash flow basis, we recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the property’s net book value exceeds its estimated fair value, or fair value, less cost to sell. In evaluating impairment of hotel properties, we make many assumptions and estimates, including projected cash flows, expected holding period, and expected useful life. Fair value is determined through various valuation techniques, including internally developed discounted cash flow models, comparable market

8

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

transactions and third-party appraisals, where considered necessary. No impairment charges were recorded for investments in hotel properties for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015.
Investments in Unconsolidated Entities—Investments in entities in which we have ownership interests ranging from 12.2% to 52.4% are accounted for under the equity method of accounting by recording the initial investment and our percentage of interest in the entities’ net income/loss. We review the investments in our unconsolidated entities for impairment in each reporting period pursuant to the applicable authoritative accounting guidance. An investment is impaired when its estimated fair value is less than the carrying amount of our investment. Any impairment is recorded in equity loss in unconsolidated entities. No such impairment was recorded in the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015.
Our investments in certain unconsolidated entities are considered to be variable interests in the underlying entities. VIE’s, as defined by authoritative accounting guidance, must be consolidated by a reporting entity if the reporting entity is the primary beneficiary because it has (i) the power to direct the VIE’s activities that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance, (ii) an implicit financial responsibility to ensure that a VIE operates as designed, and (iii) the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE or the right to receive benefits from the VIE. Because we do not have the power and financial responsibility to direct the unconsolidated entities’ activities and operations, we are not considered to be the primary beneficiary of these entities on an ongoing basis and therefore such entities should not be consolidated. In evaluating VIEs, our analysis involves considerable management judgment and assumptions.
Marketable Securities—Prior to our investment in the AQUA U.S. Fund, we held marketable securities. Marketable securities, included U.S. treasury bills, publicly traded equity securities and stocks, and put and call options on certain publicly traded securities. All of these investments were recorded at fair value. Put and call options were considered derivatives. The fair value of these investments was based on the closing price as of the balance sheet date. The cost of securities sold was determined by using the high cost method. Net investment income, including interest income (expense), dividends, realized gains or losses and costs of investment, was reported as a component of “other income (expense).” Unrealized gains and losses on these investments were reported as “unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities” in the consolidated statements of operations.
Revenue Recognition—Hotel revenues, including room, food, beverage, and ancillary revenues such as long-distance telephone service, laundry, parking and space rentals, are recognized when services have been rendered. Taxes collected from customers and submitted to taxing authorities are not recorded in revenue. Interest income (including accretion of discounts on the mezzanine loan using the effective interest method) is recognized when earned. We discontinue recording interest and amortizing discounts/premiums when the contractual payment of interest and/or principal is not received when contractually due. We were reimbursed by PIM Highland JV for costs associated with managing its day-to-day operations and providing corporate administrative services such as accounting, insurance, marketing support, asset management and other services. These reimbursements were recorded as “other” revenue. As of March 6, 2015, we acquired the remaining approximate 28.26% of the PIM Highland JV which discontinued the aforementioned reimbursements.
Equity-Based Compensation—Stock/unit-based compensation for non-employees is accounted for at fair value based on the market price of the shares at period end in accordance with applicable authoritative accounting guidance that results in recording expense, included in “advisory services fee,” and “management fees” equal to the fair value of the award in proportion to the requisite service period satisfied during the period. Performance stock units (“PSUs”) and performance-based Long-Term Incentive Plan (“Performance LTIP”) units granted to certain executive officers are accounted for at fair value at period end based on a Monte Carlo simulation valuation model that results in recording expense, included in “advisory services fee,” equal to the fair value of the award in proportion to the requisite service period satisfied during the period. Stock/unit grants to independent directors are recorded at fair value based on the market price of the shares at grant date, which amount is fully expensed as the grants of stock/units are fully vested on the date of grant.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards—In February 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-02, Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis (“ASU 2015-02”). The ASU amends the consolidation guidance for VIEs and general partners’ investments in limited partnerships and modifies the evaluation of whether limited partnerships and similar legal entities are VIEs or voting interest entities. The ASU is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2015, with early adoption permitted. We have adopted this standard effective January 1, 2016, and the adoption of this standard did not have an impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Recently Issued Accounting StandardsIn May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014-09”). ASU 2014-09 is a comprehensive new revenue recognition model, which requires a company to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to a customer in an amount that reflects the consideration the company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. The update will replace most existing revenue recognition

9

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

guidance in U.S. GAAP when it becomes effective. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-14, Revenue From Contracts With Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date, which defers the effective date to fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2017. In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-08, Principal Versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross Versus Net), which clarifies the principal versus agent implementation guidance. Early adoption is permitted for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2016. The standard permits the use of either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. We are evaluating the effect that ASU 2014-09 will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. We have not yet selected a transition method.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15, Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern (“ASU 2014-15”), to provide guidance on management's responsibility to perform interim and annual assessments of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. ASU 2014-15 also requires certain disclosures if conditions or events raise substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. ASU 2014-15 applies to all entities and is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and interim periods thereafter, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of this standard will have an impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities (“ASU 2016-01”), which requires an entity to: (i) measure equity investments at fair value through net income, with certain exceptions; (ii) present in OCI the changes in instrument-specific credit risk for financial liabilities measured using the fair value option; (iii) present financial assets and financial liabilities by measurement category and form of financial asset; (iv) calculate the fair value of financial instruments for disclosure purposes based on an exit price and; (v) assess a valuation allowance on deferred tax assets related to unrealized losses of AFS debt securities in combination with other deferred tax assets. ASU 2016-01 provides an election to subsequently measure certain nonmarketable equity investments at cost less any impairment and adjusted for certain observable price changes. It also requires a qualitative impairment assessment of such equity investments and amends certain fair value disclosure requirements. ASU 2016-01 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Certain provisions of ASU 2016-01 are eligible for early adoption. We are evaluating the impact that ASU 2016-01 will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (“ASU 2016-02”). The new standard establishes a right-of-use (“ROU”) model that requires a lessee to record a ROU asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. A modified retrospective transition approach is required for lessees for capital and operating leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements, with certain practical expedients available. We are evaluating the impact that ASU 2016-02 will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
3. Investments in Hotel Properties, net
Investments in hotel properties, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
March 31, 2016
 
December 31, 2015
Land
$
701,934

 
$
704,534

Buildings and improvements
4,042,970

 
4,026,857

Furniture, fixtures, and equipment
419,181

 
406,893

Construction in progress
21,640

 
31,235

Condominium properties
11,703

 
11,947

Total cost
5,197,428

 
5,181,466

Accumulated depreciation
(803,727
)
 
(761,782
)
Investments in hotel properties, net
$
4,393,701

 
$
4,419,684


10

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)


Final Purchase Price Allocation
Hotel Indigo - Atlanta
On October 15, 2015, we acquired a 100% interest in the Hotel Indigo (“Indigo Atlanta”) in Atlanta, Georgia for total consideration of $26.9 million. As part of the transaction, we assumed a mortgage loan with a fair value of $16.6 million. See note 6. The remaining purchase price was funded in cash. We prepared a purchase price allocation of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. The final purchase price allocation was completed with the assistance of a third party appraisal firm. This valuation is considered a Level 3 valuation technique.
The following table summarizes the estimated fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the acquisition (in thousands):
Land
$
3,230

Buildings and improvements
22,135

Furniture, fixtures, and equipment
1,576

 
26,941

Indebtedness
(16,581
)
Net other assets and liabilities
425

4. Note Receivable
At March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, we had one mezzanine loan receivable with a net carrying value of $3.8 million and $3.7 million, respectively, net of a valuation allowance of $7.0 million and $7.1 million, respectively. This note is secured by one hotel property, bears interest at a rate of 6.09%, and matures in 2017. All required payments on this loan are current. No impairment charges were recorded during the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015. Valuation adjustments of $111,000 and $106,000 were credited to impairment charges during the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Ongoing payments are treated as reductions of carrying value with related valuation allowance adjustments recorded as credits to impairment charges.

11

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

5. Investment in Unconsolidated Entities
Ashford Inc.
We hold approximately 598,000 shares of Ashford Inc. common stock, which represented an approximate 29.8% ownership interest in Ashford Inc. as of March 31, 2016, with a fair value of $27.3 million.
The following tables summarize the condensed consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 and the condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 of Ashford Inc. (in thousands):
Ashford Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(unaudited)
 
March 31, 2016
 
December 31, 2015
Total assets
$
164,799

 
$
166,991

Total liabilities
31,997

 
30,115

Redeemable noncontrolling interests
1,119

 
240

Total stockholders’ equity of Ashford Inc.
30,565

 
32,165

Noncontrolling interests in consolidated entities
101,118

 
104,471

Total equity
131,683

 
136,636

Total liabilities and equity
$
164,799

 
$
166,991

Our ownership interest in Ashford Inc.
$
6,097

 
$
6,616

Ashford Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2016
 
2015
Total revenue
$
13,409

 
$
13,118

Total operating expenses
(13,921
)
 
(21,752
)
Operating loss
(512
)
 
(8,634
)
Realized and unrealized loss on investment in unconsolidated entity, net
(1,460
)
 

Realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments, net
(5,684
)
 
45

Other
(102
)
 
7

Income tax expense
(640
)
 
(231
)
Net loss
(8,398
)
 
(8,813
)
Loss from consolidated entities attributable to noncontrolling interests
6,548

 
961

Net loss attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interests
118

 
18

Net loss attributable to Ashford Inc.
$
(1,732
)
 
$
(7,834
)
Our equity in loss of Ashford Inc.
$
(519
)
 
$
(2,741
)

12

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

AQUA U.S. Fund
In June 2015, for consideration of certain marketable securities, we obtained a 52.4% ownership interest in the AQUA U.S. Fund, previously named the REHE Fund. The AQUA U.S. Fund, is managed by Ashford Investment Management, LLC (“AIM”), an indirect subsidiary of Ashford Inc. As of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, and for the three months ended March 31, 2016, the AQUA U.S. Fund was consolidated by Ashford Inc. The AQUA U.S. Fund invests substantially all of its assets in the Ashford Quantitative Alternatives Master Fund, LP (the “Master Fund”), previously named the AIM Real Estate Hedged Equity Master Fund, LP, and as a consequence of our investment in the AQUA U.S. Fund, we obtained an indirect interest in the Master Fund. Our maximum exposure of loss is limited to our investment in the AQUA U.S. Fund.
The following tables summarize the consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 and the consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2016 of the AQUA U.S. Fund (in thousands):
Ashford Quantitative Alternatives (U.S.), LP
Condensed Balance Sheets
(unaudited)
 
 
March 31, 2016
 
December 31, 2015
Total assets
 
$
100,938

 
$
106,792

Partners’ capital
 
100,938

 
106,792

Total liabilities and partners’ capital
 
$
100,938

 
$
106,792

Our ownership interest in the AQUA U.S. Fund
 
$
52,886

 
$
55,952

Ashford Quantitative Alternatives (U.S.), LP
Condensed Statement of Operations
(unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended March 31, 2016
Total investment income
$
18

Net expenses
(189
)
Net investment income
(171
)
Net unrealized gain on investments
1,118

Net realized loss on investments
(6,801
)
Net loss attributable to the AQUA U.S. Fund
$
(5,854
)
Our equity in loss of the AQUA U.S. Fund
$
(3,066
)
The Master Fund generally invests in publicly traded equity securities and put and call options on publicly traded equity securities. The AQUA U.S. Fund records its investment in the Master Fund at its proportionate share of net assets. Income (loss) and distributions are allocated to the AQUA U.S. Fund’s partners based on their ownership percentage of the AQUA U.S. Fund. Our equity in loss in the AQUA U.S. Fund represents our share of the AQUA U.S. Fund’s loss for the three months ended March 31, 2016. We generally may redeem our investment in the AQUA U.S. Fund on the last business day of the month after providing written notice. As of March 31, 2016, we have no unfunded commitments. We are not obligated to pay any portion of the management fee or the performance allocation in favor of the AQUA U.S. Fund’s investment manager and general partner, respectively, but do share pro rata in all other applicable expenses of the AQUA U.S. Fund. As of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, we owned an approximate 52.4% ownership interest in the AQUA U.S. Fund.
Other
In March 2016, the Company invested $2.0 million in an unconsolidated entity that is controlled and consolidated by Ashford Inc., for a 12.2% ownership interest. Our investment is recorded as a component of investment in unconsolidated entities in our consolidated balance sheet and is accounted for under the equity method of accounting as we have been deemed to have significant influence over the entity under the applicable accounting guidance. For the three months ended March 31, 2016, our equity in the loss in the unconsolidated entity was immaterial.

13

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

As of December 31, 2015, we held a 14.4% subordinated beneficial interest in a trust that holds the Four Seasons property in Nevis, which had a carrying value of zero. In February 2016, the Four Seasons hotel property in Nevis, was sold. No gain or loss was recognized associated with our 14.4% subordinated beneficial interest. As a result of the sale, we have no ownership interest in the hotel property as of March 31, 2016.

14

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

6. Indebtedness
Indebtedness consisted of the following (in thousands):
Indebtedness
 
Collateral
 
Maturity
 
Interest Rate
 
March 31, 2016
 
December 31, 2015
Mortgage loan (3)
 
7 hotels
 
August 2016
 
LIBOR (1) + 4.35%
 
$
301,000

 
$
301,000

Mortgage loan (3) 
 
5 hotels
 
August 2016
 
LIBOR (1) + 4.38%
 
62,900

 
62,900

Mortgage loan (3)
 
1 hotel
 
August 2016
 
LIBOR (1) + 4.20%
 
37,500

 
37,500

Secured revolving credit facility (4)
 
None
 
October 2016
 
Base Rate (2) + 2.00% or LIBOR (1) + 3.00%
 

 

Mortgage loan (3)
 
8 hotels
 
January 2017
 
LIBOR (1) + 4.95%
 
376,800

 
376,800

Mortgage loan (5)
 
5 hotels
 
February 2017
 
LIBOR (1) + 4.75%
 
200,000

 
200,000

Mortgage loan (6)
 
24 hotels
 
April 2017
 
LIBOR (1) + 4.39%
 
1,070,560

 
1,070,560

Mortgage loan (3)
 
1 hotel
 
April 2017
 
LIBOR (1) + 4.95%
 
33,300

 
33,300

Mortgage loan
 
5 hotels
 
April 2017
 
5.95%
 
109,892

 
110,302

Mortgage loan
 
5 hotels
 
April 2017
 
5.95%
 
98,775

 
99,144

Mortgage loan
 
5 hotels
 
April 2017
 
5.95%
 
150,297

 
150,860

Mortgage loan
 
7 hotels
 
April 2017
 
5.95%
 
120,221

 
120,671

Mortgage loan (3)
 
1 hotel
 
May 2017
 
LIBOR (1) + 5.10%
 
25,100

 
25,100

Mortgage loan (3)
 
1 hotel
 
June 2017
 
LIBOR (1) + 5.10%
 
43,750

 
43,750

Mortgage loan
 
1 hotel
 
June 2017
 
5.98%
 
15,934

 
16,002

Mortgage loan (3)
 
8 hotels
 
July 2017
 
LIBOR (1) + 4.09%
 
144,000

 
144,000

Mortgage loan (3)
 
1 hotel
 
July 2017
 
LIBOR (1) + 4.15%
 
35,200

 
35,200

Mortgage loan (3)
 
1 hotel
 
July 2017
 
LIBOR (1) + 5.10%
 
40,500

 
40,500

Mortgage loan (6) (9)
 
17 hotels
 
December 2017
 
LIBOR (1) + 5.52%
 
412,500

 
375,000

Mortgage loan
 
1 hotel
 
January 2018
 
4.38%
 
97,556

 
98,016

Mortgage loan
 
2 hotels
 
January 2018
 
4.44%
 
106,713

 
107,054

Mortgage loan (7)
 
1 hotel
 
July 2018
 
LIBOR (1) + 4.50%
 
21,200

 
21,200

Mortgage loan (7)
 
1 hotel
 
August 2018
 
LIBOR (1) + 4.95%
 
12,000

 
12,000

Mortgage loan (8)
 
1 hotel
 
July 2019
 
LIBOR (1) + 3.75%
 
5,524

 
5,524

Mortgage loan
 
1 hotel
 
November 2020
 
6.26%
 
98,035

 
98,420

Mortgage loan
 
1 hotel
 
May 2023
 
5.46%
 
55,314

 
55,524

Mortgage loan
 
1 hotel
 
January 2024
 
5.49%
 
10,491

 
10,529

Mortgage loan
 
1 hotel
 
January 2024
 
5.49%
 
7,188

 
7,214

Mortgage loan
 
1 hotel
 
May 2024
 
4.99%
 
6,719

 
6,745

Mortgage loan
 
3 hotels
 
August 2024
 
5.20%
 
67,520

 
67,520

Mortgage loan
 
2 hotels
 
August 2024
 
4.85%
 
12,500

 
12,500

Mortgage loan
 
3 hotels
 
August 2024
 
4.90%
 
24,980

 
24,980

Mortgage loan
 
3 hotels
 
February 2025
 
4.45%
 
53,957

 
54,110

Mortgage loan
 
2 hotels
 
February 2025
 
4.45%
 
24,079

 
24,147

Mortgage loan
 
2 hotels
 
February 2025
 
4.45%
 
20,861

 
20,919

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3,902,866

 
3,868,991

Premiums, net
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5,105

 
5,626

Deferred loan costs, net
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(28,746
)
 
(34,000
)
Total
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
3,879,225

 
$
3,840,617

____________________________________
(1) LIBOR rates were 0.437% and 0.430% at March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, respectively.
(2) Base Rate, as defined in the secured revolving credit facility agreement is the greater of (i) the prime rate set by Bank of America, (ii) federal funds rate + 0.5% or (iii) LIBOR + 1.0%.
(3) This mortgage loan has three one-year extension options subject to satisfaction of certain conditions.
(4) Our borrowing capacity under our secured revolving credit facility is $100.0 million.
(5) This mortgage loan has three one-year extension options subject to satisfaction of certain conditions and a LIBOR floor of 0.20%. The first one-year extension period began in February 2016.
(6) This mortgage loan has four one-year extension options subject to satisfaction of certain conditions.
(7) This mortgage loan has two one-year extension options subject to satisfaction of certain conditions.
(8) This mortgage loan provides for an interest rate of LIBOR + 3.75% with a 0.25% LIBOR floor for the first 18 months. Beginning February 2016, the interest rate is fixed at 4.0%.

15

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

(9) These mortgage loans are collateralized by the same properties.
On December 2, 2015, we refinanced three mortgage loans totaling $273.5 million. The initial amount of the new loan was $375.0 million. On March 1, 2016, we increased the loan amount by $37.5 million. The loan balance is now $412.5 million, which is interest only and provides for a floating interest rate of LIBOR + 5.52%. The stated maturity is December 2017, with four one-year extension options. The new loan is secured by 17 hotel properties. The SpringHill Suites in Jacksonville, Florida is now unencumbered.
During the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, we recognized premium amortization of $521,000 and $127,000, respectively. The amortization of the premium is computed using the effective interest method, which is included in interest expense and amortization of premiums and loan costs in the consolidated statements of operations.
We are required to maintain certain financial ratios under various debt and related agreements. If we violate covenants in any debt or related agreement, we could be required to repay all or a portion of our indebtedness before maturity at a time when we might be unable to arrange financing for such repayment on attractive terms, if at all. The assets of certain of our subsidiaries are pledged under non-recourse indebtedness and are not available to satisfy the debts and other obligations of Ashford Trust or Ashford Trust OP, our operating partnership, and the liabilities of such subsidiaries do not constitute the obligations of Ashford Trust or Ashford Trust OP. Presently, our existing financial covenants are non-recourse and primarily relate to maintaining minimum debt coverage ratios, maintaining an overall minimum net worth, maintaining a maximum loan to value ratio, and maintaining an overall minimum total assets. As of March 31, 2016, we were in compliance in all material respects with all covenants or other requirements set forth in our debt and related agreements as amended.
7. Income (Loss) Per Share
Basic income (loss) per common share is calculated using the two-class method by dividing net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted income (loss) per common share is calculated using the two-class method, or treasury stock method if more dilutive, and reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common shares were exercised or converted into common shares, whereby such exercise or conversion would result in lower income per share.

16

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

The following table reconciles the amounts used in calculating basic and diluted income (loss) per share (in thousands, except per share amounts):
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2016
 
2015
Income (loss) allocated to common stockholders:
 
 
 
Income (loss) attributable to the Company
$
(9,989
)
 
$
321,496

Less: Dividends on preferred stock
(8,490
)
 
(8,490
)
Less: Dividends on common stock
(11,333
)
 
(11,964
)
Less: Dividends on unvested performance stock units
(40
)
 

Less: Dividends on unvested restricted shares
(148
)
 
(165
)
Less: Undistributed income allocated to unvested shares

 
(2,035
)
Undistributed income (loss)
(30,000
)
 
298,842

Add back: Dividends on common stock
11,333

 
11,964

Distributed and undistributed income (loss) - basic
$
(18,667
)
 
$
310,806

Add back: Income allocated to operating partnership units

 
45,336

Distributed and undistributed net income (loss) - diluted
$
(18,667
)
 
$
356,142

 
 
 
 
Weighted average shares outstanding:
 
 
 
Weighted average common shares outstanding - basic
94,136

 
95,539

Effect of assumed conversion of operating partnership units

 
18,373

Weighted average shares outstanding - diluted
94,136

 
113,912

 
 
 
 
Basic income (loss) per share:
 
 
 
Net income (loss) allocated to common stockholders per share
$
(0.20
)
 
$
3.25

 
 
 
 
Diluted income (loss) per share:
 
 
 
Net income (loss) allocated to common stockholders per share
$
(0.20
)
 
$
3.13

Due to the anti-dilutive effect, the computation of diluted income (loss) per share does not reflect adjustments for the following items (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2016
 
2015
Income (loss) allocated to common stockholders is not adjusted for:
 
 
 
Income allocated to unvested restricted shares
$
148

 
$
2,200

Income allocated to unvested performance stock units
40

 

Loss attributable to noncontrolling interest in operating partnership units
(2,112
)
 

Total
$
(1,924
)
 
$
2,200

 
 
 
 
Weighted average diluted shares are not adjusted for:
 
 
 
Effect of unvested restricted shares
127

 
432

Effect of assumed conversion of operating partnership units
19,043

 

Total
19,170

 
432


17

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

8. Derivative Instruments and Hedging
Interest Rate Derivatives—We are exposed to risks arising from our business operations, economic conditions and financial markets. To manage these risks, we primarily use interest rate derivatives and interest rate floors to hedge our debt and our cash flows. The interest rate derivatives currently include interest rate caps and interest rate floors. These derivatives are subject to master netting settlement arrangements. As of March 31, 2016, maturities on these instruments range from August 2016 to July 2020. To mitigate the nonperformance risk, we routinely use a third party’s analysis of the creditworthiness of the counterparties, which supports our belief that the counterparties’ nonperformance risk is limited. All derivatives are recorded at fair value.
In 2016, we entered into interest rate caps with notional amounts totaling $237.5 million and strike rates ranging from 2.25% to 4.50%. These interest rate caps had effective dates from February 2016 to March 2016, and maturity dates from February 2017 to December 2017, and a total cost of $73,000. These instruments were not designated as cash flow hedges. These instruments cap the interest rates on our mortgage loans with principal balances of $237.5 million and maturity dates from February 2017 to December 2017.
In 2015, we entered into interest rate caps with notional amounts totaling $1.5 billion and strike rates ranging from 2.50% to 3.00%. These interest rate caps had effective dates from January 2015 to March 2015, and maturity dates from January 2017 to April 2017, for a total cost of $1.3 million. These instruments were not designated as cash flow hedges. At March 31, 2015, we had instruments capping the interest rates on our mortgage loans with principal balances totaling $1.5 billion and maturity dates from January 2017 to April 2017. We also entered into interest rate floors with notional amounts totaling $6.0 billion and strike rates ranging from (0.25)% to zero percent. These interest rate floors had effective dates from April 2015 to July 2015, and maturity dates from April 2020 to July 2020, for a total cost of $9.4 million.
Credit Default Swap Derivatives—A credit default swap is a derivative contract that functions like an insurance policy against the credit risk of an entity or obligation. The seller of protection assumes the credit risk of the reference obligation from the buyer (us) of protection in exchange for annual premium payments. If a default or a loss, as defined in the credit default swap agreements, occurs on the underlying bonds, then the buyer of protection is protected against those losses. The only liability for us, the buyer, is the annual premium and any change in value of the underlying CMBX index (if the trade is terminated prior to maturity). For all CMBX trades completed to date, we were the buyer of protection. Credit default swaps are subject to master-netting settlement arrangements and credit support annexes. Assuming the underlying bonds pay off at par over their remaining average life, our total exposure for these trades was approximately $4.7 million as of March 31, 2016. Cash collateral is posted by us as well as our counterparties. We offset the fair value of the derivative and the obligation/right to return/reclaim cash collateral. The change in market value of credit default swaps is settled net through posting cash collateral or reclaiming cash collateral between us and our counterparties when the change in market value is over $250,000.
Options on Futures Contracts—In March 2016, we purchased an option on Eurodollar futures for upfront costs of $250,000, including commissions of $20,000, and a maturity date of June 2017.
9. Fair Value Measurements
Fair Value Hierarchy—For disclosure purposes, financial instruments, whether measured at fair value on a recurring or nonrecurring basis or not measured at fair value, are classified in a hierarchy consisting of three levels based on the observability of valuation inputs in the market place as discussed below:
Level 1: Fair value measurements that are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets that we have the ability to access for identical assets or liabilities. Market price data generally is obtained from exchange or dealer markets.
Level 2: Fair value measurements based on inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Level 2 inputs include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets and inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, such as interest rates and yield curves that are observable at commonly quoted intervals.
Level 3: Fair value measurements based on valuation techniques that use significant inputs that are unobservable. The circumstances for using these measurements include those in which there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability.
Fair values of interest rate swaps are determined using the market standard methodology of netting the discounted future fixed cash receipts/payments and the discounted expected variable cash payments/receipts. Fair values of interest rate caps, floors, flooridors, and corridors are determined using the market standard methodology of discounting the future expected cash receipts that would occur if variable interest rates fell below the strike rates of the floors or rise above the strike rates of the caps. Variable

18

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

interest rates used in the calculation of projected receipts and payments on the swaps, caps, and floors are based on an expectation of future interest rates derived from observable market interest rate curves (LIBOR forward curves) and volatilities (Level 2 inputs). We also incorporate credit valuation adjustments (Level 3 inputs) to appropriately reflect both our own nonperformance risk and the respective counterparty’s nonperformance risk.
Fair values of credit default swaps are obtained from a third party who publishes various information including the index composition and price data (Level 2 inputs). The fair value of credit default swaps does not contain credit-risk-related adjustments as the change in fair value is settled net through posting cash collateral or reclaiming cash collateral between us and our counterparty.
Fair values of interest rate floors are determined by obtaining the last market bid prices from several counterparties for a similar investment as of the measurement date. The bids (the Level 2 inputs) used in the calculation of fair value are reviewed across each counterparty and are accessed individually to determine the relevant fair value of each floor.
Fair value of options on futures contracts is determined based on the last reported settlement price as of the measurement date (Level 1 inputs). These exchange-traded options are centrally cleared, and a clearinghouse stands in between all trades to ensure that the obligations involved in the trades are satisfied.
Fair values of marketable securities and liabilities associated with marketable securities, including public equity securities, equity put and call options, and other investments, are based on their quoted market closing prices (Level 1 inputs).
When a majority of the inputs used to value our derivatives fall within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, the derivative valuations in their entirety are classified in Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy. However, when valuation adjustments associated with our derivatives utilize Level 3 inputs, such as estimates of current credit spreads to evaluate the likelihood of default by us and our counterparties, which we consider significant (10% or more) to the overall valuation of our derivatives, the derivative valuations in their entirety are classified in Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. Transfers of inputs between levels are determined at the end of each reporting period. In determining the fair values of our derivatives at March 31, 2016, the LIBOR interest rate forward curve (Level 2 inputs) assumed an uptrend from 0.437% to 0.990% for the remaining term of our derivatives. Credit spreads (Level 3 inputs) used in determining the fair values of hedge and non-hedge designated derivatives assumed an uptrend in nonperformance risk for us and all of our counterparties through the maturity dates.

19

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
The following table presents our assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis aggregated by the level within which measurements fall in the fair value hierarchy (in thousands):
 
 
Quoted Market Prices (Level 1)
 
Significant Other Observable Inputs (Level 2)
 
Significant Unobservable Inputs (Level 3)
 
Counterparty and Cash Collateral Netting(1)
 
Total
 
 
 
 
March 31, 2016:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Derivative assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest rate derivatives - floors
$

 
$
9,447

 
$

 
$

 
$
9,447

(2) 
 
Interest rate derivatives - caps

 
97

 

 

 
97

(2) 
 
Credit default swaps

 
4,666

 

 
(3,882
)
 
784

(2) 
 
Options on futures contracts
505

 

 

 

 
505

(2) 
 
Total
$
505

 
$
14,210

 
$

 
$
(3,882
)
 
$
10,833

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2015:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Derivative assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest rate derivatives - floors
$

 
$
1,747

 
$

 
$

 
$
1,747

(2) 
 
Interest rate derivatives - caps

 
361

 

 

 
361

(2) 
 
Credit default swaps

 
5,152

 

 
(4,059
)
 
1,093

(2) 
 
Options on futures contracts
234

 

 

 

 
234

(2) 
 
Total
$
234

 
$
7,260

 
$

 
$
(4,059
)
 
$
3,435

 
____________________________________
(1) Represents cash collateral posted by our counterparty.
(2) Reported net as “derivative assets, net” in the consolidated balance sheets.

20

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

Effect of Fair-Value-Measured Assets and Liabilities on Consolidated Statements of Operations
The following tables summarize the effect of fair-value-measured assets and liabilities on the consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 (in thousands):
 
 
 Gain (Loss) Recognized in Income
 
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
Assets
 
 
 
 
Derivative assets:
 
 
 
 
Interest rate derivatives - floors
$
7,701

 
$
(1,018
)
 
Interest rate derivatives - caps
(337
)
 

 
Credit default swaps
(485
)
(5) 
(737
)
 
Options on futures contracts
39

 

 
Equity put options

 
(1,290
)
 
Equity call options

 
80

 
Non-derivative assets:
 
 
 
 
Equity - American Depositary Receipt

 
(65
)
 
Equity

 
2,063

 
U.S. Treasury

 
406

 
Total
6,918

 
(561
)
 
Liabilities
 
 
 
 
Derivative liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Short equity put options
$

 
$
595

 
Short equity call options

 
579

 
Non-derivative liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Short equity securities

 
(36
)
 
Total

 
1,138

 
Net
$
6,918

 
$
577

 
Total combined
 
 
 
 
Interest rate derivatives - floors
$
7,701

 
$
(1,018
)
 
Interest rate derivatives - caps
(337
)
 

 
Credit default swaps
(485
)
 
(680
)
 
Options on futures contracts
39

 

 
Total derivatives
6,918

(1) 
(1,698
)
(1) 
Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities

 
(1,802
)
(3) 
Realized gain on marketable securities

 
4,077

(2) (4) 
Net
$
6,918

 
$
577

 
 
 
 
 
 
____________________________________
(1) Reported as “unrealized gain (loss) on derivatives” in the consolidated statements of operations.
(2) Included in “other income (expense)” in the consolidated statements of operations.
(3) Reported as “unrealized loss on marketable securities” in the consolidated statements of operations.
(4) Includes costs of $57 for the three months ended March 31, 2015, associated with credit default swaps.
(5)Excludes costs of $190, included in “other income (expense)” for the three months ended March 31, 2016, associated with credit default swaps.

21

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

10. Summary of Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Determining estimated fair values of our financial instruments such as notes receivable and indebtedness requires considerable judgment to interpret market data. Market assumptions and/or estimation methodologies used may have a material effect on estimated fair value amounts. Accordingly, estimates presented are not necessarily indicative of amounts at which these instruments could be purchased, sold, or settled. Carrying amounts and estimated fair values of financial instruments, for periods indicated, were as follows (in thousands):
 
March 31, 2016
 
December 31, 2015
 
Carrying
Value
 
Estimated
Fair Value
 
Carrying
Value
 
Estimated
Fair Value
Financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Derivative assets, net
$
10,833

 
$
10,833

 
$
3,435

 
$
3,435

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Financial assets not measured at fair value:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
226,877

 
$
226,877

 
$
215,078

 
$
215,078

Restricted cash
162,146

 
162,146

 
153,680

 
153,680

Accounts receivable, net
55,367

 
55,367

 
40,438

 
40,438

Note receivable, net
3,797

 
3,423 to 3,783

 
3,746

 
3,344 to 3,696

Due from Ashford Prime OP, net
13

 
13

 
528

 
528

Due from related party, net
1,865

 
1,865

 

 

Due from third-party hotel managers
17,783

 
17,783

 
22,869

 
22,869

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Financial liabilities not measured at fair value:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Indebtedness
$
3,907,971

 
$3,707,908 to $4,098,218

 
$
3,874,617

 
$3,683,196 to $4,070,904

Accounts payable and accrued expenses
140,473

 
140,473

 
123,444

 
123,444

Dividends payable
22,890

 
22,890

 
22,678

 
22,678

Due to Ashford Inc., net
11,080

 
11,080

 
9,856

 
9,856

Due to related party, net

 

 
1,339

 
1,339

Due to third-party hotel managers
2,555

 
2,555

 
2,504

 
2,504

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash. These financial assets bear interest at market rates and have maturities of less than 90 days. The carrying value approximates fair value due to their short-term nature. This is considered a Level 1 valuation technique.
Accounts receivable, net, accounts payable and accrued expenses, dividends payable, due to/from Ashford Prime OP, due to/from related party, due from affiliates, due to/from Ashford Inc. and due to/from third-party hotel managers. The carrying values of these financial instruments approximate their fair values due to their short-term nature. This is considered a Level 1 valuation technique.
Note receivable, net. Fair value of notes receivable is determined using similar loans with similar collateral. We relied on our internal analysis of what we believe a willing buyer would pay for this note. We estimated the fair value of the note receivable to be approximately 9.8% to 0.4% lower than the carrying value of $3.8 million at March 31, 2016 and approximately 10.7% to 1.3% lower than the carrying value of $3.7 million at December 31, 2015. This is considered a Level 2 valuation technique.
Indebtedness. Fair value of indebtedness is determined using future cash flows discounted at current replacement rates for these instruments. Cash flows are determined using a forward interest rate yield curve. Current replacement rates are determined by using the U.S. Treasury yield curve or the index to which these financial instruments are tied and adjusted for credit spreads. Credit spreads take into consideration general market conditions, maturity, and collateral. We estimated the fair value of total indebtedness to be approximately 94.9% to 104.9% of the carrying value of $3.9 billion at March 31, 2016 and approximately 95.1% to 105.1% of the carrying value of $3.9 billion at December 31, 2015. This is considered a Level 2 valuation technique.
Derivative assets, net. Fair value of interest rate derivatives is determined using the net present value of expected cash flows of each derivative based on the market-based interest rate curve and adjusted for credit spreads of us and our counterparties. Fair values of credit default swap derivatives are obtained from a third party who publishes the CMBX index composition and price data. Fair value of interest rate floors is determined by obtaining the last market bid prices from several counterparties for a similar

22

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

investment as of the measurement date. Fair values of options on futures contracts are valued at their last reported settlement price as of the measurement date. See notes 2, 8 and 9 for a complete description of the methodology and assumptions utilized in determining fair values.
11. Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests in Operating Partnership
Redeemable noncontrolling interests in the operating partnership represents the limited partners’ proportionate share of equity in earnings/losses of the operating partnership, which is an allocation of net income/loss attributable to the common unitholders based on the weighted average ownership percentage of these limited partners’ common units of limited partnership interest in the operating partnership (“common units”) and the units issued under our Long-Term Incentive Plan (the “LTIP units”) that are vested throughout the period plus distributions paid to the limited partners with regard to the Class B common units. Class B common units have a fixed dividend rate of 7.2% and have priority in payment of cash dividends over common units but otherwise have no preference over common units. Aside from the Class B common units, all other outstanding units represent common units. Beginning one year after issuance, each common unit (including each Class B common unit) may be redeemed for either cash or, at our sole discretion, up to one share of our common stock. Beginning in July 2016, each Class B common unit may be converted into a common unit at either party’s discretion. As a result of the Ashford Inc. spin-off, holders of our common stock were distributed one share of Ashford Inc. common stock for every 87 shares of our common stock, while our unitholders received one common unit of the operating limited liability company subsidiary of Ashford Inc. for each common unit of our operating partnership the holder held, and such holder then had the opportunity to exchange up to 99% of those units for shares of Ashford Inc. common stock at the rate of one share of Ashford Inc. common stock for every 55 common units of the operating limited liability company subsidiary of Ashford Inc. Following the spin-off, Ashford Trust continues to hold 598,000 shares of Ashford Inc. common stock for the benefit of its common stockholders, and all of our remaining lodging investments are owned by Ashford Trust OP. Therefore, each common unit and LTIP unit was worth approximately 95% of one share of our common stock at both March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, respectively.
LTIP units, which are issued to certain executives and employees of Ashford LLC as compensation, have a vesting period of three years. Additionally, certain independent members of the board of directors have elected to receive LTIP units as part of their compensation, which are fully vested upon grant. Upon reaching economic parity with common units, each vested LTIP unit can be converted by the holder into one common unit which can then be redeemed for cash or, at our election, settled in our common stock. An LTIP unit will achieve parity with the common units upon the sale or deemed sale of all or substantially all of the assets of the operating partnership at a time when our stock is trading at a level in excess of the price it was trading on the date of the LTIP issuance. More specifically, LTIP units will achieve full economic parity with common units in connection with (i) the actual sale of all or substantially all of the assets of the operating partnership or (ii) the hypothetical sale of such assets, which results from a capital account revaluation, as defined in the partnership agreement, for the operating partnership.
On March 31, 2016, the compensation committee of the board of directors of the Company approved Performance LTIP units to certain executive officers. The award agreements provide for the grant of a maximum number of approximately 804,000 Performance LTIP units that will be settled in LTIPs or common units of the Ashford Trust OP, if and when the applicable vesting criteria have been achieved following the end of the performance and service period, which began on January 1, 2016 and ends on December 31, 2018. The actual number of units earned may be adjusted from 0% to 100% based on achievement of a specified relative total stockholder return and specified absolute total stockholder return, based on the formula determined by the Company’s Compensation Committee on the grant date. The performance criteria for the Performance LTIP units are based on market conditions under the relevant literature, and the Performance LTIP units were granted to non-employees. The unamortized fair value of Performance LTIP units of $2.6 million at March 31, 2016 will be expensed over a period of 3.0 years. No compensation expense was recorded for the three months ended March 31, 2016.
As of March 31, 2016, we have issued a total of 10.0 million LTIP units (including performance-based LTIP units), all of which, other than approximately 1.2 million and 662,000 issued in March 2016 and March 2015, respectively, have reached full economic parity with, and are convertible into, common units. Expense of $348,000 and $64,000 was recognized for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, all of which was associated with LTIP units issued to Ashford LLC’s employees and is included in “advisory services fee” in our consolidated statements of operations. As the LTIP units are issued to non-employees, the compensation expense was determined based on the share price as of the end of the period. The fair value of the unrecognized cost of LTIP units, which was $7.8 million at March 31, 2016, will be expensed over a period of 3.0 years.
During the three months ended March 31, 2016, no common units were redeemed. During the three months ended March 31, 2015, 150,000 common units with an aggregate fair value of $1.5 million were redeemed by the holder and, at our election, we issued shares of our common stock to satisfy the redemption price.

23

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

Redeemable noncontrolling interests, including vested LTIP units, in our operating partnership as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 were $125.2 million and $118.4 million, respectively, which represents ownership of our operating partnership of 13.55% and 13.36%, respectively. The carrying value of redeemable noncontrolling interests as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 included adjustments of $106.3 million and $95.0 million, respectively, to reflect the excess of the redemption value over the accumulated historical costs. Redeemable noncontrolling interests were allocated net loss of $2.1 million and net income of $45.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. We declared aggregate cash distributions to holders of common units and holders of LTIP units of $2.9 million and $2.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
12. Equity and Equity-Based Compensation
Common Stock Dividends—For each of the 2016 and 2015 quarters, the board of directors declared quarterly dividends of $0.12 per outstanding share of common stock with an annualized target of $0.48 per share for 2016.
Stock-Based Compensation—Stock-based compensation expense for the three months ended March 31, 2016 was $636,000, which is associated with restricted shares of our common stock issued to Ashford LLC’s employees and certain employees of Remington Lodging and are included in “advisory services fee” and “management fees,” respectively, in our consolidated statements of operations. Stock-based compensation expense for the three months ended March 31, 2015, was $107,000, which is associated with restricted shares of our common stock issued to Ashford LLC’s employees and are included in “advisory services fee” in our consolidated statements of operations. The fair value of the unrecognized cost of restricted shares, which was $9.2 million at March 31, 2016, will be expensed over a period of approximately 3.0 years.
Performance Stock Units—On March 31, 2016, the compensation committee of the board of directors of the Company approved grants of PSUs to certain executive officers. The award agreements provide for the grant of a target number of approximately 336,000 PSUs that will be settled in shares of common stock of the Company, if and when the applicable vesting criteria have been achieved following the end of the performance and service period, which began on January 1, 2016 and ends on December 31, 2018. The target number of PSUs may be adjusted from 0% to 200% based on achievement of a specified relative total stockholder return and specified absolute total stockholder return, based on the formula determined by the Company’s Compensation Committee on the grant date. The performance criteria for the PSUs are based on market conditions under the relevant literature, and the PSUs were granted to non-employees. At March 31, 2016, the outstanding PSUs had an unamortized fair value of $2.2 million. No compensation expense was recorded for the three months ended March 31, 2016.
Preferred Dividends—During the three months ended March 31, 2016, the board of directors declared quarterly dividends of $0.5344 per share for our 8.55% Series A preferred stock, $0.5281 per share for our 8.45% Series D preferred stock, and $0.5625 per share for our 9.00% Series E preferred stock. During the three months ended March 31, 2015, the board of directors declared quarterly dividends of $0.5344 per share for our 8.55% Series A preferred stock, $0.5281 per share for our 8.45% Series D preferred stock and $0.5625 per share for our 9.00% Series E preferred stock.
Noncontrolling Interests in Consolidated Entities—Our noncontrolling entity partner had an ownership interest of 15% in two hotel properties and a total carrying value of $732,000 and $770,000 at March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, respectively. Our ownership interest is reported in equity in the consolidated balance sheets. Noncontrolling interests in consolidated entities were allocated losses of $38,000 and $25,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
13. Commitments and Contingencies
Restricted Cash—Under certain management and debt agreements for our hotel properties existing at March 31, 2016, escrow payments are required for insurance, real estate taxes, and debt service. In addition, for certain properties based on the terms of the underlying debt and management agreements, we escrow 4% to 6% of gross revenues for capital improvements.
Franchise Fees—Under franchise agreements for our hotel properties existing at March 31, 2016, we pay franchisor royalty fees between 2% and 6% of gross rooms revenue and, in some cases, food and beverage revenues. Additionally, we pay fees for marketing, reservations, and other related activities aggregating between 1% and 6% of gross rooms revenue and, in some cases, food and beverage revenues. These franchise agreements expire on varying dates between 2017 and 2040. When a franchise term expires, the franchisor has no obligation to renew the franchise. A franchise termination could have a material adverse effect on the operations or the underlying value of the affected hotel due to loss of associated name recognition, marketing support, and centralized reservation systems provided by the franchisor. A franchise termination could also have a material adverse effect on cash available for distribution to stockholders. In addition, if we breach the franchise agreement and the franchisor terminates a franchise prior to its expiration date, we may be liable for up to three times the average annual fees incurred for that property.

24

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

We incurred franchise fees of $17.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and $11.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2015.
Management Fees—Under management agreements for our hotel properties existing at March 31, 2016, we pay a) monthly property management fees equal to the greater of $10,000 (CPI adjusted since 2003) or 3% of gross revenues, or in some cases 1.5% to 7% of gross revenues, as well as annual incentive management fees, if applicable, b) market service fees on approved capital improvements, including project management fees of up to 4% of project costs, for certain hotels, and c) other general fees at current market rates as approved by our independent directors, if required. These management agreements expire from 2017 through 2044, with renewal options. If we terminate a management agreement prior to its expiration, we may be liable for estimated management fees through the remaining term and liquidated damages or, in certain circumstances, we may substitute a new management agreement.
Income Taxes— We and our subsidiaries file income tax returns in the federal jurisdiction and various states. Tax years 2011 through 2015 remain subject to potential examination by certain federal and state taxing authorities.
If we sell or transfer the Marriott Crystal Gateway in Arlington, Virginia prior to July 2016, we will be required to indemnify the entity from which we acquired the property if, as a result of such transactions, such entity would recognize a gain for federal tax purposes. In general, tax indemnities equal the federal, state, and local income tax liabilities the contributor or their specified assignee incurs with respect to the gain allocated to the contributor. The contribution agreements’ terms generally require us to gross up tax indemnity payments for the amount of income taxes due as a result of such tax indemnities.
Potential Pension Liabilities—Upon our 2006 acquisition of a hotel property, certain employees of such hotel were unionized and covered by a multi-employer defined benefit pension plan. At that time, no unfunded pension liabilities existed. Subsequent to our acquisition, a majority of employees, who are employees of the hotel manager, Remington Lodging, petitioned the employer to withdraw recognition of the union. As a result of the decertification petition, Remington Lodging withdrew recognition of the union. At the time of the withdrawal, the National Retirement Fund, the union’s pension fund, indicated unfunded pension liabilities existed. The National Labor Relations Board (“NLRB”) filed a complaint against Remington Lodging seeking, among other things, that Remington Lodging’s withdrawal of recognition was unlawful. Pending the final determination of the NLRB complaint, including appeals, the pension fund entered into a settlement agreement with Remington Lodging on November 1, 2011, providing that (a) Remington Lodging will continue to make monthly pension fund payments pursuant to the collective bargaining agreement, and (b) if the withdrawal of recognition is ultimately deemed lawful, Remington Lodging will have an unfunded pension liability equal to $1.7 million minus the monthly pension payments made by Remington Lodging since the settlement agreement. To illustrate, if Remington Lodging - as of the date a final determination occurs - has made monthly pension payments equaling $100,000, Remington Lodging’s remaining withdrawal liability shall be the unfunded pension liability of $1.7 million minus $100,000 (or $1.6 million). This remaining unfunded pension liability shall be paid to the pension fund in annual installments of $84,000 (but may be made monthly or quarterly, at Remington Lodging’s election), which shall continue for the remainder of the twenty-(20)-year capped period, unless Remington Lodging elects to pay the unfunded pension liability amount earlier. We agreed to indemnify Remington Lodging for the payment of the unfunded pension liability, if any, as set forth in the settlement agreement.
LitigationPalm Beach Florida Hotel and Office Building Limited Partnership, et al. v. Nantucket Enterprises, Inc. This litigation involves a landlord tenant dispute from 2008 in which the landlord, Palm Beach Florida Hotel and Office Building Limited Partnership, a subsidiary of the Company, claimed that the tenant had violated various lease provisions of the lease agreement and was therefore in default. The tenant counterclaimed and asserted multiple claims including that it had been wrongfully evicted. The litigation was instituted by the plaintiff in November 2008 in the Circuit Court of the Fifteenth Judicial Circuit, in and for Palm Beach County, Florida and proceeded to a jury trial on June 30, 2014. The jury entered its verdict awarding the tenant total claims of $10.8 million and ruling against the landlord on its claim of breach of contract. A final judgment was entered and the landlord filed an appeal with the 4th District Court of Appeals in Florida. Both parties have fully briefed the Appeal and oral argument is scheduled for May 31, 2016.
As a result of the jury verdict, we recorded the $10.8 million judgment, pre-judgment interest of $802,000 and accrued a reasonable estimate of $400,000 of loss related to legal fees during 2014 and 2015. For the three months ended March 31, 2016, we recorded additional pre-judgment interest of $24,000. Including the judgment, pre-judgment interest and estimated loss of legal expenses, total expenses recorded were $12.0 million through March 31, 2016. The additional charges related to pre-judgment interest are included in “other” hotel expenses in the consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2016.
We are engaged in other various legal proceedings which have arisen but have not been fully adjudicated. The likelihood of loss from these legal proceedings, based on definitions within contingency accounting literature, ranges from remote to reasonably

25

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

possible and to probable. Based on estimates of the range of potential losses associated with these matters, management does not believe the ultimate resolution of these proceedings, either individually or in the aggregate, will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position or results of operations. However, the final results of legal proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty and if we fail to prevail in one or more of these legal matters, and the associated realized losses exceed our current estimates of the range of potential losses, our consolidated financial position or results of operations could be materially adversely affected in future periods.
14. Segment Reporting
We operate in one business segment within the hotel lodging industry: direct hotel investments. Direct hotel investments refer to owning hotels through either acquisition or new development. We report operating results of direct hotel investments on an aggregate basis as substantially all of our hotel investments have similar economic characteristics and exhibit similar long-term financial performance. As of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, all of our hotel properties were domestically located.
15. Related Party Transactions
Ashford LLC, a subsidiary of Ashford Inc., acts as our advisor, and as a result, we pay advisory fees to Ashford LLC. The advisory agreement was amended in June 2015. We are required to pay Ashford LLC a quarterly base fee that is a percentage of our total market capitalization on a declining sliding scale, subject to a minimum quarterly base fee, as payment for managing our day-to-day operations in accordance with our investment guidelines. We are also required to pay Ashford LLC an incentive fee that is based on our total return performance as compared to our peer group as well as to reimburse Ashford LLC for certain reimbursable overhead and internal audit, insurance claims advisory and asset management services, as specified in the advisory agreement. We also record equity-based compensation expense for equity grants of common stock and LTIP units awarded to our officers and employees of Ashford LLC in connection with providing advisory services equal to the fair value of the award in proportion to the requisite service period satisfied during the period.
The following table summarizes the advisory services fees incurred (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2016
 
2015
Advisory services fee
 
 
 
Base advisory fee
$
8,540

 
$
8,011

Reimbursable expenses (1)
1,463

 
1,385

Equity-based compensation (2) 
900

 
171

Total advisory services fee
$
10,903

 
$
9,567

________
(1) 
Reimbursable expenses include overhead, internal audit, insurance claims advisory and asset management services.
(2)  
Equity-based compensation is associated with equity grants of Ashford Trust’s common stock and LTIP units awarded to officers and employees of Ashford LLC.
In connection with our acquisition of the Le Pavillon and Ashford Inc.’s engagement to provide hotel advisory services to us, Ashford Inc. will be providing $4.0 million of key money consideration to purchase furniture, fixtures and equipment.
At March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, we had a payable of $11.1 million and $9.9 million, respectively, included in due to Ashford Inc., net, associated with the advisory services fee discussed above.
Certain employees of Remington Lodging, who perform work on behalf of Ashford Trust, were granted approximately 147,000 shares of restricted stock under the Ashford Trust Stock Plan on June 30, 2015. These share grants were accounted for under the applicable accounting guidance related to share-based payments granted to non-employees and are recorded as a component of “management fees” in our consolidated statements of operations. Expense of $84,000 was recognized for the three months ended March 31, 2016. The unamortized fair value of the grants was $555,000 as of March 31, 2016, which will be amortized over a period of 2.0 years.

26

ASHFORD HOSPITALITY TRUST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

16. Subsequent Events
On April 14, 2016, Ashford OP General Partner LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and wholly-owned subsidiary of Ashford Trust, as general partner of Ashford Trust OP, and Ashford OP Limited Partner LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, as a limited partner of Ashford Trust OP, entered into that certain Seventh Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of Ashford Hospitality Limited Partnership (the “Amended Partnership Agreement”). The Amended Partnership Agreement was amended to, among other things:
incorporate Amendment No. 1 to the Sixth Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of Ashford Hospitality Limited Partnership dated November 12, 2014, which adjusted the conversion factor used by the Company to determine the number of shares of Company common stock issuable, at the option of the Company, upon the exercise of a redemption right by a limited partner of Ashford Trust OP and related provisions, including definitions (the “Conversion Factor”);
incorporate Amendment No. 2 to the Sixth Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of Ashford Hospitality Limited Partnership dated July 20, 2015, which specifically provided for the distribution of common units of Ashford Hospitality Prime Limited Partnership to the common unitholders of Ashford Trust OP;
add a provision regarding new federal income tax partnership audit matters as a result of tax legislation enacted in December 2015; and
clarify the computation of the Conversion Factor.
On April 18, 2016, the Company announced it has entered into a definitive agreement to sell a 5-hotel, 1,396-room portfolio of select-service hotels for approximately $142.0 million in cash. The portfolio is comprised of the Courtyard Edison in Edison, NJ; the Residence Inn Buckhead in Atlanta, GA; the Courtyard Lake Buena Vista, the Fairfield Inn Lake Buena Vista and the SpringHill Suites Lake Buena Vista in Orlando, FL. The transaction is scheduled to close in the second quarter, subject to certain closing conditions. The carrying value of the land, building and furniture, fixtures and equipment was approximately $117.5 million at March 31, 2016.


27


ITEM 2.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the unaudited financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere herein. This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. Ashford Hospitality Trust, Inc. (the “Company” or “we” or “our” or “us”) cautions investors that any forward-looking statements presented herein, or which management may express orally or in writing from time to time, are based on management’s beliefs and assumptions at that time.
Throughout this Form 10-Q, we make forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements are generally identifiable by use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “potential,” “intend,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “approximately,” “believe,” “could,” “project,” “predict,” or other similar words or expressions. Additionally, statements regarding the following subjects are forward-looking by their nature: 
our business and investment strategy, including our ability to complete proposed business transactions described herein or the expected benefit of any such transactions;
anticipated or expected purchases or sales of assets;
our projected operating results;
completion of any pending transactions;
our ability to obtain future financing arrangements;
our understanding of our competition;
market trends;
projected capital expenditures; and
the impact of technology on our operations and business.
Such forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions, and expectations of our future performance taking into account all information currently known to us. These beliefs, assumptions, and expectations can change as a result of many potential events or factors, not all of which are known to us. If a change occurs, our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans, and other objectives may vary materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements. Additionally, the following factors could cause actual results to vary from our forward-looking statements: