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EX-23.1 - EXHIBIT 23.1 - SAExploration Holdings, Inc.a201410-kexhibit231.htm
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EX-32.2 - EXHIBIT 32.2 - SAExploration Holdings, Inc.a201410-kexhibit322.htm
EX-21.1 - EXHIBIT 21.1 - SAExploration Holdings, Inc.a201410-kexhibit211.htm

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549 
FORM 10-K
þ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014
or
 ¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number 001-35471
SAExploration Holdings, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
Delaware
27-4867100
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
1160 Dairy Ashford, Suite 160, Houston, Texas
77079
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (281) 258-4400 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock, $0.0001 Par Value
The NASDAQ Global Market
(Title of each class)
(Name of each exchange on which registered)
 Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: 
Warrants, Each to Purchase One Share of Common Stock
 (Title of class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨Noþ
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨Noþ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filings requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation in S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. Yes ¨ Noþ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ¨
Accelerated filer  ¨
Non-accelerated filer  ¨  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ¨ Noþ
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2014, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $51,236,171, calculated by reference to the closing price of $8.46 for the registrant’s common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on that date.
Number of shares of Common Stock, $0.0001 par value, outstanding as of March 18, 2015: 14,922,497
 DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Proxy Statement for 2015 Annual Meeting of Stockholders -- Referenced in Part III of this Report



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This report contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws, with respect to our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and business, and our expectations or beliefs concerning future events. These forward-looking statements can generally be identified by phrases such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “intends,” “plans to,” “ought,” “could,” “will,” “should,” “likely,” “appears,” “projects,” “forecasts,” “outlook” or other similar words or phrases. There are inherent risks and uncertainties in any forward-looking statements. Although we believe that our expectations are reasonable, we can give no assurance that these expectations will prove to have been correct, and actual results may vary materially. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update, amend or clarify any forward-looking statements to reflect events, new information or otherwise. Some of the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations are discussed below. All written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us, or persons acting on our behalf, are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements.
Factors that could cause actual results to vary materially from our expectations include the following:
 
fluctuations in the levels of exploration and development activity in the oil and gas industry;
intense industry competition;
limited number of customers;
credit risk related to our customers;
the availability of capital resources;
need to manage rapid growth;
delays, reductions or cancellations of service contracts;
operational disruptions due to seasonality, weather and other external factors;
crew availability and productivity;
whether we enter into turnkey or term contracts;
high fixed costs of operations;
substantial international business exposing us to currency fluctuations and global factors, including economic, political and military uncertainties;
ability to retain key executives; and
need to comply with diverse and complex laws and regulations.
Refer to the “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” sections of this report for specific risks which would cause actual results to be significantly different from those expressed or implied by any of our forward-looking statements. It is not possible to identify all of the risks, uncertainties and other factors that may affect future results. In light of these risks and uncertainties, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this report may not occur and actual results could differ materially from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. Accordingly, readers of this report are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements.


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PART I

ITEM 1. Business.

Overview
 
SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and its Subsidiaries (collectively, the “Corporation”, "we", or "our") is an internationally-focused oilfield services company offering seismic data acquisition and logistical support services in Alaska, Canada, South America, and Southeast Asia to our customers in the oil and natural gas industry. In addition to the acquisition of 2D, 3D, time-lapse 4D and multi-component seismic data on land, in transition zones and offshore in depths up to 5,000 feet, we offer a full-suite of logistical support and in-field processing services.

We operate crews around the world that utilize over 29,500 owned channels of land and marine seismic data acquisition equipment and other leased equipment as needed to complete particular projects. Seismic data is used by our customers, including major integrated oil companies, national oil companies and large international independent oil and gas exploration and production companies, to identify and analyze drilling prospects and maximize successful drilling. The results of the seismic surveys we conduct belong to our customers and are proprietary in nature; we do not acquire data for our own account or maintain multi-client data libraries.

We were incorporated in Delaware on February 2, 2011, under the name Trio Merger Corp. as a blank check company in order to serve as a vehicle for the acquisition of a target business. On June 24, 2013, we completed a business combination in which the entity formerly known as SAExploration Holdings, Inc. (“Former SAE”) merged with and into our wholly-owned subsidiary Trio Merger Sub, Inc. (“Merger Sub”), with Merger Sub surviving (the “Merger”), and we operate the business of Former SAE.

Our principal headquarters are located in Houston, Texas at 1160 Dairy Ashford, Suite 160, Houston, Texas, 77079, Telephone: (281) 258-4400, and our web address is www.saexploration.com. We do not intend for information contained in our website to be a part of this report.

Our operations in our various geographic locations are conducted through our subsidiary SAExploration, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries and branch offices in the United States (primarily Alaska), Canada, Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, and New Zealand.

Seismic Data Acquisition Services
 
We provide a full range of seismic data acquisition and infield processing services. We currently provide our services on a proprietary basis to our customers and the seismic data acquired is owned by our customers once acquired.
 
Our seismic data acquisition services include the following:
 
Program Design
Planning and Permitting
Camp Services
Survey
Drilling
Recording
Reclamation
In-field Processing
Program Design, Planning and Permitting. The seismic survey is initiated at the time the customer requests a proposal to acquire seismic data on its behalf. We employ an experienced design team, including geophysicists with extensive experience in 2D, 3D and time-lapse 4D survey design, to assess and recommend acquisition parameters and technologies to best meet the customer’s exploration objectives. Our design team analyzes the request and works with the customer to put an operational, personnel and capital resource plan in place to execute and complete the project.

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Once a seismic program is designed, we work with the customer to obtain the necessary permits from governmental authorities and access rights of way from surface and mineral estate owners or lessees where the survey is to be conducted. In most cases, the customer takes the lead in obtaining permits for seismic operations but we supplement these efforts by providing our expertise with the communities and local governments.
Camp Services. We have developed efficient processes for setting up, operating and dismantling field camps in challenging and remote locations. We operate our camps to ensure the safety, comfort and productivity for the team working on each project and to minimize the environmental impact through the use of wastewater treatment facilities, trash management, water purification, generators with full noise isolation and recycling areas.
In areas like South America and Southeast Asia, logistical support needs to be in place to establish supply lines for remote jungle camps. To ensure the quality of services delivered to these remote camps, we own 10 supply and personnel river boats to gain access to remote jungle areas. We also have five jungle camps and a series of 40 fly camps that act as advance camps from the main project camp. Each of these jungle base camps contains a full service medical facility complete with doctors and nurses in the remote chance it needs to stabilize any potential injuries for medical transport. The camps are equipped with full meal kitchens held to high standards of cleanliness, sleeping and recreational quarters, power supply, communications links, air support, water purification systems, black water purification systems, offices, repair garages, fuel storage and many more support services.
Survey and Drilling. In a typical seismic recording program, the first two stages of the program are survey and drilling. Once all of the permitting is completed, the survey crews enter the project areas and begin establishing the source and receiver placements in accordance with the survey design agreed to by the customer. The survey crew lays out the line locations to be recorded and, if explosives are being used, identifies the sites for shot-hole placement. The drilling crew creates the holes for the explosive charges that produce the necessary acoustical impulse.
The surveying and drilling crews may be employed by us or may be third party contractors depending on the nature of the project and its location. In North America, the surveying and drilling crews are typically provided by third party contractors and supervised by our personnel. In North America, our vibroseis source units consist of the latest source technology, including eight AHV IV 364 Commander Vibrators and six environmentally friendly IVI mini vibrators, complete with the latest Pelton DR electronics. In South America and Southeast Asia, we perform our own surveying and drilling, which is supported by up to 200 drilling units, including people portable, low impact self-propelled walk behind, track driven and heliportable deployed drilling rigs. Our senior drilling staff has a combined work experience of over 50 years in some of the most challenging environments in the world. On most programs there are multiple survey and drilling crews that work at a coordinated pace to remain ahead of the data recording crews.
Recording. We use equipment capable of collecting 2D, 3D, time-lapse 4D and multi-component seismic data. We utilize vibrator energy sources or explosives depending on the nature of the program. In addition, we have over 29,500 land and marine seismic channels and other equipment available through rental or long-term leasing sources. All of our systems record equivalent seismic information but vary in the manner by which seismic data is transferred to the central recording unit, as well as their operational flexibility and channel count expandability. We utilize 11,500 channels of Sercel 428/408 equipment, 6,000 channels of Fairfield Land Nodal equipment, 2,000 units Fairfield Ocean Bottom Nodal equipment and 10,000 channels of Geospace GSR equipment.
We have made significant capital investments to increase the recording capacity of our crews by increasing channel count and the number of energy source units we operate. This increase in channel count demand is driven by customer needs and is necessary in order to produce higher resolution images, increase crew efficiencies and undertake larger scale projects. In response to project-based channel requirements, we routinely deploy a variable number of channels with a variable number of crews in an effort to maximize asset utilization and meet customer needs. When recording equipment is at or near full utilization, we utilize rental equipment from strategic suppliers to augment our existing inventories. We believe we will realize the benefit of increased channel counts and flexibility of deployment through increased crew efficiencies, higher revenues and increased margins.
During the past three years, we dedicated a significant portion of our capital investment to purchasing and leasing wireless recording systems rather than the traditional wired systems. We utilize this equipment as primarily stand-alone recording systems, but on occasion it is used in conjunction with cable-based systems. The wireless recording systems allow us to gain further efficiencies in data recording and provide greater flexibility in the complex environments in which we operate. In addition, we have realized increased crew efficiencies and lessened the environmental impact of our seismic programs due to the presence of fewer personnel and less equipment in the field. We believe we will experience continued demand for wireless recording systems in the future.
We also utilize multi-component recording equipment on certain projects to further enhance the quality of data acquired and help our customers enhance their development of producing reservoirs. Multi-component recording involves the collection of different seismic waves, including shear waves, which aids in reservoir analysis such as fracture orientation and intensity in shale formations and allows for more descriptive rock properties. We maintain a surplus of equipment, and augment our needs with leased equipment

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from time to time, to provide additional operational flexibility and to allow us to quickly deploy additional recording channels and energy source units as needed to respond to customer demand.
Reclamation. We have experienced teams responsible for reclamation in the areas where work has been performed so as to minimize the environmental footprint from the seismic program. These programs can include reforestation or other activities to restore the natural landscape at our worksites.
In-field Processing. Our knowledgeable and experienced team provides our customers with superior quality field processing. Our quality control applications are appropriate for identifying and analyzing ambient noise, evaluating field parameters and supporting obstacle-recovery strategies. Using the latest hardware and software, our technical and field teams electronically manage customer data from the field to the processing office, minimizing time between field production and processing. For full seismic processing, we use software from a variety of global suppliers. All the steps employed in our basic processing sequence are tailored to the particular project and customer objectives. We implement strict quality control processes to meet or surpass industry-established standards. Currently, we do not acquire data for our own account or for future sale, maintain multi-client data libraries or participate in oil and gas drilling ventures. The results of a seismic survey conducted for a customer belong to that customer. All of our customers’ proprietary information is maintained in confidence.
Markets and Trends
 
North America
The North American market is a stabilized and sustained market for 3D seismic data acquisition. Use of 3D technology is the norm in the United States and Canada as international oil companies seek to maximize the efficiency of their reservoirs and reduce exploration risk.
We expanded into North America in 2011 through our acquisitions of Datum Exploration Ltd. in Canada and Northern Exploration Services in Alaska. With each of those acquisitions, we brought on board personnel with extensive operations experience in each location. Our operations in the North American market are consistent with our strategy to help increase our equipment utilization rates, while concurrently increasing margins, by balancing growth in North and South America, which have complementary operating seasons.
South America
The economies in South American countries continue to expand and develop, demanding significantly more energy to fuel their growth. As the political environments stabilize, oil companies are increasing operations in the market and are seeking experienced seismic service providers with complex environment know-how, strong quality, health, safety and environmental ("QHSE") records and excellent relations with local communities to satisfy their exploration needs.
We have maintained operations in South America since 2006 while further growing our presence in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, and Peru.
Southeast Asia
Exploration activities in Southeast Asia have continued to increase along with the demand for energy in that region. In 2010, we entered the Southeast Asian market by commencing operations in Papua New Guinea for one of our major long-time customers. We have expanded our operations in Southeast Asia into New Zealand and shallow-water marine work in Malaysia. During 2013, we also opened an office in Malaysia to pursue significant opportunities within the region.
Strengths
Extensive experience in challenging environments. We specialize in seismic data acquisition services in logistically challenging environments on land, in transition zones and in shallow water. We believe that our extensive experience operating in such complex locations, including our expertise in logistics management and deploying personnel and equipment customized for the applicable environments, provides us with a significant competitive advantage.
All of our remote area camps, drills and support equipment are easily containerized and made for efficient transport to locations anywhere in the world. We employ a sophisticated tracking system in all of our vehicles, boats, aircraft support and in some cases personnel so we know where our equipment is located at all times. All of our boats contain radar systems to avoid potential collisions with less sophisticated traffic on the waterways. We employ recording technology that is primarily adapted for the environments in which we typically operate, however, the systems can easily be utilized in most environments. We have a logistical support department that works with management to focus on keeping our equipment strategically located in areas of high utilization.

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Global operations with expansion in high-growth markets. We operate in markets within key high growth regions around the world and continue to expand our presence in those markets. Our experience includes projects in Alaska, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Canada, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand, where exploration activity is increasing due to governmental incentives and the stabilization of regulatory and financial environments.
Strong QHSE performance record. Stringent QHSE processes are the foundation of all our projects. Our highly trained and qualified QHSE team has extensive experience working in diverse ecosystems and complex cultural environments. This experience allows us to deliver high quality data and efficient operations through systems and processes designed to minimize health and safety risk and overall environmental impact. Due to our customers’ stringent QHSE requirements, this experience further permits us to qualify for certain project opportunities when smaller service providers or local contractors may not be able to do so.
Blue chip, loyal customer base. Members of our management team have long-standing relationships extending over 30 years with many of the largest oil and gas companies in the world. Our global operating footprint allows us to leverage those relationships throughout the world, and our prior performance for those customers enhances our ability to obtain new business from both existing and new customers.
Highly experienced management team with significant ongoing ownership. Our senior executive management team has an average of over 30 years of experience in seismic services. The experience, knowledge base and relationships that our management team has built over the years enhance our operating and marketing capabilities and underlie our strong reputation in the industry. Our services are marketed by supervisory and executive personnel who contact customers to determine exploration needs and respond to customer inquiries regarding the availability of crews or processing schedules.
Our senior executive management team currently owns approximately one-third of our outstanding equity and has voting control over a majority of our outstanding equity, which qualifies us as a “controlled company.” This provides a strong alignment of the financial interests of our executives and stockholders.
Strategy
 
We believe we have a strategic advantage over a substantial number of our competitors in the areas in which we operate because of our expertise in logistics and our ability to provide a complete solution in remote and complex areas.
Our strategy is to add value for our customers through a material reduction of the following risks:
 
Exploration risk — we deliver consistent high-quality seismic data utilizing the most advanced technology;
Data acquisition risk — we fulfill our promises regarding the timing, quality and scope of our services;
Reputation risk — we attract and retain highly skilled and experienced professionals who embody our strong focus on customer service, safety and environmental safeguards; and
QHSE risk — we place the highest priority on the health and safety of our workforce, the protection of our assets, the environment and the communities where we conduct our work, and we strive for continual improvement in all QHSE aspects.
We enable this strategy by continuing to pursue excellence in the following activities:
 
Building and maintaining mutually beneficial, long-term relationships with customers;
Aggressively marketing our capabilities and customer-value added proposition;
Continually monitoring technological developments in the industry, and implementing cutting-edge techniques that can give us a competitive advantage;
Sharing best practices across regions to ensure the consistent delivery of high quality service; and
Continuing to seek innovative ideas to further increase our equipment utilization rates.
Seasonal Variation in Business
Seismic data acquisition services are performed outdoors and, consequently, are subject to weather and seasonality. Particularly in Canada and Alaska, the primary season for seismic data acquisition is during the winter, from approximately December to April, since much of the terrain for seismic data acquisition cannot be accessed until the ground has frozen. The weather conditions

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during this time of year can affect the timing and efficiency of operations. However, this prime season can be shortened by warmer weather conditions.
In South America and Southeast Asia, our operations are affected by the periods of heavy rain in the areas where seismic operations are conducted. Specifically, the jungle areas of Peru, Bolivia and Colombia are affected by heavy rain during certain parts of the year causing us to either avoid taking projects during these time periods or limit the weather risk in a particular customer contract. Many of the heavy rain periods in South America, though, are during the high season for Canada and Alaska so there are opportunities to maximize the utilization of equipment and personnel by moving them between these regions to take advantage of the different high seasons.
In all areas of operation, the weather is an uncontrollable factor that affects our operations at various times of the year. We try to minimize these risks during the bidding process by utilizing the expertise of our personnel as to the weather in a particular area and through the negotiation of downtime clauses in our contracts with our customers. Due to the unpredictability of weather conditions, there may be times when adverse conditions substantially affect our operations and the financial results of a particular project may be impacted.
Marketing
 
Our services are marketed from our various offices around the world. We have a corporate business development and marketing staff and also have local managers who interact with customers in each country of operations. Through these customer interactions, we are able to remain updated on a customer’s upcoming projects in the area and to work with the customer on projects in other countries.
Contracts are obtained either by direct negotiation with a prospective customer or through competitive bidding in response to invitations to bid. Most of our revenue historically has been generated through repeat customer sales and new sales to customers referred by existing and past customers. In addition, a significant portion of our engagements results from competitive bidding. Contracts are awarded primarily on the basis of price, experience, availability, technological expertise and reputation for dependability and safety. With the involvement and review of senior management, bids are prepared by knowledgeable regional operations managers who understand their respective markets, customers and operating conditions and who communicate directly with existing and target customers during the bid preparation process.
We also work closely with customers on a direct award basis to plan particular seismic data acquisition projects. Due to the complexity of the areas where we do business, these projects can take a number of months in planning and consulting with the customer on exploration goals and parameters of the projects to fit within a particular budget. By working closely with the customer, we are able to acquire seismic data for a project efficiently and within the customer’s required timeframe.
Contracts
 
We conduct seismic data acquisition services under master service agreements with our customers that set forth certain obligations of our customers and us. A supplemental agreement setting forth the terms of a specific project, which may be cancelled by either party on short notice, is entered into for every data acquisition project. The supplemental agreements are either “turnkey” agreements that provide for a fixed fee to be paid to us for each unit of data acquired, or “term” agreements that provide for a fixed hourly, daily or monthly fee during the term of the project.
Turnkey agreements generally mean more profit potential, but involve more risks due to potential crew downtimes or operational delays. We attempt to negotiate on a project-by-project basis some level of weather downtime protection within the turnkey agreements. Under term agreements, we are ensured a more consistent revenue stream with improved protection from crew downtime or operational delays, but with a decreased profit potential.
Customers
 
Our customers include national and international oil companies and independent oil and gas exploration and production companies. Our revenues are derived from a concentrated customer base; however, we are not substantially dependent on any one customer. Based on the nature of our contracts and customer projects, our significant customers can and typically do change from year to year and the largest customers in any one year may not be indicative of the largest customers in the future. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we had two customers, Repsol and Pluspetrol, that individually exceeded 10% of our consolidated revenue and represented 47% of consolidated revenue for the period. During the year ended December 31, 2013, we had two customers, Talisman Sasol Montney Partnership and Pacific Rubiales Energy, that individually exceeded 10% of our consolidated revenue and represented 52% of our consolidated revenue for the period.


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Competition
 
The acquisition of seismic data for the oil and gas industry is a highly competitive business. Factors such as price, experience, asset availability and capacity, technological expertise and reputation for dependability and safety of a crew significantly affect a potential customer’s decision to award a contract to us or one of our competitors.
Our competitors include much larger companies with greater financial resources, more available equipment and more crews, as well as companies of comparable and smaller sizes. Our primary competitors are Compagnie Générale de Géophysique (CGG), Geokinetics, Inc., Global Geophysical Services, Inc., BGP, Inc. and ION Geophysical Corporation. In addition to those companies, we also compete for projects from time to time with smaller seismic companies that operate in local markets.
Intellectual Property
 
We rely on certain proprietary information, proprietary software, trade secrets and confidentiality and licensing agreements to conduct our operations. We continually strive to improve our operating techniques and technologies, through internal development activities and working with vendors to develop new processes and technologies to maintain pace with industry innovation. Through this process, we have developed certain proprietary processes and methods of doing business, particularly with respect to logistics. Although those processes and methods may not be patentable, we seek to protect our proprietary information by entering into confidentiality agreements with our key managers and customers.

Equipment Purchases and Capital Expenditures
 
We funded most of our capital expenditures and working capital needs within the past year with cash from operations and with proceeds from the July 2014 issuance of $150 million in our 10% senior secured notes due 2019 ("Notes"). We commit capital funds to purchase or lease the equipment we deem most effective to conduct our operations and implement our business strategy. Purchasing new assets and upgrading existing capital assets requires a commitment to capital spending. During 2014, we made capital expenditures of approximately $28.2 million, which included purchases of non-seismic recording equipment necessary to outfit a second crew on the North Slope in Alaska and to acquire other seismic acquisition and logistics equipment. During 2013, we made capital expenditures of approximately $11.1 million, which included mostly seismic acquisition and logistics equipment.

Government and Environmental Regulations
 
Our operations are subject to various international, federal, provincial, state and local laws and regulations. Those laws and regulations govern various aspects of operations, including the discharge of explosive materials into the environment, requiring the removal and clean-up of materials that may harm the environment or otherwise relating to the protection of the environment and access to private and governmental land to conduct seismic surveys. We believe we have conducted our operations in material compliance with applicable laws and regulations governing our activities.
The costs of acquiring permits and remaining in compliance with environmental laws and regulations, title research, environmental studies and surveys are generally borne by our customers. Although our direct costs of complying with applicable laws and regulations have historically not been material, the changing nature of such laws and regulations makes it impossible to predict the cost or impact of such laws and regulations on future operations. Additional U.S. or foreign government laws or regulations would likely increase the compliance and insurance costs associated with our customers’ operations. Significant increases in compliance expenses for customers could have a material adverse effect on customers’ operating results and cash flows, which could also negatively impact the demand for our services.
Employees and Subcontractors
 
As of February 28, 2015, we had 1,138 employees, 337 of whom were located in the United States. From time to time and on an as-needed basis, we supplement our regular workforce with individuals that we hire temporarily or as independent contractors in order to meet certain business needs. Our U.S. employees are not represented by any collective bargaining agreement, and we believe that our employee relations are good.
Generally the choice of whether to subcontract out services depends on the expertise available in a certain region and whether that expertise is more efficiently hired through subcontractors or by using our own labor force. For the most part, services are subcontracted within North America and our personnel are used in other regions where we operate. When subcontractors are used, we manage them and require that they comply with our work policies and QHSE systems.

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ITEM 1A. Risk Factors.

Our business, financial position, results of operations or liquidity could be adversely affected by any of these risks. The risks and uncertainties we describe are not the only ones facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business or operations. Any adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations or liquidity could result in a decline in the value of our common stock and other securities.

Risks Relating to Our Business
 
Our business largely depends on the levels of exploration and development activity in the oil and natural gas industry, a historically cyclical industry. A decrease in this activity caused by low oil and natural gas prices, reduced demand or other factors will have an adverse effect on our business, liquidity and results of operations.
 
Demand for our services depends upon the level of spending by oil and natural gas companies for exploration, production, development and field management activities, which depend, in part, on oil and natural gas prices. The markets for oil and natural gas have historically been volatile and are likely to continue to be so in the future. In addition to the market prices of oil and natural gas, our customers’ willingness to explore, develop and produce depends largely upon prevailing industry conditions that are influenced by numerous factors over which our management has no control. A decline in oil and natural gas exploration activities and commodity prices may adversely affect the demand for our services and our results of operations.
 
Factors affecting the prices of oil and natural gas and our customers’ desire to explore, develop and produce include:
the level of supply and demand for oil and natural gas;
expectations about future prices for oil and natural gas;
the worldwide political, military and economic conditions;
the ability of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to set and maintain production levels and prices for oil;
the rate of discovery of new oil and gas reserves and the decline of existing oil and gas reserves;
the cost of exploring for, developing and producing oil and natural gas;
the ability of exploration and production companies to generate funds or otherwise obtain capital for exploration, development and production operations;
technological advances affecting energy exploration, production and consumption;
government policies, including environmental regulations and tax policies, regarding the exploration for, production and development of oil and natural gas reserves, the use of fossil fuels and alternative energy sources and climate change; and
weather conditions, including large-scale weather events such as hurricanes that affect oil and natural gas operations over a wide area or affect prices.
In recent months, crude oil prices have dropped significantly as the non-U.S. economic outlook continues to weaken and North American production continues to expand. The weakening economic outlook for non-U.S. oil demand, especially in Europe, has put more downward pressure on prices. Thus, the bottom-end of the price range for crude oil has decreased significantly beginning in the fourth quarter of 2014 compared to 2013.

As a result of recent decreases in crude oil prices, many E&P companies have announced that they are reducing their capital expenditures, which could result in diminished demand for our services and products and could cause downward pressure on the prices we charge or the level of work we do for our customers.

We cannot assure you that the exploration and development activities by our customers will be maintained at current levels. Any significant decline in exploration or production-related spending by our customers, whether due to a decrease in the market prices for oil and natural gas or otherwise, would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Additionally, increases in oil and natural gas prices may not increase demand for our products and services or otherwise have a positive effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
 

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Our revenues are subject to fluctuations that are beyond our control, which may be significant and could adversely affect our results of operations in any financial period.
 
Our operating results may vary in material respects from quarter to quarter. Factors that cause variations include the timing of the receipt and commencement of contracts for seismic data acquisition, processing or interpretation and customers’ budgetary cycles, all of which are beyond our control. In addition, in any given period, we could have idle crews which result in a significant portion of our revenues, cash flows and earnings coming from a relatively small number of crews. Lower crew utilization rates can be caused by land access permit and weather delays, seasonal factors such as holiday schedules, shorter winter days or agricultural or hunting seasons, and crew repositioning and crew utilization and productivity. Additionally, due to location, type of service or particular project, some of our individual crews may achieve results that constitute a significant percentage of our consolidated operating results. Should any of our crews experience changes in timing or delays due to one or more of these factors, our financial results could be subject to significant variations from period to period. Combined with our fixed costs, these revenue fluctuations could also produce unexpected adverse results of operations in any fiscal period.
In addition to the above potential fluctuations in our revenue, we may also have significant third-party pass-through costs that are reflected in our revenues but correspond to a very small administrative margin charged to the customer. Therefore, our revenues for certain periods may include a large amount of these third-party charges and can cause our gross profit margin to be lower.
Revenues derived from our projects may not be sufficient to cover our costs of completing those projects or may not result in the profit we anticipated when we entered into the contract.
 
Our revenue is determined, in part, by the prices we receive for our services, the productivity of our crews and the accuracy of our cost estimates. The productivity of our crews is partly a function of external factors, such as weather and third party delays, over which we have no control. In addition, cost estimates for our projects may be inadequate due to unknown factors associated with the work to be performed and market conditions, resulting in cost over-runs. If our crews encounter operational difficulties or delays, or if we have not correctly priced our services, our results of operation may vary and, in some cases, may be adversely affected.
Our projects are performed on both a turnkey basis where a defined amount and scope of work is provided by us for a fixed price and additional work, which is subject to customer approval, is billed separately, and on a term basis where work is provided by us for a fixed hourly, daily or monthly fee. Our current projects are operated under a close to even mix of turnkey and term agreements but the relative mix of turnkey and term agreements can vary widely from time to time. The revenue, cost and gross profit realized on a turnkey contract can vary from our estimated amount because of changes in job conditions, variations in labor and equipment productivity from the original estimates, and the performance of subcontractors. In addition, if conditions exist on a particular project that were not anticipated in the customer contract such as excessive weather delays, community issues, governmental issues or equipment failure, then the revenue timing and amount from a project can be affected substantially. Turnkey contracts may also cause us to bear substantially all of the risks of business interruption caused by weather delays and other hazards. Those variations, delays and risks inherent in billing customers at a fixed price may result in us experiencing reduced profitability or losses on projects.
The significant fixed costs of our operations could result in operating losses.
 
We are subject to significant fixed operating costs, which primarily consist of depreciation and maintenance expenses associated with our equipment, certain crew costs and interest expense under our Notes. Extended periods of significant downtime or low productivity caused by reduced demand, weather interruptions, equipment failures, permit delays or other causes could negatively affect our results and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations because we will not be able to reduce our fixed costs as fast as revenues decline.

Our results of operations could be adversely affected by asset impairments.
 
We periodically review our portfolio of equipment for impairment. A prolonged downturn could affect the carrying value of our equipment or other assets and require us to recognize a loss. We may be required to write down the value of our equipment if the present value of future cash flows anticipated to be generated from the related equipment falls below net book value. A decline in oil and natural gas prices, if sustained, can result in future impairments. Because the impairment of long-lived assets or goodwill would be recorded as an operating expense, such a write-down would negatively affect our net income and may result in a breach of certain of our financial covenants under the credit and security agreement with Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. (the "Credit Agreement"), which provides for our $20 million revolving credit facility ("Revolving Credit Facility").
 

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Our working capital needs are difficult to forecast and may vary significantly, which could require us to seek additional financing that we may not be able to obtain on satisfactory terms, or at all.
 
Our working capital needs are difficult to predict with certainty. Our available cash varies in material respects as a result of, among other things, the timing of our projects, our customers’ budgetary cycles and our receipt of payment. Our working capital requirements may continue to increase, primarily due to expansion of our infrastructure that may be required to continue growth of our business and the need to keep pace with technological advances. In order to remain competitive, we must continue to invest additional capital to maintain, upgrade and expand our seismic data acquisition capabilities. In addition, some of our larger projects require significant upfront costs. We therefore may be subject to significant and rapid increases in our working capital needs that could require us to seek additional financing sources. While we have a revolving line of credit, restrictions in our debt agreements may impair our ability to obtain other sources of financing, and access to additional sources of financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all.
 Our operations are subject to weather and seasonality, which may affect our ability to timely complete projects.
 
Our seismic data acquisition services are performed outdoors and often in difficult or harsh climate conditions, and are therefore subject to weather and seasonality. In Canada and Alaska, the primary season for seismic data acquisition is during the winter, from December to April, as many areas are only accessible when the ground is frozen. The weather conditions during this time of year can affect the timing and efficiency of operations. In addition, this prime season can be shortened by warmer weather conditions.
In South America and Southeast Asia, our operations are affected by the periods of heavy rain in the areas where seismic operations are conducted. In all areas in which we operate, the weather is an uncontrollable factor that affects our operations at various times of the year. Due to the unpredictability of weather conditions, there may be times when adverse conditions may cause our operations to be delayed and result in additional costs and may negatively affect our results of operations.
 Our operations are subject to delays related to obtaining government permits and land access rights from third parties which could result in delays affecting our results of operations.
 
Our seismic data acquisition operations could be adversely affected by our inability to obtain timely right of way usage from both public and private land and/or mineral owners. We cannot begin surveys on property without obtaining any required permits from governmental entities as well as the permission of the private landowners who own the land being surveyed. In recent years, it has become more difficult, costly and time-consuming to obtain access rights of way as drilling activities have expanded into more populated areas. Additionally, while landowners generally are cooperative in granting access rights, some have become more resistant to seismic and drilling activities occurring on their property. In addition, governmental entities do not always grant permits within the time periods expected. Delays associated with obtaining such permits and rights of way may negatively affect our results of operations.
 
Our backlog can vary significantly from time to time and our backlog estimates are based on certain assumptions and are subject to unexpected adjustments and cancellations and thus may not be timely converted to revenues in any particular fiscal period, if at all, or be indicative of our actual operating results for any future period.
 
Our backlog estimates represent those projects for which a customer has executed a contract or signed a binding letter of award . Our backlog can vary significantly from time to time, particularly if the backlog is made up of multi-year contracts with some of our more significant customers. Backlog estimates are based on a number of assumptions and estimates including assumptions related to foreign exchange rates and proportionate performance of contracts. The realization of our backlog estimates is further affected by our performance under term rate contracts, as the early or late completion of a project under term rate contracts will generally result in decreased or increased, as the case may be, revenues derived from those projects. Contracts for services are also occasionally modified by mutual consent and often can be terminated for convenience by the customer. Because of potential changes in the scope or schedule of our customers’ projects, and the possibility of early termination of customer contracts, we cannot predict with certainty when or if our backlog will be realized. Material delays, payment defaults or cancellations on the underlying contracts could reduce the amount of backlog currently reported and, consequently, could inhibit the conversion of that backlog into revenues. In addition, worsening overall market conditions could result in further reductions of backlog which will impact our financial performance.
We face intense competition in our business that could result in downward pricing pressure and the loss of market share.
 
Competition among seismic contractors historically has been, and likely will continue to be, intense. Competitive factors have in recent years included price, crew experience, asset availability and capacity, technological expertise and reputation for quality and dependability. We also face increasing competition from nationally owned companies in various international jurisdictions that

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operate under less significant financial constraints than those we experience. Many of our competitors have greater financial and other resources, more customers, greater market recognition and more established relationships and alliances in the industry than we do. They and other competitors may be better positioned to withstand and adjust more quickly to volatile market conditions, such as fluctuations in oil and natural gas prices and production levels, as well as changes in government regulations. Additionally, the seismic data acquisition business is extremely price competitive and has a history of protracted periods of months or years where seismic contractors under financial duress bid jobs at unattractive pricing levels and therefore adversely affect industry pricing. Competition from those and other competitors could result in downward pricing pressure, which could adversely affect our margins, and could result in the loss of market share.
Capital requirements for the technology we use are significant. If we are unable to finance these requirements, we may not be able to maintain our competitive advantage.
 
Seismic data acquisition technologies historically have steadily improved and progressed, and we expect this trend to continue. Manufacturers of seismic equipment may develop new systems that have competitive advantages relative to systems now in use that either render the equipment we currently use obsolete or require us to make substantial capital expenditures to maintain our competitive position. In order to remain competitive, we must continue to invest additional capital to maintain, upgrade and expand our seismic data acquisition capabilities.
Our capital requirements, which are primarily the cost of equipment, are significant. We attempt to minimize our capital expenditures by restricting our purchase of equipment to equipment that we believe will remain highly utilized, and we strategically rent equipment utilizing the most current technology to cover peak periods in equipment demands. We may not be able to finance all of our capital requirements, however, when and if needed, to acquire new equipment. If we are unable to do so, there may be a material negative impact on our operations and financial condition.
Our revenues are generated by a concentrated number of customers.
 
We derive our revenues from a concentrated customer base in the international oil and natural gas industry, however, we are not substantially dependent on any one customer. Our largest customers can and typically do change from year to year and our largest customers in any one year may not be indicative of our largest customers in the future. During the year ended December 31, 2014, two customers aggregated 47% of our consolidated revenue for the period, with our most significant customer representing 34% of our consolidated revenue for the period. During the year ended December 31, 2013, two other customers aggregated 52% of our consolidated revenue for the period, with our most significant customer representing 32% of our consolidated revenue for the period. Many of our customer contracts may be terminated at any time for convenience. If any of our customers were to terminate their contract with us on a large project or fail to contract for our services in the future because they are acquired, alter their exploration or development strategy, experience financial difficulties or for any other reason, and we were not able to replace their business with business from other customers, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
 
We operate under hazardous conditions that subject us and our employees to risk of damage to property or personal injury and limitations on our insurance coverage may expose us to potentially significant liability costs.
 
Our activities are often conducted in dangerous environments and include hazardous conditions, including operation of heavy equipment, the detonation of explosives, and operations in remote areas of developing countries. Operating in such environments, and under such conditions, carries with it inherent risks, such as loss of human life or equipment, as well as the risk of downtime or reduced productivity resulting from equipment failures caused by an adverse operating environment. Those risks could cause us to experience injuries to our personnel, equipment losses, and interruptions in our business.
Although we maintain insurance, our insurance contains certain coverage exclusions and policy limits. There can be no assurance that our insurance will be sufficient or adequate to cover all losses or liabilities or that insurance will continue to be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. Further, we may experience difficulties in collecting from insurers as such insurers may deny all or a portion of our claims for insurance coverage. A claim for which we are not fully insured, or which is excluded from coverage or exceeds the policy limits of our applicable insurance, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
We may be held liable for the actions of our subcontractors.
 
We often work as the general contractor on seismic data acquisition surveys and consequently engage a number of subcontractors to perform services and provide products. While we generally obtain contractual indemnification and insurance covering the acts of those subcontractors, and require the subcontractors to obtain insurance for our benefit, there can be no assurance we will not be held liable for the actions of those subcontractors. In addition, subcontractors may cause damage or injury to our personnel and property that is not fully covered by insurance or by claims against the subcontractors.

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Our agreements with our customers may not adequately protect us from unforeseen events or address all issues that could arise with our customers. The occurrence of unforeseen events or disputes with customers could result in increased liability, costs and expenses for our projects.
 
We enter into master service agreements with many of our customers that allocate certain operational risks. Despite the inclusion of risk allocation provisions in our agreements, our operations may be affected by a number of events that are unforeseen or not within our control and our agreements may not adequately protect us from each possible event. If an event occurs which we have not contemplated or otherwise addressed in our agreement we, and not our customer, will likely bear the increased cost or liability. To the extent our agreements do not adequately address those and other issues, or we are not able to successfully resolve resulting disputes, we may incur increased liability, costs and expenses. This may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
 
We, along with our customers, are subject to compliance with governmental laws and regulations that may expose us to significant costs and liabilities and may adversely affect the demand for our services.
 
Our operations, and those of our customers, are subject to a variety of federal, provincial, state and local laws and regulations in the United States and foreign jurisdictions, including stringent laws and regulations relating to protection of the environment, particularly those relating to emissions to air, discharges to water, treatment, storage and disposal of regulated materials and remediation of soil and groundwater contamination. Those laws and regulations may impose numerous obligations that are applicable to our operations including:
the acquisition of permits before commencing regulated activities; and
the limitation or prohibition of seismic activities in environmentally sensitive or protected areas such as wetlands or wilderness areas.
Numerous governmental authorities, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”) and analogous state agencies in the United States and governmental bodies with control over environmental matters in foreign jurisdictions, have the power to enforce compliance with those laws and regulations and any permits issued under them, oftentimes requiring difficult and costly actions. We may incur substantial costs, including fines, damages, criminal or civil sanctions, remediation costs and natural resource damage claims, or experience interruptions in our operations for violations or liabilities arising under these laws and regulations. Further, we may become liable for damages against which we cannot adequately insure or against which we may elect not to insure because of high costs or other reasons. Our customers are subject to similar environmental laws and regulations.

We expend financial and managerial resources to comply with all the laws and regulations applicable to our operations. Any changes in environmental laws and regulations or re-interpretation of enforcement policies that result in more stringent and costly regulations, or that change waste handling, storage, transport, disposal or remediation requirements could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial position. The fact that such laws or regulations change frequently makes it impossible for us to predict the cost or impact of such laws and regulations on our future operations. The costs of complying with applicable environmental laws and regulations are likely to increase over time and we cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to remain in compliance with respect to existing or new laws and regulations or that such compliance will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, or on the operations of our customers which could affect demand for our services. Although regulatory developments that may occur in subsequent years could have the effect of reducing industry activity, we cannot predict the nature of any new restrictions or regulations that may be imposed. We may be required to increase operating expenses or capital expenditures in order to comply with any new restrictions or regulations.
  
In addition, as a result of the mobility of our equipment, operations in foreign jurisdictions and the utilization of a multi-national work force, we and our customers are subject to various federal, provincial, state and local laws and regulations in the United States and foreign jurisdictions relating to the import or export of equipment and the immigration and employment of non-citizen employees or sub-contractors. Numerous governmental authorities, such as the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the Bureau of Industry and Security and the Office of Foreign Assets Control, and analogous governmental bodies in foreign jurisdictions have laws and regulations which prohibit or restrict operations in certain jurisdictions and doing business with certain persons in such jurisdictions, and we and our customers may be required to obtain and maintain licenses, permits, visas and similar documentation for operations. We may incur substantial costs, including fines and damages, criminal or civil sanctions for violations or liabilities arising under these laws and regulations.


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Our operations outside of the United States are subject to additional political, economic, and other risks and uncertainties that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows, and our exposure to such risks will increase as we expand our international operations.
 
Our operations outside of North America accounted for approximately 67% of our consolidated revenue in 2014 and 58% of our consolidated revenue in 2013. Our international operations are subject to a number of risks inherent in any business operating in foreign countries, and especially those with emerging markets. As we continue to increase our presence in those countries, our operations will continue to encounter the following risks, among others:

government instability or armed conflict, which can cause our potential customers to withdraw or delay investment in capital projects, thereby reducing or eliminating the viability of some markets for our services;
potential expropriation, seizure, nationalization or detention of assets;
risks relating to foreign currency, as described below;
import/export quotas or unexpected changes in regulatory environments and trade barriers;
civil uprisings, riots and war, which can make it unsafe to continue operations, adversely affect both budgets and schedules and expose us to losses;
availability of suitable personnel and equipment, which can be affected by government policy, or changes in policy, which limit the importation of qualified crew members or specialized equipment in areas where local resources are insufficient, and legal restrictions or other limitations on our ability to dismiss employees;
laws, regulations, decrees and court decisions under legal systems that are not always fully developed and that may be retroactively applied and cause us to incur unanticipated and/or unrecoverable costs, as well as delays which may result in real or opportunity costs; and
terrorist attacks, including kidnappings of our personnel.
If any of those or other similar events should occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to taxation in many foreign jurisdictions and the final determination of our tax liabilities involves the interpretation of the statutes and requirements of taxing authorities worldwide. Our tax returns are subject to routine examination by taxing authorities, and those examinations may result in assessments of additional taxes, penalties and/or interest.
Our overall success as a global business depends, in part, upon our ability to succeed in differing economic, social and political conditions. We may not succeed in developing and implementing policies and strategies that are effective in each location where we do business, and we may experience project disruptions and losses, which could negatively affect our profitability.
Our results of operations can be significantly affected by foreign currency fluctuations and regulations.
 
A portion of our revenues is derived in the local currencies of the foreign jurisdictions in which we operate. Accordingly, we are subject to risks relating to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. In the future, and especially as we further expand our operations in international markets, our customers may increasingly make payments in non-U.S. currencies. Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could affect our revenues, operating costs and operating margins. In addition, currency devaluation can result in a loss to us if we hold deposits of that currency. Hedging foreign currencies can be difficult, especially if the currency is not actively traded. We cannot predict the effect of future exchange rate fluctuations on our operating results.
In addition, we are subject to risks relating to governmental regulation of foreign currency, which may limit our ability to:
 
transfer funds from or convert currencies in certain countries;
repatriate foreign currency received in excess of local currency requirements; and
repatriate funds held by our foreign subsidiaries to the United States at favorable tax rates.
As we continue to increase our operations in foreign countries, there is an increased risk that foreign currency controls may create difficulty in repatriating profits from foreign countries in the form of taxes or other restrictions, which could restrict our cash flow.


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Economic and political conditions in Latin America pose numerous risks to our operations.

Our business operations in the Latin American region constitute a material portion of our business. As events in the region have demonstrated, negative economic or political developments in one country in the region can lead to or exacerbate economic or political instability elsewhere in the region. Furthermore, events in recent years in other developing markets have placed pressures on the stability of the currencies of a number of countries in Latin America in which we operate, including Brazil, Colombia and Peru. While certain areas in the Latin American region have experienced economic growth, this recovery remains fragile.

Certain Latin American economies have experienced shortages in foreign currency reserves and have adopted restrictions on the use of certain mechanisms to expatriate local earnings and convert local currencies into U.S. Dollars. Any such shortages or restrictions may limit or impede our ability to transfer or to convert such currencies into U.S. Dollars and to expatriate such funds for the purpose of making timely payments of interest and principal on our indebtedness. In addition, currency devaluations in one country may have adverse effects in another country. Some Latin American countries have historically experienced high rates of inflation. Inflation and some measures implemented to curb inflation have had significant negative effects on the economies of these countries. Governmental actions taken in an effort to curb inflation, coupled with speculation about possible future actions, have contributed to economic uncertainty at times in most Latin American countries. These countries may experience high levels of inflation in the future that could lead to further government intervention in the economy, including the introduction of government policies that could adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, if any of these countries experience high rates of inflation, we may not be able to adjust the price of our services sufficiently to offset the effects of inflation on our cost structures. A high inflation environment would also have negative effects on the level of economic activity and employment and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Current and future legislation or regulation relating to climate change and hydraulic fracturing could negatively affect the exploration and production of oil and gas and adversely affect demand for our services.
 
In response to concerns suggesting that emissions of certain gases, commonly referred to as “greenhouse gases” (“GHG”) (including carbon dioxide and methane), may be contributing to global climate change, legislative and regulatory measures to address the concerns are in various phases of discussion or implementation at the federal, state and international levels. Many states, either individually or through multi-state regional initiatives, have already taken legal measures intended to reduce GHG emissions, primarily through the planned development of GHG emission inventories and/or GHG cap and trade programs.
Although various climate change legislative measures have been under consideration by the U.S. Congress, it is not possible at this time to predict whether or when Congress may act on climate change legislation. The EPA has promulgated a series of rulemakings and taken other actions that the EPA states will result in the regulation of GHG as “air pollutants” under the existing federal Clean Air Act. Furthermore, in 2010, EPA regulations became effective that require monitoring and reporting of GHG emissions on an annual basis, including extensive GHG monitoring and reporting requirements. While this rule does not control GHG emission levels from any facilities, it will cause covered facilities to incur monitoring and reporting costs. Moreover, lawsuits have been filed seeking to require individual companies to reduce GHG emissions from their operations.
This increasing focus on global warming may result in new environmental laws or regulations that may negatively affect us and our customers. This could cause us to incur additional direct costs in complying with any new environmental regulations, as well as increased indirect costs resulting from our customers incurring additional compliance costs that get passed on to us. Moreover, passage of climate change legislation or other legislative or regulatory initiatives that regulate or restrict emissions of GHG may curtail production and demand for fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas in areas where our customers operate and thus adversely affect future demand for our services. Reductions in our revenues or increases in our expenses as a result of climate control initiatives could have adverse effects on our business, financial position, results of operations and prospects.
Hydraulic fracturing is an important and commonly used process in the completion of oil and natural gas wells. Hydraulic fracturing involves the injection of water, sand and chemical additives under pressure into rock formations to stimulate natural gas production. Due to public concerns raised regarding potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on groundwater quality, legislative and regulatory efforts at the federal level and in some states have been initiated to require or make more stringent the permitting, reporting and compliance requirements for hydraulic fracturing operations. These legislative and regulatory initiatives imposing additional reporting obligations on, or otherwise limiting, the hydraulic fracturing process could make it more difficult or costly to complete natural gas wells. Shale gas cannot be economically produced without extensive fracturing. In the event such initiatives are successful, demand for our seismic acquisition services may be adversely affected.

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As a company subject to compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”), our business may suffer because our efforts to comply with U.S. laws could restrict our ability to do business in foreign markets relative to our competitors who are not subject to U.S. law. Any determination that we or our foreign agents have violated the FCPA may adversely affect our business, operations and reputation.
 
We operate in certain parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree and, in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. We may be subject to competitive disadvantages to the extent that our competitors are able to secure business, licenses or other preferential treatment by making payments to government officials and others in positions of influence or using other methods that U.S. law and regulations prohibit us from using.
As a U.S. corporation, we are subject to the regulations imposed by the FCPA, which generally prohibits U.S. companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business and which imposes stringent recordkeeping requirements. In particular, we may be held liable for actions taken by our strategic or local partners even though our partners are not subject to the FCPA. Any such violations could result in substantial civil and/or criminal penalties and might adversely affect our results of operations and our ability to continue to work in those countries.

The enactment of legislation implementing changes in U.S. or foreign tax laws affecting the taxation of international business activities or the adoption of other tax reform policies could materially impact our financial position and results of operations.

Changes to U.S. or foreign tax laws could impact the tax treatment of our foreign earnings. Due to the scope of our international business operations, any changes in the U.S. or foreign taxation of these operations may increase our worldwide effective tax rate and adversely affect our financial condition and operating results. The international scope of our operations and our corporate and financing structure may expose us to potentially adverse tax consequences. We are subject to taxation in and to the tax laws and regulations of multiple jurisdictions as a result of the international scope of our operations and our corporate and financing structure. We are also subject to intercompany pricing laws, including those relating to the flow of funds between our companies. Adverse developments in these laws or regulations, or any change in position regarding the application, administration or interpretation of these laws or regulations in any applicable jurisdiction, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the tax authorities in any applicable jurisdiction, including the United States, may disagree with the positions we have taken or intend to take regarding the tax treatment or characterization of any of our transactions, including the tax treatment or characterization of our indebtedness, intercompany loans and guarantees. If any applicable tax authorities, including the U.S. tax authorities, were to successfully challenge the tax treatment or characterization of any of our transactions, it could result in the disallowance of deductions and the imposition of withholding.

We may be unable to attract and retain executive officers and skilled and technically knowledgeable employees, which could adversely affect our business.
 
Our continued success depends upon retaining and attracting executive officers and highly skilled employees. A number of our executive officers and employees possess many years of industry experience and are highly skilled, and members of our management team also have relationships with oil and gas companies and others in the industry that are integral to our ability to market and sell our services. Our inability to retain such individuals could adversely affect our ability to compete in the seismic service industry. We may face significant competition for such skilled personnel, particularly during periods of increased demand for seismic services. Although we utilize employment agreements and other incentives to retain certain of our key employees, there is no guarantee that we will be able to retain those personnel.
 
If we do not manage our growth effectively, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
 
We have experienced significant growth to date. Our growth has placed, and is expected to continue to place, significant demands on our personnel, management, infrastructure and support mechanisms and other resources. We must continue to improve our operational, financial, management, legal compliance and information systems to keep pace with the growth of our business. We may also expand through the strategic acquisition of companies and assets. We must plan and manage any acquisitions effectively to achieve revenue growth and maintain profitability in our evolving market. If we fail to manage our growth effectively, our ability to provide services could be adversely affected, which could negatively affect our operating results.

The requirements of being a public company increase our operating expenses and divert management’s attention.
 
As a public company, we are subject to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act and other applicable securities rules and regulations, to which Former SAE

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was not subject prior to the Merger. Compliance with these rules and regulations since the Merger has increased demand on our systems and resources and caused us to incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses.

The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and operating results. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the national securities exchanges, establish certain requirements for the corporate governance practices of public companies. For example, as a result of becoming a public company, we have additional board committees and are required to maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. In order to maintain and, if required, improve our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting to meet this standard, significant resources and management oversight are required. As a result, management’s attention has been and will continue to be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business and operating results.

Because we are a smaller reporting company, to date our independent auditor has not been required to issue an attestation report regarding our internal control over financial reporting in the annual reports on Form 10-K that we file with the SEC, and we have been subject to scaled disclosure requirements. We will remain a smaller reporting company as long as the market value of our securities held by non-affiliates is below $75 million, as of the end of our second fiscal quarter each year. If we cease to be a smaller reporting company, our expenses will further increase and additional time will be required of our management as we seek to comply with those additional requirements.

Our substantial level of indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition and prevent us from fulfilling our financial obligations.
 
As of December 31, 2014, we had $152.3 million of total debt outstanding (including $150 million our Notes, an equipment note payable of $1.7 million, and $645 thousand of existing capital leases). Our high level of indebtedness could have significant effects on our business. For example, our level of indebtedness and the terms of our debt agreements may:
 
increase the risk that we may default on our debt obligations;
prevent us from raising the funds necessary to repurchase Notes tendered to us if there is a change of control (as defined in the Indenture) or other event requiring such a repurchase, and any failure to repurchase Notes tendered for repurchase would constitute a default under the Indenture and may constitute a default under other debt instruments;
require us to use a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to pay interest and principal on our Notes and other debt, which would reduce the funds available for working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes;
limit our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other investments, or general corporate purposes particularly in light of the fact that a substantial portion of our assets have been pledged to secure our Notes and our Revolving Credit Facility, which may limit the ability to execute our business strategy;
heighten our vulnerability to downturns in our business, our industry or in the general economy and restrict us from exploiting business opportunities or making acquisitions;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to those of our competitors that may have proportionately less debt;
limit management’s discretion in operating our business;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business, the industry in which we operate or the general economy; and
result in higher interest expense if interest rates increase and we have outstanding floating rate borrowings.
Each of these factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our ability to make payments with respect to our Notes, our Revolving Credit Facility and to satisfy our other debt obligations will depend on our future operating performance, which will be affected by a broad range of factors, including prevailing economic conditions and financial, business and other factors affecting us and our industry, many of which are beyond our control.
 
Despite existing debt levels, we may still be able to incur substantially more debt, which would increase the risks associated with our leverage.
 
Even with our existing debt levels, we and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial amounts of additional debt in the future, including debt under our line of credit pursuant to our Revolving Credit Facility. Although the terms of the indenture for

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our Notes (the "Indenture") and the Credit Agreement for our Revolving Credit Facility will limit our ability to incur additional debt, these terms may not prevent us from incurring substantial amounts of additional debt. If new debt is added to our current debt levels, the risks associated with our leverage may intensify.
 
The Indenture for our Notes and Credit Agreement for our Revolving Credit Facility impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us and our subsidiaries that may prevent us from pursuing certain business opportunities and restrict our ability to operate our business.
 
The Indenture and the Credit Agreement contain covenants that restrict our and our restricted subsidiaries’ ability to take various actions, such as: 

transferring or selling certain assets;
paying dividends or distributions, repaying subordinated indebtedness (if any) or making certain investments or other restricted payments;
incurring or guaranteeing additional indebtedness or, with respect to our restricted subsidiaries, issuing preferred stock;
creating or incurring liens securing indebtedness;
incurring dividend or similar payment restrictions affecting restricted subsidiaries;
consummating a merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all our and our restricted subsidiaries’ assets;
entering into transactions with affiliates; and
engaging in a business other than our current business and businesses related, ancillary or complementary, to our current businesses or immaterial businesses.
In addition, the security documents executed pursuant to the Indenture and the Credit Agreement restrict us and our restricted subsidiaries from taking or omitting to take certain actions that would adversely affect or impair in any material respect the collateral securing those obligations. Any future debt instruments may also require us to comply with a number of affirmative and negative covenants in addition to the covenants listed above.
 
We may be prevented from taking advantage of business opportunities that arise if we fail to meet certain financial ratios or because of the limitations imposed on us by the restrictive covenants under these agreements. In addition, the restrictions contained in the Indenture and Credit Agreement or other debt instruments may also limit our ability to plan for or react to market conditions or meet capital needs, or may otherwise restrict our activities or business plans and adversely affect our ability to finance our operations, enter into acquisitions, execute our business strategy, effectively compete with companies that are not similarly restricted or engage in other business activities that would be in our interest. In the future, we may incur other debt obligations that might subject us to additional and different restrictive covenants that could also adversely affect our financial and operational flexibility. In the event that we default under any of these financial or other covenants, we would be required to seek waivers or amendments to the applicable agreements or to refinance the applicable indebtedness, and we cannot assure you that we would be able to do so on terms we deem acceptable, or at all. Failure to comply with applicable covenants would constitute a default under the applicable debt instrument and would generally allow the applicable lenders or other debt holders to demand immediate repayment of all indebtedness outstanding thereunder and, in the case of secured indebtedness and subject to the intercreditor agreement, if applicable, to seize and sell the collateral and to apply the proceeds from those sales to satisfy such indebtedness, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition. These events would likely in turn trigger cross-acceleration and cross-default rights under other debt instruments, which would allow the applicable lenders or other debt holders to exercise similar rights and remedies. If the amounts outstanding under any future credit facility, our Notes, the Credit Agreement or any other indebtedness were to be accelerated or if the applicable lenders or other debt holders were to foreclose upon the collateral securing any such indebtedness, we cannot assure you that our assets would be sufficient to repay the money owed to our lenders. We have in the past failed to comply with financial and other covenants in debt instruments and have therefore been required to obtain waivers and amendments from prior lenders, and there can be no assurance that we will not experience similar defaults in the future or that waivers or amendments will be obtained.
 
Our debt agreements contain restrictive covenants that may limit our ability to respond to changes in market conditions or pursue business opportunities.
 
The Indenture for our Notes and the Credit Agreement for our Revolving Credit Facility contain restrictive covenants that limit our ability to, among other things:

17


 
incur or guarantee additional debt;
pay dividends;
repay subordinated debt prior to its maturity;
grant additional liens on our assets;
enter into transactions with our affiliates;
repurchase stock;
make certain investments or acquisitions of substantially all or a portion of another entity’s business assets;
undergo a change of control; and
merge with another entity or dispose of our assets.
Complying with these covenants may limit our ability to respond to changes in market conditions or pursue business opportunities that would otherwise be available to us.
If we are unable to comply with the restrictions and covenants in our debt agreements, there could be a default under the terms of such agreements, which could result in an acceleration of repayment and the sale of our assets to satisfy our obligations with our lenders. Failure to maintain existing financing or to secure new financing could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and financial position.
 
If we are unable to comply with the restrictions and covenants in the Indenture for our Notes and the Credit Agreement for our Revolving Credit Facility, there could be a default under the terms of those agreements. In the event of a default under those agreements, lenders could terminate their commitments to lend or accelerate the loans and declare all amounts borrowed due and payable. Borrowings under other debt instruments that contain cross-acceleration or cross-default provisions, may also be accelerated and become due and payable. In addition, our obligations under the Indenture and the Credit Agreement are secured by a lien on substantially all of our U.S. assets and certain of our foreign assets, including 65% of the equity interests in our first-tier foreign subsidiaries. In the event of foreclosure, liquidation, bankruptcy or other insolvency proceeding relating to us or to our subsidiaries that have guaranteed our debt, holders of our secured indebtedness and our other lenders will have prior claims on our assets. If any of those events occur, our assets might not be sufficient to repay in full all of our outstanding indebtedness and we may be unable to find alternative financing. Even if we could obtain alternative financing, it might not be on terms that are favorable or acceptable to us. Additionally, we may not be able to amend our debt agreements or obtain needed waivers on satisfactory terms or without incurring substantial costs. Failure to maintain existing or secure new financing could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and financial position.
 
We have had and in the future may have material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting.
 
On June 24, 2013, we completed the Merger with Former SAE. Former SAE was not a public reporting company and had limited accounting personnel and systems to adequately execute accounting process and limited other supervisory resources with which to address internal control over financial reporting, especially in its early years. We and our independent registered public accounting firm identified material weaknesses during the preparation of our financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2013 and quarterly periods within 2013 that resulted in restatements of the first and second quarterly periods within 2013. During 2014 we have taken substantial steps in improving and fortifying our internal controls and have remediated the material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting identified in 2013. While these measures correct the material weaknesses identified by us or our independent public accounting firm, we cannot assure that there will not be other material weaknesses that we or our independent registered public accounting firm will identify. If additional material weaknesses in our internal controls are discovered in the future, they may adversely affect our ability to record, process, summarize, and report financial information timely and accurately.
Risks Relating to Our Securities
 
Future resales of our common stock issued to the Former SAE common stockholders may cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
In connection with the Merger, the Former SAE common stockholders, on a fully-diluted basis, received among other things, an aggregate of 6,448,443 shares (after rounding up for fractional shares) of our common stock. While such shares were initially

18


subject to lock-up agreements, pursuant to which the Former SAE common stockholders could not sell any of the shares of our common stock that they received as a result of the Merger, such restrictions have expired.

We entered into a registration rights agreement at the closing of the Merger with CLCH, LLC (“CLCH”), which became an “affiliate” of ours as a result of the issuance of shares of our common stock in the Merger. Under the registration rights agreement, CLCH is entitled to demand that we register the shares issued to it in the Merger under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). In addition, CLCH has certain “piggy-back” registration rights with respect to certain registration statements filed subsequent to consummation of the Merger. Furthermore, the Former SAE common stockholders, including CLCH and any other Former SAE common stockholder who may be deemed an “affiliate” of ours, may sell shares of our common stock pursuant to Rule 144 under the Securities Act, if available, rather than under a registration statement. In these cases, the resales must meet the criteria and conform to the requirements of that rule, including, because we were a shell company, waiting until one year after our filing with the SEC of the Current Report on Form 8-K containing Form 10 type information reflecting the Merger with SAE, which was filed on June 28, 2013.
With the expiration of the applicable lock-up periods, and upon effectiveness of the registration statement we file pursuant to the registration rights agreement or upon satisfaction of the requirements of Rule 144 under the Securities Act, the Former SAE common stockholders may sell large amounts of our common stock in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, which could have the effect of increasing the volatility in our stock price or putting significant downward pressure on the price of our stock.
If our Initial Stockholders or the Former SAE warrant holders exercise their registration rights with respect to their securities, or if our former warrant holders resell the shares of our common stock they received upon the exchange of their warrants for common stock, it may have an adverse effect on the market price of our shares of common stock.
 
The holders (“Initial Stockholders”) of the shares of our common stock issued prior to our initial public offering (the “Initial Shares”), are entitled to make a demand that we register the resale of their Initial Shares at any time commencing three months prior to June 24, 2014, the date on which their shares may be released from escrow.
On January 7, 2014, we commenced an offer to exchange our outstanding warrants to purchase up to 15.0 million shares of our common stock (the “Warrant Exchange”). Each warrant holder had the opportunity to receive one share of common stock in exchange for every ten outstanding warrants tendered by the holder and exchanged pursuant to the Warrant Exchange. The Warrant Exchange offer period expired on February 7, 2014, and a total of 14,418,193 warrants were tendered and accepted for exchange. On February 14, 2014, we issued 1,441,813 shares and paid $52 in cash in lieu of fractional shares in exchange for the tendered warrants. The holders of shares of our common stock issued in the Warrant Exchange, who are not affiliates of ours (and who have not been affiliates of ours within three months preceding a proposed sale) may resell those shares without restriction under the Federal securities laws. In addition, the holders of shares issued in the Warrant Exchange who are affiliates of ours (or who have been affiliates of ours within three months preceding a proposed sale), are entitled to make a demand that we register the resale of the shares they received at any time. Furthermore, the Initial Stockholders have certain “piggy-back” registration rights with respect to certain registration statements filed subsequent to the Merger. Holders of warrants issued by Former SAE also have “piggy-back” registration rights with respect to certain registration statements we file as to the shares of our common stock issuable in respect of such warrants. The presence of these additional shares of common stock trading in the public market may have an adverse effect on the market price of our securities.
Three of our executive officers and directors own approximately one-third of our common stock and have voting control over a majority of our common stock, which makes it possible for them to determine the outcome of all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval and exempts us from certain Nasdaq corporate governance requirements. This control may be alleged to conflict with our company’s interests and the interests of our other stockholders.
Three of our executive officers and directors, Jeff Hastings, Brian Beatty and Brent Whiteley, currently own approximately one-third of the outstanding shares of our common stock. With voting proxies that have been granted to them, Messrs. Hastings, Beatty and Whiteley together currently have the power to vote a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock. These stockholders have the power to determine the outcome of all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of our directors and other corporate actions. Circumstances may arise in which the interest of Messrs. Hastings, Beatty and Whiteley could be in conflict with the interests of our other stockholders. In addition, such control could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting to purchase or obtain control of our company.

In addition, because Messrs. Hastings, Beatty and Whiteley control more than 50% of the voting power of our common stock, we are a “controlled company” for purposes of the Nasdaq listing requirements. As such, we are permitted to and have opted out of the Nasdaq listing requirements that would otherwise require our board to be comprised of a majority of independent directors; our board nominations to be selected, or recommended for the board’s selection, either by a nominating committee comprised

19


entirely of independent directors or by a majority of independent directors; and us to maintain a compensation committee comprised entirely of independent directors. Accordingly, our other stockholders may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the Nasdaq corporate governance requirements. 

ITEM 2. Properties.
 
Properties
 
We lease all of the facilities used in our operations. Our principal facilities are summarized in the table below. 
Location
 
Square Footage
 
Purpose
Houston, Texas, U.S.A.
 
4,788
 
Executive offices
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
 
11,344
 
Executive offices
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
 
12,335
 
Warehouse
Anchorage, Alaska, U.S.A.
 
4,600
 
Field Office
Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, U.S.A.
 
7,524
 
Warehouse
Lima, Peru
 
9,905
 
Field Office
Lima, Peru
 
15,919
 
Warehouse
Bogotá, Colombia
 
4,639
 
Field Office
Bogotá, Colombia
 
13,271
 
Warehouse
Santa Cruz, Bolivia
 
2,153
 
Field Office
Santa Cruz, Bolivia
 
28,000
 
Warehouse
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
 
2,153
 
Field Office
Bahia, Brazil
 
2,131
 
Warehouse
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
 
2,600
 
Field Office
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
 
28,720
 
Warehouse
 
We also maintain other regional offices and warehouses in Brazil, Papua New Guinea, Peru and New Zealand.
The leases expire at various times over the next five years and most contain renewal options for additional one year periods. The leases generally require us to pay all operating costs, such as maintenance and insurance. We believe that our facilities are generally well maintained and adequate to meet our current and foreseeable requirements for the next several years.
ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings.
 
In the ordinary course of business, we may be subject to legal proceedings involving contractual and employment relationships, liability claims and a variety of other matters. Although the results of these other legal proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty, we do not believe that the final outcome of these matters should have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

PART II

ITEM 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Market Price of Common Stock and Warrants
 
Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “SAEX,” and our warrants are quoted on the Over-the-Counter Bulletin Board under the symbol “SAEXW.” The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices for the common stock and bid prices for the warrants for the periods indicated:

20


 
Common Stock
 
Warrants
 
High
 
Low
 
High
 
Low
Fiscal 2014:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Fourth Quarter
$
8.26

 
$
3.20

 
$
0.62

 
$
0.15

Third Quarter
$
9.13

 
$
8.15

 
$
0.78

 
$
0.54

Second Quarter
$
9.80

 
$
7.95

 
$
1.38

 
$
0.65

First Quarter
$
9.98

 
$
7.80

 
$
1.25

 
$
0.78

Fiscal 2013:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth Quarter
$
9.95

 
$
6.60

 
$
0.93

 
$
0.66

Third Quarter
$
10.39

 
$
8.34

 
$
1.00

 
$
0.87

Second Quarter
$
10.55

 
$
9.15

 
$
1.25

 
$
0.37

First Quarter
$
10.07

 
$
9.91

 
$
0.49

 
$
0.35


Holders
 
As of March 18, 2015, there were 64 holders of record of our common stock and 2 holders of record of our warrants. We believe there are more than 450 beneficial owners of our common stock and approximately 5 beneficial owners of our warrants.

Dividends
 
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock to date. Immediately prior to the Merger, Former SAE declared and paid cash dividends of $5.1 million in the aggregate on its preferred stock and $10.0 million in the aggregate on its common stock. It is the present intention of our board of directors to retain all earnings, if any, for use in our business operations and, accordingly, our board does not anticipate declaring any dividends in the foreseeable future. The payment of dividends will be within the discretion of our board of directors and will be contingent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements and general financial condition, the restrictions on dividends contained in the Indenture for our Notes and the Credit Agreement for our Revolving Credit Agreement, and other matters.

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
 
The following table presents information regarding securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2014:

Plan Category
 
Number of Securities
to be Issued Upon
Exercise of
Outstanding Options,
Warrants and Rights
 
Weighted-Average
Exercise Price of
Outstanding Options,
Warrants and Rights
 
Number of Securities
Remaining Available
for Future Issuance
Under Equity
Compensation Plan
(Excluding Securities
Reflected in the First
Column)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
 

 
$

 
1,114,493

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
 

 

 

Total
 

 
$

 
1,114,493

 
For a description of the material features of our equity compensation plans, see Note 11 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.”


21


ITEM 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and notes to those statements included in this report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Please see the sections entitled “Cautionary Note regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” in this report.

Introduction
 
We are an internationally-focused oilfield services company offering a full range of vertically-integrated seismic data acquisition and logistical support services in Alaska, Canada, South America and Southeast Asia to our customers in the oil and natural gas industry. We were initially formed on February 2, 2011 as a blank check company in order to effect a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition or other similar business combination with one or more business entities. On June 24, 2013, our wholly-owned subsidiary completed a merger ("Merger") under an Agreement and Plan of Reorganization, as amended, with the entity formerly known as SAExploration Holdings, Inc. (“Former SAE”), at which time the business of Former SAE became our business.

The Merger was accounted for as a reverse acquisition in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Under this method of accounting, we were treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. This determination was primarily based on Former SAE comprising the ongoing operations of the combined entity, Former SAE senior management comprising the senior management of the combined company, and the Former SAE common stockholders having a majority of the voting power of the combined entity. In accordance with guidance applicable to these circumstances, the Merger was considered to be a capital transaction in substance. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Merger was treated as the equivalent of Former SAE issuing stock for our net assets, accompanied by a recapitalization. Our net assets were stated at fair value, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Operations prior to the Merger are those of Former SAE. The equity structure after the Merger reflects our equity structure.
Overview of our Business
 
Our services include the acquisition of 2D, 3D, time-lapse 4D and multi-component seismic data on land, in transition zones between land and water offshore in depths of up to 5,000 feet. In addition, we offer a full suite of logistical support and in-field processing services. Our customers include major integrated oil companies, national oil companies and independent oil and gas exploration and production companies. Our services are primarily used by our customers to identify and analyze drilling prospects and to maximize successful drilling, making demand for such services dependent upon the level of customer spending on exploration, production, development and field management activities, which is influenced by the fluctuation in oil and natural gas commodity prices. Demand for our services is also impacted by long-term supply concerns based on national oil policies and other country-specific economic and geo-political conditions. We have expertise in logistics and focus upon providing a complete service package, particularly in our international operations, which allows efficient movement into remote areas, giving us what we believe to be a strategic advantage over our competitors and providing us with opportunities for growth. Many of the areas of the world where we work have limited seasons for seismic data acquisition, requiring high utilization of key personnel and redeployment of equipment from one part of the world to another. All of our remote area camps, drills and support equipment are easily containerized and made for easy transport to locations anywhere in the world. As a result, if conditions deteriorate in a current location or demand rises in another location, we are able to quickly redeploy our crews and equipment to other parts of the world. By contrast, we tend to subcontract out more of our services in North America than in other regions, and our North American revenues tend to be more dependent upon data acquisition services rather than our full line of services.
While our revenues from services are mainly affected by the level of customer demand for our services, operating revenue is also affected by the bargaining power of our customers relating to our services, as well as the productivity and utilization levels of our data acquisition crews. Our logistical expertise can be a mitigating factor in service price negotiation with our customers, allowing us to maintain larger margins in certain regions of the world, particularly in the most remote or most challenging climates of the world. Factors impacting the productivity and utilization levels of our crews include permitting delays, downtime related to inclement weather, decrease in daylight working hours during winter months, time and expense of repositioning crews, the number and size of each crew, and the number of recording channels available to each crew. We have the ability to optimize the utilization of personnel and equipment, which is a key factor to stabilizing margins in the various regions in which we operate. Specifically, we are investing in equipment that is lighter weight and more easily shipped between the different regions. The ability to reduce both the costs of shipment and the amount of shipping time increases our operating margins and utilization of equipment. Similar logic applies to the utilization of personnel. We focus on employing field managers who are mobile and have the expertise and knowledge of many different markets within our operations. This allows for better timing of operations and the ability of management staff to run those operations while at the same time minimizing personnel costs. An added benefit of a highly mobile

22


field management team is better internal transfer of skill and operational knowledge and the ability to spread operational efficiencies rapidly between the various regions.
Generally the choice of whether to subcontract out services depends on the expertise available in a certain region and whether that expertise is more efficiently obtained through subcontractors or by using our own labor force. For the most part, services are subcontracted within North America and our personnel are used in other regions where we operate. When subcontractors are used, we manage them and require that they comply with our work policies and QHSE objectives.
Our customers continue to request increased recording channel capacity on a per crew or project basis in order to produce higher resolution images, to increase crew efficiencies and to allow us to undertake larger scale projects. In order to meet these demands, we routinely deploy a variable number of land and marine channels through various sources with multiple crews in an effort to maximize asset utilization and meet customer needs. We believe that increased channel counts and more flexibility of deployment will result in increased crew efficiencies, which we believe should translate into higher revenues and margins.
Key Accomplishments
 
Since inception, we have grown at a rapid pace, with operating revenue growing from $23.4 million in 2007, the first full year of operations, to $386.8 million in 2014. We continue to develop our core markets while consistently evaluating opportunities to further expand our geographical footprint, operational capabilities and logistical expertise to provide seismic data acquisition in logistically challenging areas.
Since our progression from providing services exclusively in South America to now operating in North America and Southeast Asia, we are able to achieve better utilization of our personnel through redeployment of key personnel and seismic equipment from off-season areas to in-season areas, helping reduce some of the peaks and valleys in our financial performance. We anticipate future improvement in financial performance and more consistent operating results as a result of reducing the impact of our otherwise highly seasonal business through such redeployments.

Capital Investments and Impact on Operations
 
Our focus on providing leading edge technology will be at the forefront of our capital expenditure plans in the coming years, which investments will continue to strengthen our position and growth in the global oil and gas exploration services market.
During the last three years, in line with our focus on wireless land data acquisition, we purchased a wireless seismic data acquisition system which allows up to three crews to operate under the system at the same time. Following customer needs for higher density land programs using a single point receiver application and to answer the demand for conventional and unconventional oil and gas exploration, we purchased high sensitivity geophones and two types of vibrators, further strengthening our position as a full solution provider for land data acquisition methods and technologies. Additional equipment investments were made for ongoing operations in Alaska in order to increase efficiency. We also invested in cable equipment in order to provide customers in South America with reliable systems as wireless technology is slower to take hold in that market. Capital expenditures for 2014 and 2013 totaled $28.2 million and $11.1 million, respectively.
Focusing on current worldwide oil and gas markets, we will continue to employ and expand our wireless equipment on a worldwide basis while maintaining the ability to provide services to the still existing cable markets. Our capital purchases have and will allow us to take advantage of all aspects of the geophysical exploration services market, ranging from land, marine and transition zone data acquisition; 2D, 3D, 4D and multi-component data acquisition; use of different methods to acquire data such as using vibroseis (vibrating) and impulsive sources; as well as vertical seismic profiling and reservoir monitoring. Investments in expanding further into our South America and Southeast Asia markets will also focus upon surveying, drilling and base camp operations.
Fiscal 2014 Summary
 
The following discussion is intended to assist in understanding our financial position at December 31, 2014, and our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2014. Financial and operating results for the year ended December 31, 2014 include:

Revenues from services were $386.8 million in 2014, an increase of 57.7% from $245.3 million in 2013.
Gross profit was $56.2 million in 2014, an increase of $13.3 million, or 30.9%, from $42.9 million in 2013.
Operating income was $16.7 million in 2014, an increase of $8.4 million, or 101.9%, from $8.3 million in 2013.
Net loss was $38.4 million in 2014, an increase of $17.4 million, or 82.8%, from a net loss of $21.0 million in 2013.

23


Adjusted EBITDA was $34.1 million in 2014, an increase of 27.0% from $26.8 million in 2013.
Cash and cash equivalents totaled $12.3 million as of December 31, 2014 compared to $17.4 million as of December 31, 2013.
Results of Operations
 
The following section sets forth, for the periods indicated, certain financial data derived from our consolidated statements of operations. Amounts are presented in thousands unless otherwise indicated.

Revenues by Geographic Region

The following table is a summary of our revenues by the geographic region in which we provided services for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
% of Revenue
 
2013
 
% of Revenue
 
Increase (Decrease)
 
Percentage Change
Revenue from services:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
North America
$
127,804

 
33.0
%
 
$
103,198

 
42.1
%
 
$
24,606

 
23.8
 %
South America
258,266

 
66.8
%
 
112,022

 
45.7
%
 
146,244

 
130.5
 %
Southeast Asia
750

 
0.2
%
 
30,048

 
12.2
%
 
(29,298
)
 
(97.5
)%
Total revenue
$
386,820

 
100.0
%
 
$
245,268

 
100.0
%
 
$
141,552

 
57.7
 %

North America: The increase in revenues was due principally to increased 2014 revenues in Alaska resulting from an overall increase in seismic activity and market share in the North Slope region compared to 2013, partially offset by significantly reduced revenues in Canada. The market in the North Slope region of Alaska experienced significant growth during the 2014 winter season as a result of favorable market and regulatory conditions for oil and gas producers. In 2014, the Canadian market was adversely impacted by regulatory issues that slowed the government approval process, which resulted in cancelled and delayed projects.

South America: The increase in revenues during 2014 was primarily due to major projects in Peru and Bolivia, with smaller increases in Brazil and Colombia, reflecting increased exploration activity throughout South America.

Southeast Asia: The decrease in revenue for Southeast Asia was primarily in Papua New Guinea and Malaysia, which had major projects during 2013 compared to no activity in 2014. Southeast Asia remains a burgeoning, yet competitive market for shallow-water seismic activity.

Comparison of Operating Results for the Years Ended December 31, 2014 and 2013
 
The following table is a summary of the results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
% of Revenue
 
2013
 
% of Revenue
Revenue from services
$
386,820

 
100.0
 %
 
$
245,268

 
100.0
 %
Gross profit
56,210

 
14.5
 %
 
42,932

 
17.5
 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses
39,543

 
10.2
 %
 
33,489

 
13.6
 %
Merger costs

 
 %
 
1,188

 
0.5
 %
Income from operations
16,667

 
4.3
 %
 
8,255

 
3.4
 %
Other expense, net
(42,186
)
 
(10.9
)%
 
(18,766
)
 
(7.7
)%
Provision for income taxes
12,876

 
3.3
 %
 
10,495

 
4.3
 %
Less: net income attributable to noncontrolling interest
3,358

 
0.9
 %
 
45

 
 %
Net loss attributable to the Corporation
$
(41,753
)
 
(10.8
)%
 
$
(21,051
)
 
(8.6
)%


24


Revenue from Services. Our revenue from services increased by $141,552 or 57.7%, from $245,268 in 2013 to $386,820 in 2014. As explained above, 2014 revenue increased significantly in Alaska, Peru and Colombia, which was partially offset by decreased 2014 revenue in Canada and Southeast Asia.

Gross Profit. Gross profit increased by $13,278 or 30.9%, from $42,932 in 2013, representing 17.5% of revenue, to $56,210 in 2014, representing 14.5% of revenue. Gross profit as a percentage of revenue decreased in substantially all operations in 2014 compared to 2013. The primary causes of the decrease in Alaska and South America gross profit as a percentage of revenue were weather and permit related delays which resulted in reduced revenue due to lower production and increased operating costs due to the resulting unproductive staff time. Canadian gross profit in both amount and as a percentage of revenue was adversely affected by the regulatory issues discussed above, which resulted in cancelled and delayed projects and increased competition on the remaining projects.

Within the seismic data services industry, gross profit is presented both with or without depreciation and amortization expense on equipment used in operations. Our gross profit is presented after reduction for depreciation and amortization expense on equipment used in operations. The following summary discloses gross profit on both bases:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
% of Revenue
 
2013
 
% of Revenue
 
Increase (Decrease)
 
Percentage Change
Gross profit as presented
$
56,210

 
14.5
%
 
$
42,932

 
17.5
%
 
$
13,278

 
30.9
%
Depreciation and amortization expense included in cost of services
15,205

 
4.0
%
 
14,843

 
6.1
%
 
362

 
2.4
%
Gross profit excluding depreciation and amortization expense included in cost of services
$
71,415

 
18.5
%
 
$
57,775

 
23.6
%
 
$
13,640

 
23.6
%

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses increased in 2014 by $6,054 to $39,543 or 10.2% of revenues compared to $33,489 or 13.6% of revenues for 2013. The decrease in SG&A expenses as a percentage of revenues was due to the overall increase in revenue and the benefits from our previously planned scaling of internal infrastructure we are building to manage our continuing growth. The increase in 2014 SG&A expenses was due to higher administrative costs to support our continued growth in South America, higher compensation expenses, and expenses related to additional accounting and financial staff and outside consultants, attorneys and auditors to satisfy our increased obligations as a public company.

Merger Costs.   Expenses of $6,215 were incurred during the year ended December 31, 2013 in connection with the merger of Trio Merger Corp. and SAExploration Holdings, Inc. Of this amount, $1,188 was charged to expense and the remaining $5,027 was charged to stockholders’ equity. There was no comparable charge in 2014.

Total Other Income (Expense). Total other income (expense) for 2014 and 2013 was comprised of the following:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
 
Increase (Decrease)
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
Loss on early extinguishment of debt
$
(17,157
)
 
$

 
$
(17,157
)
Change in fair value of note payable to Former SAE stockholders
(5,094
)
 
(631
)
 
(4,463
)
Interest expense, net
(16,778
)
 
(15,256
)
 
(1,522
)
Foreign exchange gain (loss), net
(3,451
)
 
(1,755
)
 
(1,696
)
Other, net
294

 
(1,124
)
 
1,418

Total other expense, net
$
(42,186
)
 
$
(18,766
)
 
$
(23,420
)

The increase in total other expense was primarily due to the loss on early extinguishment of debt of $17,157 recorded in 2014 as a result of the repayment and termination of our prior $80,000 senior Credit Agreement (as amended, the "2012 Credit Agreement") on July 2, 2014 with the proceeds of our Notes. The increase in expense for the 2014 change in fair value of the note payable to Former SAE stockholders was due to the adjustment of the note balance to the amount ultimately repaid on July 2, 2014 with the proceeds of our Notes. Interest expense increased in 2014 compared to 2013 primarily due to the higher debt outstanding after

25


issuance of our Notes, partially offset by the lower interest rate of our Notes relative to the previously outstanding debt. The 2014 increase in the loss on foreign currency translation compared to 2013 was primarily due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar compared to South American currencies.

Income Taxes.   Our income tax provision increased $2,381 in 2014 compared to 2013 primarily as a result of increased pre-tax income in our foreign operations, the recording of a valuation allowance increase of approximately $18,725 attributed to cumulative deferred tax assets, and the effects of differences between U.S. and foreign tax rates. The 2014 pre-tax losses in the U.S. increased primarily due to charges recorded for the loss on early extinguishment of debt related to the 2012 Credit Agreement and the change in fair value of the note payable to Former SAE stockholders.

We also operate in Canada, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Peru, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand through wholly-owned subsidiaries or branches of a U.S. entity (whereby the earnings of the branches are included as U.S. taxable income). These subsidiaries or branches are subject to foreign taxation based on the financial results of the operations under the laws of each tax jurisdictions.

Corporate income taxes are calculated based on GAAP and U.S. and various international tax codes and regulations. The appropriate foreign taxes paid in the country of operations are credited against U.S. corporate taxes subject to the U.S. foreign tax credit limitations. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized using the liability method based on the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, operating losses and tax credit carry forwards, as stipulated under GAAP. Where appropriate, valuation allowances are provided to reserve the amount of net operating loss and tax credit carry forwards where it is not more likely than not that they will be realized due to various provisions of both U.S. and foreign tax laws.

A comprehensive model is used to account for uncertain tax positions, which includes consideration of how we recognize, measure, present and disclose uncertain tax positions taken or to be taken on a tax return. The income tax laws and regulations are voluminous and are often ambiguous. As such, we are required to make many subjective assumptions and judgments regarding our tax positions that can materially affect amounts recognized in our consolidated balance sheets and statements of operations.

Our U.S. statutory tax rate was 35% for years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013. For 2014, our effective tax rate was (50.5)% due to the effects of differences between U.S. and foreign tax rates, net of federal benefit. For 2013, our effective tax rate was (99.8)% due principally to permanent differences, the effects of differences between U.S. and foreign tax rates, and the recording of the valuation allowances against the U.S. deferred tax assets.

In June 2014, we initiated a comprehensive plan to normalize our consolidated effective tax rate through the restructuring of our foreign branch offices into subsidiaries. This process has since been completed in South America and we currently expect to begin realizing the benefits from a more efficient tax structure in future years.

Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest. The $3,313 increase in 2014 compared to 2013 is due to the increased distributions earned by the noncontrolling interest under contracts performed by us on the north slope of Alaska. Under the terms of our agreement with the noncontrolling interest, they receive 51% of the portion of the applicable contracts' gross revenues paid to the joint venture entity as discussed further under Note 12 of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements".

Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Our principal source of cash is from the seismic data acquisition services we provide to customers, supplemented as necessary by drawing against our revolving line of credit through Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. Our cash is primarily used to provide additional seismic data acquisition services, including the payment of expenses related to operations and the acquisition of new seismic data equipment, and to pay the interest on outstanding debt obligations. Our cash position and revenues depend on the level of demand for our services. Historically, cash generated from operations, along with cash reserves and borrowings from commercial, private, and related parties, have been sufficient to fund our working capital and to acquire or lease seismic data equipment. Amounts in the remainder of this section are presented in thousands unless otherwise indicated.
Working Capital.   Working capital as of December 31, 2014 was $31,859 compared to $27,111 as of December 31, 2013. The increase in working capital during 2014 was principally the result of the increase in income from operations and the cash proceeds, net of debt repayments, from the issuance of our Notes in July 2014.

We currently believe that our existing cash, cash generated from operations and our sources of working capital will be sufficient for us to meet our anticipated cash needs for at least the next 12 months. While we believe that our current level of working capital

26


will be sufficient for us to operate and to continue to implement our business plan, there can be no assurance that our current level of working capital will be adequate to pursue our strategy for growth.

Cash Flows.   Cash used in operations during 2014 was $19,901, compared to cash provided by operations of $2,963 during 2013, an increase in cash used in operations of $22,864. Cash used in net loss and net cash adjustments to net loss increased to $4,522 for 2014 compared to cash provided by net loss and net cash adjustments to net loss of $3,658 for 2013 primarily as a result of the penalty for early repayment of the 2012 Credit Agreement in 2014. Net changes in operating assets and liabilities resulted in cash used of $15,379 for 2014 compared to cash used of $695 for 2013, primarily due to higher accounts receivable from increased revenues and longer contractual payment terms in accordance with standard business practices for South American customers.

Capital Expenditures.  Cash used in investing activities during 2014 was $28,084, compared to cash used in investing activities of $11,110 during 2013, an increase in cash used of $16,974. The increase was due to higher capital expenditures during 2014 of $28,203 compared to $11,110 during 2013. The increased capital expenditures consisted primarily of purchasing equipment for the Alaska operations, camp and drilling equipment in Peru and Colombia in line with our focus on South American operations, and a combination of mechanical equipment, computer equipment and electronics associated with our wireless strategy in Southeast Asia and North and South America.

During the last three years, in line with our focus on wireless land data acquisition, we purchased a cableless seismic data acquisition system which allows up to three crews to operate under the system at the same time. Following customer needs for higher density land programs using a single point receiver application and to answer the demand for conventional and unconventional oil and gas exploration, we purchased high sensitivity geophones and two types of vibrators, further strengthening our position as a full solution provider for land data acquisition methods and technologies. Additional equipment investments were made for ongoing operations in Alaska in order to increase efficiency. We also invested in cable equipment in order to provide customers in Latin America with cable systems as wireless technology is slower to take hold in that market.
  
Financing. Cash provided by financing activities during 2014 was $41,188, compared to cash provided by financing activities of $10,766 during 2013, an increase in cash provided of $30,422. The increase in cash provided in 2014 was primarily due to the issuance of our Notes discussed further below, less debt repaid with the proceeds and loan issuance costs incurred on the transaction. The cash provided in 2013 was primarily from the net proceeds of the Merger, less Merger costs and dividends paid to Former SAE common and preferred stockholders. As of December 31, 2014, our total outstanding indebtedness was approximately $152,299, consisting of senior secured notes of $150,000, equipment note payable of $1,654, and capital lease obligations of $645.

Senior Secured Notes. On July 2, 2014, we issued senior secured notes ("Notes") totaling $150,000 in a private offering to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act and to non-U.S. persons in offshore transactions pursuant to Regulation S under the Securities Act. The proceeds of these Notes were used to pay the amounts owed under the 2012 Credit Agreement, the notes payable to Former SAE stockholders, and related professional fees and expenses, fund the purchase of equipment for our Alaska operations and for general corporate purposes.

The Notes bear interest at the annual rate of 10.0% payable semi-annually in arrears on January 15 and July 15 of each year, commencing on January 15, 2015. The Notes are guaranteed on a senior secured basis with a lien on substantially all assets of SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and each of our existing and future domestic subsidiaries, except for any immaterial subsidiaries ("Guarantors"). The liens securing our Notes are subject to certain exceptions and permitted liens, some of which are contractually subordinated to a first priority lien on certain assets under the Intercreditor Agreement discussed under "Revolving Credit Facility" below.

We have the right to redeem some or all of the Notes at the redemption prices (expressed as percentages of the principal amount to be redeemed) set forth below, together with accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the redemption date, if redeemed on or after January 15, 2017 as indicated:
Period
Percentage
On or after January 15, 2017 and prior to July 15, 2017
107.5%
On or after July 15, 2017 and prior to July 15, 2018
105.0%
On and after July 15, 2018
100.0%
 

We also have the right to redeem some or all of the Notes at any time or from time to time prior to January 15, 2017, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount thereof plus an applicable premium determined in accordance with the Indenture and accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the redemption date. In addition, we have the right to redeem from time to time up to 35% of the aggregate outstanding principal amount of the Notes before January 15, 2017, with the net proceeds of an equity

27


offering at a redemption price equal to 110% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued but unpaid interest to, but not including, the redemption date.
 
Subject to certain exceptions, upon the occurrence of a Change of Control (as defined in the Indenture), each holder of Notes will have the right to require us to purchase that holder’s Notes for a cash price equal to 101% of the principal amounts to be purchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest to the date of purchase. Upon the occurrence of an Asset Sale (as defined in the Indenture), each holder of Notes will have the right to require us to purchase that holder’s Notes for a cash price equal to 100% of the principal amounts to be purchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest to the date of purchase from any proceeds from the Asset Sale in excess of $7.5 million that are not otherwise used by us to either reduce our debt, reinvest in assets or acquire a permitted business.
 
The Indenture contains covenants which include limitations on our ability to:

transfer or sell assets;
pay dividends, redeem subordinated indebtedness or make other restricted payments;
incur or guarantee additional indebtedness or, with respect to our restricted subsidiaries, issue preferred stock;
create or incur liens;
incur dividend or other payment restrictions affecting our restricted subsidiaries;
consummate a merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our or our subsidiaries’ assets;
enter into transactions with affiliates;
engage in business other than our current business and reasonably related extensions thereof; and
take or omit to take any actions that would adversely affect or impair in any material respect the collateral securing the Notes.
We are in compliance with the Indenture covenants as of December 31, 2014.
 
In connection with the issuance of the Notes, we entered into a registration rights agreement in which we agreed to use our best efforts to register with the SEC a new series of freely tradable notes (“Exchange Notes”), which will be exchanged for the current Notes. We and the Guarantors further agreed to use best efforts to: (i) file a registration statement for the Exchange Notes with the SEC within 300 days after the issuance of the Notes; (ii) cause the registration statement to be declared effective within 390 days after the issue date of the Notes; and (iii) close the exchange offer 30 days after such registration statement is declared effective. In certain circumstances, we may be required to file a shelf registration statement to cover resale of the Notes. If the deadlines set forth above are not met, additional interest as defined in the Indenture will be payable until the obligations described above are fulfilled.

We may from time to time seek to retire or purchase our outstanding debt through cash purchases and/or exchanges for equity securities, in open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions or otherwise. Such repurchases or exchanges, if any, will depend on prevailing market conditions, our liquidity requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors. The amounts involved may be material.

Revolving Credit Facility. On November 6, 2014, SAExploration, Inc., SAExploration Holdings, Inc., and our other domestic subsidiaries (collectively, "we" or "our") and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association (“Lender”) entered into a Credit Agreement providing for our $20,000 Revolving Credit Facility. The Revolving Credit Facility is secured by our U.S. assets, including accounts receivable and equipment, subject to certain exclusions and exceptions as set forth in the Credit Agreement. The proceeds of the Revolving Credit Facility will primarily be used to fund our working capital needs for operations and for general corporate purposes. The Revolving Credit Facility had not been utilized as of December 31, 2014.
 
Borrowings made under the Revolving Credit Facility bear interest at a rate of daily three month LIBOR plus 3%, payable monthly. The Revolving Credit Facility has a maturity date of November 6, 2017, unless terminated earlier. We may request, and the Lender may grant, an increase to the maximum amount available under the Revolving Credit Facility in minimum increments of $1,000 not to exceed an additional $10,000 in the aggregate, so long as certain conditions described in the Credit Agreement are met.

The Credit Agreement includes a sub-facility for letters of credit in amounts up to the lesser of the available borrowing base or $10,000. Letters of credit are subject to Lender approval and a fee which accrues at the annual rate of 3% of the undrawn daily

28


balance of the outstanding letters of credit, payable monthly. An unused line fee of 0.5% per annum of the daily average of the maximum Revolving Credit Facility amount reduced by outstanding borrowings and letters of credit is payable monthly. The sub-facility for letters of credit had not been utilized as of December 31, 2014.
 
Under the Revolving Credit Facility, borrowings are subject to borrowing base availability and may not exceed 85% of the amount of eligible accounts receivable, as defined, plus the lesser of $20,000 or 85% of the orderly net liquidation value of existing eligible equipment per appraisal and 85% of hard costs of acquired eligible equipment, less the aggregate amount of any reserves established by the Lender. If borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility exceed $5,000, we are subject to minimum rolling 12 month EBITDA requirements of $20,000 on a consolidated basis and $8,000 on our operations in the State of Alaska. The minimum EBITDA for the consolidated basis calculation is lowered by $17,000 if the month of July 2014 is included within the rolling 12 month period and also excludes the effect of the change in fair value of notes payable to related parties.
 
The Credit Agreement contains covenants including, but not limited to:

commitments to maintain and deliver to Lender, as required, certain financial reports, records and other items,
subject to certain exceptions under the Credit Agreement, restrictions on our ability to incur indebtedness, create or incur liens, enter into fundamental changes to our corporate structure or to the nature of our business , dispose of assets, permit a change in control, acquire non-permitted investments, enter into affiliate transactions or make distributions,
maintain the minimum EBITDA specified above, and
maintain eligible equipment, as defined, located in the State of Alaska with a value of at least 75% of the value of such equipment included in the borrowing base availability. Eligible equipment also includes the value of equipment outside the United States which would be otherwise eligible under the Credit Agreement.
The Credit Agreement also contains representations, warranties, covenants and other terms and conditions, including relating to the payment of fees to the Lender, which are customary for agreements of this type. We are in compliance with the Credit Agreement covenants as of December 31, 2014.
 
The Credit Agreement also provides for customary events of default. If an event of default occurs and is continuing, then the Lender may, among other options as described in the Credit Agreement, declare our obligations to be due and payable immediately or declare the funding obligations of the Lender terminated immediately, subject to the terms of the Intercreditor Agreement described below.
 
The Credit Agreement is subject to the Intercreditor Agreement (“Intercreditor Agreement”) dated as of November 6, 2014 between the Lender and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee and collateral agent (“Noteholder Agent”) pursuant to the Indenture dated as of July 2, 2014 relating to our Notes. The Intercreditor Agreement sets forth various terms between the Lender and Noteholder Agent, including, but not limited to, (i) the priority of liens between those granted by the Indenture and the Credit Agreement, (ii) enforcement action procedures, (iii) the application of the proceeds of the senior collateral received by either the Noteholder Agent or the Lender, (iv) the process by which any liens may be released, (v) insolvency proceeding procedures, (vi) a prohibition on amending various agreements in a manner inconsistent with or in violation of the Intercreditor Agreement, and (vii) the option of the Noteholder Agent to purchase our debt under the Credit Agreement from the Lender if certain triggering conditions are met. The Intercreditor Agreement also contains customary representations, warranties, covenants and other terms and conditions.

Use of EBITDA (Non-GAAP measure) as a Performance Measure
 
We use an adjusted form of EBITDA to measure period over period performance, which is a non-GAAP measurement. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income (loss) plus interest expense, less interest income, plus loss on early extinguishment of debt, plus loss on change in fair value of notes payable to related parties, plus income taxes, plus depreciation and amortization, plus non-recurring major expenses outside of operations, plus non-recurring one-time expenses and foreign exchange gain or loss. Our management uses adjusted EBITDA as a supplemental financial measure to assess:
  
the financial performance of our assets without regard to financing methods, capital structures, taxes, historical cost basis or nonrecurring expenses;
our liquidity and operating performance over time in relation to other companies that own similar assets and calculate EBITDA in a similar manner; and
the ability of our assets to generate cash sufficient to pay potential interest cost.

29


We consider adjusted EBITDA as presented below to be the primary measure of period-over-period changes in our operational cash flow performance.
 
The terms EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA are not defined under GAAP, and we acknowledge that these are not a measure of operating income, operating performance or liquidity presented in accordance with GAAP. When assessing our operating performance or liquidity, investors and others should not consider this data in isolation or as a substitute for net income (loss), cash flow from operating activities or other cash flow data calculated in accordance with GAAP. In addition, our calculation of adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to EBITDA or similarly titled measures utilized by other companies since such other companies may not calculate EBITDA in the same manner. Further, the results presented by adjusted EBITDA cannot be achieved without incurring the costs that the measure excludes.
 
The computation of our adjusted EBITDA (a non-GAAP measure) from net loss, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, is provided in the table below (in thousands):
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
Net loss
$
(38,395
)
 
$
(21,006
)
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
16,379

(1) 
16,096

 
(1) 
Interest expense, net
16,778

 
15,256

 
 
Provision for income taxes
12,876

 
10,495

 
 
Foreign exchange loss
3,451

 
1,755

 
 
Loss on early extinguishment of debt
17,157

(2) 

 
 
Change in fair value of notes payable to related parties
5,094

(3) 
631

 
(3) 
Nonrecurring expense
761

(5) 
3,620

 
(4) 
Adjusted EBITDA
$
34,101

 
$
26,847

 
 
(1)Depreciation and amortization expense was charged to the statements of operations as follows:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2014
 
2013
  
Cost of services
$
15,205

  
$
14,843

  
Selling, general and administrative expenses
1,174

 
1,253

  
Total depreciation and amortization expense
$
16,379

  
$
16,096

  

(2)
The repayment and termination of the 2012 Credit Agreement on July 2, 2014 resulted in a $17,157 charge to loss on early extinguishment of debt for the year ended December 31, 2014. The charge consisted of prepayment penalties of $8,877, write-off of unamortized loan discount and issuance costs totaling $7,983, and legal fees of $297.

(3)
The note payable to Former SAE stockholders was recorded at fair value as discussed in Note 6 in "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements". All amounts outstanding under the note payable to the Former SAE stockholders were repaid on July 2, 2014 from proceeds of the issuance of our Notes and the promissory note cancelled.

(4)
2013 nonrecurring expenses primarily consist of third-party financing costs, share-based compensation expense related to the accelerated vesting of Former SAE’s restricted shares in connection with the Merger, costs associated with the Merger, and one-time severance costs related to the reduction of staff in Colombia.

(5)
2014 nonrecurring expenses primarily consist of the $657 settlement of disputed fees with a former financial advisor.

Critical Accounting Policies
 
Our financial statements have been prepared on the accrual basis of accounting in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires certain assumptions and estimates to be made that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the financial statement date and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods covered by the financial statements. Because of the use of assumptions and estimates inherent in the reporting process, actual results could differ from those estimates.

30


Revenue Recognition
Our services are provided under master service agreements that set forth our obligations and the obligations of our customers. A supplemental agreement is entered into for each data acquisition project which sets forth the terms of the specific project including the right of either party to cancel on short notice. Customer contracts for services vary in terms and conditions. Contracts are either “turnkey” (fixed price) agreements that provide for a fixed fee per unit of measure, or “term” (variable price) agreements that provide for a fixed hourly, daily or monthly fee during the term of the project. Under turnkey agreements, we recognize revenue based upon output measures as work is performed. This method requires revenue recognition to be based upon quantifiable measures of progress, such as square or linear kilometers surveyed or each unit of data recorded. Expenses associated with each unit of measure are immediately recognized. If it is determined that a contract will have a loss, the entire amount of the loss associated with the contract is immediately recognized. Revenue under a “term” contract is billed as the applicable rate is earned under the terms of the agreement. Under contracts that require the customer to pay separately for the mobilization of equipment, we recognize such mobilization fees as revenue during the performance of the seismic data acquisition, using the same output measures as for the seismic work. To the extent costs have been incurred under service contracts for which the revenue has not yet been earned, those costs are deferred on the balance sheet within deferred costs on contracts until the revenue is earned, at which point the costs are recognized as cost of services over the life of the contract. If we determine that the costs are not recoverable, the costs are expensed.

We invoice customers for certain out-of-pocket expenses under the terms of the contracts. Amounts billed to customers are recorded in revenue at the gross amount including out-of-pocket expenses. We also utilize subcontractors to perform certain services to facilitate the completion of customer contracts. Customers are billed for the cost of these subcontractors plus an administrative fee. We record amounts billed to our customers related to subcontractors at the gross amount and record the related cost of subcontractors as cost of services. Sales taxes collected from customers and remitted to government authorities are accounted for on a net basis and are excluded from revenues in the consolidated statements of operations.

Deferred Revenue

Deferred revenue primarily represents amounts billed or payments received for services in advance of the services to be rendered over a future period or advance payments from customers related to equipment leasing.

Multiple-Element Arrangements

We evaluate each contract to determine if the contract is a multiple-element arrangement requiring different accounting treatments for varying components of the contract. If a contract is deemed to have separate units of accounting, arrangement consideration is allocated based on the each unit of accounting's relative selling price and the applicable revenue recognition criteria are considered separately for each of the separate units of accounting. We account for each contract element when the applicable criteria for revenue recognition have been met. During 2014 and 2013, we delivered both professional services and equipment under a lease arrangement. The equipment leased under the contracts is highly customized and specialized to perform specific surveying operations. We use our best estimate of selling price when allocating multiple-element arrangement consideration. In estimating our selling price for the leased equipment, we consider the cost to acquire the equipment, the profit margin for similar arrangements, customer demand, effect of competitors on the equipment, and other market constraints.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses in our accounts receivable portfolio. We utilize the specific identification method for establishing and maintaining the allowance for doubtful accounts. Account balances are charged off against the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. While the collectability of outstanding customer invoices is continually assessed, the cyclical nature of our industry may affect our customers’ operating performance and cash flows, impacting our ability to collect on the invoices. Some of our customers are located in certain international areas that are inherently subject to economic, political and civil risks, which may also impact our ability to collect receivables.
Property and Equipment
 
Our property and equipment is capitalized at historical cost and depreciated over the estimated useful life of the asset. The estimation of useful life is based on circumstances that exist in the seismic industry and information available at the time of the asset purchase. Changes in technology have a significant impact on these estimates. As circumstances change and new information becomes available, these estimates could change. Seismic equipment is typically depreciated over three to ten years.

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Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method. When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the balance sheet, and any resulting gain or loss is reflected in the results of operations for such period.
Leases as Lessee

We lease certain equipment and vehicles under lease agreements. Each lease is evaluated to determine its appropriate classification as an operating or capital lease for financial reporting purposes. Any lease that does not meet the criteria for a capital lease is accounted for as an operating lease. Minimum rent payments under operating leases are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease including any periods of free rent. The assets and liabilities under capital leases are recorded at the lower of the present value of the minimum lease payments or the fair market value of the related assets. Assets under capital leases are amortized using the straight-line method over the initial lease term. Amortization of assets under capital leases is included in depreciation expense.

Long-Lived Assets

Long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, and purchased intangible assets subject to amortization, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. If circumstances require a long-lived asset or asset group be tested for possible impairment, we first compare undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by that asset or asset group to its carrying value. If the carrying value of the long-lived asset or asset group is not recoverable on an undiscounted cash flow basis, an impairment loss is recognized to the extent that the carrying value exceeds its fair value. Fair value is determined through various valuation techniques including discounted cash flow models, quoted market values and third-party independent appraisals, as considered necessary.

Currency Translation

The majority of our operations are conducted outside the United States in countries with stable currencies. Many contracts and local expenses are paid in local currencies and not in U.S. Dollars (“USD”). Our results of operations and cash flows could be impacted by changes in foreign currency exchange rates. We do not hold or issue foreign currency forward contracts, option contracts or other derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes or to mitigate the currency exchange rate risk.

Our reporting currency is in USD. For foreign subsidiaries and branches using the local currency as their functional currency, assets and liabilities are translated at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet dates. Revenues and expenses of these foreign subsidiaries are translated at average exchange rates for the period. Equity is translated at historical rates, and the resulting cumulative foreign currency translation adjustments resulting from this process are included as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of income taxes. Therefore, the USD value of these items in the financial statements fluctuates from period to period, depending on the value of the USD against these functional currencies. Exchange gains and losses arising from transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity involved are included in the consolidated statements of operations as foreign exchange gain (losses). For the foreign subsidiaries and branches using USD as their functional currency, any local currency operations are re-measured to USD. The re-measurement of these operations is included in the consolidated statements of operations as foreign exchange gain (loss).

Income Taxes

Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method.  Under the asset and liability method, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis.  This method also requires the recognition of future tax benefits for net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards.  Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled.  The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized as income in the period that includes the enactment date. The deferred tax asset is reduced by a valuation allowance if, based on available evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

Our methodology for recording income taxes requires judgment regarding assumptions and the use of estimates, including the valuation of deferred tax assets, which can create a variance between actual results and estimates and could have a material impact on our provision or benefit for income taxes. In certain foreign jurisdictions, the local income tax rate may exceed the U.S. or Canadian statutory rates, and in many of those cases we receive a foreign tax credit for U.S. or Canadian purposes. In other foreign jurisdictions, the local income tax rate may be less than the U.S. or Canadian statutory rates. In other foreign jurisdictions we may be subject to a tax on revenues when the amount of tax liability would exceed that computed on our net income before tax in the

32


jurisdiction, and in such cases, the tax is treated as an income tax for accounting purposes. Uncertain tax positions and the related interest and penalties are provided for based upon management’s assessment of whether a tax benefit is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities.

Goodwill

Goodwill represents the excess of purchase price over the fair value of the net assets acquired in the 2011 Datum Exploration Ltd. acquisition. All of our goodwill resides in the Canadian operations reporting unit ("Reporting Unit").

We are required to evaluate the carrying value of its goodwill at least annually for impairment, or more frequently if facts and circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not impairment has occurred. We first perform a qualitative assessment by evaluating relevant events or circumstances to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the Reporting Unit exceeds its carrying amount. If we are unable to conclude qualitatively that it is more likely than not that the Reporting Unit’s fair value exceeds its carrying value, we will then apply a two-step quantitative assessment.

First, the fair value of the Reporting Unit is compared to its carrying value. If the fair value exceeds the carrying value, goodwill is not impaired and no further testing is performed. The second step is performed if the carrying value exceeds the fair value. The implied fair value of the Reporting Unit’s goodwill must be determined and compared to the carrying value of the goodwill. If the carrying value of the Reporting Unit’s goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, an impairment loss equal to the difference will be recorded.

In determining the fair value of the Reporting Unit, we rely on the Income Approach and the Market Approach. Under the Income Approach, the fair value of a business unit is based on the discounted cash flows it can be expected to generate over its remaining life. The estimated cash flows are converted to their present value equivalent using an appropriate rate of return. Under the Market Approach, the fair value of the business is based on the Guideline Public Company (“GPC”) methodology using guideline public companies whose stocks are actively traded that were considered similar to ours as of the valuation date. Valuation multiples for the GPCs were determined as of the valuation date and were applied to the Reporting Unit's operating results to arrive at an estimate of value.

Intangible Assets

Intangible assets represent customer relationships recorded at cost in connection with the 2011 Datum Exploration Ltd. acquisition. Intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives of 13 years and recorded in selling, general and administrative expense.

Share-Based Compensation

We record the grant date fair value of share-based compensation arrangements as compensation cost using a straight-line method over the service period.

Contingencies

Liabilities for loss contingencies arising from claims, assessments, litigation, fines, and penalties and other sources, are recorded when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the assessment and remediation can be reasonably estimated. Legal costs incurred in connection with loss contingencies are expensed as incurred.

Comprehensive Income

Comprehensive income includes net income (loss) as currently reported and also considers the effect of additional economic events that are not required to be recorded in determining net income but rather reported as a separate component of stockholders’ equity. We report foreign currency translation gains and losses as a component of comprehensive (loss) income. Foreign currency translation gains and losses are not presented net of income taxes because the earnings of the foreign subsidiaries are considered permanently invested abroad and therefore not subject to income taxes or the income tax benefit of foreign currency translation losses would be offset by a valuation allowance.

Variable Interest Entities

We evaluate our joint venture and other entities in which we have a variable interest (a “VIE”), to determine if we have a controlling financial interest and are required to consolidate the entity as a result. The reporting entity with a controlling financial interest in

33


the VIE will have both of the following characteristics: (i) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and (ii) the obligation to absorb the losses of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE or the right to receive benefit from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.

Fair Value Measurements

We have certain assets and liabilities that are required to be measured and disclosed at fair value in accordance with GAAP. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. When an asset or liability is required to be measured at fair value, an entity is required to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs using a fair value hierarchy as follows:

Level 1: Observable inputs such as quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.

Level 2: Observable inputs other than quoted prices that are directly or indirectly observable for the asset or liability, including quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for similar or identical assets or liabilities in markets that are not active; and model-derived valuations whose inputs are observable or whose significant value drivers are observable.

Level 3: Unobservable inputs that reflect the reporting entity’s own assumptions. Measurement is based on prices or valuation models requiring inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and supported by little or no market activity.

Our financial instruments include cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, other current assets, accounts payable and accrued liabilities. Due to their short-term maturities, the carrying amounts of these financial instruments approximate fair value at the respective balance sheet dates. Our financial instruments also include various issuances of notes payable. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, our notes payable, with the exception at December 31, 2013 of the note payable to Former SAE stockholders discussed below, are recorded at historical cost net of applicable discounts.

GAAP provides a fair value option election that allows companies an irrevocable election to use fair value as the initial and subsequent accounting measurement attribute for certain financial assets and liabilities. Entities are permitted to elect to measure eligible financial assets and liabilities at fair value on an ongoing basis. Changes in the fair value of items for which the fair value option has been elected are reported in earnings. The decision to elect the fair value option is determined on an instrument-by-instrument basis, which must be applied to an entire instrument, and not only specified risks, specific cash flows, or portions of that instrument, and is irrevocable once elected. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are required to be reported separately from those instruments measured using another accounting method.

At December 31, 2013, note payable to Former SAE stockholders was measured at fair value on a recurring basis. After its repayment in July 2014 and as of December 31, 2014, we do not have financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis.

Our non-financial assets include goodwill, property and equipment, and other intangible assets, which are classified as Level 3 assets. These assets are measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis as part of our impairment assessments and as circumstances require.

Reportable Segment

The chief operating decision maker regularly reviews financial data by country to assess performance and allocate resources, resulting in the conclusion that each country in which it operates represents a reporting unit. To determine our reportable segments, we evaluated whether and to what extent the reporting units should be aggregated. The evaluation included consideration of each reporting unit's services, types of customers, methods used to provide our services, and regulatory environment. We determined that our reporting units sold similar types of seismic data contract services to similar types of major non-U.S. and government owned/controlled oil and gas customers operating in a global market. We concluded that our seismic data contract services operations comprise one single reportable segment.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
We did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements as of December 31, 2014 or 2013.
 

34


Effect of Inflation
 
We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, results of operations, or financial condition during the past two fiscal years.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
 
Revenue Recognition

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued new guidance intended to change the criteria for recognition of revenue. The new guidance establishes a single revenue recognition model for all contracts with customers, eliminates industry specific requirements and expands disclosure requirements. The core principle of the guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. To achieve this core principal, an entity should apply the following five steps: (1) identify contracts with customers, (2) identify the performance obligations in the contracts, (3) determine the transaction price, (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligation in the contract, and (5) recognize revenue as the entity satisfies performance obligations. The amendments are effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within that reporting period. Early application is not permitted. We are currently evaluating what impact adoption of this guidance would have on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows and disclosures.

Share-Based Compensation

In June 2014, the FASB issued amended guidance on the accounting for certain share-based employee compensation awards. The amended guidance applies to share-based employee compensation awards that include a performance target that affects vesting when the performance target can be achieved after the requisite service period. These targets are to be treated as a performance condition. As such, the performance target should not be reflected in estimating the grant-date fair value of the award and compensation cost should be recognized in the period in which it becomes probable that the performance target will be achieved. The amendments are effective for annual periods and interim periods within those annual periods beginning after December 15, 2015. We do not expect that adoption will have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.

Going Concern

In August 2014, the FASB issued guidance on disclosures of uncertainties about an entity's ability to continue as a going concern. The guidance requires management's evaluation of whether there are conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about the entity's ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. This assessment must be made in connection with preparing financial statements for each annual and interim reporting period. Management's evaluation should be based on the relevant conditions and events that are known and reasonably knowable at the date the financial statements are issued. If conditions or events raise substantial doubt about the entity's ability to continue as a going concern, but this doubt is alleviated by management's plans, the entity should disclose information that enables the reader to understand what the conditions or events are, management's evaluation of those conditions or events and management's plans that alleviate that substantial doubt. If conditions or events raise substantial doubt and the substantial doubt is not alleviated, the entity must disclose this in the footnotes. The entity must also disclose information that enables the reader to understand what the conditions or events are, management's evaluation of those conditions or events and management's plans that are intended to alleviate that substantial doubt. The amendments are effective for annual periods and interim periods within those annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016. We do not expect that adoption will have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.

Consolidation

In February 2015, the FASB issued amended guidance on the consolidation of legal entities including limited partnerships and limited liability corporations. The guidance modifies the consolidation models to be analyzed in determining whether a reporting entity should consolidate certain types of legal entities. The guidance must be applied using one of two retrospective application methods and will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015 and for interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in any interim period. We do not expect that adoption will have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.


35


ITEM 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
 
The information required by this item appears beginning on page F-1 hereof and is incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
 
None.

ITEM 9A. Controls and Procedures.

Management’s Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
 
We carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive and principal financial officers, of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Rule 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based upon that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of December 31, 2014, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective, in all material respects, with regard to the recording, processing, summarizing and reporting, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms for information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act. Our disclosure controls and procedures include controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in reports filed or submitted under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our President and Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

Management's Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
 
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Our internal control over financial reporting was designed by management, under the supervision of the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and includes those policies and procedures that:

(i)
pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of our assets;
(ii)
provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and that our receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and directors; and
(iii)
provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on our financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies and procedures may deteriorate.

Management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013).

Based on our evaluation under the criteria in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013), management has concluded that we maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
 
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the fourth quarter of the period covered by this report that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.


36


PART III

ITEM 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
 
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with our 2015 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

ITEM 11. Executive Compensation.
 
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with our 2015 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

ITEM 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
 
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with our 2015 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

ITEM 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
 
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with our 2015 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

ITEM 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services.
 
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with our 2015 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

PART IV

ITEM 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
 
(a) The following documents are filed as part of this report:
 
(1) Financial Statements.
 
The following consolidated financial statements of the Company appear beginning on page F-1 and are incorporated by reference into Part II, Item 8:
    
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm for the Year Ended December 31, 2014
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm for the Year Ended December 31, 2013
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2014 and 2013
Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2014 and 2013
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the Years Ended December 31, 2014 and 2013
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit) for the Years Ended December 31, 2014 and 2013
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2014 and 2013
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
 
(2) Financial Statement Schedules.
 
All schedules are omitted because they are either not applicable or the required information is shown in the financial statements or notes thereto.
 
(3) Exhibits.
 
The information required by this item 15(a)(3) is set forth in the Index to Exhibits accompanying this Annual Report on Form 10-K and is hereby incorporated by reference.


37


SIGNATURES
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Section 13 or 15 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
 
 
SAEXPLORATION HOLDINGS, INC.
 
 
Date: March 25, 2015
By:
/s/ Brent Whiteley
 
 
Brent Whiteley
 
 
Chief Financial Officer, General Counsel and
Secretary
 
POWER OF ATTORNEY
 
The undersigned directors and officers of SAExploration Holdings, Inc. hereby constitute and appoint Jeff Hastings and Brent Whiteley, and each of them, with full power to act without the other and with full power of substitution and resubstitution, our true and lawful attorneys-in-fact with full power to execute in our name and behalf in the capacities indicated below, this annual report on Form 10-K and any and all amendments thereto and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and hereby ratify and confirm all that such attorneys-in-fact, or any of them, or their substitutes shall lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
In accordance with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
SIGNATURE 
 
TITLE
 
DATE
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Jeff Hastings
 
Executive Chairman and Director
 
March 25, 2015
Jeff Hastings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Brian A. Beatty
 
Chief Executive Officer, President and Director
 
March 25, 2015
Brian A. Beatty
 
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Brent Whiteley
 
Chief Financial Officer, General Counsel,
 
March 25, 2015
Brent Whiteley
 
Secretary, and Director (Principal Financial Officer )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Trisha M. Gerber
 
Chief Accounting Officer
 
March 25, 2015
Trisha M. Gerber
 
(Principal Accounting Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Eric S. Rosenfeld
 
Director
 
March 25, 2015
Eric S. Rosenfeld
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ David D. Sgro
 
Director
 
March 25, 2015
David D. Sgro
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Gary Dalton
 
Director
 
March 25, 2015
Gary Dalton
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Gregory R. Monahan
 
Director
 
March 25, 2015
Gregory R. Monahan
 
 
 
 


38


EXHIBIT INDEX 

Exhibit
No.
 
Description
 
Included
 
Form
 
Filing Date
1.1
 
Form of Underwriting Agreement.
 
By Reference
 
S-1/A
 
April 28, 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2.1
 
Agreement and Plan of Reorganization dated as of December 10, 2012, by and among the Registrant., Trio Merger Sub, Inc., SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and CLCH, LLC.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
December 11, 2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2.2
 
First Amendment to Agreement and Plan of Reorganization dated as of May 23, 2013, by and among the Registrant, Trio Merger Sub, Inc., SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and CLCH, LLC.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
May 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3.1
 
Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3.2
 
Amended and Restated Bylaws.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.1
 
Specimen Common Stock Certificate.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.2
 
Specimen Warrant Certificate.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.3
 
Form of Warrant Agreement by and between Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company and the Registrant.
 
By Reference
 
S-1/A
 
April 28, 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.4
 
Amendment to Warrant Agreement dated June 24, 2013, by and between Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company and the Registrant.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.5
 
Indenture, dated July 2, 2014, by and among the Company, the guarantors named therein and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee and noteholder collateral agent.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
July 9, 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.6
 
Form of 10.000% Senior Secured Notes due 2019 (included in Exhibit 4.5)
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
July 9, 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.7
 
Notation of Guarantee executed July 2, 2014, among the Company, SAExploration Sub, Inc., SAExploration, Inc., SAExploration Seismic Services (US), LLC, and NES, LLC.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
July 9, 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.1
 
Indemnity Escrow Agreement dated as of June 24, 2013, by and among SAExploration Holdings, Inc., CLCH, LLC, and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.2
 
Merger Consideration Escrow Agreement dated as of June 24, 2013, by and among SAExploration Holdings, Inc., CLCH, LLC, and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

39


10.3
 
Registration Rights Agreement dated June 24, 2013 by and between SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and CLCH, LLC.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.4
 
Form of Indemnification Agreement.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.5
 
Employment Agreement dated June 24, 2013, by and between SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and Jeff Hastings.
 
By Reference(*)
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.6
 
Employment Agreement dated June 24, 2013, by and between SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and Brian Beatty.
 
By Reference(*)
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.7
 
Employment Agreement dated June 24, 2013, by and between SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and Brent Whiteley.
 
By Reference(*)
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.8
 
Form of Non-Disclosure Agreement between the Registrant and each of Jeff Hastings, Brian Beatty and Brent Whiteley.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.9
 
Employment Agreement dated July 1, 2011, by and between SAExploration, Inc. (f/k/a South American Exploration LLC) and Mike Scott.
 
By Reference(*)
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.10
 
Employment Agreement dated July 15, 2011, by and between SAExploration, Inc. (f/k/a South American Exploration LLC) and Darin Silvernagle.
 
By Reference(*)
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.11
 
SAExploration Holdings, Inc. 2013 Long-Term Incentive Plan.
 
By Reference(*)
 
8-K
 
June 28, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.12
 
SAExploration Holdings, Inc. 2013 Non-Employee Director Share Incentive Plan.
 
By Reference(*)
 
8-K
 
August 19, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.13
 
Form of Notice of Stock Award and Agreement under the SAExploration Holdings, Inc. 2013 Non-Employee Director Share Incentive Plan between the Registrant and each of Gary Dalton, Gregory R. Monahan, Eric S. Rosenfeld and David D. Sgro.
 
By Reference(*)
 
S-4/A
 
December 10, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.14
 
Form of Letter Agreement among the Registrant, EarlyBirdCapital, Inc. and each of the Registrant’s Officers, Directors and Initial Stockholders.
 
By Reference
 
S-1/A
 
April 28, 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.15
 
Form of Investment Management Trust Agreement between Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company and the Registrant.
 
By Reference
 
S-1/A
 
May 23, 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.16
 
Form of Registration Rights Agreement among the Registrant and the Initial Stockholders and EarlyBirdCapital, Inc.
 
By Reference
 
S-1/A
 
April 28, 2011

40


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.17
 
Form of Subscription Agreements among the Registrant, Graubard Miller and the Purchasers of Insider Warrants and EBC Warrants.
 
By Reference
 
S-1/A
 
April 28, 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.18
 
Form of Warrant Consent and Support Agreement.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
December 11, 2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.19
 
Security Agreement, dated July 2, 2014, by and among the Company, the guarantors named therein and U.S. Bank National Association, as noteholder collateral agent.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
July 9, 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.20
 
Registration Rights Agreement, dated July 2, 2014, by and among the Company, the guarantors named therein and Jefferies LLC, as initial purchaser.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
July 9, 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.21
 
Employment Agreement dated as of September 29, 2014, between the Registrant and Trisha M. Gerber.
 
By Reference(*)
 
10-Q
 
November 7, 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.22
 
Non-Disclosure Agreement dated as of September 29, 2014, between the Registrant and Trisha M. Gerber.
 
By Reference(*)
 
10-Q
 
November 7, 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.23
 
Credit and Security Agreement, dated November 6, 2014, by and among SAExploration, Inc. as Borrower, SAExploration Holdings, Inc., SAExploration Sub, Inc., SAExploration Seismic Services (US), LLC, and NES, LLC as Guarantors, and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association as Lender.
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
November 12, 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.24
 
Intercreditor Agreement, dated November 6, 2014, by and between Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as Lender, U.S. Bank National Association, as Trustee and Collateral Agent, and acknowledged and consented to by the Loan Parties (as defined therein).
 
By Reference
 
8-K
 
November 12, 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14.1
 
Code of Ethics.
 
By Reference
 
S-1/A
 
April 28, 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21.1
 
List of subsidiaries.
 
Herewith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23.1
 
Consent of Pannel Kerr Forster of Texas, P.C.
 
Herewith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23.2
 
Consent of Grant Thornton LLP.
 
Herewith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31.1
 
Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
Herewith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31.2
 
Certification of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
Herewith
 
 
 
 

41


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
32.1
 
Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
Herewith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
32.2
 
Certification of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
Herewith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
101.IN
 
XBRL Instance Document.
 
Herewith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
101.SCH
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Scheme Document.
 
Herewith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
101.CAL
 
XBRL Taxonomy Calculation Linkbase Document.
 
Herewith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
101.DEF
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Document.
 
Herewith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
101.LAB
 
XBRL Taxonomy Label Linkbase Document.
 
Herewith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
101.PRE
 
XBRL Taxonomy Presentation Linkbase Document.
 
Herewith
 
 
 
 
_____________________________________________
(*) Denotes compensation arrangement.



42


INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
SAEXPLORATION HOLDINGS, INC.
 


FS-1


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
Board of Directors and Stockholders
SAExploration Holdings, Inc.
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of SAExploration Holdings, Inc. (a Delaware corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2014, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), changes in stockholders’ equity (deficit), and cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2014. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audit.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. We were not engaged to perform an audit of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Our audit included consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2014, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2014 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
/s/ Pannell Kerr Forster of Texas, P.C.

Houston, Texas
March 25, 2015


FS-2


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
Board of Directors and Stockholders
SAExploration Holdings, Inc.
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of SAExploration Holdings, Inc. (a Delaware corporation, formerly Trio Merger Corp.) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2013, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), changes in stockholders’ equity (deficit), and cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2013. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audit.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. We were not engaged to perform an audit of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Our audit included consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2013, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2013 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
/s/ Grant Thornton LLP

Miami, Florida
April 3, 2014 (except for Note 18, which is as of March 25, 2015)


FS-3


SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and Subsidiaries
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 
 
As of December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
ASSETS
 

 
 

Current assets:
 

 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
$
12,322

 
$
17,351

Restricted cash
723

 
638

Accounts receivable, net
73,584

 
40,928

Deferred costs on contracts
4,631

 
3,190

Prepaid expenses
17,037

 
4,619

Deferred income tax assets
520

 
1,371

Total current assets
108,817

 
68,097

Property and equipment, net
77,096

 
64,572

Intangible assets, net
1,050

 
1,260

Goodwill
1,977

 
2,150

Deferred loan issuance costs, net
6,826

 
9,115

Deferred income tax assets
8,027

 
743

Other assets

 
13

Total assets
$
203,793

 
$
145,950

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIT)
 

 
 

Current liabilities:
 

 
 

Accounts payable
$
34,255

 
$
16,511

Accrued liabilities
3,413

 
2,438

Income and other taxes payable
20,261

 
7,073

Accrued payroll liabilities
8,652

 
4,497

Accrued interest expense
7,489

 
686

Equipment note payable
1,654

 

Current portion of notes payable under 2012 credit agreement

 
800

Current portion of notes payable to related parties

 
500

Current portion of capital leases
460

 
485

Deferred revenue
187

 
7,927

Deferred income tax liabilities
587

 
69

Total current liabilities
76,958

 
40,986

Senior secured notes
150,000

 

Long-term portion of notes payable under 2012 credit agreement, net

 
79,888

Long-term portion of notes payable to related parties, at fair  value

 
12,406

Long-term portion of capital leases
185

 
618

Deferred income tax liabilities
5,731

 
1,114

Total liabilities
232,874

 
135,012

Commitments and contingencies

 

Stockholders’ equity:
 

 
 

Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 1,000,000 shares authorized and no shares outstanding

 

Common stock, $0.0001 par value, 55,000,000 shares authorized, and 14,922,497 and 13,428,736 issued and outstanding at December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013, respectively
2

 
2

Additional paid-in capital
28,185

 
27,485

Accumulated deficit
(56,264
)
 
(14,511
)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(4,362
)
 
(2,083
)
Total  stockholders’ equity (deficit) attributable to the Corporation
(32,439
)
 
10,893

Noncontrolling interest
3,358

 
45

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
(29,081
)
 
10,938

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity (deficit)
$
203,793

 
$
145,950

 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

FS-4


SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and Subsidiaries
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
Revenue from services
$
386,820

 
$
245,268

Cost of services excluding depreciation and amortization
315,405

 
187,493

Depreciation and amortization included in cost of services
15,205

 
14,843

Gross profit
56,210

 
42,932

Selling, general and administrative expenses
39,543

 
33,489

Merger costs

 
1,188

Income from operations
16,667

 
8,255

Other income (expense):
 

 
 

Loss on early extinguishment of debt
(17,157
)
 

Change in fair value of note payable to related parties
(5,094
)
 
(631
)
Interest expense, net
(16,778
)
 
(15,256
)
Foreign exchange loss, net
(3,451
)
 
(1,755
)
Other, net
294

 
(1,124
)
Total other expense, net
(42,186
)
 
(18,766
)
Loss before income taxes
(25,519
)
 
(10,511
)
Provision for income taxes
12,876

 
10,495

Net loss
(38,395
)
 
(21,006
)
Less: net income attributable to noncontrolling interest
3,358

 
45

Net loss attributable to the Corporation
$
(41,753
)
 
$
(21,051
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss attributable to Corporation per common share:


 


Basic
$
(2.84
)
 
$
(2.10
)
Diluted
$
(2.84
)
 
$
(2.10
)
 
 
 
 
Weighted average shares:
 
 
 
Basic
14,697,061

 
10,010,492

Diluted
14,697,061

 
10,010,492

 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


FS-5


SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and Subsidiaries
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(In thousands)
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
Net loss
$
(38,395
)
 
$
(21,006
)
Foreign currency translation loss
(2,279
)
 
(2,439
)
Total comprehensive loss
(40,674
)
 
(23,445
)
Less: comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interest
3,358

 
45

Comprehensive loss attributable to the Corporation
$
(44,032
)
 
$
(23,490
)
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


FS-6


SAExploration Holdings, Inc. and Subsidiaries
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
(In thousands, except share amounts)
 
 

Common Shares Issued
and Outstanding
 
Common
Stock at
Par
Value
 
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
 
Retained
Earnings
(Accumulated
Deficit)
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)- Foreign Currency Translation
 
Total
Corporation
Stockholders’
Equity (Deficit)
 
Non-
controlling
Interest
 
Total
Stockholders’
Equity (Deficit)
Balance at December 31, 2012
6,321,848

 
$
1

 
$
1,907

 
$
21,801

 
$
356

 
$
24,065

 
$

 
$
24,065

Dividends

 

 

 
(15,261
)
 

 
(15,261
)
 

 
(15,261
)
Forfeitures of  restricted stock
(8,549
)
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Warrants converted to stock as a result of the Merger
135,144

 

 
1,293

 

 

 
1,293

 

 
1,293

Merger transaction
6,954,221

 
1

 
28,014

 

 

 
28,015

 

 
28,015

Merger costs

 

 
(5,027
)
 

 

 
(5,027
)
 

 
(5,027
)
Issuance of restricted shares to non-employee directors
26,072

 

 
200

 

 

 
200

 

 
200

Share-based compensation

 

 
1,098