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EX-31.1 - CERTIFICATION - ZION OIL & GAS INCf10k2014ex31i_zionoil.htm
EX-10.11 - MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING - ZION OIL & GAS INCf10k2014ex10xi_zionoil.htm
EXCEL - IDEA: XBRL DOCUMENT - ZION OIL & GAS INCFinancial_Report.xls
EX-32.1 - CERTIFICATION - ZION OIL & GAS INCf10k2014ex32i_zionoil.htm
EX-31.2 - CERTIFICATION - ZION OIL & GAS INCf10k2014ex31ii_zionoil.htm
EX-32.2 - CERTIFICATION - ZION OIL & GAS INCf10k2014ex32ii_zionoil.htm

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

__________________________________

FORM 10-K

__________________________________

MARK ONE:

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year ended December 31, 2014

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number: 001-33228

__________________________________

ZION OIL & GAS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

__________________________________

Delaware

20-0065053

(State or other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

6510 Abrams Rd., Suite 300 Dallas, TX

75231

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(Zip Code)

(214) 221-4610
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

__________________________________

Securities registered under Section 12 (b) of the Exchange Act:

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

NASDAQ Global Market

(Title of Class)

(Name of each exchange on which registered)

Securities registered under Section 12 (g) of the Exchange Act: None

__________________________________

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨ No x

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes x No ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes x No ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer ¨

Accelerated filer ¨

Non-accelerated filer ¨

Smaller Reporting Company x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No x

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2014 was approximately $69.8 million. This amount is based on the registrant’s common stock on the NASDAQ Global Market on that date.

The registrant had 35,859,482 shares of common stock, par value $0.01, outstanding as of February 24, 2015.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2015 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held in Dallas, Texas on June 10, 2015, are incorporated by reference herein in Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III of this report.

 

2014 ANNUAL REPORT (SEC FORM 10-K)

INDEX

Securities and Exchange Commission
Item Number and Description

PART I

Item 1

Business

3

Item1A

Risk Factors

15

Item 1B

Unresolved Staff Comments

24

Item 2

Properties

24

Item 3

Legal Proceedings

25

Item 4

Mine Safety Disclosures

26

 

 

 

PART II

Item 5

Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

26

Item 6

Selected Financial Data

26

Item 7

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

27

Item 7A

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

34

Item 8

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

34

Item 9

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

34

Item 9A

Controls and Procedures

34

Item 9B

Other Information

35

 

 

 

PART III

Item 10

Directors, Executives Officers and Corporate Governance

35

Item 11

Executive Compensation

35

Item 12

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

36

Item 13

Certain Relationship and Related Transactions and Director Independence

36

Item 14

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

36

 

 

 

PART IV

Item 15

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

36

 

FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (herein, “Annual Report”) and the documents included or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report contain statements concerning our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, strategies, future events or performance and underlying assumptions and other statements that are not historical facts. These statements are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You generally can identify our forward-looking statements by the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “budgeted,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “objective,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “projection,” “scheduled,” “should,” “will” or other similar words. These forward-looking statements include, among others, statements regarding:

         our ability to explore for and develop natural gas and oil resources successfully and economically within our license areas;

         our ability to obtain the exploration license rights to continue our petroleum exploration program;

         the availability of equipment, such as seismic trucks, drilling rigs, and transportation pipelines;

         the impact of governmental regulations, permitting and other legal requirements in Israel relating to onshore exploratory drilling;

         our estimates of the timing and number of wells we expect to drill and other exploration activities and planned expenditures and the time frame within which they will be undertaken;

         changes in our drilling plans and related budgets;

         the quality of existing and future license areas with regard to, among other things, the existence of reserves in economic quantities;

         anticipated trends in our business;

         our future results of operations;

         our liquidity and our ability to raise capital to finance our exploration and development activities;

         our capital expenditure program;

         future market conditions in the oil and gas industry; and

         the demand for oil and natural gas, both locally in Israel and globally.

More specifically, our forward-looking statements include, among others, statements relating to our schedule, business plan, targets, estimates or results of our applications for new exploration rights and future drilling, including the number, timing and results of wells, the timing and risk involved in drilling follow-up wells, planned expenditures, prospects budgeted and other future capital expenditures, risk profile of oil and gas exploration, acquisition of seismic data (including number, timing and size of projects), planned evaluation of prospects, probability of prospects having oil and natural gas, expected production or reserves, acreage, working capital requirements, hedging activities, the ability of expected sources of liquidity to implement our business strategy, future hiring, future exploration activity, production rates, all and any other statements regarding future operations, financial results, business plans and cash needs and other statements that are not historical fact.

Such statements involve risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those relating to the uncertainties inherent in exploratory drilling activities, the volatility of oil and natural gas prices, operating risks of oil and natural gas operations, our dependence on our key personnel, factors that affect our ability to manage our growth and achieve our business strategy, risks relating to our limited operating history, technological changes, our significant capital requirements, the potential impact of government regulations, adverse regulatory determinations, litigation, competition, the uncertainty of reserve information and future net revenue estimates, property acquisition risks, industry partner issues, availability of equipment, weather and other factors detailed herein and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).

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We have based our forward-looking statements on our management’s beliefs and assumptions based on information available to our management at the time the statements are made. We caution you that assumptions, beliefs, expectations, intentions and projections about future events may and often do vary materially from actual results. Therefore, we cannot assure you that actual results will not differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements.

Some of the factors that could cause actual results to differ from those expressed or implied in forward-looking statements are described under “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report and in our other periodic reports filed with the SEC. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual outcomes may vary materially from those indicated. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by reference to these risks and uncertainties. You should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Each forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date of the particular statement, and we undertake no duty to update any forward-looking statement.

2

PART I

ITEM 1.  BUSINESS

Overview

Zion Oil and Gas, Inc., a Delaware corporation (referred to herein as “we”, “our”, “us”, “Zion”, “Zion Oil”, or the “Company”) is an oil and gas exploration company with a history of over 14 years of oil and gas exploration in Israel. We were incorporated in Florida on April 6, 2000 and reincorporated in Delaware on July 9, 2003. We completed our initial public offering in January 2007. Our common stock currently trades on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “ZN” and our common stock warrant under the symbol “ZNWAA.”

Zion currently holds one active petroleum exploration license onshore Israel, the Megiddo-Jezreel License (approximately 99,000 acres). For a variety of reasons, including the results of the newly reprocessed and recently acquired seismic data, the Company has now fully focused its exploration strategy on the Megiddo-Jezreel License as merged with the southern portion of the former Jordan Valley License area. We have now selected the specific location of our next drilling prospect well location.

At present, we have no revenues or operating income. Our ability to generate future revenues and operating cash flow will depend on the successful exploration and exploitation of our current and any future petroleum rights or the acquisition of oil and/or gas producing properties, and the volume and timing of such production. In addition, even if we are successful in producing oil and gas in commercial quantities, our results will depend upon commodity prices for oil and gas, as well as operating expenses including taxes and royalties.

Our executive offices are located at 6510 Abrams Road, Suite 300, Dallas, Texas 75231, and our telephone number is (214) 221-4610. Our field office’s new address in Israel is at 9 Halamish Street, North Industrial Park, Caesarea 3088900, and the telephone number is +972-4-623-8500. Our website address is: www.zionoil.com.

Company Background

In 1983, during a visit to Israel, John M. Brown (our Founder, Chairman, and Chief Executive Officer) became inspired and dedicated to finding oil and gas in Israel. During the next 17 years he made several trips each year to Israel, hired oil and gas consultants in Israel and Texas, met with Israeli government officials, made direct investments with local exploration companies, and assisted Israeli exploration companies in raising money for oil and gas exploration in Israel. This activity led Mr. Brown to form Zion Oil & Gas, Inc. in April 2000, in order to receive the award of a small onshore petroleum license from the Israeli government.

Zion’s vision, as exemplified by John Brown, of finding oil and/or natural gas in Israel, is biblically inspired. The vision is based, in part, on biblical references alluding to the presence of oil and/or natural gas in territories within the State of Israel that were formerly within certain ancient biblical tribal areas. While John Brown provides the broad vision and goals for our company, the actions taken by the Zion Board of Directors and management team as it actively explores for oil and gas in Israel, are based on modern science and good business practice. Zion’s oil and gas exploration activities are supported by appropriate geological, geophysical and other science-based studies and surveys typically carried out by companies engaged in oil and gas exploration activities.

Upon the award of our first petroleum right (License No. 298/“Ma’anit” or the “Ma’anit License”) in May 2000, the Israeli government gave us access to most of its data with respect to previous exploration in the area, including geologic reports, seismic records and profiles, drilling reports, well files, gravity surveys, geochemical surveys and regional maps. We also gathered information concerning prior and ongoing geological, geophysical and drilling activity relevant to our planned activities from a variety of publicly accessible sources.

To date, the Company has drilled four exploratory wells. While the presence of hydrocarbons was indicated while drilling certain of these wells, none of the exploratory wells that we have drilled to date have been deemed capable of producing oil or gas in commercial quantities.

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ZION’S CURRENT EXPLORATION LICENSE AREA

Zion currently holds one active petroleum exploration license onshore Israel, the Megiddo-Jezreel License (covering an area of approximately 99,000 acres – See Map #1). Under Israeli law, Zion has an exclusive right to oil and gas exploration in our license area in that no other company may drill there. In the event we drill an oil or gas discovery in our license areas, current Israeli law entitles us to convert the relevant portions of our license to a 30-year production lease, extendable to 50 years, subject to compliance with a field development work program and production.

Image

Map #1
Zion’s Megiddo-Jezreel Petroleum Exploration License as of February, 2015.

Summary of Current and Former Company License Areas

Megiddo-Jezreel Petroleum License

The Megiddo-Jezreel License (No. 401) was awarded on December 3, 2013 for a three-year primary term through December 2, 2016 with the possibility of additional one-year extensions up to a maximum of seven years. The Megiddo-Jezreel License is onshore, south and west of the Sea of Galilee.

Under the terms of this License, the Company has until July 1, 2015 to identify and submit a drilling prospect, enter into a drilling contract by October 1, 2015, and begin drilling or “spud” a well by December 1, 2015.

In September 2014, Israel’s Petroleum Commissioner notified Zion that the Petroleum Council, a 10-member board that he chairs, had recommended approval of our application to merge the southernmost portion of our Jordan Valley License into our Megiddo-Jezreel License. We currently await final approval of the merged license from Israel’s Energy Minister. Unfortunately, it is unlikely that we will receive the final approval signature until after newly called-for Israeli national elections in March 2015 since it is quite likely a new Energy Minister will be named and the current minister may be reluctant to sign any new authorizations.

Zion’s Former Jordan Valley License

On April 10, 2014, Zion filed an application to merge the southernmost portion of the Jordan Valley License into the Megiddo-Jezreel License (see Map #2). The Jordan Valley License (~ 55,845 acres) expired in April 2014 as Zion did not seek an extension beyond its three-year primary term. We contend that there is significant exploration potential in this geologically linked petroleum system that overlaps the boundaries between the present

4

Megiddo-Jezreel and former Jordan Valley Licenses. For a variety of reasons, including the results of the newly reprocessed and recently acquired seismic data, the Company has now fully focused its exploration strategy on the Megiddo-Jezreel License as merged with the southern portion of the former Jordan Valley License area.

Image

Map #2
Proposed Merger of Part of Former Jordan Valley License into our Megiddo-Jezreel License

Zion’s Former Asher-Menashe License and Former Joseph License

On May 9, 2014 the Company submitted its Final Completion and Plugging Report for the Elijah #3 well, in the Asher-Menashe License. The Asher-Menashe License expired on June 9, 2014 as its full seven year term ended. The Joseph License expired on October 10, 2013, after our final extension. On November 18, 2013, Zion submitted our Final Plugging Report for the Ma’anit Rehoboth #2 and Ma’anit Joseph #3 wells, in the Joseph License. With this, Zion has plugged all of its wells but it acknowledges its obligation to complete the abandonment of these well sites in accordance with guidance from the Environmental Ministry and local officials.

Exploration PlanGoing Forward

We continue our exploration focus on our Megiddo-Jezreel License area as that area appears to possess the key geologic ingredients of an active petroleum system. This past summer, the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII) acquired 42 kilometers of new vibroseis seismic data in the area of our existing prospects. Both Eskaton (U.S.-based seismic company) and GII have now both completed computer data processing for us. Based on our interpretations of the newly acquired seismic data, we have now selected the precise drill pad location from which to drill our next well(s) (see Map #3). Assuming all legal and regulatory permits and requirements are obtained, the Company plans to drill our next well in the second half of 2015.

5

Image

Map #3
Proposed Drill Pad Location Near Sde Eliyahu and Tirat Zvi Kibbutzim

Geo-Prospect (Israeli geological, environmental, and planning company) and Ya’ad Architects & Planners were hired to assist with the legally required environmental impact assessment (“EIA”) and document — a detailed and extensive document representing months of advance work. Study topics included ecology, hydrology/water, archeology, acoustics, air quality, hazardous materials, pollution, land reclamation, drilling methods, risk mitigation, etc. Zion’s EIA document was delivered in January 2015 to both Israel’s Ministry of National Infrastructures, Energy and Water Resources (“Energy Ministry”) and Israel’s Environmental Ministry. We await feedback from the Environmental Ministry and will revise our document accordingly.

Under Israel’s regulatory system, this environmental document is a prerequisite for a drilling permit. We anticipate that the newly promulgated regulations will considerably increase the time needed to obtain all of the needed permits and authorizations from regulatory and local bodies in Israel, and there is no assurance that the Company will ultimately be granted such permission to drill. See the discussion under “Energy Related Regulations — The Onshore Petroleum Exploration Permitting Process in Israel” below.

Finally, prior to actually drilling our next exploratory well, we will need to enter into a contract with a drilling rig operator with the appropriate rig, equipment, and experienced drilling crew. We have not yet entered into any legally binding agreements for the use of a rig although we are currently in active discussions with an international drilling services company. In the event that we decide to import a drilling rig into Israel, we will need to obtain the appropriate regulatory consents and approvals for the importation of the rig. We will also need to obtain appropriate permits, regulatory consents and approvals with respect to the actual drilling site that we have selected. In addition, we will need to obtain the necessary approvals from the surface owners.

We estimate that, in order to be commercially productive, any of the wells we eventually drill would need to be capable of producing at least 300 barrels of oil equivalent per day. Such production levels will not likely pay out the cost of drilling the well, but only the costs of operating the well on a current basis. In order to justify the costs of drilling additional wells, there would need to be the expectation that each additional well would have initial production rates of at least 500 barrels of oil equivalent per day, based upon minimum oil prices of about $50.00 per barrel.

6

Exploration Expenditures

The following table summarizes the amounts we expended on our exploration efforts during 2014 and 2013:

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

 

US$
(000)

 

 

US$
(000)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Megiddo-Jezreel Valley License

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Geological & Geophysical Operations

 

 

1,430

 

 

 

342

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asher-Menashe License (expired on June 9, 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Geological & Geophysical Operations

 

 

935

 

 

 

546

 

Plug & Abandonment Operations

 

 

172

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jordan Valley License (allowed to expire on April 12, 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Geological & Geophysical Operations

 

 

17

 

 

 

98

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Joseph License (expired on October 10, 2013)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plug & Abandonment Operations

 

 

169

 

 

 

371

 

Geological & Geophysical Operations

 

 

 

 

 

65

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

2,723

 

 

 

1,422

 

Employees

As of December 31, 2014, we had 19 employees of whom all but one are on a full time basis. Of these employees, 10 work out of our Dallas office and 9 work out of the Caesarea office. None of our current employees is subject to any collective bargaining agreements, and there have been no strikes. We regularly utilize independent consultants and contractors to perform various professional services, particularly for services connected to drilling operations, such as specialized engineering, logging, cementing and well-testing.

Competition and Markets

The oil and gas exploration industry in Israel currently consists of a number of exploration companies. These include relatively small local or foreign companies with limited financial resources and consortia of local Israeli and foreign participants with substantial financial resources. Most groups are engaged primarily in off-shore activities, which is not an area in which we are currently active. So long as we hold our current license, Israeli law conveys an exclusive exploration right to Zion such that no additional companies may compete in our license area.

Historically, primarily for geopolitical reasons, Israel (particularly onshore) has not been an area of interest for international integrated or large or mid-size independent oil and gas exploration companies. Since the announcement of the Tamar and Leviathan discoveries, this situation has changed somewhat. However, given the current limited availability in Israel of oil field service companies, equipment and personnel, in periods of increased exploration interest and activity, there is competition for available equipment and services. In this market Zion has no particular advantage. We attempt to enhance our position by developing and maintaining good professional relations with oil field service providers and a high level of credibility in making and meeting commercial commitments.

The oil and gas industry is cyclical, and from time to time there is a shortage of drilling rigs, equipment, supplies and qualified personnel. During these periods, the costs and delivery times of rigs, equipment and supplies are substantially greater. If the unavailability or high cost of drilling rigs, equipment, supplies or qualified personnel were particularly severe in the areas where we operate, we could be materially and adversely affected. We believe that there are potential alternative providers of drilling services and that it may be necessary to establish relationships with new contractors as our activity level and capital program grows. However, there can be no assurance that we can establish such relationships or that those relationships will result in increased availability of drilling rigs.

If any of our exploratory wells are commercially productive, we would install the appropriate production equipment which includes among other items oil and gas separation facilities and storage tanks. Under the terms of

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the Petroleum Law, we may be required by the Minister of Energy and Water Resources to offer first refusal for any oil and gas discovered to Israeli domestic purchasers at market prices.

Since Israel imports almost all of its crude oil needs and the market for crude oil in Israel is limited to two local oil refineries, no special marketing strategy need be adopted initially with regard to any oil that we may ultimately discover. We believe that we would have a ready local market for our oil at market prices and would have the option of exporting to the international market, if any of our future exploratory wells are commercially productive.

Israel’s Petroleum Law

Our business in Israel is subject to regulation by the State of Israel under the Petroleum Law. The administration and implementation of the Petroleum Law is vested in the Minister of Energy and Water Resources, the Petroleum Commissioner and an advisory council. The following discussion includes a brief summary review of certain provisions of the Petroleum Law as currently in effect. This review is not complete and it should not be relied on as a definitive restatement of the law related to petroleum exploration and production activities in Israel.

Petroleum resources are owned by the State of Israel, regardless of whether they are located on state lands or the offshore continental shelf. No person is allowed to explore for or produce petroleum without being granted a specific right under the Petroleum Law.

License. The “license” is a petroleum exploration right, bestowing an exclusive right for further exploration work and requiring the drilling of one or more test wells. The initial term of a license is up to three years and it may be extended for up to an additional four years (in one year increments). A license area may not exceed 400,000 dunams (approximately 98,842 acres). One dunam is equal to 1,000 square meters (approximately 0.24711 of an acre). No one entity may hold more than 12 licenses or hold more than a total of four million dunam in aggregate license area.

Production lease. Upon discovery of petroleum in commercial quantities, a licensee has a statutory “right” to receive a production “lease.” The initial lease term is 30 years, extendable for an additional 20 years (up to a maximum period of 50 years). A lease confers upon the lessee the exclusive right to explore for and produce petroleum in the lease area and requires the lessee to produce petroleum in commercial quantities (or pursue test or development drilling). The lessee is entitled to transport and market the petroleum produced, subject, however, to the right of the government to require the lessee to supply local needs first, at market price.

Petroleum rights fees. The holders of licenses and leases are required to pay fees to the government of Israel to maintain the rights. The fees vary according to the nature of the right, the size and location (onshore or offshore) of the right, acreage subject to the right and, in the case of a license, the period during which the license has been maintained. For a license, the two initial years fees are approximately New Israeli Shekels (NIS) 110 (approximately US $28.3 at the Bank of Israel representative rate published on December 31, 2014) per thousand dunams (approx. 247.11 acres) per year. Every subsequent year, the license fee increases incrementally.

Requirements and entitlements of holders of petroleum rights. The holder of a petroleum right (license or lease) is required to conduct its operations in accordance with a work program set as part of the petroleum right, with due diligence and in accordance with the accepted practice in the petroleum industry. The holder is required to submit progress and final reports; provided, however, the information disclosed in such reports remains confidential for as long as the holder owns a petroleum right on the area concerned.

If the holder of a petroleum right does not comply with the work program provided by the terms of the right, the Petroleum Commissioner may issue a notice requiring that the holder cure the default within 60 days of the giving of the notice, together with a warning that failure to comply within the 60-day cure period may entail cancellation of the right. If the petroleum right is cancelled following such notice, the holder of the right may, within 30 days of the date of notice of the Commissioner’s decision, appeal such cancellation to the Minister of Energy and Water Resources. No petroleum right shall be cancelled until the Minister of Energy and Water Resources has ruled on the appeal.

We are obligated, according to the Petroleum Law, to pay royalties to the Government of Israel on the gross production of oil and gas from the oil and gas properties of Zion located in Israel (excluding those reserves serving to operate the wells and related equipment and facilities). The royalty rate stated in the Petroleum Law is 12.5%

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of the produced reserves. At December 31, 2014 and 2013, the Company did not have any outstanding obligation with respect to royalty payments, since it is in the development stage and, to this date, no proved reserves have been found.

In March 2011, the Israeli parliament enacted the Petroleum Profits Taxation Law, 2011, which imposes a new levy on oil and gas production. Under the new tax regime, the Israeli Government repealed the percentage depletion deduction and imposed a levy at an initial rate of 20% on profits from oil and gas which will gradually rise to 44.56%, depending on the levy coefficient (the R-Factor). The R-Factor refers to the percentage of the amount invested in the exploration, the development and the establishment of the project, so that the 20% rate will be imposed only after a recovery of 150% of the amount invested (R-Factor of 1.5) and will range linearly up to 44.56% after a recovery of 230% of the amount invested (R-Factor of 2.3). For purposes of the levy rate calculation, the minimal gas sale price that will be accepted by the State is the bi-annual average local price. The present 12.5% royalty imposed on oil revenues remains unchanged.

The grant of a petroleum right does not automatically entitle its holder to enter upon the land to which the right applies or to carry out exploration and production work thereon. Entry requires the consent of the private or public holders of the surface rights and of other public regulatory bodies (e.g. planning and building authorities, Nature Reserves Authority, municipal and security authorities, etc.). The holder of a petroleum right may request the government to acquire, on its behalf, land needed for petroleum purposes. The petroleum right holder is required to obtain all other necessary approvals.

Petroleum Taxation. Our activities in Israel will be subject to taxation both in Israel and in the United States. Under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, we will be entitled to claim either a deduction or a foreign tax credit with respect to Israeli income taxes paid or incurred on our Israeli source oil and gas income. As a general rule, we anticipate that it will be more advantageous for us to claim a credit rather than a deduction for applicable Israeli income taxes on our U.S tax return. A tax treaty exists between the U.S. and Israel that would provide opportunity to use the tax credit.

Exploration and development expenses. Under current US and Israeli tax laws, exploration and development expenses incurred by a holder of a petroleum right can, at the option of such holder, either be expensed in the year incurred or capitalized and expensed (or amortized) over a period of years. Most of our expenses to date have been expensed for both U.S. and Israeli income tax purposes.

Depletion allowances. Until 2011, the holder of an interest in a petroleum license or lease was allowed a deduction for income tax purposes on account of the depletion of the petroleum reserve relating to such interest. This may have been by way of percentage depletion or cost depletion, whichever is greater. In 2010, the Finance Minister of Israel established an advisory committee to study the country’s fiscal policy as it relates to the upstream oil and natural gas sector, as well as various options, including an increase in royalties or cancellation of tax incentives. In January 2011, the Finance Ministry advisory committee issued its final recommendations which included cancellation of currently existing tax incentives, including the depletion allowance. In 2011, the depletion allowance was abolished.

Corporate tax. Under current Israeli tax laws, whether a company is registered in Israel or is a foreign company operating in Israel through a branch, it is subject to Israeli Companies Tax on its taxable income (including capital gains) from Israeli sources at a flat rate of 25%, effective January 1, 2012 and 26.5% effective January 1, 2014.

Import duties. Insofar as similar items are not available in Israel, the Petroleum Law provides that the owner of a petroleum right may import into Israel, free of most customs, purchase taxes and other import duties, all machinery, equipment, installations, fuel, structures, transport facilities, etc. (apart from consumer goods and private cars and similar vehicles) that are required for the petroleum exploration and production purposes, subject to the requirement that security be provided to ensure that the equipment is exported out of Israel within the agreed upon time frame.

Israeli Energy Related Regulations

Our operations are subject to legal and regulatory oversight by energy-related ministries or other agencies of Israel, each having jurisdiction over certain relevant energy or hydrocarbons laws.

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The Onshore Petroleum Exploration Permitting Process in Israel

The permitting process in Israel with respect to petroleum exploration continues to undergo significant modification, the result of which is to considerably increase the complexity, time period, and expenditures needed to obtain the necessary permits to undertake exploratory drilling once a drilling prospect has been identified. Applications for new exploration licenses need to comply with more demanding requirements relating to a license applicant’s financial capability, experience and access to experienced personnel.

In June 2012, the Ministry of National Infrastructures, Energy and Water Resources (“Energy Ministry”) issued initial guidelines relating to onshore exploratory licensing. Under the now adopted guidelines, an application must meet certain specified conditions and provide detailed information with respect to the requested license area. A condition to the issuance of any license is the submission by the licensee of a performance bank guarantee in an amount equal to 10% of the cost of the proposed work program. The performance bank guarantee is required at or prior to the award of the exploration rights.

In October 2012, the Energy Ministry published proposed guidelines relating to the submission of performance guarantees for new and existing onshore and offshore exploration licenses. Under the proposed guidelines, an applicant for a new onshore exploration license must submit a performance bank guarantee for 10% of the cost of the proposed work program upon the award by the Petroleum Commissioner (the “Commissioner”) of the requested license. An existing onshore exploration license owner will be required to submit a performance bank guarantee equal to 10% of the cost of the balance of the planned work program by the earlier of (a) the application for a license extension, (b) the application for transfer of license rights, or (c) the application for changes to the work program. The face amount of the performance bank guarantee for existing licenses will be based on an estimated budget for the balance of the planned work program that an existing license owner is to submit to the Commissioner, which budget is subject to approval by the Commissioner. In the event that the licensee violates (whether intentionally or not) any of the license terms, then the Commissioner is entitled to demand payment of the bank guarantee, after giving the licensee notice and an opportunity to cure.

In November 2012, the Association of Oil and Gas Exploration Industries in Israel (of which we are a member) submitted a response to the Ministry’s proposed guidelines, objecting to the guidelines.

In December 2012 the Ministry published additional proposed guidelines relating to the submission of bank guarantees for potential drilling-related environmental damages. The guidelines will apply to all petroleum exploration licenses to be granted on or after June 30, 2013. Under the proposed guidelines, prior to receiving the approval of the Commissioner to a proposed drilling program, the licensee must submit a bank guarantee in the amount of $100,000 with respect to a drilling  depth of up to (and including) 1,000 meters and, if the drilling depth is more than 1,000 meters, the bank guarantee amount increases to $250,000. The Commissioner is entitled to demand a bank guarantee in excess of $250,000 in the event that the Commissioner determines that there is a substantial risk of environmental damage. In the event that the licensee causes environmental damage, the Commissioner is entitled to demand payment of the bank guarantee, after giving the licensee notice and an opportunity to respond to the allegation of damages. In January 2013, the Association of Oil and Gas Exploration Industries in Israel (of which we are a member) submitted a response to the Ministry’s proposed guidelines, objecting to the guidelines.

In July 2013, the Environmental Ministry published: “Environmental Guidelines for the preparation of an environmental document supplementary to a license for searching – experimental drilling and land extraction tests.” This document extensively details the requirements for a supplemental environmental document to an oil and gas exploration plan.

On December 3, 2013, the State of Israel’s Petroleum Commissioner awarded the Company the Megiddo-Jezreel Petroleum Exploration License No. 401. Subsequently, the Company secured a US $930,000 bank guarantee in accordance with the performance guarantee guidelines. Consequently, Zion believes it has met the requirements of the June 2012 onshore exploratory licensing guidelines and the October 2012 performance guarantee guidelines.

On February 6, 2014, the Ministry of Energy and Water Resources issued proposed guidelines for bank guarantees and insurance requirements with respect to oil and gas rights. Under these guidelines, applicants for and existing holders of exploration rights will be required to submit certain bank guarantees and insurance policies that were not previously required.

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On September 17, 2014, the proposed guidelines became effective and the Ministry of Energy issued a guidance document entitled Instructions for the Giving of Guarantees with respect to Oil Rights. As it relates to existing onshore license holders like Zion, the Instructions call for the Company to obtain a new Base Bank Guarantee in the amount of $500,000, per each existing license area, split into two deposit dates as follows: (1) $250,000 by November 30, 2014 and (2) $250,000 by March 31, 2015.

Furthermore, prior to the start of drilling, an additional bank guarantee of $250,000 will be required at least 14 days before the spud date. This is a partial adoption of the guidelines proposed in December 2012. In summary, this is a potential cumulative total of $750,000 that is separate and apart from the Company’s existing Bank Guarantees.

As of December 31, 2014, the Company has not yet provided any of the additional bank guarantees called for in the new guidelines and has not received a specific request seeking payment.

The Petroleum Commissioner has discretion to raise or lower those amounts or may also forfeit a Company’s existing guarantee and/or cancel a petroleum right under certain circumstances. In addition, new and extended insurance policy guidelines were added. The Petroleum Commissioner may also view insurance requirement non-compliance as breaching the work plan and the rights granted and act accordingly.

The Company believes that these new regulations will significantly increase the expenditures associated with obtaining new exploration rights and drilling new wells, coupled with the heavy financial burden of “locking away” significant amounts of cash that could otherwise be used for operational purposes. Finally, this will also considerably increase the time needed to obtain all of the necessary authorizations and approvals prior to drilling.

Environmental/Safety

Oil and gas drilling operations could potentially harm the environment if there are polluting spills caused by the loss of well control.  The Petroleum Law and regulations provide that the conduct of petroleum exploration and drilling operations be pursued in compliance with “good oil field practices” and that measures of due care be taken to avoid seepage of oil, gas and well fluids into the ground and from one geologic formation to another. The Petroleum Law and regulations also require that, upon the abandonment of a well, it be adequately plugged and marked. Recently, as a condition for issuing the required permit for the construction of a drilling site, the planning commissions have required the submission of a site remediation plan, subject to approval of the environmental authorities.  The costs of future restoration and remediation can be estimated as the restoration and remediation are typical for the industry and part of “oil field best practices”.  At this time, we anticipate that the future cost of the environmental requirements, site remediation and plugging will not be greater than approximately $220,000 per well drilled on our existing license areas. Our operations are also subject to claims for personal injury and property damage caused by the release of chemicals or petroleum substances by us or others in connection with the conduct of petroleum operations on our behalf.

In March 2011, the Ministry of Environmental Protection issued initial guidelines relating to oil and gas drilling. This is the first time that the Ministry published specific environmental guidelines for oil and gas drilling operations, relating to onshore and offshore Israel.

The guidelines are detailed and provide environmental guidelines for all aspects of drilling operations, commencing from the date an application for a preliminary permit is filed, and continuing through license, drilling exploration, production lease, petroleum production and abandonment of the well. The guidelines address details that must be submitted regarding the drill site, surrounding area, the actual drilling operations, the storage and removal of waste and the closing or abandoning of a well. Following meetings between the Ministry and industry representatives in 2011, the Ministry indicated that certain of their initial published guidelines will be revised.

In August 2011, the Government of Israel proposed a draft law entitled “Prevention of Land Contamination and Remediation of Contaminated Land”. For the draft law to become law, the Israeli Parliament must approve it after a second and third hearing. If ultimately adopted, this  proposed law would require persons engaged in activities involving “polluted materials” (defined to include petroleum crude oil or any other materials defined as such by the commissioner) including their production, treatment, handling, storage and transportation, that may affect land or water resources to prepare environmental impact statements and remediation plans either prior to commencing activities or following the occurrence of an event that may cause pollution to land or water resources or endanger

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public health. Under the proposal, persons responsible for violation of the law, directly or indirectly, will be liable for the clean-up costs and such violation may result in criminal sanctions. The draft law has now been re-introduced to the public in a substantially modified form with newly revised guidelines, including provisions concerning the establishment of a historical survey prior to restoration and/or reclamation of land.  The proposal is now set for a final public hearing on February 28, 2015.

In April 2012, the “Environmental Protection Law (Emissions and Transfers to the Environment) Reporting Requirements and Register 2012” became effective. This statute imposes reporting obligations on entities engaged in oil and gas exploration activities (amongst others) in Israel relating to quantities of pollutants emitted into the air, water, land and sea (on an annual basis) and the off-site transfer of waste generated in the facility for treatment. The annual report that is to be furnished does not apply to the Company’s operations until we establish oil and/or gas production.

In July 2013, the Environmental Ministry published: “Environmental Guidelines for the preparation of an environmental document supplementary to a license for searching – experimental drilling and land extraction tests.”  This document extensively details the requirements for a supplemental environmental document to an oil and gas exploration plan.

In January 2015, new guidelines were published regarding the abandonment of onshore (land-based) wells, as stated in Article 21 of Israel’s Petroleum Regulations 5713 -1521. The guidelines are at least partially based on certain U.S. regulations, including Texas Railroad Commission regulations required in Texas. The guidelines include, among other matters, standards for plugging wells, temporary and permanent abandonment, reclamation, restoration, etc.

We  do not know and cannot predict whether any new legislation in this area will be enacted and, if so, in what form and which of its provisions, if any, will relate to and affect our activities, how and to what extent or what impact, if any, it might have on our financial statements. There are no known proceedings instituted by governmental authorities, pending or known to be contemplated against us under any environmental laws. We are not aware of any events of noncompliance in our operations in connection with any environmental laws or regulations. However, we cannot predict whether any new or amended environmental laws or regulations introduced in the future will have a material adverse effect on our future business.

The Company believes that these new and/or revised regulations will significantly increase the complexity, time, and expenditures associated with obtaining new exploration rights, drilling, and plugging/abandoning new wells, coupled with the heavy financial burden of “locking away” significant amounts of cash that could otherwise be used for operational purposes.

Proposed Fuel Market Law Legislation

In March 2012, the Energy Ministry presented a draft law entitled “Fuel Market Law.” Under the proposal as currently drafted, the following activities among others as they relate to crude oil and its products would require licenses by the Director of the Fuel Authority in the Ministry of Energy and Water Resources: import, export, refining, storage, dispensing and loading, transport, marketing and sale. Further under the proposal a condition for the receipt of a license is that the licensee be a corporation incorporated under the Israeli Companies Law. As currently drafted, the proposal does not provide for exceptions for entities holding petroleum rights under the Petroleum Law; however, it is not certain that, even if enacted as currently proposed, the provisions of the proposed law would supersede the provisions of the Petroleum Law. We submitted comments to the Ministry with the aim of clarifying that any law to be presented for enactment clarify that the rights of holders of licenses and leases granted under the Petroleum Law will not be compromised. In July 2012 the Israeli Parliament approved at the first hearing the draft Fuel Market Law.

We do not know and cannot predict the results of any attempt to enact the proposed Fuel Market Law, as currently drafted or as may be amended or, if enacted, the effect of such law on our rights under the Petroleum Law or the results of any legal challenge to the law by a holder of a license or lease issued under the Petroleum Law.

Planning & Building

 On April 24, 2012, new regulations entitled “The Petroleum Regulations (Authorization to Deviate from the Provisions of the Planning and Building Law) 5772-2012” were adopted and detail a new permitting process.

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Among other things, the new regulations require the submission, to the local regulatory and permitting authorities, of a detailed environmental report relating to the proposed drilling site and surroundings. The report is to address, in detail, the environmental implications of the drilling, including hydrological analysis, surface water management, risk assessment, environmental impact, and abandonment and remediation of the drill site, among others.

The drilling application must be published and there are specified time frames (approximately 100 days) for any person (including environmental and other interested bodies) to comment on the drilling application. As a result, we believe that the time periods to obtain the necessary permits (prior to spudding a well) have been considerably increased. Currently, we are unable to accurately assess the time period that we would require to obtain the necessary permits to allow us to spud our next exploratory well.

Transfer of Petroleum Related Rights

In May 2011, the Ministry of National Infrastructure published draft regulations, entitled “Petroleum Regulations (Transferring Petroleum Rights).” The draft regulations apply to the transfer of petroleum and related rights, including rights to a preliminary permit, license and production lease as well as rights to profit, royalties or information. The right to transfer these rights pursuant to the draft regulations, in many circumstances, will be much more limited than under the present regime. To date, these draft regulations have not yet been formally adopted.

Political Climate

We are directly influenced by the political, economic and military conditions affecting Israel. Specifically, we could be adversely affected by:

         any major hostilities involving Israel;

         the interruption or curtailment of trade between Israel and its present trading partners;

         a full or partial mobilization of the reserve forces of the Israeli army; and

         a significant downturn in the economic or financial condition of Israel.

Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, a number of armed conflicts have taken place between Israel and its Arab neighbors, and a state of hostility, varying from time to time in intensity and degree, has led to security and economic problems for Israel. Recently, for about two months from early July to August 2014, Israel launched a military operation named Operation Protective Edge in the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip. Over the course of the two months there were several thousand Palestinian rocket attacks for which the Israel Defence Forces responded with military action aimed primarily in the Gaza Strip. Military operations resulted in over 30 tunnels that extended from the Gaza Strip into Israel being destroyed.   While a ceasefire is currently in effect, some level of conflict should be anticipated in the future. These developments have further strained relations between Israel and the Palestinians. Any ongoing or future violence between Israel and the Palestinians, armed conflicts, terrorist activities, tension along Israel’s northern borders, or political instability in the region would likely disrupt international trading activities in Israel and may materially and negatively affect our business conditions and could harm our prospects and business.

In addition, civil unrest, often accompanied by violence associated with the so-called “Arab Spring” has spread throughout the region over the last several years in areas such as Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon. Protestors have demanded economic and political reforms, and to date, there have been several regime changes. Civil unrest could continue to spread throughout the region or grow in intensity, leading to more regime changes resulting in governments that are hostile to the United States and Israel, civil wars, or regional conflict.  International tensions over Iran continue to exist regarding their possible development of nuclear weapons. Certain countries have considered actions ranging from economic sanctions to pre-emptive strikes on suspected nuclear sites, and Iranian officials have threatened retaliation by, among other actions, closing the Strait of Hormuz, through which a significant portion of the global crude oil supply is transported. There is also concern in Israel that the internal conflict in Syria and Lebanon, with which Israel shares borders, may spill over into Israel, coupled with the new ISIS terror organization that operates from Syria.

We cannot predict the effect, if any, on our business of renewed hostilities between Israel and its neighbors or any other changes in the political climate in the area.

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Foundations

If we are successful in finding commercial quantities of hydrocarbons in Israel, 6% of our gross revenues from production will go to fund two charitable foundations that we established with the purpose of donating to charities in Israel, the U.S. and elsewhere in the world.

For charitable activities concerning Israel, the Bnei Joseph Foundation (R.A.) was established. On November 11, 2008, both the Articles of Association and Incorporation Certificate were certified by the Registrar of Amutot (i.e. Charitable Foundations) in Israel.

For the U.S. and worldwide charitable activities, the Abraham Foundation - in Geneva, Switzerland was established.  On June 20, 2008, the Articles of Incorporation were executed and filed by the Swiss Notary in the Commercial Registrar in Geneva. On June 23, 2008, the initial organizational meeting of the founding members was convened in Israel.  Regulations for the Organization of the Abraham Foundation, signed by the founding members, were then filed with the Registrar.  On November 19, 2008, the Swiss Confederation approved the Foundation as an international foundation under the supervision of the federal government.  On December 8, 2008, the Republic of Geneva and the Federal government of Switzerland issued a tax ruling providing complete tax exemption for the Foundation.

Our shareholders, in a resolution passed at the 2002 Annual Meeting, gave authority to the Zion Board of Directors to transfer a 3% overriding royalty interest to each of the two foundations with regard to the Joseph and Asher-Menashe licenses.  In accordance with that resolution, we took steps to legally donate a 3% overriding royalty interest to the Bnei Joseph Foundation (in Israel) and a 3% overriding royalty interest to the Abraham Foundation (in Switzerland).

On June 22, 2009, we received an official letter from the Commissioner informing us that the 3% overriding royalty interest to each of the Bnei Joseph Foundation and the Abraham Foundation had been registered in the Israeli Oil Register with regard to the Joseph and Asher-Menashe licenses. On November 9, 2011, we received an official letter from the Commissioner informing us that the 3% overriding royalty interest to each of the Bnei Joseph Foundation and the Abraham Foundation had been registered in the Israeli Oil Register with regard to the Jordan Valley License.

On February 5, 2014, the Company submitted applications to the Petroleum Commissioner, requesting royalty interest transfers from the Megiddo-Jezreel License of 3% overriding royalties to the Bnei Joseph Amutot and the Abraham Foundation, respectively. On April 8, 2014, the transfers were approved by the Petroleum Commissioner and duly registered.

Available Information

Zion’s internet website address is “www.zionoil.com”. We make available, free of charge, on our website, and on our Zion Oil mobile application, under “SEC Reports”, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, Forms 3, 4 and 5 filed on behalf of directors and executive officers and amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after providing the SEC such reports.

Our Corporate Governance Policy, the charters of the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee and the Nominating and Governance Committee, and the Code of Ethics for directors, officers, employees and financial officers are also available on our website under “Corporate Governance” and in print to any stockholder who provides a written request to the Corporate Secretary at Zion Oil & Gas, Inc., 6510 Abrams Rd., Suite 300, Dallas, TX 75231, Attn:  Corporate Secretary.

We file annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and other documents with the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The public may read and copy any materials that we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 450 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Also, the SEC maintains an internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including Zion Oil & Gas, Inc., that file electronically with the SEC. The public can obtain any document we file with the SEC at www.sec.gov. Information contained on or connected to our website is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this report or any other filing that we make with the SEC.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

In evaluating our company, the risk factors described below should be considered carefully. The occurrence of one or more of these events could significantly and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Associated with our Company

We are a company with no current source of revenue. Our ability to continue in business depends upon our continued ability to obtain significant financing from external sources and the ultimate success of our petroleum exploration efforts in onshore Israel, none of which can be assured.

We were incorporated in April 2000 and we have incurred negative cash flows from our operations, and presently all exploration activities and overhead expenses are financed solely by way of the issue and sale of equity securities. The recoverability of the costs we have incurred to date is uncertain and is dependent upon achieving commercial production or sale, none of which can be assured. Our operations are subject to all of the risks inherent in exploration companies with no revenues or operating income. Our potential for success must be considered in light of the problems, expenses, difficulties, complications and delays frequently encountered in connection with a new business, especially the oil and gas exploration business, and in particular the deep, wildcat exploratory wells in which we are engaged in Israel. We cannot warrant or provide any assurance that our business objectives will be accomplished.

Our ability to continue in business depends upon our continued ability to obtain the necessary financing from external sources to undertake further exploration and development activities and generate profitable operations from oil and natural gas interests in the future. We incurred net losses of $6,756,000 for the year ended December 31, 2014 and $9,077,000 for the year ended December 31, 2013. The audited financial statements have contained a statement by the auditors that raises substantial doubt about us being able to continue as a “going concern” unless we are able to raise additional capital.

We expect to incur substantial expenditures in our exploration and development programs. Our existing cash balances will not be sufficient to satisfy our exploration and development plans going forward. We are considering various alternatives to remedy any future shortfall in capital. We may deem it necessary to raise capital through equity markets, debt markets or other financing arrangements, including participation arrangements that may be available. Because of the current absence of any oil and natural gas reserves and revenues in our license areas, there can be no assurance this capital will be available on commercially acceptable terms (or at all) and if it is not, we may be forced to substantially curtail or cease exploration expenditures which could lead to our inability to meet all of our commitments.

Our financial statements do not reflect the adjustments or reclassifications of assets and liabilities that would be necessary if we are unable to continue as a going concern.

The spudding of our next exploratory well is subject to many contingencies outside of our control, and any considerable delay in obtaining all of the needed licenses, approvals and authorizations prior to actual drilling may severely impair our business.

Even though we have now chosen a drill site within the Megiddo-Jezreel License from where we plan to drill our next well, there remain a number of risks and contingencies prior to actually spudding that well.

In January 2015, the Company completed and delivered our environmental impact assessment (“EIA”) to both Israel’s Ministry of National Infrastructures, Energy and Water Resources (“Energy Ministry”) and Israel’s Environmental Ministry. We await feedback from the Environmental Ministry and will revise our document accordingly. Under Israel’s regulatory system, this environmental document is a prerequisite for a drilling permit. We anticipate that the newly promulgated regulations will considerably increase the time needed to obtain all of the needed permits and authorizations from regulatory and local bodies in Israel, and there is no assurance that the Company will ultimately be granted such permission to drill. See the discussion under “Energy Related Regulation — The Onshore Exploration Permitting Process in Israel;” “New Onshore Licensing Guidelines;” and “Israeli Governmental Regulations.

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For the reasons above, while we cannot predict the precise date when we will be able to drill our next exploratory well, we are planning to spud that next well in the second half of 2015. Additionally, prior to actually commencing drilling, we will need to contract with a drilling rig operator with the appropriate drilling rig and crew to carry out the drilling. See “We have not yet signed an agreement with a drilling contractor….”

We require significant capital to realize our business plan.

Our planned work program is expensive. We believe that our current cash resources are sufficient to allow us to undertake non-drilling exploratory activities in our current license areas and in the additional areas of interest that we have identified which are currently outside of our exploration license areas and otherwise meet our plans through November 30, 2015. We estimate that, when we are not actively drilling a well, our monthly expenditure is approximately $472,000 per month. However, when we are engaged in active operations, we estimate that there is an additional cost of approximately $2,500,000 per month. Additionally, the newly enacted onshore licensing and environmental and safety related regulations promulgated by the various energy related ministries in Israel during 2013-2014 are likely to render obtaining new explorations licenses increasingly expensive. For example, at the time of the award of any new exploration license, we will be required to submit performance bank guarantees for 10% of the cost of the planned drilling program as well as other amounts to cover potential environmental damages. See “Israel Energy Related Governmental Regulations”.

We have no commitments for any financing and no assurance can be provided that we will be able to raise funds when needed. Further, we cannot assure you that our actual cash requirements will not exceed our estimates. Even if we were to discover hydrocarbons in commercial quantities, we will require additional financing to bring our interests into commercial operation and pay for operating expenses until we achieve a positive cash flow. Additional capital also may be required in the event we incur any significant unanticipated expenses.

Under the current capital and credit market conditions, we may not be able to obtain additional equity or debt financing on acceptable terms. Even if financing is available, it may not be available on terms that are favorable to us or in sufficient amounts to satisfy our requirements.

If we are unable to obtain additional financing, we may be unable to implement our business plan and our growth strategies, respond to changing business or economic conditions and withstand adverse operating results. If we are unable to raise further financing when required, our planned exploration activities may have to be scaled down or even ceased, and our ability to generate revenues in the future would be negatively affected.

Additional financing could cause your relative interest in our assets and potential earnings to be significantly diluted. Even if we have exploration success, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenues to offset the cost of dry holes and general and administrative expenses.

We have not yet signed an agreement with a drilling contractor and thus, we may be unable to affect any future drilling operations within the contemplated time-frame.

Following the completion of the Ma’anit-Joseph #3 well, the drilling rig that we used to drill our last three exploratory wells was exported by the owner from Israel in 2012. Until such time as we sign a legally binding agreement, there can be no assurance that we will be able to come to an agreement with the drilling contractor to drill any future exploratory well(s) on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any delay in locating and contracting with an appropriate drilling rig owner/operator can have a material adverse effect on the expanded and new exploration  rights that we are seeking and on the implementation of our business plan. On February 25, 2015, the Company entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (“MOU”) with Viking Services BV, an international rig and oilfield services provider, to obtain the right to contract a land-based rig and certain oilfield services and crew with which to drill our next well. The MOU contemplates a two-year agreement to drill two wells with an option to drill a third well.

We rely on independent experts and technical or operational service providers over whom we may have limited control.

The success of our oil and gas exploration efforts is dependent upon the efforts of various third parties that we do not control. These third parties provide critical engineering, geological, geophysical and other scientific analytical services, including 2-D seismic imaging technology to explore for and develop oil and gas prospects. Given our small size and limited resources, we do not have all the required expertise on staff.  As a result, we rely upon various companies and other third persons to assist us in identifying desirable hydrocarbon prospects to acquire and to

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provide us with technical assistance and services. In addition, we rely upon the owners and operators of drilling rigs and related equipment.

If any of these relationships with third-party service providers are terminated or are unavailable on commercially acceptable terms, we may not be able to execute our business plan. Our limited control over the activities and business practices of these third parties, any inability on our part to maintain satisfactory commercial relationships with them, their limited availability  or their failure to provide quality services could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We typically commence exploration drilling operations without undertaking extensive analytical testing such as 3-D seismic surveys thereby potentially increasing the risk (and associated costs) of drilling a non-producing well.

Larger oil and gas exploration companies typically conduct extensive analytical pre-drilling testing such as 3-D seismic imaging, the drilling of an expendable “pilot” well or “stratigraphic test” to collect data (logs, cores, fluid samples, pressure data) to determine if drilling a well capable of producing oil or gas (full completion with casing and well testing) is justified. The use of pilot or stratigraphic tests is often used in areas where there is little or no offset well data, like Israel, where our exploration license area is located.  While 3-D seismic imaging data is more useful than 2-D data in identifying potential new drilling prospects, its acquisition and processing costs are many multiples greater than that for 2-D data, and GII, our primary provider of geophysical data, has limited ability to acquire and process onshore 3-D data in Israel. In addition to using 2-D seismic technology prior to drilling, we have historically also utilized gravity and magnetic data, built cross section maps from offset wells and utilized geophysical analysis from similar geologic targets. We believe that the additional months, delays and costs associated with more extensive pre-drilling testing typically undertaken by larger oil and gas exploration companies is not necessarily justified when drilling vertical or near-vertical exploration wells (as we have historically been doing). Nonetheless, the absence of more extensive pre-drilling testing may potentially increase the risk of drilling a non-producing well, which would in turn result in increased costs and expenses. Additionally, we are typically engaged in drilling very deep onshore wildcat wells in Israel where only approximately 500 total wells have ever been drilled, the vast majority of which are relatively shallower. As such, exploration risks are inherently very substantial.

Exploratory well drilling locations that we decide to drill may not yield oil or natural gas in commercially viable quantities.

There is no way to predict in advance of drilling and testing whether any particular location will yield oil or natural gas in sufficient quantities to recover drilling or completion costs or to be economically viable. The use of technologies and the study of producing fields in the same area will not enable us to know conclusively prior to drilling whether oil, natural gas liquids (NGLs) or natural gas will be present or, if present, whether oil or natural gas will be present in sufficient quantities to be economically viable. Even if sufficient amounts of oil, NGLs or natural gas exist, we may damage the potentially productive hydrocarbon bearing formation or experience mechanical difficulties while drilling or completing a well, resulting in a reduction in production from the well or abandonment of the well. If we drill exploratory wells that we identify as dry holes in our future drilling locations, our business may be materially harmed. We cannot assure you that the analogies we draw from available data from other wells, more fully explored locations or producing fields will be applicable to our drilling locations. Ultimately, the cost of drilling, completing and operating any well is often uncertain, and new wells may not be productive.

Deterioration of political, economic and security conditions in Israel may adversely affect our operations.

Any major hostilities involving Israel, a substantial decline in the prevailing regional security situation or the interruption or curtailment of trade between Israel and its present trading partners could have a material adverse effect on our operations. See the prior discussion on Political Climate.

Prolonged and/or widespread regional conflict in the Middle East could have the following results, among others:

         capital market reassessment of risk and subsequent redeployment of capital to more stable areas making it more difficult for us to obtain financing for potential development projects;

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         security concerns in Israel, making it more difficult for our personnel or supplies to enter or exit the country;

         security concerns leading to evacuation of our personnel;

         damage to or destruction of our wells, production facilities, receiving terminals or other operating assets;

         inability of our service and equipment providers to deliver items necessary for us to conduct  our operations in Israel, resulting in delays; and

         the lack of availability of drilling rig and experienced crew, oilfield equipment or services if third party providers decide to exit the region.

Loss of property and/or interruption of our business plans resulting from hostile acts could have a significant negative impact on our earnings and cash flow. In addition, we may not have enough insurance to cover any loss of property or other claims resulting from these risks.

We have a history of losses and we cannot assure you that we will ever be profitable.

We incurred net losses of $6,756,000 for the year ended December 31, 2014, and $9,077,000 for the year ended December 31, 2013. We cannot provide any assurance that we will ever be profitable.

Earnings, if any, will be diluted due to charitable contributions and key employee incentive plans.

We are legally bound to fund in the form of a royalty interest or equivalent net operating profits interest, 6% of our gross sales revenues, if any, to two charitable foundations. In addition, we may allocate 1.5% royalty interest or equivalent net operating profits interest to a key employee incentive plan designed as bonus compensation over and above our executive compensation payments. This means that the total royalty burden on our property (including the government royalty of 12.5%) may be up to 20% of gross revenue. As our expenses increase with respect to the amount of sales, these donations and allocation could significantly dilute future earnings and, thus, depress the price of the common stock.

Risks Associated with our Business

We are subject to increasing Israeli governmental regulations and environmental requirements that may cause us to incur substantial incremental costs and/or delays in our drilling program.

Our business is subject to laws and regulations promulgated by the State of Israel relating to the exploration for, and the development, production and marketing of, crude oil and natural gas, as well as safety matters. Legal requirements are frequently changed and subject to interpretation and we are unable to predict the ultimate cost of compliance with these requirements or their effect on our operations. We may be required to make substantial expenditures to comply with governmental laws and regulations.

Environmental laws and regulations change frequently and the implementation of new, or the modification of existing, laws or regulations could adversely impact our operations. The discharge of natural gas, crude oil, or other pollutants into the air, soil or water may give rise to substantial liabilities on our part to government agencies and third parties and may require us to incur substantial costs of remediation. In addition, we may incur costs and penalties in addressing regulatory agency procedures involving instances of possible non-compliance.

Our lack of diversification increases the risk of an investment in us, and our financial condition and results of operations may deteriorate if we fail to diversify.

Our business focus is on oil and gas exploration on a limited number of properties in Israel and exploitation of any significant reserves that are found within our license areas. As a result, we lack diversification, in terms of both the nature and geographic scope of our business. We will likely be impacted more acutely by factors affecting our industry or the regions in which we operate than we would if our business were more diversified. If we are unable to diversify our operations, our financial condition and results of operations could deteriorate.

We currently have no proved reserves or current production and we may never have any.

We do not have any proved reserves or current production of oil or gas. We cannot assure you that any wells will be completed or produce oil or gas in commercially profitable quantities.

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Oil and gas exploration is an inherently risky business.

Exploratory drilling involves enormous risks, including the risk that no commercially productive oil or natural gas reservoirs will be discovered. Even when properly used and interpreted, seismic data analysis and other computer simulation techniques are only tools used to assist geoscientists in trying to identify subsurface structures and the presence of an active petroleum system. They do not allow the interpreter to know conclusively if hydrocarbons are present or economically available. The risk analysis techniques we use in evaluating potential drilling sites rely on subjective judgments of our personnel and consultants. Additionally, we are typically engaged in drilling deep onshore wildcat exploratory wells in Israel where only approximately 500 total wells have ever been drilled, the vast majority of which are relatively shallower. As such, exploration risks are inherently very substantial.

A substantial and extended decline in oil or natural gas prices could adversely impact our future rate of growth and the carrying value of our unproved oil and gas assets.

Prices for oil and natural gas fluctuate widely. Fluctuations in the prices of oil and natural gas will affect many aspects of our business, including our ability to attract capital to finance our operations, our cost of capital, and the value of our unproved oil and natural gas properties. Prices for oil and natural gas may fluctuate widely in response to relatively minor changes in the supply of and demand for oil and natural gas, market uncertainty and a wide variety of additional factors (such as the current political turmoil in the Middle East) that are beyond our control, such as the domestic and foreign supply of oil and natural gas, the ability of members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) to agree to and maintain oil price and production controls, technological advances affecting energy consumption, and domestic and foreign governmental regulations.  Significant and extended reductions in oil and natural gas prices could require us to reduce our capital expenditures and impair the carrying value of our assets.

The price of oil has fallen precipitously by more than 50% since June 2014, when it was approximately $115 per barrel. It fluctuates now around $50 per barrel. While there is much analysis and speculation as to the cause of this drop in price and its predicted future course, there are many factors that contribute to the price of oil, none of which the Company controls. Certainly, actions taken or not taken by OPEC, which controls nearly 40% of the world market, continue to impact the price of oil. The oil price is also impacted by actual supply and demand, as well as by expectation. Demand for energy is closely related to economic activity and it is generally accepted that global demand is currently down primarily due to weak global economic activity. With advances in unconventional exploration (horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing) in recent years, the U.S. has become a top global oil producer, resulting in a substantial decrease in oil imports, thus adding to the spare supply. Geopolitical events such as conflict in the Middle East, the conflict in Ukraine, and the terrorist actions of ISIS can also impact the price of oil tremendously.

The bottom line is that there are many and varied causes for the fluctuation in the price of oil and natural gas, and the Company has no control over these factors.

If we are successful in finding commercial quantities of oil and/or gas, our revenues, operating results, financial condition and ability to borrow funds or obtain additional capital will depend substantially on prevailing prices for oil and natural gas. Declines in oil and gas prices may materially adversely affect our financial condition, liquidity, ability to obtain financing and operating results. Lower oil and gas prices also may reduce the amount of oil and gas that we could produce economically.

Historically, oil and gas prices and markets have been volatile, with prices fluctuating widely, and they are likely to continue to be volatile, making it impossible to predict with any certainty the future prices of oil and gas.

The insurance we carry is insufficient to cover all of the risks we face, which could result in significant financial exposure.

Exploration for and production of crude oil and natural gas can be hazardous, involving natural disasters and other un-fortuitous events such as blowouts, well cratering, fire and explosion and loss of well control which can result in damage to or destruction of wells, injury to persons, loss of life, or damage to property and the environment. Exploration and production activities are also subject to risk from political developments such as terrorist acts, piracy, civil disturbances, war, expropriation or nationalization of assets, which can cause loss of or damage to our property.

19

As is customary within our industry, we maintain insurance against many, but not all, potential perils confronting our operations and in coverage amounts and deductible levels that we believe to be economic. Consistent with that profile, our insurance program is structured to provide us financial protection from unfavorable loss resulting from damages to or the loss of physical assets or loss of human life, liability claims of third parties, and exploratory drilling interruption attributed to certain assets and including such occurrences as well blowouts and resulting oil spills, at a level that balances cost of insurance with our assessment of risk and our ability to achieve a reasonable rate of return on our investments. Although we believe the coverage and amounts of insurance carried are adequate and consistent with industry practice, we do not have insurance protection against all the risks we face, because we chose not to insure certain risks, insurance is not available at a level that balances the cost of insurance and our desired rates of return, or actual losses exceed coverage limits. We regularly review our risks of loss and the cost and availability of insurance and revise our insurance program accordingly.

If an event occurs that is not covered by insurance or not fully protected by insured limits, it could have a significant adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We face various risks associated with the trend toward increased activism against oil and gas exploration and development activities.

Opposition toward oil and gas drilling and development activity has been growing globally and is particularly pronounced in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”) countries which include the U.S., the U.K and Israel.  Companies in the oil and gas industry, such as us, are often the target of activist efforts from both individuals and non-governmental organizations regarding environmental compliance and business practices, potential damage to fresh water sources, and safety, among other topics.  Future activist efforts could result in the following:

         delay or denial of drilling permits;

         shortening of lease terms or reduction in lease size;

         restrictions on installation or operation of gathering or processing facilities;

         restrictions on the use of certain operating practices, such as hydraulic fracturing;

         legal challenges or lawsuits;

         damaging publicity about us;

         increased costs of doing business;

         reduction in demand for our products; and

         other adverse effects on our ability to develop our properties and expand production.

Our need to incur costs associated with responding to these initiatives or complying with any resulting new legal or regulatory requirements resulting from these activities that are substantial and not adequately provided for, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Economic risks may adversely affect our operations and/or inhibit our ability to raise additional capital.

Economically, our operations in Israel may be subject to:

         exchange rate fluctuations;

         royalty and tax increases and other risks arising out of Israeli State sovereignty over the mineral rights in Israel and its taxing authority; and

         changes in Israel’s economy that could cause the legislation of oil and gas price controls.

Consequently, our operations may be substantially affected by local economic factors beyond our control, any of which could negatively affect our financial performance and prospects.

20

Legal risks could negatively affect our market value.

Legally, our operations in Israel may be subject to:

         changes in the Petroleum Law resulting in modification of license and permit rights;

         adoption of new legislation relating to the terms and conditions pursuant to which operations in the energy sector may be conducted;

         changes in laws and policies affecting operations of foreign-based companies in Israel; and

         changes in governmental energy and environmental policies or the personnel administering them.

The Israeli Energy Ministry has now enacted regulations relating to licensing requirements for entities engaged in the fuel sector that would result in our having to obtain additional licenses to market and sell hydrocarbons that may be discovered by us.

Further, in the event of a legal dispute in Israel, we may be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of Israeli courts or we may not be successful in subjecting persons who are not United States residents to the jurisdiction of courts in the United States, either of which could adversely affect the outcome of a dispute. 

The Ministry of Environmental Protection is considering proposed legislation relating to polluted materials, including their production, treatment, handling, storage and transportation, that may affect land or water resources.  Persons engaged in activities involving these types of materials will be required to prepare environmental impact statements and remediation plans either prior to commencing activities or following the occurrence of an event that may cause pollution to land or water resources or endanger public health.  We do now know and cannot predict whether any legislation in this area will be enacted and, if so, in what form and which of its provisions, if any, will relate to and affect our activities, how and to what extent.

There are limitations on the transfer of interests in our petroleum rights, which could impair our ability to raise additional funds to execute our business plan.

The Israeli government has the right to approve any transfer of rights and interests in any license or other petroleum right we hold or may be granted and any mortgage of any license or other petroleum rights to borrow money. If we attempt to raise additional funds through borrowings or joint ventures with other companies and are unable to obtain required approvals from the government, the value of your investment could be significantly diluted or even lost.

Our dependence on the limited contractors, equipment and professional services available in Israel may result in increased costs and possibly material delays in our work schedule.

Due to the lack of competitive resources in Israel, costs for our operations may be more expensive than costs for similar operations in other parts of the world. We are also more likely to incur delays in our drilling schedule and be subject to a greater risk of failure in meeting our required work schedule. Similarly, some of the oil field personnel we need to undertake our planned operations are not necessarily available in Israel or available on short notice for work in Israel. Any or all of the factors specified above may result in increased costs and delays in the work schedule.

Our dependence on Israeli local licenses and permits as well as new regulations calling for enhanced bank guarantees and insurance coverage may require more funds than we have budgeted and may cause delays in our work schedule.

In connection with drilling operations, we are subject to a number of Israeli local licenses and permits. Some of these are issued by the Israeli security forces, the Civil Aviation Authority, the Israeli Water Commission, the Israel Lands Authority, the holders of the surface rights in the lands on which we intend to conduct drilling operations, local and regional planning commissions and environmental authorities.

In the event of a commercial discovery and depending on the nature of the discovery and the production and related distribution equipment necessary to produce and sell the discovered hydrocarbons, we will be subject to additional licenses and permits, including from various departments in the Ministry of Energy and Water Resources, regional and local planning commissions, the environmental authorities and the Israel Lands Authority. If we are unable to obtain some or all of these permits or the time required to obtain them is longer than anticipated, we may have to alter or delay our planned work schedule, which would increase our costs.

21

If we are successful in finding commercial quantities of oil and/or gas, our operations will be subject to laws and regulations relating to the generation, storage, handling, emission, transportation and discharge of materials into the environment, which can adversely affect the cost, manner or feasibility of our doing business. Many Israeli laws and regulations require permits for the operation of various facilities, and these permits are subject to revocation, modification and renewal. Governmental authorities have the power to enforce compliance with their regulations, and violations could subject us to fines, injunctions or both.

If compliance with environmental regulations is more expensive than anticipated, it could adversely impact the profitability of our business.

Risks of substantial costs and liabilities related to environmental compliance issues are inherent in oil and gas operations. It is possible that other developments, such as stricter environmental laws and regulations, and claims for damages to property or persons resulting from oil and gas exploration and production, would result in substantial costs and liabilities. This could also cause our insurance premiums to be significantly greater than anticipated.

The unavailability or high cost of drilling rigs, equipment, supplies, other oil field services and personnel could adversely affect our ability to execute our exploration and development plans on a timely basis and within our budget.

Our industry is cyclical and, from time to time, there is a shortage of drilling rigs, equipment, supplies and oilfield services. There may also be a shortage of trained and experienced personnel. During these periods, the costs of such items are substantially greater and their availability may be limited, particularly in locations that typically have limited availability of equipment and personnel, such as the Eastern Mediterranean, where our operations are located. As a result, drilling rigs and oilfield services may not be available at rates that provide a satisfactory return on our investment.

Risks Related to our Common Stock

Our failure to comply with NASDAQ’s listing standards could result in the delisting of our common stock by NASDAQ from the NASDAQ Global Market and severely limit the ability to sell our common stock.

Our common stock is currently traded on the NASDAQ Global Market. Under NASDAQ’s listing maintenance standards, if the closing bid price of our common stock is under $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive trading days, NASDAQ will notify us that we may be delisted from the NASDAQ Global Market. If the closing bid price of our common stock does not thereafter regain compliance for a minimum of 10 consecutive trading days during the 180 days following notification by NASDAQ, NASDAQ may delist our common stock from trading on the NASDAQ Global Market. There can be no assurance that our common stock will remain eligible for trading on the NASDAQ Global Market. In addition, if our common stock is delisted, our stockholders would not be able to sell our common stock on the NASDAQ Global Market, and their ability to sell any of our common stock would be severely, if not completely, limited.

Between January 31 and February 26, 2013, the per share price of our common stock closed at between $0.85 and $1.16 on the NASDAQ Global Market. If we are not able to maintain compliance with such continuing listing requirements going forward, our stock may be delisted from the NASDAQ Global Market, which could have a negative effect on the price of our common stock, as well as on our ability to raise additional funds.

We will likely issue additional common stock in the future, which would dilute the ownership interests of our existing stockholders.

In the future we anticipate issuing additional securities in connection with capital raising efforts, including shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock, resulting in the dilution of the ownership interests of our stockholders. We are authorized under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to issue 100,000,000 shares of common stock. As of February, 24, 2015, there were 35,859,482 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding.

We have an effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3/A (File No. 333-193336) from which additional shares of our common stock and other securities can be issued. In addition, we may also issue additional shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock in connection with the hiring of personnel, future acquisitions, future private placements of our securities for capital raising purposes or

22

for other business purposes. Future issuances of our common stock, or the perception that such issuances could occur, could have a material adverse effect on the price of our common stock. The current registration statement was declared effective by the SEC on March 27, 2014 and therefore, is effective until March 26, 2017 plus 180 days thereafter.

On March 13, 2014,  the Company filed  an S-3/A Form that is part of a replacement registration statement that was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process. From time to time, the Company may offer up to $119,850,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, in the form of common stock, debt securities, warrants, and/or units.

When we offer a particular series of securities, we will describe the intended use of the net proceeds from that offering in a prospectus supplement. The actual amount of net proceeds we spend on a particular use will depend on many factors, including, our future capital expenditures, the amount of cash required by our operations, and our future revenue growth, if any. Therefore, we will retain broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds.

Because the likelihood of paying cash dividends on our common stock is remote at this time, stockholders must look solely to appreciation of our common stock to realize a gain on their investments.

We do not know when or if we will pay dividends. We currently intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance the expansion of our business. Our future dividend policy is within the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon various factors, including our business, financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements and investment opportunities. Accordingly, stockholders must look solely to appreciation of our common stock to realize a gain on their investment. This appreciation may not occur.

Our stock price and trading volume may be volatile, which could result in losses for our stockholders.

The public market for our common stock has been characterized by significant price and volume fluctuations. There can be no assurance that the market price of our common stock will not decline below its current or historic price ranges. The market price may bear no relationship to the prospects, stage of development, existence of oil and gas reserves, revenues, earnings, assets or potential of our company and may not be indicative of our future business performance. The trading price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations. Fluctuations in the price of oil and gas and related international political events can be expected to affect the price of our common stock. In addition, the stock market in general has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected the market price for many companies, sometimes unrelated to the operating performance of these companies. These market fluctuations, as well as general economic, political and market conditions, may have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

Some of the factors that could negatively affect our share price or result in fluctuations in the price or trading volume of our common stock include:

         actual or anticipated quarterly variations in our operating results,

         changes in expectations as to our future financial performance or changes in financial estimates, if any,

         announcements relating to our business or the business of our competitors,

         conditions generally affecting the oil and natural gas industry,

         the success of our operating strategy, and

         the operating and stock performance of other comparable companies.

Many of these factors are beyond our control, and we cannot predict their potential effects on the price of our common stock. In addition, the stock market is subject to extreme price and volume fluctuations.  This volatility has had a significant effect on the market price of securities issued by many companies for reasons unrelated to their operating performance and could have the same effect on our common stock.

 In addition, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against such companies. Such litigation, if instituted, and irrespective of the outcome of such litigation, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources and have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

23

ITEM 1B.  UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

Not Applicable.

ITEM 2.  PROPERTIES

Zion currently holds one active petroleum exploration license onshore Israel, the Megiddo-Jezreel License (with an area of approximately 99,000 acres). We have now selected the specific location of our next drilling prospect well location and hope to commence drilling in the second half of 2015.

The table below summarizes certain data for our license area for the year ended December 31, 2014:

Type of Right

 

Name

 

 

Area (Approx. Acres)

 

 

Working Interest

 

 

Expiration Date

 

License

 

Megiddo-Jezreel

 

 

 

98,842

 

 

 

100

% (1)

 

December 2, 2016

(1)(2)

 

(1)      After the initial primary term of three years, extendable through December 2, 2020, one year at a time at the commissioner’s discretion, subject to compliance with the terms of the license as may be amended.

(2)      Declaration of a commercial discovery during the license term, as may in certain circumstances be extended for two years to define the boundaries of the field, would entitle Zion to receive a 30-year lease (extendable for up to an additional 20 years (50 years in all) subject to compliance with a field development work program and production.

Surface Rights

The surface rights to former drill sites in the former Joseph License area are held under a long-term lease by Kibbutz Ma’anit. The rights are owned by the State of Israel and administered by the Israel Lands Authority. Permission has been granted to Zion by both Kibbutz Ma’anit and the Israel Lands Authority for the use of the surface rights. The Company has completed the plugging obligations of all wells within the Joseph License area and acknowledges its obligation to complete the abandonment of the wells in accordance with guidance from the Environmental Ministry in 2015 even though the Joseph License has expired.

The surface rights to the former drill site in the former Asher-Menashe License area is held under a long-term lease by Kibbutz Ein Carmel. The rights are owned by the State of Israel and administered by the Israel Lands Authority. Permission has been granted to Zion by both Kibbutz Ein Carmel and the Israel Lands Authority for the use of the surface rights. The Company has completed the plugging obligations of the only well within the Asher-Menashe License area and acknowledges its obligation to complete the abandonment of the well in accordance with guidance from the Environmental Ministry in 2015 even though the Asher-Menashe License has expired.

Now that the Company has identified a specific drill site or sites in the new Megiddo-Jezreel License area, we will seek surface rights from the appropriate owner.

Summary of Exploration Activities/Present Activities

Please refer to the discussion above under Item 1, under the caption “Summary of Exploration Activities” and “Exploration Plans Going Forward”.

Office Properties

(i) The Company had a lease for 3,600 square feet of corporate office space in Dallas, Texas, which expired on October 31, 2011. On October 11, 2011, the Company and the landlord entered into an amended lease for its current office premises in Dallas, Texas as well as the addition of adjacent space in the building for a total of 6,500 square feet. Pursuant to the lease amendment, the lease term on the existing office space as well as the additional premises was extended to October 31, 2015.

Rent was paid on a monthly basis and was $6,996 per month for each month from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012; thereafter, $7,534 for each month through October 31, 2013; $7,534 for each month through October 31, 2014 and $8,072 for each month through October 31, 2015. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the parties agreed that so long as there was no event of default under the lease amendment, monthly payments of $1,434 through October 31, 2012 and $1,544 thereafter through October 31, 2013 were to be abated.

24

(ii) The Company’s field office in Caesarea Israel consisted of 5,565 square feet. The sublease term continues through March 31, 2014. Rent was paid on a monthly basis in the base amount of approximately NIS 28,400 per month (approximately $7,300 per month at the exchange rate in effect on the date of this report). The Company is also obligated to pay all cost of living adjustments, as well as its pro-rated portion of all taxes, utilities, and insurance and maintenance payments during the sublease term.

On December 19, 2013 the Company signed a new lease agreement with Caesarea Asset Management and Development companies for new premises containing 6,566 square feet. The lease term is five years from February 1, 2014 to January 31, 2019. Rent is to be paid on a monthly basis in the base amount of approximately NIS 37,800 per month (approximately $9,700 per month at the exchange rate in effect on the date of this report and is linked to an increase (but not a decrease) in the CPI. The Company is also obligated to pay all related taxes, utilities, insurance and maintenance payments during the lease term. Pursuant to the lease, twenty-four months from the commencement of the lease term, the Company may terminate the agreement upon three months’ notice, provided the Company secures a replacement lessee approved by the lessor at its discretion.

The Company has an option to renew the lease for another five years, provided it is not in breach of the agreement, where it is required as well to furnish a notice of intent to exercise the option six months prior to termination of lease and furnishes a bank guarantee and insurance confirmation prior to commencement of option period. Under the lease agreement, the Company is authorized to further sublease part of the leased premises to a third party that is pre-approved by the sub-lessor. Rent and its related taxes, utilities, insurance and maintenance expenses for 2014 and 2013 were $306,000 and $256,000, respectively.

New Branch

On July 11, 2014, Zion Oil & Gas, Inc., Geneva Branch was registered in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland.  The legal Swiss name for the foreign branch is “Zion Oil & Gas, Inc., Wilmington, Branch of Geneva”.  The Zion Swiss Branch has its registered office and its business office at 6 Avenue Jules Crosnier, 1206 Champel, Geneva, Switzerland.  The purpose of the branch is to operate a foreign treasury center for the Company.

ITEM 3.  LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

On September 12, 2008, the Company entered into a drilling contract with Aladdin Middle East Ltd. (“AME”) pursuant to which AME shipped into Israel its 2,000 horsepower rig for use in the drilling contemplated by the Company’s business plan. The rig arrived in Israel and cleared customs in April 2009 and was used to drill the Ma’anit-Rehoboth #2 well, the Elijah #3 and the Ma’anit-Joseph #3 well. Drilling operations on the Ma’anit-Joseph #3 well were concluded in July 2011, whereupon the Company released the rig.

In May, 2012, the Company and GuyneyYildizi Petrol UretimSondajMut, ve Tic A.S. (“GYP”) agreed that the Company would pay GYP $627,000 in full and final settlement of past bills, and such amount was paid on May 15, 2012. However, the matter related to GYP’s demand for $550,000 for rig demobilization was excluded from the settlement. The drilling contract between the Company and AME, which was allegedly assumed by GYP, provides that all disputes are to be settled by arbitration in London, United Kingdom.

On March 4, 2014, the Company received from the International Court of Arbitration in Paris, France (“ICA”) a request for arbitration in London filed by GYP.

On May 1, 2014, prior to Zion’s answer date deadline, Zion filed an answer in which it denied GYP’s claim for payment of the demobilization fee, and in addition it asserted a Counterclaim against GYP.

In the preliminary procedural stage, Zion challenged GYP’s standing to assert its claim on the basis that there was no assignment of the Drilling Contract from AME to GYP pursuant to the provisions of the Drilling Contract. GYP challenged Zion’s right to assert any issue not related to the demobilization fee, including Zion’s counterclaim. On December 19, 2014, the appointed arbitrator communicated to the ICA that she was denying each party’s preliminary challenges, and the arbitration would proceed on the basis of the primary claims and counterclaims raised by the parties.

 

On February  9, 2015, Zion and GYP each filed submissions on Stage 1 issues, to which rebuttals were due on March 5, 2015.

25

No accrual was made at December 31, 2014, as the Company and its legal counsel believe that upon true construction of the Drilling Contract, as amended, GYP has no viable legal ground to base its claim (see also Note 8).

ITEM 4.  MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not Applicable.

PART II

ITEM 5.  MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

We completed the initial public offering of our common stock in January 2007. From January 3, 2007 and through September 1, 2009, shares of our common stock were traded on the NYSE Amex under the symbol “ZN.” Since September 2, 2009, our common stock has been trading on the NASDAQ Global Market, also under the symbol “ZN.”

The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices for the common stock for the periods indicated, as reported by the NASDAQ Global Market.

Fiscal Year

 

High

 

 

Low

 

2014:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter

 

$

1.96

 

 

$

1.43

 

Second Quarter

 

$

2.55

 

 

$

1.40

 

Third Quarter

 

$

2.05

 

 

$

1.53

 

Fourth Quarter

 

$

1.81

 

 

$

1.36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fiscal Year

 

High

 

 

Low

 

2013:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter

 

$

1.80

 

 

$

0.85

 

Second Quarter

 

$

2.60

 

 

$

1.25

 

Third Quarter

 

$

2.40

 

 

$

1.65

 

Fourth Quarter

 

$

1.90

 

 

$

1.38

 

The closing per share sales price of our Common Stock on March 5, 2015 was $1.93.

Holders

As of February 24, 2015 there were approximately 6,386 shareholders of record of our common stock. A significant number of shares of our Common Stock are held in either nominee name or street name brokerage accounts and, consequently, we are unable to determine the number of beneficial owners of our stock.

Dividends

We have never paid dividends on our common stock and do not plan to pay dividends on the common stock in the foreseeable future.  Whether dividends will be paid in the future will be in the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on various factors, including our earnings and financial condition and other factors our board of directors considers relevant. We currently intend to retain earnings to develop and expand our business.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

We do not have a stock repurchase program for our common stock.

ITEM 6.  SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following selected financial data should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and the notes thereto and the information contained in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Historical results are not necessarily indicative of future results. The selected financial

26

data for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 are derived from our audited financial statements not included in this report. All data is in thousands of USD, except share data:

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

2012

 

 

2011

 

 

2010

 

Statement of Operations Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General and administrative expenses

 

 

4,142

 

 

 

3,618

 

 

 

5,078

 

 

 

4,995

 

 

 

3,288

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other

 

 

2,541

 

 

 

2,216

 

 

 

3,310

 

 

 

4,530

 

 

 

2,366

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Impairment of unproved oil and gas properties

 

 

 

 

 

3,289

 

 

 

1,965

 

 

 

42,488

 

 

 

22,022

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other expense (income), net

 

 

73

 

 

 

(46

)

 

 

(59

)

 

 

169

 

 

 

(18

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

 

(6,756

)

 

 

(9,077

)

 

 

(10,294

)

 

 

(52,182

)

 

 

(27,658

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss per share of common stock

 

 

(0.19

)

 

 

(0.27

)

 

 

(0.33

)

 

 

(1. 86

)

 

 

(1.25

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance Sheet Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

 

5,344

 

 

 

10,414

 

 

 

14,983

 

 

 

22,231

 

 

 

21,243

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unproved oil and gas properties

 

 

3,891

 

 

 

2,446

 

 

 

4,700

 

 

 

3,535

 

 

 

25,882

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities

 

 

1,165

 

 

 

2,095

 

 

 

2,859

 

 

 

3,847

 

 

 

2,595

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total liabilities

 

 

1,360

 

 

 

2,272

 

 

 

3,058

 

 

 

4,275

 

 

 

2,934

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity

 

 

10,520

 

 

 

12,667

 

 

 

18,246

 

 

 

22,492

 

 

 

46,369

 

ITEM 7.  MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Introduction

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with Item 6, “Selected Financial Data” and our accompanying financial statements and the notes to those financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report. Some of our discussion is forward-looking and involves risks and uncertainties. For information regarding factors that could have a material adverse effect on our business, refer to Risk Factors under Item 1A of this Report.

Overview

Zion Oil and Gas is an oil and gas exploration company with a history of over 14 years of oil and gas exploration in Israel. We were incorporated in Florida on April 6, 2000 and reincorporated in Delaware on July 9, 2003. We completed our initial public offering in January 2007. Our common stock currently trades on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “ZN.”

Zion currently holds one active petroleum exploration license onshore Israel, the Megiddo-Jezreel License (approximately 99,000 acres). For a variety of reasons, including the results of the newly reprocessed and recently acquired seismic data, the Company has now fully focused its exploration strategy on the Megiddo-Jezreel

27

License as merged with the southern portion of the former Jordan Valley License area. We have now selected the specific location of our next drilling prospect well location and anticipate drilling our next well in the second half of 2015.

We anticipate that the newly promulgated regulations will considerably increase the time needed to obtain all of the needed permits and authorizations from regulatory and local bodies in Israel. See the discussion under “The Onshore Petroleum Exploration Permitting Process in Israel” discussed above. Finally, prior to actually spudding our next exploratory well, we will need to contract with an appropriate rig contractor. We anticipate that we will need to raise significant funds in order to complete any exploratory well that we spud. To date, we have funded our operations through the issuance of our securities. We anticipate that we will need to raise funds through the issuance of equity securities (or securities convertible into or exchangeable for equity securities). No assurance can be provided that we will be successful in raising the needed equity on favorable terms (or at all).

Our executive offices are located at 6510 Abrams Road, Suite 300, Dallas, Texas 75231, and our telephone number is (214) 221-4610. Our field office in Israel is located at 9 Halamish Street, North Industrial Park, Caesarea 3088900, and the telephone number is +972-4-623-8500. Our website address is: www.zionoil.com.

Principal Components of our Cost Structure

Our operating and other expenses primarily consist of the following:

         Impairment of Unproved Oil and Gas Properties:  Impairment expense is recognized if a determination is made that a well will not be able to be commercially productive.  The amounts include amounts paid in respect of the drilling operations as well as geological and geophysical costs and various amounts that were paid to Israeli regulatory authorities.

         General and Administrative Expenses: Overhead, including payroll and benefits for our corporate staff, costs of managing our exploratory operations, audit and other professional fees, and legal compliance are included in general and administrative expense. General and administrative expenses also includes non-cash stock-based compensation expense, investor relations related expenses, lease and insurance and related expenses.

         Depreciation, Depletion, Amortization and Accretion: The systematic expensing of the capital costs incurred to explore for natural gas and oil represents a principal component of our cost structure. As a full cost company, we capitalize all costs associated with our exploration, and apportion these costs to each unit of production, if any, through depreciation, depletion and amortization expense. As we have yet to have production, the costs of abandoned wells are written off immediately versus being included in this amortization pool.

Going Concern Basis

Since we have limited capital resources, no revenue to date and a loss from operations, our financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates realization of assets and liquidation of liabilities in the ordinary course of business.  The appropriateness of using the going concern basis is dependent upon our ability to obtain additional financing or equity capital and, ultimately, to achieve profitable operations. Therefore, there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Critical Accounting Policies

Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expense during the reporting period.

We have identified the accounting principles which we believe are most critical to the reported financial status by considering accounting policies that involve the most complex of subjective decisions or assessment.

28

Impairment of Oil and Gas Properties

We follow the full-cost method of accounting for oil and gas properties. Accordingly, all costs associated with acquisition, exploration and development of oil and gas reserves, including directly related overhead costs, are capitalized.

All capitalized costs of oil and gas properties, including the estimated future costs to develop proved reserves, are amortized on the unit-of-production method using estimates of proved reserves.  Investments in unproved properties and major development projects are not amortized until proved reserves associated with the projects can be determined or until impairment occurs. If the results of an assessment indicate that the properties are impaired, the amount of the impairment is included in income from continuing operations before income taxes and the adjusted carrying amount of the unproved properties is amortized on the unit-of-production method.

Our oil and gas properties represent an investment in unproved properties.  These costs are excluded from the amortized cost pool until proved reserves are found or until it is determined that the costs are impaired.  All costs excluded are reviewed at least quarterly to determine if impairment has occurred.  The amount of any impairment is charged to expense since a reserve base has not yet been established.  A further impairment requiring a charge to expense may be indicated through evaluation of drilling results, relinquishing drilling rights or other information.

Abandonment of properties is accounted for as adjustments to capitalized costs. The net capitalized costs are subject to a “ceiling test” which limits such costs to the aggregate of the estimated present value of future net revenues from proved reserves discounted at ten percent based on current economic and operating conditions, plus the lower of cost or fair market value of unproved properties. The recoverability of amounts capitalized for oil and gas properties is dependent upon the identification of economically recoverable reserves, together with obtaining the necessary financing to exploit such reserves and the achievement of profitable operations.

During the year 2014, the Company did not record a non-cash impairment.

In March 2013, the Company recorded a non-cash impairment charge of approximately $1,851,000 of its unproved oil and gas properties. The impairment charge is for all remaining capitalized costs of the Joseph License.

In December 2013, the Company recorded a non-cash impairment charge of approximately $1,438,000 of its unproved oil and gas properties. The impairment charge is for all remaining capitalized costs of the Asher-Menashe License and the results of the Elijah #3 well re-entry operations. Impairments on both licenses are due principally to a decision to prioritize available financial resources and focus Zion’s efforts on the Megiddo-Jezreel and portions of the Jordan Valley License areas.

Following the impairment charges noted above, the total net book value of our unproved oil and gas properties under the full cost method is $3,891,000 at December 31, 2014.

Currency Utilized

Although our oil & gas properties and our principal operations are in Israel, we report all our transactions in United States dollars. Certain dollar amounts in the financial statements may represent the dollar equivalent of other currencies.

Valuation of Deferred Taxes

We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax asset to the amount that we believe is likely to be realized in the future.  In assessing the need for the valuation allowance we have considered not only future taxable income but also feasible and prudent tax planning strategies. In the event that we were to determine that it would be likely that we would, in the future, realize our deferred tax assets in excess of the net recorded amount, an adjustment to the deferred tax asset would be made.  In the period that such a determination was made, the adjustment to the deferred tax asset would produce an increase in our net income.

29

Asset Retirement Obligation

We record a liability for asset retirement obligation at fair value in the period in which it is incurred and a corresponding increase in the carrying amount of the related long lived assets.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following table sets forth our Statements of Operations data for the years ended December 31 (all data is in thousands of USD):

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

Operating costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General and administrative expenses

 

 

4,142

 

 

 

3,618

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other

 

 

2,541

 

 

 

2,216

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Impairment of unproved oil and gas properties

 

 

 

 

 

3,289

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subtotal Operating costs and expenses

 

 

6,683

 

 

 

9,123

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other expense (income), net

 

 

73

 

 

 

(46

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

 

6,756

 

 

 

9,077

 

FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2014 COMPARED TO DECEMBER 31, 2013

Revenue. We currently have no revenue generating operations.

Operating costs and expenses. Operating costs and expenses for the year ended December 31, 2014 were $6,683,000 compared to $9,123,000 for the year ended December 31, 2013. The decrease in operating costs and expenses during the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to 2013 is primarily attributable to impairment charge of $3,289,000 recorded during the year ended December 31, 2013 representing the remaining capitalized cost of the Joseph License, partially offset by increase in general and administrative expenses and other expenses during the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to the corresponding period in 2013.

General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2014 were $4,142,000 compared to $3,618,000 for the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase in general and administrative expenses in 2014 compared to 2013 is primarily attributable to increase in legal and professional fees during the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to 2013 and is primarily attributable to the increased utilization of legal services in 2014 in part by the GYP arbitration legal fees and a higher non-cash expenses recorded in connection with stock option grants.

Other expenses.Other expenses for the year ended December 31, 2014 were $2,541,000 compared to $2,216,000 for the year ended December 31, 2013. Other general and administrative expenses are comprised of non-compensation and non-professional expenses incurred. The increase in other general and administrative expenses during the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to 2013 is primarily attributable to increased operational expenses in regard to re-entry and testing of the Elijah #3 well.

Impairment of unproved oil and gas properties. Impairment of unproved oil and gas properties expenses for the year ended December 31, 2014 were nil compared to $3,289,000 for the year ended December 31, 2013. The decrease in impairment of unproved oil and gas properties expenses in 2014 compared to 2013 is attributable to the impairment charge of $3,289,000 recorded during the year ended December 31, 2013 in respect of all remaining capitalized costs of the Joseph and Asher Menashe Licenses and the Elijah #3 re-entry operations.

Other expense (income), net. Other expense (income), net for the year ended December 31, 2014 was $73,000 compared to ($46,000) for the year ended December 31, 2013.

30

Net Loss. Net loss for the year ended December 31, 2014 was $6,756,000 compared to $9,077,000 for the year ended December 31, 2013.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Liquidity is a measure of a company’s ability to meet potential cash requirements. As discussed above, we have historically met our capital requirements through the issuance of common stock as well as proceeds from the exercise of warrants and options to purchase common equity.

Our ability to continue as a going concern is dependent upon obtaining the necessary financing to complete further exploration and development activities and generate profitable operations from our oil and natural gas interests in the future. Our current operations are dependent upon the adequacy of our current assets to meet our current expenditure requirements and the accuracy of management’s estimates of those requirements. Should those estimates be materially incorrect, our ability to continue as a going concern will be impaired. Our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2014 have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. We have incurred a history of operating losses and negative cash flows from operations. Therefore, there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

At December 31, 2014, we had approximately $5,344,000 in cash and cash equivalents compared to $10,414,000 at December 31, 2013.  Our working capital (current assets minus current liabilities) was $6,469,000 at December 31, 2014 and $10,045,000 at December 31, 2013.

As of December 31, 2014, the Company provided bank guarantees to various governmental bodies (approximately $1,154,000) and others (approximately $66,000) in respect of its drilling operation in the aggregate amount of approximately $1,220,000. The funds backing these guarantees and additional amounts added to support currency fluctuations as required by the bank, are held in interest-bearing accounts and are reported on the Company’s balance sheets as “restricted cash.”

During the year ended December 31, 2014, cash used in operating activities totalled $6,443,000. Cash provided by financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2014 was $3,388,000 and is attributable to proceeds received from the Dividend Reinvestment and Stock Purchase Plan (the “DSPP” or “Plan”) which offers investors the ability to purchase units and shares of our common stock directly from us. Net cash used in investing activities such as unproved oil and gas properties, other assets and restricted bank deposits was $2,015,000 for the year ended December 31, 2014.

We expect to incur additional significant expenditures to further our exploration programs. We estimate that, when we are not actively drilling a well, our expenditures are approximately $472,000 per month excluding exploratory operational activities. However, when we become engaged in active drilling operations, we estimate an additional minimum expenditure of approximately $2,500,000 per month. The above estimates are subject to change. Management believes that our existing cash balance will be sufficient to finance our plan of operations through Nov 30, 2015. However, there are factors that can adversely impact our ability to fund our operating needs through such date, including (without limitation), unexpected or unforeseen cost overruns in planned non-drilling exploratory work (e.g., seismic acquisition, drilling and environmental permit acquisition costs, etc.) in existing and newly sought license areas and the costs associated with extended delays in undertaking the required exploratory work, which is typical of what we have experienced in the past, or plugging and abandonment activities.

We are considering various alternatives with respect to raising additional capital. In March 2013 we launched a unit program through the DSPP and in February 2015 we launched a new unit program through the DSPP (see Amendment 3 below). We expect that when we seek to raise additional capital it will be through the sale of equity securities, debt or other financing arrangements. Due in part to our lack of any oil and natural gas reserves, there can be no assurance this capital will be available and if it is not, we may be forced to substantially curtail or cease exploration and development expenditures.

Replacement Registration Statement S-3/A and Prospectus Supplement for the Dividend Reinvestment and Stock Purchase Plan

On March 13, 2014  the Company filed  an S-3/A Form that is part of a replacement registration statement that was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process. From

31

time to time, the Company may offer up to $119,850,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, in the form of common stock, debt securities, warrants, and/or units.

On March 31, 2014, the Company filed with the SEC the prospectus supplement dated as of March 27, 2014 and accompanying base prospectus dated March 27, 2014 (collectively, the “Prospectus”) relating to the DSPP. The Prospectus forms a part of the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-3/A (File No. 333-193336), as amended, which was declared effective by the SEC on March 27, 2014 (the “Registration Statement”).

Under the DSPP, the Company provided (a) shares (each a “Share” and collectively the “Shares”) of common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Common Stock”), and (b), through December 31, 2014, units (the “Units”) of the Company’s securities, for $2.50 per unit, with each unit comprised of (i) one (1) share  of Common Stock and (ii)  a warrant to purchase an additional share of the Company’s Common Stock at an exercise price of $2.00 per share (each a “Warrant” and collectively the “Warrants”; together with the Shares and the Units the “Securities”). The Securities were provided by the Company in accordance with the terms of the DSPP as described in the Prospectus.

On May 30, 2014, the Company extended the expiration date for the Unit program under its DSPP to December 31, 2014. Accordingly, the Warrants first became exercisable on the 31st day following the Unit Option Termination Date (i.e., on January 31, 2015 or the next trading day) and continue to be exercisable through January 31, 2020 at a per share exercise price of $2.00.

On February 2, 2015, the ZNWAA listed warrants began trading on the NASDAQ Global Markets. On February 11, 2015, NASDAQ halted trading on the ZNWAA warrants until the Company fully satisfies NASDAQ's request for additional info. The Company is diligently seeking to satisfy the requirement, but to date, NASDAQ has not yet reauthorized ZNWAA warrant trading.

The extension was made, in part, to allow interested investors to utilize a new and more convenient electronic enrollment procedure with the TeleCheck Internet Check Acceptance service as a payment method and expanded procedures for foreign participants in the DSPP.

On June 24, 2014, the Company formally executed a Transfer Agency and Registrar Services Agreement with the American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC, a New York limited liability trust company (“AST”), located at 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219.

AST has been appointed as the Company’s sole Transfer Agent and registrar for the Company’s common stock and warrants and for any such other securities as the Company may request. The Company has both U.S. and foreign shareholders and AST has the ability to service the Company’s worldwide shareholder base. The initial term of the Agreement is three years with automatic one year successive terms. The Company has completed the conversion and transition process to AST, effective as of August 1, 2014.

As of December 31, 2014 the Company and its transfer agents, Registrar and Transfer Company (“RTC”) and American Stock Transfer and Trust (“AST”) where AST replaced RTC on August 1, 2014, had collected together approximately $3,387,000 and $5,865,000 in the year ended December 31, 2014 and from the DSPP’s inception date in March 2013 to December 31, 2014, respectively. As a result, the Company issued for the year ended December 31, 2014 and from the DSPP inception date to December 31, 2014 a total of 1,661,692 and 2,761,178 shares of its common stock. Issued units and shares for the year ended December 31, 2014 and from the DSPP inception date to December 31, 2014 are comprised of 773,318 and 1,564,293 units (unit comprised of (i) one share of common stock and (ii) a warrant), respectively, and 888,374 and 1,196,885 shares, respectively.

An Amendment No. 3 to the Prospectus Supplement was filed on January 13, 2015. This Amendment No. 3 to Prospectus Supplement amends the Prospectus Supplement as previously supplemented on May 30, 2014 (“Amendment No. 1 to Prospectus Supplement”) and as supplemented on July 31, 2014 (“Amendment No. 2 to Prospectus Supplement”). This Amendment No. 3 to Prospectus Supplement should be read in conjunction with the Original Prospectus Supplement and the base Prospectus effective March 27, 2014 and Amendment No. 2. Amendment No. 3 is incorporated by reference into the Original Prospectus Supplement and is not complete without, and may not be delivered or utilized except in connection with, the Original Prospectus Supplement, including any amendments or supplements thereto.

32

Amendment No. 3 - New Unit Option under the Unit Program

Under the Plan, the Company is providing a new Unit Option. The prior Unit Option ended on December 31, 2014. The Unit Program continues with a different Unit Option of a combination of common stock, warrants, time periods and unit price, but otherwise the same Unit Program features, conditions and terms in the Prospectus Supplement and Amendment No. 2 apply. The Company’s new Unit Option Program began on February 2, 2015 and

terminates May 4, 2015. This new 90-day Unit Option enables participants to purchase Units of our securities where each Unit (priced at $4.00) is comprised of one (1) share of Common Stock and three (3) Common Stock purchase warrants. Each warrant affords the investor or stockholder the opportunity to purchase one share of the Company’s Common Stock at a warrant exercise price of $1.00. Each of the three warrants per Unit will have a different expiration date.

The Company has filed an application with NASDAQ to list the three warrants on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbols “ZNWAB,” “ZNWAC,” and “ZNWAD;” however, no assurance can be provided that the warrants will be approved for listing on the NASDAQ Global Market.

All warrants will first become exercisable and tradable on June 5, 2015, which is the 31st day following the Unit Option Termination Date (i.e., on May 4, 2015) and continue to be exercisable through June 6, 2016 for ZNWAB (1 year), June 5, 2017 for ZNWAC (2 years) and June 4, 2018 for ZNWAD (3 years), respectively, at a per share exercise price of $1.00. The Unit is priced at $4.00 per Unit and no change will be made to the warrant exercise price of $1.00 per share.

Accordingly, all references in the Original Prospectus Supplement and Amendment No. 1, concerning the Unit Option that terminated on December 31, 2014, are hereby deleted and replaced with a new Unit Option as described above in Amendment No. 3. Except for the substitution of a new Unit Option above, all other features, conditions and terms of the Plan remain unchanged.

Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations

The following summarizes our contractual financial obligations for continuing operations at December 31, 2014 and the effect such obligations are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flow in future periods.

 

 

Payment due by period (in Thousands of USD)

 

 

 

2015

 

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

Thereafter

 

 

Total

 

Exploration Related Commitments

 

 

842

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

842

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating Leases

 

 

284

 

 

 

164

 

 

 

161

 

 

 

161

 

 

 

13

 

 

 

783

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Employment Agreements

 

 

877

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

877

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

2,003

 

 

 

164

 

 

 

161

 

 

 

161

 

 

 

13

 

 

 

2,502

 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We do not currently use any off-balance sheet arrangements to enhance our liquidity or capital resource position, or for any other purpose.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

During the year ended December 31, 2014, the Company has elected to early adopt Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-10, Development Stage Entities (Topic 915): Elimination of Certain Financial Reporting Requirements. The adoption of this ASU allows the Company to remove the inception to date information and all references to development stage.

We do not believe that the adoption of any other recently issued accounting pronouncements in 2014 will have a significant impact on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flow.

33

ITEM 7A.  QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

Market risk is a broad term for the risk of economic loss due to adverse changes in the fair value of a financial instrument. These changes may be the result of various factors, including interest rates, foreign exchange rates, commodity prices and/or equity prices. In the normal course of doing business, we are exposed to the risks associated with foreign currency exchange rates and changes in interest rates.

Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risks. A portion of our expenses, primarily labor expenses and certain supplier contracts, are denominated in New Israeli Shekels (“NIS”). As a result, we have significant exposure to the risk of fluctuating exchange rates with the U.S. Dollar (“USD”), our primary reporting currency. Since December 2011, the NIS has experienced a revaluation of approximately 1.8% against the USD. Continued revaluation of the NIS (against the USD) should result in higher operating costs for us from NIS denominated expenses. Since December 31, 2013 and 2012 to December 31, 2014, the USD has fluctuated by approximately 12% and 4.2% respectively against the NIS. Continuing devaluation of the US dollar against the NIS will result in higher operating costs from NIS denominated expenses. To date, we have not hedged any of our currency exchange rate risks, but we may do so in the future.

Interest Rate Risk. Our exposure to market risk relates to our cash and investments. We maintain an investment portfolio of short term bank deposits and money market funds. The securities in our investment portfolio are not leveraged, and are, due to their very short-term nature, subject to minimal interest rate risk. We currently do not hedge interest rate exposure. Because of the short-term maturities of our investments, we do not believe that a change in market interest rates would have a significant negative impact on the value of our investment portfolio except for reduced income in a low interest rate environment. At December 31, 2014, we had cash, cash equivalents and short-term bank deposits of approximately $7,173,000.  The weighted average annual interest rate related to our cash and cash equivalents for the year ended December 31, 2014 was approximately 0.15%.

The primary objective of our investment activities is to preserve principal while at the same time maximizing yields without significantly increasing risk. To achieve this objective, we invest our excess cash in short-term bank deposits and money market funds that may invest in high quality debt instruments.

ITEM 8.  FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

The financial statements required by this item are included beginning at page F-1 below.

ITEM 9.  CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

None.

ITEM 9A.  CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

EVALUATION OF DISCLOSURE CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES.

We carried out an evaluation required by the Exchange Act, under the supervision and with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial and accounting officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act, as of December 31, 2014.  Based on this evaluation, our principal executive officer and our principal financial and accounting officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective, as of December 31, 2014, to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms and to provide reasonable assurance that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial and accounting officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.

34

MANAGEMENT’S REPORT ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING; CHANGES IN INTERNAL CONTROLS OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING.

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting.  Our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the framework in Internal Control — Integrated Framework(2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).  Based on its evaluation under the framework in Internal Control — Integrated Framework(2013), our management concluded that our internal controls over financial reporting were effective as of December 31, 2014.  Management reviewed the results of their assessment with our Audit Committee.

Limitations on Controls

Our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting are designed to provide reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives as specified above. Management does not expect, however, that our disclosure controls and procedures or our internal control over financial reporting will prevent or detect all error and fraud. Any control system, no matter how well designed and operated, is based upon certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that its objectives will be met. Further, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within the Company have been detected.

 Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

During the quarter ended December 31, 2014, there have been no changes in our internal controls over financial reporting that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, these controls.

ITEM 9B.  OTHER INFORMATION

None.

PART III

ITEM 10.  DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to such information as set forth in our definitive Proxy Statement (the “2015 Proxy Statement”) for our 2015 annual meeting of stockholders. The 2015 Proxy Statement will be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days subsequent to December 31, 2014.

Sadly, on January 26, 2014, memorial services were held for Mr. Robert Render, former member of the Board of Directors of Zion Oil and Gas. Robert Render, age 83, was appointed a director in January 2011.

Board member Forrest Garb filled the vacancy on the Audit Committee until March 31, 2014. Board member Kent Siegel is filling the vacancy on the Audit Committee and replaced Paul Oroian on the Compensation Committee effective April 1, 2014.

Effective April 1, 2014, the Company appointed Martin M. van Brauman to the Board of Directors. Mr. van Brauman is Zion’s Senior Vice-President, Corporate Secretary and Treasurer. He has previously served on the Board of Directors and also as Chief Financial Officer and Chief Legal Officer.

ITEM 11.  EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

The information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference to the 2015 Proxy Statement for the 2015 annual meeting of stockholders, which will be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days subsequent to December 31, 2014.

35

ITEM 12.  SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

The information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference to the 2015 Proxy Statement for the 2015 annual meeting of stockholders, which will be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days subsequent to December 31, 2014.

ITEM 13.  CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

The information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference to the 2015 Proxy Statement for the 2015 annual meeting of stockholders, which will be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days subsequent to December 31, 2014.

ITEM 14.  PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

The information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference to the 2015 Proxy Statement for the 2015 annual meeting of stockholders, which will be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days subsequent to December 31, 2014.

PART IV

ITEM 15. EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

(a) (1) Financial Statements:

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm – MaloneBailey, LLP

Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2014 and 2013.

Statements of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.

Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.

Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.

36

Number

Description

 

 

3.1

Certificate of Amendment to Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Zion Oil & Gas, Inc. (incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, for the quarter ended June 30, 2011, filed with the SEC on August 9, 2011, Exhibit 3.1)

 

 

3.2

Amended and Restated Bylaws of Zion Oil & Gas, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Company’s Form 10-KSB for the year ended December 31, 2007 as filed with the SEC on March 28, 2008)

 

 

4.1

Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-193336), as amended; (incorporated by reference as filed with the SEC on March 27, 2014)

   
4.2 Prospectus Supplement dated March 27, 2014, as amended, (incorporated by reference as filed with the SEC on March 31, 2014)

 

 

10.1

Joseph License (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on October 16, 2007)

 

 

10.2

Asher –Menashe License (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to the Company’s Form 10-QSB for the quarter ended June 30, 2007 as filed with the SEC on August 20, 2007) Memorandum

 

 

10.3

Executive Employment and Retention Agreements (Management Agreements)

 

 

 

(i) Employment Agreement dated November 13, 2013 and made effective January 1, 2014 between Zion Oil & Gas, Inc. and John Brown (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on November 19, 2013)

 

 

 

(ii) Amended and Restated Employment Agreement dated as of March 19, 2012 between Zion Oil & Gas, Inc. and Victor G. Carrillo (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on March 20, 2012)

 

 

 

 (iii) Third Amended and Restated Employment Agreement dated as of April 29, 2012 between Zion Oil & Gas, Inc. and Ilan Sheena (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2012 as filed with the SEC on May 3, 2012)

 

 

10.4

2005 Stock Option Plan (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.5 to the Company’s Form 10-KSB for the year ended December 31, 2005 as filed with the SEC on September 14, 2006)

 

 

10.5

Jordan Valley License (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on June 1, 2011).

 

 

10.6

Third Amendment to Lease Agreement dated as of October 11, 2011 between Zion Oil & Gas, Inc. and Hermosa LP (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on October 17, 2011)

 

 

10.7

2011 Equity Incentive Plan (filed as Annex B to the Company’s Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14 A field with the SEC on May 9, 2011)

 

 

10.8

2011 Non-Employee Directors Stock Option Plan (filed as Annex C to the Company’s Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14 A field with the SEC on May 9, 2011)

37

 

Number

Description

 

 

10.9

Amendment to Jordan Valley License (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on April 26, 2012)

 

 

10.10

Extension to Asher-Menashe License (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2012  as filed with the SEC on May 3, 2012)

 

 

10.11

Memorandum of Understanding (“MOU”) with Viking Services BV

 

10.12

Extension to Joseph License (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on October 27, 2011) (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on August 16, 2012) (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on May 23, 2013)

 

 

10.13

Extension to Asher-Menashe License (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on July 9, 2013)

 

 

10.14

Megiddo-Jezreel License (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on December 10, 2013)

 

 

14.1

Code of Ethics (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 14.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on December 10, 2007)

 

 

31.1*

Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

 

 

31.2*

Certification of Chief Financial and Accounting Officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

 

 

32.1*

Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

 

 

32.2*

Certification of Chief Financial and Accounting Officer pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

 

 

101.INS*(1)

XBRL Instance Document

 

 

101.SCH*(1)

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema

 

 

101.CAL*(1)  

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase

 

 

101.DEF*(1)

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase

 

 

101.LAB*(1)

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase

 

 

101.PRE*(1)

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase

_____________

*        filed herewith

1.       In accordance with Rule 406T of Registration S-T, these exhibits are deemed not filed or part of a registration statement or prospectus for purposes of Section 11 or 12 of the Securities Act of 1933 or Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and otherwise not subject to liability under these sections.

38

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

ZION OIL & GAS, INC.
(Registrant)

By:

/s/ John Brown

 

By:

/s/ Ilan Sheena

 

John Brown
Chief Executive Officer & Executive Chairman (Principal Executive Officer)

 

 

Ilan Sheena,
Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer and Accounting Officer)

Date: March 10, 2015

 

Date: March 10, 2015

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated:

Signature

Title

Date

 

 

 

/s/ John M. Brown

Chairman of the Board of Directors,
Chief Executive Officer and Director

March 10, 2015

John M. Brown

(Principal Executive Officer)

 

 

 

 

/s/ Ilan Sheena

Chief Financial Officer

March 10, 2015

Ilan Sheena

(Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)

 

 

 

 

/s/ Victor G. Carrillo

President, Chief Operating Officer and Director

March 10, 2015

Victor G. Carrillo

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ William H. Avery

General Counsel and Director

March 10, 2015

William H. Avery

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Martin M. van Brauman

Corporate Secretary, Treasurer and Director

March 10, 2015

Martin M. van Brauman

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Paul Oroian

Director

March 10, 2015

Paul Oroian

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Yehezkel Druckman

Director

March 10, 2015

Yehezkel Druckman

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Forrest A. Garb

Director

March 10, 2015

Forrest A. Garb

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Kent Siegel

Director

March 10, 2015

Kent Siegel

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Gene Scammahorn

Director

March 10, 2015

Gene Scammahorn

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Justin W. Furnace

Director

March 10, 2015

Justin W. Furnace

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Glen Perry

Director

March 10, 2015

Glen Perry

 

 

39

Zion Oil & Gas, Inc.

INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

 

Page

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm – MaloneBailey, LLP

 

F-2

 

 

 

 

 

Balance Sheets

 

F-3

 

 

 

 

 

Statements of Operations

 

F-4

 

 

 

 

 

Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity

 

F-5

 

 

 

 

 

Statements of Cash Flows

 

F-6

 

 

 

 

 

Notes to Financial Statements

 

F-7

 

F-1

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders
Zion Oil & Gas, Inc.
Dallas, Texas

We have audited the accompanying balance sheets of Zion Oil & Gas, Inc. (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2014 and 2013, and the related statements of operations, changes in stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years then ended.   These financial statements are the responsibility of the Compa