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EX-32.2 - EXHIBIT 32.2 - MOHEGAN TRIBAL GAMING AUTHORITYa2019930ex322.htm
EX-32.1 - EXHIBIT 32.1 - MOHEGAN TRIBAL GAMING AUTHORITYa2019930ex321.htm
EX-31.2 - EXHIBIT 31.2 - MOHEGAN TRIBAL GAMING AUTHORITYa2019930ex312.htm
EX-31.1 - EXHIBIT 31.1 - MOHEGAN TRIBAL GAMING AUTHORITYa2019930ex311.htm
EX-10.22 - EXHIBIT 10.22 - MOHEGAN TRIBAL GAMING AUTHORITYa2019930ex1022.htm

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
____________________________________________________________ 
FORM 10-K
____________________________________________________________ 
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019
or
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number 033-80655
____________________________________________________________ 
MOHEGAN TRIBAL GAMING AUTHORITY
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
____________________________________________________________ 
Not Applicable
 
06-1436334
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
One Mohegan Sun Boulevard, Uncasville, CT
 
06382
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(860) 862-8000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
None
 
None
 
None
(Title of each class)
 
(Trading symbol)
 
(Name of each exchange on which registered)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
 ____________________________________________________________ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  o    No  ý

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ý    No  o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  o    No  x*
* The registrant is a voluntary filer of reports required to be filed by certain companies under Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and has filed all reports that would have been required during the preceding 12 months had it been subject to such filing requirements.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter)
during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ý     No  o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  o     Accelerated filer  o    Non-accelerated filer  ý    Smaller reporting company  o Emerging growth company  o

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  o    No  ý



MOHEGAN TRIBAL GAMING AUTHORITY
INDEX TO FORM 10-K
 
 
 
Page
Number
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART I
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
Item 1A.
 
 
 
Item 1B.
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
 
 
 
Item 6.
 
 
 
Item 7.
 
 
 
Item 7A.
 
 
 
Item 8.
 
 
 
Item 9.
 
 
 
Item 9A.
 
 
 
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
 
 
 
Item 11.
 
 
 
Item 12.
 
 
 
Item 13.
 
 
 
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
 
 
 
Item 16.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 




References in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the “Company” are to the Mohegan Tribal Gaming Authority d/b/a Mohegan Gaming & Entertainment and references to the “Mohegan Tribe” are to the Mohegan Tribe of Indians of Connecticut. The terms “we” or “us” or “our” refer to the Company.

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains statements about future events, including, without limitation, information relating to business development activities, as well as capital spending, financing sources, the effects of regulation, including gaming and tax regulation, and increased competition. All statements other than statements of historical fact are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements, within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Securities Exchange Act”). These statements can sometimes be identified by our use of forward-looking words such as “may,” “will,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect” or “intend” and similar expressions. Such forward-looking information involves important risks and uncertainties that could significantly affect anticipated future results and, accordingly, such results may differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf. You should review carefully all of the information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
In addition to the risk factors described under “Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors,” the following important factors, among others, could affect our future financial condition or results of operations, causing actual results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements:
the financial performance of our various operations;
the local, regional, national or global economic climate;
increased competition, including the expansion of gaming in jurisdictions in which we own or operate gaming facilities;
our leverage and ability to meet our debt service obligations and maintain compliance with financial debt covenants;
the continued availability of financing;
our dependence on existing management;
our ability to integrate new amenities from expansions to our facilities into our current operations and manage the expanded facilities;
changes in federal or state tax laws or the administration of such laws;
changes in gaming laws or regulations, including the limitation, denial or suspension of licenses required under gaming laws and regulations;
cyber security risks relating to our information technology and other systems, including misappropriation of patron information or other breaches of information security;
changes in applicable laws pertaining to the service of alcohol, smoking or other amenities offered at our facilities;
our ability to successfully implement our diversification strategy;
an act of terrorism;
our customers' access to inexpensive transportation to our facilities and changes in oil, fuel or other transportation-related expenses;
unfavorable weather conditions;
risks associated with operations in foreign jurisdictions;
failure by our employees, agents, affiliates, vendors or businesses to comply with applicable laws, rules and regulations, including state gaming laws and regulations and anti-bribery laws such as the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions; and
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
These factors and the other risk factors discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are not necessarily all of the important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any of the forward-looking statements. Other unknown or unpredictable factors also could have material adverse effects on our future results. The forward-looking statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are made only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We do not have and do not undertake any obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances, except as required by law. We cannot assure you that projected results or events will be achieved or will occur.

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PART I


Item 1.
Business.
Our Company
We were established in July 1995 by the Mohegan Tribe, a federally-recognized Indian tribe with an approximately 595-acre reservation situated in southeastern Connecticut, adjacent to Uncasville, Connecticut. Under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (“IGRA”), federally-recognized Indian tribes are permitted to conduct full-scale casino gaming operations on tribal lands, subject to, among other things, the negotiation of a compact with the affected state. The Mohegan Tribe and the State of Connecticut entered into such a compact, the Mohegan Compact, which was approved by the United States Secretary of the Interior. We were established as an instrumentality of the Mohegan Tribe, with the exclusive authority to conduct and regulate gaming activities for the Mohegan Tribe on tribal lands and the non-exclusive authority to conduct such activities elsewhere. We are governed and overseen by a nine-member Management Board, whose members also comprise the Mohegan Tribal Council, the governing body of the Mohegan Tribe. Any change in the composition of the Mohegan Tribal Council results in a corresponding change in our Management Board.
We are primarily engaged in the ownership, operation and development of integrated entertainment facilities, both domestically and internationally, including: (i) Mohegan Sun in Uncasville, Connecticut, (ii) Mohegan Sun Pocono in Plains Township, Pennsylvania, (iii) Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort, Casino Niagara and the future 5,000-seat Niagara Falls Entertainment Centre, all in Niagara Falls, Canada (the “MGE Niagara Resorts”), (iv) Resorts Casino Hotel in Atlantic City, New Jersey, (v) ilani Casino Resort in Clark County, Washington, (vi) Paragon Casino Resort in Marksville, Louisiana and (vii) Project Inspire, a first-of-its-kind, multi-billion dollar integrated resort and casino under construction at Incheon International Airport in South Korea.
Our principal executive office and mailing address is One Mohegan Sun Boulevard, Uncasville, CT 06382. Our telephone number is (860) 862-8000. Our corporate website address is www.mohegangaming.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports, as well as any other information filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) under the Securities Exchange Act, are made available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission. We intend to use our corporate website as a regular means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with disclosure obligations under Regulation FD promulgated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Such disclosures will be included on our corporate website under the heading “News” or “Financial Information.” Any updates to the list of social media channels we use to announce material information will be posted on the “News” or “Financial Information” page of our corporate website. Accordingly, investors should monitor such portions of our corporate website and social media channels, in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings, public conference calls and webcasts.
Strategy
Our overall strategy is to: (i) drive incremental profit through gaming and non-gaming initiatives, most notably the enhancement of entertainment amenities, at our existing integrated resorts and in our core markets, (ii) diversify our business interests within the integrated resort and entertainment industry, both domestically and internationally and (iii) enhance our credit profile by reducing leverage through improved operational efficiency, increased financial discipline and high return investment and revenue diversification efforts.
Domestically, we developed Mohegan Sun into a full-scale entertainment and destination resort and further strengthened our presence in the Northeastern United States gaming market with the acquisition of Mohegan Sun Pocono. Our domestic gaming portfolio also includes the management of Resorts Casino Hotel and Paragon Casino Resort, as well as the development and management of ilani Casino Resort. We have also taken significant steps in our diversification efforts internationally with the recent acquisition of the MGE Niagara Resorts and the development of Project Inspire.



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Our Properties
Property
 
Location
 
Opening Year
 
Casino Square Footage
 
Slot Machines
 
Table Games
 
Hotel Rooms
 
Food & Beverage Outlets
 
Primary Entertainment Venue (Seats)
Owned
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mohegan Sun
 
Uncasville, CT
 
1996
 
298,000
 
4,106
 
315
 
1,562
 
40
 
10,000
Mohegan Sun Pocono
 
Wilkes-Barre, PA
 
2006
 
96,000
 
2,319
 
74
 
238
 
14
 
1,500
Resorts Casino Hotel (1)
 
Atlantic City, NJ
 
1978
 
79,000
 
1,440
 
74
 
942
 
22
 
1,250
Managed
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ilani Casino Resort
 
La Center, WA
 
2017
 
107,000
 
2,536
 
75
 
TBD
 
13
 
2,578
Paragon Casino Resort
 
Marksville, LA
 
1995
 
106,000
 
1,070
 
32
 
535
 
6
 
2,500
Virgin Hotels Las Vegas (2)
 
Las Vegas, NV
 
2020
 
58,000
 
650
 
55
 
1,500
 
10
 
4,800
International
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort (3)
 
Niagara Falls, ON
 
2004
 
137,000
 
3,099
 
128
 
374
 
24
 
5,000
Casino Niagara
 
Niagara Falls, ON
 
1996
 
82,000
 
1,405
 
38
 
NA
 
4
 
NA
Project Inspire (4)
 
Incheon, South Korea
 
2022
 
155,000
 
700
 
160
 
1,250
 
40
 
15,000
 
 
 
 
 
 
1,118,000
 
17,325
 
951
 
6,401
 
173
 
42,628
_________
(1)
10% ownership.
(2)
Scheduled to open in November 2020.
(3)
The Niagara Falls Entertainment Centre is scheduled to open in 2020.
(4)
The casino resort phase of the project is scheduled to open in mid-2022.

Mohegan Sun
Mohegan Sun is located on an approximately 196-acre site on the Mohegan Tribe's reservation overlooking the Thames River with direct access from Interstate 395 and Connecticut Route 2A. Mohegan Sun is approximately 125 miles from New York City, New York, and approximately 100 miles from Boston, Massachusetts. The facility is one of two authorized gaming and entertainment facilities in the state of Connecticut and competes with gaming operations in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York.
Mohegan Sun Pocono
Mohegan Sun Pocono is located on an approximately 400-acre site in Plains Township, Pennsylvania. The facility is located off of Interstate 81 and is approximately eight miles from the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton International Airport. Mohegan Sun Pocono is one of 12 gaming and entertainment facilities operating in the state of Pennsylvania and competes primarily with facilities in Bethlehem and Pocono.
Resorts Casino Hotel
We manage Resorts Casino Hotel and own 10% of the casino's holding company and its subsidiaries, including those conducting or licensing online gaming and retail sports wagering in the state of New Jersey. Resorts Casino Hotel, the first casino hotel in Atlantic City, New Jersey, opened in 1978, becoming the first legal casino outside of the state of Nevada. Resorts Casino Hotel is one of nine casinos operating in Atlantic City.
ilani Casino Resort
We developed and currently manage ilani Casino Resort in Clark County, Washington, a gaming and entertainment facility owned by the federally-recognized Cowlitz Indian Tribe and the Cowlitz Tribal Gaming Authority. ilani Casino Resort is located 45 minutes outside of the rapidly expanding Portland, Oregon, region on Interstate 5.
Paragon Casino Resort
We manage Paragon Casino Resort in Marksville, Louisiana, under a federally-approved management contract. The facility is located off of State Highway 1, which is 40 minutes outside of Alexandria, Louisiana. Paragon Casino Resort competes with casinos throughout the Louisiana and Mississippi gaming markets.
Virgin Hotels Las Vegas
We will operate the 60,000-square-foot casino at Virgin Hotels Las Vegas following its scheduled opening in November 2020. Virgin Hotels Las Vegas is a strategic partnership between us and JC Hospitality, LLC, which is currently redeveloping the

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existing Hard Rock Hotel and Casino under the Virgin Hotels brand. Virgin Hotels Las Vegas will compete with casinos in Las Vegas.
MGE Niagara Resorts
In June 2019, we completed the acquisition of the MGE Niagara Resorts and assumed the day-to-day operations of the properties under the terms of a casino operating and services agreement. The facilities are the only two gaming and entertainment facilities in Niagara Falls, Canada. Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort overlooks the iconic Horseshoe Falls. The MGE Niagara Resorts compete with facilities in Toronto, Ontario and Niagara Falls, New York.
Project Inspire
In February 2016, we were awarded pre-approval for a foreigner-only gaming license to be issued upon completion of the construction of Project Inspire. In August 2016, we entered into an agreement with the Incheon International Airport Authority for the long-term lease and development of approximately 4.4 million square meters of land located directly adjacent to Terminal 2 of the Incheon International Airport in South Korea. The casino resort phase of Project Inspire is scheduled to open in mid-2022. Project Inspire will compete with another casino resort located in Incheon and several other smaller casino-only operations located in downtown Seoul.
Seasonality
The gaming markets in the Northeastern United States and Niagara Falls, Canada, are seasonal in nature, with peak gaming activities often occurring during the months of May through August.
Mohegan Tribe of Indians of Connecticut
General
The Mohegan Tribe has lived in a cohesive community for hundreds of years in what is today southeastern Connecticut. The Mohegan Tribe became a federally-recognized Indian tribe in 1994 and currently has approximately 2,200 members, of which approximately 1,400 are of voting age.
Governance of the Mohegan Tribe
The Mohegan Tribe's Constitution provides for the governance of the Mohegan Tribe by the Mohegan Tribal Council, consisting of nine members, and a Council of Elders, consisting of seven members. Legislative and executive powers of the Mohegan Tribe are vested in the Mohegan Tribal Council, with the exception of enrollment of tribal members and cultural duties which are vested in the Council of Elders. The members of the Mohegan Tribal Council also serve as members and officers on our Management Board. The registered voters of the Mohegan Tribe elect all members of the Mohegan Tribal Council. Pursuant to the Mohegan Tribe's Constitution, the members of the Mohegan Tribal Council are elected on a four-year staggered term basis. The terms for five members of the Mohegan Tribal Council expire in October 2021, while the terms for the remaining four members expire in October 2023. Members of the Mohegan Tribal Council must be at least 21 years of age when elected.
The Mohegan Tribe may amend provisions of its Constitution that established us and the Gaming Disputes Court, which is described below. Such an amendment requires the approval of two-thirds of the members of the Mohegan Tribal Council and must be ratified by registered voters of the Mohegan Tribe by a two-thirds majority of all votes cast, with at least a 40% participation of registered voters of the Mohegan Tribe. In addition, the Mohegan Tribe's Constitution currently prohibits the Mohegan Tribe from enacting any law that would impair the obligations of contracts entered into in furtherance of the development, construction, operation and promotion of gaming on tribal lands. An amendment to this provision requires the affirmative vote of 75% of registered voters of the Mohegan Tribe. Prior to the enactment of any such amendment by the Mohegan Tribal Council, any non-tribal party would have the opportunity to seek a ruling from the Appellate Branch of the Gaming Disputes Court that the proposed amendment would constitute an impermissible impairment of contract.
Gaming Disputes Court
Under the Constitution and laws of the Mohegan Tribe, the Mohegan Tribe has established a Gaming Disputes Court, which is vested with exclusive jurisdiction over all disputes related to gaming and associated facilities on tribal lands, including appeals from certain final administrative agency decisions.
The Gaming Disputes Court has jurisdiction over all disputes or controversies related to gaming between any person or entity and us or the Mohegan Tribe. The Gaming Disputes Court also has jurisdiction over certain appeals arising out of tribal agency regulatory powers, including licensing actions. The Mohegan Tribe has adopted the substantive law of the State of Connecticut as the applicable law of the Gaming Disputes Court to the extent that such law is not in conflict with Mohegan Tribal

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Law. Also, the Mohegan Tribe has adopted all of Connecticut's rules of civil and appellate procedure and professional and judicial conduct to govern the Gaming Disputes Court.
Judges of the Gaming Disputes Court are chosen by the Mohegan Tribal Council from a publicly available list of eligible retired federal judges and Connecticut Attorney Trial Referees, who are appointed by the Chief Justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court, each of whom must remain licensed to practice law in Connecticut.
Mohegan Gaming & Entertainment
We were established by the Mohegan Tribe in July 1995 with the exclusive authority to conduct and regulate gaming activities for the Mohegan Tribe on tribal lands and the non-exclusive authority to conduct such activities elsewhere. We are governed and overseen by a nine-member Management Board, whose members also comprise the Mohegan Tribal Council, the governing body of the Mohegan Tribe. Any change in the composition of the Mohegan Tribal Council results in a corresponding change in our Management Board. See Mohegan Tribe of Indians of Connecticut and Part III. Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We have three major functions. The first function is to identify and evaluate, in conjunction with the Mohegan Tribe, and, where appropriate, pursue and execute upon various business opportunities in an effort to diversify our revenue base and cash flow streams. These opportunities primarily consist of development, consulting and/or management of, investment in or ownership of additional gaming and entertainment operations through direct investments, acquisitions, joint venture arrangements and loan or financial/credit support transactions. The second function is to direct the operation, management and promotion of gaming enterprises and all related activities on tribal lands. The third function is to regulate gaming activities on tribal lands. Our Management Board has appointed an independent Director of Regulation responsible for the regulation of gaming activities at Mohegan Sun. The Director of Regulation serves at the will of the Management Board and ensures the integrity of gaming operation through the promulgation and enforcement of appropriate regulations. The Director of Regulation and his staff are also responsible for performing background investigations and licensing of non-gaming employees, as well as vendors seeking to provide non-gaming products or services within the casino. Pursuant to the Mohegan Compact, the State of Connecticut is responsible for performing background investigations and licensing of gaming employees, as well as gaming vendors seeking to provide gaming products or services within the casino.
Government Regulation
General
Our operations at Mohegan Sun are subject to certain federal, state and tribal laws applicable to both general commercial relationships with Indians and specific to Indian gaming and the management and financing of Indian casinos. Our operations at Mohegan Sun Pocono are also subject to Pennsylvania laws and regulations applicable to harness racing, simulcasting, slot machine, table gaming, interactive online gaming and sports wagering. The following description of the regulatory environment in which gaming takes place and in which we operate is only a summary and not a complete recitation of all applicable law. Moreover, since this regulatory environment is susceptible to changes in public policy considerations, it is impossible to predict how particular provisions will be interpreted, from time to time, or whether they will remain intact. Changes in such laws could have a material adverse impact on our operations. See Risk Factors to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Tribal Law and Legal Systems
Applicability of State and Federal Law
Federally-recognized Indian tribes are independent governments, subordinate to the United States, with sovereign powers, except as those powers may have been limited by treaty or by Congress. The power of Indian tribes to enact their own laws to regulate gaming derives from the exercise of this tribal sovereignty. Indian tribes maintain their own governmental systems and often their own judicial systems. Indian tribes have the right to tax persons and enterprises conducting business on tribal lands, and also have the right to require licenses and to impose other forms of regulations and regulatory fees on persons and businesses operating on their lands.
Absent the consent of the Mohegan Tribe or action of Congress, the laws of the State of Connecticut do not apply to us or the Mohegan Tribe. Pursuant to the federal law that settled the Mohegan Tribe's land claims in 1994, the United States and the Mohegan Tribe consented to, among other things, the extension of Connecticut criminal law and Connecticut state traffic controls over Mohegan Sun.
Waiver of Sovereign Immunity; Jurisdiction; Exhaustion of Tribal Remedies
Indian tribes enjoy sovereign immunity from unconsented suit similar to that of the states and the United States. In order to sue an Indian tribe (or an agency or instrumentality of an Indian tribe, such as us), the Mohegan Tribe must have effectively

5


waived its sovereign immunity with respect to the matter in dispute. Further, in most commercial disputes with Indian tribes, the jurisdiction of the federal courts, which are courts of limited jurisdiction, may be difficult or impossible to obtain. A commercial dispute is unlikely to present a federal question, and some courts have ruled that an Indian tribe as a party is not a citizen of any state for purposes of establishing diversity jurisdiction in the federal courts. State courts may also lack jurisdiction over suits brought by non-Indians against Indian tribes in Connecticut. The remedies available against an Indian tribe also depend, at least in part, upon the rules of comity requiring initial exhaustion of remedies in tribal tribunals and, as to some judicial remedies, the tribe's consent to jurisdictional provisions contained in the disputed agreements. The United States Supreme Court has held that, where a tribal court exists, jurisdiction in that forum first must be exhausted before any dispute can be heard properly by federal courts which otherwise would have jurisdiction. Where a dispute as to the jurisdiction of the tribal forum exists, the tribal court first must rule as to the limits of its own jurisdiction.
In connection with certain of our contractual arrangements, including substantially all of our outstanding indebtedness, we, the Mohegan Tribe, Mohegan Basketball Club, LLC, Mohegan Golf, LLC, Mohegan Ventures-Northwest, LLC, and to the extent applicable, Mohegan Commercial Ventures-PA, LLC, Downs Racing, Backside, L.P., Mill Creek Land, L.P. and Northeast Concessions, L.P. (the "Pocono subsidiaries"), and certain of our subsidiaries and entities have agreed to waive our and their respective sovereign immunity from unconsented suit to permit any court of competent jurisdiction to: (i) enforce and interpret the terms of our applicable outstanding indebtedness, and award and enforce the award of damages owing as a consequence of a breach thereof, whether such award is the product of litigation, administrative proceedings, or arbitration, (ii) determine whether any consent or approval of the Mohegan Tribe or us has been granted improperly or withheld unreasonably, (iii) enforce any judgment prohibiting the Mohegan Tribe or us from taking any action, or mandating or obligating the Mohegan Tribe or us to take any action, including a judgment compelling the Mohegan Tribe or us to submit to binding arbitration and (iv) adjudicate any claim under the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968, 25 U.S.C. § 1302 (or any successor statute).
The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988
Regulatory Authority
The operation of casinos and gaming on Indian lands is subject to IGRA, which is administered by the National Indian Gaming Commission ("NIGC"), an independent agency within the United States Department of the Interior, which exercises primary federal regulatory responsibility over Indian gaming. The NIGC has exclusive federal authority to issue regulations governing tribal gaming activities, approve tribal ordinances for regulating Class II and Class III Gaming (as described below), approve management agreements for gaming facilities, conduct investigations and generally monitor tribal gaming. Certain responsibilities under IGRA (such as the approval of gaming compacts, gaming revenue allocation plans for tribal members and the review of applications to take land into trust for gaming) are retained by the Bureau of Indian Affairs ("BIA"). The BIA also has responsibility to review and approve certain agreements and land leases relating to Indian lands. The United States Department of Justice also retains responsibility for federal criminal law enforcement on the Mohegan reservation.
The NIGC is empowered to inspect and audit all Indian gaming facilities, to conduct background checks on all persons associated with Class II Gaming and management contractors involved in Class III Gaming, to hold hearings, issue subpoenas, take depositions, adopt regulations and assess fees and impose civil penalties for violations of IGRA. IGRA also prohibits illegal gaming on Indian lands and theft from Indian gaming facilities. The NIGC has adopted rules implementing specific provisions of IGRA, which govern, among other things, the submission and approval of tribal gaming ordinances or resolutions and require an Indian tribe to have the sole proprietary interest in and responsibility for the conduct of any gaming. Tribes are required to issue gaming licenses only under articulated standards, to conduct or commission financial audits of their gaming enterprises, to perform or commission background investigations for primary management officials and key employees and to maintain their facilities in a manner that adequately protects the environment and the public health and safety. These rules also set out review and reporting procedures for tribal licensing of gaming operation employees and tribal gaming facilities.
Tribal Ordinances
Under IGRA, except to the extent otherwise provided in a tribal-state compact, Indian tribal governments have primary regulatory authority over Class III Gaming on land within a tribe's jurisdiction. Therefore, our gaming operations, and persons engaged in gaming activities, are guided by and subject to the provisions of the Mohegan Tribe's ordinances and regulations regarding gaming, in addition to the provisions of the Mohegan Compact.
IGRA requires that the NIGC review tribal gaming ordinances and authorizes the NIGC to approve such ordinances only if they meet specific requirements relating to: (i) the ownership, security, personnel background, record keeping and auditing of a tribe's gaming enterprises, (ii) the use of the revenues from such gaming and (iii) the protection of the environment and the public health and safety. The Mohegan Tribe adopted its gaming ordinance in July 1994, and the NIGC approved the gaming ordinance in November 1994.


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Classes of Gaming
IGRA classifies games that may be conducted on Indian lands into three categories. Class I Gaming includes social games solely for prizes of minimal value or traditional forms of Indian gaming engaged in by individuals as part of, or in connection with, tribal ceremonies or celebrations. Class II Gaming includes bingo, pull-tabs, lotto, punch boards, tip jars, certain non-banked card games (if such games are played legally elsewhere in the state), instant bingo and other games similar to bingo, if those games are played at the same location where bingo is played. Class III Gaming includes all other forms of gaming, such as slot machines, video casino games (e.g., video blackjack and video poker), so-called banked table games (e.g., blackjack, craps and roulette) and other commercial gaming (e.g., sports betting and pari-mutuel wagering).
Class I Gaming on Indian lands is within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Indian tribe and is not subject to IGRA. Class II Gaming is permitted on Indian lands if: (i) the state in which the Indian lands lie permits such gaming for any purpose by any person, organization or entity, (ii) the gaming is not otherwise specifically prohibited on Indian lands by federal law, (iii) the gaming is conducted in accordance with a tribal ordinance or resolution which has been approved by the NIGC, (iv) an Indian tribe has sole proprietary interest and responsibility for the conduct of gaming, (v) the primary management officials and key employees are tribally licensed and (vi) several other requirements are met. Class III Gaming is permitted on Indian lands if the conditions applicable to Class II Gaming are met, and in addition, the gaming is conducted in conformance with the terms of a tribal-state compact (a written agreement between the tribal government and the government of the state within whose boundaries the tribe's lands lie).
With the growth of the Internet and other modern advances, computers and other technology aids are increasingly used to conduct specific kinds of gaming, such as poker or wagering on horse racing. Several states, including Nevada, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, have passed legislation to license and tax on-line gaming conducted on an intra-state basis or with other states by compact, while new federal on-line gaming legislation has been introduced in Congress from time to time. To date, Congress has not passed amendments to the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of 2006 or new legislation to establish a licensing, taxing and enforcement framework for Internet gaming. Nor has Congress responded to the United States Supreme Court’s decision in May 2018 which overturned the federal law on sports wagering.
Tribal-State Compacts
IGRA requires states to negotiate in good faith with Indian tribes that seek to enter into tribal-state compacts for the conduct of Class III Gaming. Such tribal-state compacts may include provisions for the allocation of criminal and civil jurisdiction between the state and the Indian tribe necessary for the enforcement of laws and regulations, taxation by the Indian tribe of gaming activities in amounts comparable to those amounts assessed by the state for comparable activities, remedies for breach of compacts, standards for the operation of gaming and maintenance of gaming facilities, including licensing and any other subjects that are directly related to the operation of gaming activities. While the terms of tribal-state compacts vary from state to state, compacts within a state tend to be substantially similar. Tribal-state compacts usually specify the types of permitted games, establish technical standards for gaming, set maximum and minimum machine payout percentages, entitle the state to inspect casinos, require background investigations and licensing of casino employees and may require the tribe to pay a portion of the state's expenses for establishing and maintaining regulatory agencies. Some tribal-state compacts are for set terms, while others are for an indefinite duration.
IGRA provides that if an Indian tribe and state fail to successfully negotiate a tribal-state compact, the United States Department of the Interior may approve gaming procedures pursuant to which Class III Gaming may be conducted on Indian lands. Gaming compacts or approved gaming procedures take effect upon notice of approval by the United States Secretary of the Interior published in the Federal Register. The Mohegan Compact, approved by the United States Secretary of the Interior in 1994, does not have a specific term and will remain in effect until terminated by written agreement between both parties, or the provisions are modified as a result of a change in applicable law. Our gaming operations are subject to the requirements and restrictions contained in the Mohegan Compact, which authorizes the Mohegan Tribe to conduct most forms of Class III Gaming. In July 2017, the Mohegan Tribe and the State of Connecticut entered into an agreement to amend the Mohegan Compact and the Memorandum of Understanding (the "MOU") to allow the Mohegan Tribe and the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation (“MPT”) to jointly and exclusively own a proposed off-reservation casino under development in East Windsor, Connecticut. While amendments to the Mohegan Compact and that of MPT have been approved by the United States Secretary of the Interior, recent lawsuits challenging that approval remain pending.
Tribal-state compacts have been the subject of litigation in a number of states. Tribes frequently sought to enforce the provision of IGRA which entitles tribes to bring suit in federal court against a state that fails to negotiate a tribal-state compact in good faith. The United States Supreme Court held that the Indian Commerce Clause does not grant Congress authority to abrogate sovereign immunity granted to the states under the Eleventh Amendment. Accordingly, IGRA does not grant jurisdiction over a state that did not consent to be sued.

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There has been litigation in a number of states challenging the authority of state governors, under state law, to enter into tribal-state compacts without legislative approval. Federal courts have upheld such authority in the states of Louisiana and Mississippi. The highest state courts of Arizona, Kansas, Michigan, New Mexico, New York and Rhode Island have held that governors in those states did not have authority to enter into such compacts without the consent or authorization of the legislatures of those states. In the New Mexico and Kansas cases, the courts held that the authority to enter into such compacts is a legislative function under their respective state constitutions. The court in the New Mexico case also held that state law does not permit casino-style gaming.
In Connecticut, there has been no litigation challenging the Governor's authority to enter into tribal-state compacts. If such a suit was filed, however, the Mohegan Tribe does not believe that the precedent in the New Mexico or Kansas cases would apply. At the time of execution of the Mohegan Compact, the Connecticut Attorney General issued a formal opinion, which states that, “existing state statutes provide the Governor with the authority to negotiate and execute the Mohegan Compact.” Thus, the Attorney General declined to follow the Kansas case. In addition, in a case brought by the MPT, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has held that Connecticut law authorizes casino gaming. After execution of the Mohegan Compact, the Connecticut General Assembly passed a law requiring that future gaming compacts be approved by the legislature, but that law does not apply to previously executed compacts such as the Mohegan Compact, unless amended. As mentioned above, in July 2017, the Mohegan Tribe and the State of Connecticut entered into an agreement to amend the Mohegan Compact and the MOU to allow the Mohegan Tribe and MPT to jointly and exclusively own a proposed off-reservation casino in East Windsor, Connecticut. While amendments to the Mohegan Compact and that of MPT have been approved by the United States Secretary of the Interior, recent lawsuits challenging that approval remain pending.
Possible Changes in Federal Law
Bills have been introduced in Congress from time to time seeking to amend IGRA. While there have been a number of technical amendments to the law, to date, there have been no material changes to IGRA. Any amendment to IGRA could change the regulatory environment and requirements within which the Mohegan Tribe could conduct gaming.
Pennsylvania Racing Regulations
Our harness racing operation at Mohegan Sun Pocono is subject to extensive regulation under the Pennsylvania Racing Act. Under that law, as amended in 2016, the previously separate thoroughbred and standardbred commissions were combined under the jurisdiction of the Pennsylvania State Horse Racing Commission (the "PSHRC"), which is responsible for, among other things:
granting permission annually to maintain racing licenses and schedule races;
approving, after a public hearing, the opening of additional OTWs and racetracks;
approving simulcasting activities;
licensing all officers, directors, racing officials and certain other employees of a company; and
approving all contracts entered into by a company affecting racing, pari-mutuel wagering, phone/internet wagering and OTW operations, including online gaming and sports wagering.
As in most states, the regulations and oversight applicable to our operations in Pennsylvania are intended primarily to safeguard the legitimacy of the sport and its freedom from inappropriate or criminal influences. The PSHRC has broad authority to regulate in the best interests of racing and may disapprove the involvement of certain personnel in our operations, deny approval of certain acquisitions following their consummation or withhold permission for a proposed OTW site for a variety of reasons, including community opposition. The Pennsylvania legislature has also reserved the right to revoke the power of the PSHRC to approve additional OTWs and could, at any time, terminate pari-mutuel wagering as a form of legalized gaming in Pennsylvania or subject such wagering to additional restrictive regulation or taxation.
Pennsylvania Gaming Regulations
Our slot machine and table game operations at Mohegan Sun Pocono are subject to extensive regulation under the Pennsylvania Gaming Act. Under that law, as amended, the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board (the "PGCB"), is responsible for, among other things:
issuing and renewing slot machine licenses and table game certificates;
approving, after a public hearing, the granting of additional slot machine licenses or table game certificates (to the extent allowed under the Pennsylvania Gaming Act);
licensing all officers, directors, principals and certain other employees and vendors of a company with gaming operations;

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approving certain contracts entered into by a company affecting gaming operations; and
implementing latest gaming expansion legislation signed by the Governor of Pennsylvania in October 2017.
As in most states, the regulations and oversight applicable to our operations in Pennsylvania are intended primarily to safeguard the legitimacy of gaming and its freedom from inappropriate or criminal influences. The PGCB has broad authority to regulate in the best interests of gaming and may disapprove the involvement of certain personnel in our operations, reject certain transactions following their consummation, require divestiture by unsuitable persons or withhold permission on applicable gaming matters for a variety of reasons.
Canadian Gaming Regulations
The MGE Niagara Resorts are subject to both Federal and Provincial legal and regulatory considerations. Federally, the Canadian Criminal Code stipulates that operations like MGE Niagara Resorts and certain other forms of gaming must be conducted and managed by the government of a province. As a service provider licensed by the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario (“AGCO”), we must provide gaming-related services in Ontario within this provincial conduct and management structure. That structure is made up of Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation (“OLG”), as the provincial entity that conducts and manages lottery schemes on behalf of the Province, and the AGCO, as the provincial regulator responsible for the administration of the Ontario Gaming Control Act (among other Acts).
OLG is the Crown Agency of the government of Ontario charged with overseeing the business of Ontario’s gaming industry. Established pursuant to the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation Act, 1999 (the “OLG Act”), OLG’s purpose is to enhance Ontario’s economic development, generate revenues for Ontario, promote responsible gaming with respect to lottery schemes, and ensure anything done regarding any or all of the foregoing is also done for the public good and in Ontario’s best interests.
Included in OLG’s objects are:
To develop, undertake, organize, conduct and manage gaming on behalf of the Province of Ontario.
To provide for the operation of gaming sites.
To ensure gaming and gaming sites are conducted, managed and operated in accordance with the Criminal Code (Canada), the OLG Act and the Gaming Control Act, 1992 (the “GCA”) and the regulations made under them.
To provide for the operation of any business that OLG considers to be reasonably related to gaming operations, including any business that offers goods and services to persons who participate in gaming.
The AGCO is responsible for regulating various forms of gaming in Ontario pursuant to the broad powers granted to it under the GCA.
With respect to casino gaming such as carried out at MGE Niagara Resorts, the AGCO’s overarching regulatory objective is to ensure that all such gaming is operated within the law and with honesty and integrity and in the broader public interest. The agency undertakes a number of key activities to fulfill its regulatory mandate including:
Conducting eligibility assessments and registering operators, suppliers and gaming assistants who work in or supply the casino sector;
Testing, approving and monitoring slot machines and gaming management systems;
Establishing standards and requirements for the conduct, management and operation of lottery schemes, gaming sites and related businesses;
Inspecting, auditing and monitoring casinos for compliance with the GCA and its regulation, licence/registration requirements and the standards and requirements established by the Registrar of Alcohol, Gaming and Racing;
Approving rules of play or changes to the rules of play for games conducted and managed by the OLG;
Excluding persons from accessing gaming sites pursuant to the GCA; and
Maintaining Ontario Provincial Police Casino Enforcement operations and presence to support a safe and secure environment at all gaming sites.




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Employees and Labor Relations
Mohegan Sun
As of September 30, 2019, our Connecticut operations employed approximately 4,500 full-time employees and 2,000 seasonal, part-time and on-call employees. Pursuant to the Tribal Employment Rights Ordinance, when recruiting and hiring personnel, except key personnel, our Connecticut operations are obligated to give first preference to qualified members of the Mohegan Tribe and then to enrolled members of other Indian tribes. None of our Connecticut operations' employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements.
Mohegan Sun Pocono
As of September 30, 2019, our Pennsylvania operations employed approximately 800 full-time employees and 375 seasonal, part-time and on-call employees. Certain of these employees are represented under collective bargaining agreements between Downs Racing and either, the International Union of Operating Engineers Local Union 542C or Teamsters Local No. 401. The agreement with Local Union 542C expires on March 31, 2023 and relates to equipment and heavy equipment operators. The agreement with Local No. 401 expires on January 31, 2022 and relates to truck drivers and maintenance employees.
MGE Niagara Resorts
As of September 30, 2019, the MGE Niagara Resorts employed approximately 2,550 full-time employees and 1,575 seasonal, part-time and on-call employees. Of these employees, 175 are represented under a collective bargaining agreement between Unifor Canada and Complex Services Inc. (d/b/a Casino Niagara and Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort). This agreement expired on December 11, 2019 and relates to employees classified as security officers. Negotiations are currently in progress for a new agreement.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.
In connection with the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, set forth below are cautionary statements identifying important factors that could cause actual events or results to differ materially from any forward-looking statements made by or on behalf of us, whether oral or written. We wish to ensure that any forward-looking statements are accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements in order to maximize to the fullest extent possible the protections of the safe harbor established in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Accordingly, any such statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to, and are accompanied by, the following important factors that could cause actual events or results to differ materially from our forward-looking statements. Refer also to Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements on page 1 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Our substantial indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition.
We currently have and will continue to have a substantial amount of indebtedness. As of September 30, 2019, our debt totaled approximately $2 billion.
Our substantial indebtedness could have significant adverse effects on our business. Such adverse effects could include, without limitation, the following:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our debt service obligations;
increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic, industry and competitive conditions;
requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations towards debt repayment, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flows to fund working capital requirements, capital expenditures and other general operating requirements;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the gaming industry, which may place us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors with stronger liquidity positions, thereby negatively affecting our results of operations and ability to meet our financial obligations;
restricting us from exploring or taking advantage of business opportunities;
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors with less indebtedness; and
limiting, along with the financial and other restrictive covenants of our outstanding indebtedness, our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital requirements, capital expenditures, acquisitions, investments, debt service requirements, execution of our business strategy or other general operating requirements on satisfactory terms or at all.
In addition, our senior secured credit facilities and the indentures governing our existing notes contain, and the agreements evidencing or governing other future indebtedness may contain, restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our best interests. Our failure to comply with those covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of the required repayment of some or all of our indebtedness.
We, the Mohegan Tribe and our wholly-owned subsidiaries may not be subject to federal bankruptcy laws, which could impair the ability of creditors to participate in the realization on our or our subsidiaries' assets or the restructuring of related liabilities if we are unwilling or unable to meet our debt service obligations.  
We, the Mohegan Tribe and our wholly-owned subsidiaries that are tribal entities may or may not be subject to, or permitted to seek protection under, federal bankruptcy laws since an Indian tribe and we, as an instrumentality of the Mohegan Tribe, may or may not be eligible to be a debtor under the United States Bankruptcy Code. Therefore, our creditors may not be able to seek liquidation of our or any of the other tribal entities' assets or other action under federal bankruptcy laws. Also, the Mohegan Tribe’s Constitution and laws have established a special court which is vested with exclusive jurisdiction, in the absence of a contractual agreement otherwise, over all disputes related to gaming and associated facilities on tribal lands, including appeals from certain final administrative agency decisions, known as the Gaming Disputes Court. The Gaming Disputes Court may lack powers typically associated with a federal bankruptcy court, such as the power to non-consensually alter liabilities, direct the priority of creditors' claims and liquidate certain assets. The Gaming Disputes Court is a court of limited jurisdiction and may not have jurisdiction over all creditors of ours or our subsidiaries or over all of the territories in which we and our subsidiaries carry on business.
Risks Related to Our Business
Our business is subject to extensive governmental gaming regulation by multiple governmental and tribal authorities. Changes to the regulatory regime governing our business, our inability to renew or obtain new contracts governing our existing gaming operations or our inability to obtain new casino licenses could adversely affect us.
Our gaming operations are highly regulated. Changes in applicable laws and regulations could limit or materially affect the types of gaming that may be conducted, or services provided, by us and the revenues realized therefrom.

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With respect to our operations on the Mohegan Tribe's reservation, we are subject to extensive regulations by federal, state and tribal regulatory agencies, including the NIGC and agencies of the State of Connecticut, such as the Department of Consumer Protection's Gaming Division and Division of Liquor Control and the State Police. Currently, gaming on Indian tribal lands is subject to IGRA. Legislation has been introduced in Congress from time to time with the intent of modifying a variety of perceived deficiencies with IGRA or the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 under which land can be acquired for tribes for various purposes, including gaming. Certain proposals that have been considered would be prospective in effect and contain clauses that would grandfather existing Indian tribal gaming operations such as Mohegan Sun. However, legislation has also been proposed from time to time which would have the effect of repealing many of the key provisions of IGRA and prohibiting the continued operation of particular classes of gaming on Indian tribal reservations in states where such gaming is not otherwise allowed on a commercial basis. While none of the substantive proposed amendments to IGRA have been enacted, we cannot predict the effects of future legislative acts. In the event that Congress passes prohibitory legislation that does not include any grandfathering exemption for existing Indian tribal gaming operations, and if such legislation is sustained in the courts against tribal challenge, our ability to meet our financial obligations would be materially and adversely affected.
In addition, under federal law, gaming on Indian tribal lands is dependent on the permissibility under state law of specific forms of gaming or similar activities, and gaming at Mohegan Sun is dependent on the perpetual tribal-state compact between the Mohegan Tribe and the State of Connecticut. Adverse decisions or legal actions with respect to gaming or the Mohegan Compact may have an adverse effect on our ability to conduct our gaming operations.
With respect to our operations at the MGE Niagara Resorts, we are regulated by both national and provincial authorities. The Criminal Code of Canada mandates that dice games and games operated on or through a computer, video device or slot machine may only be conducted through and managed by provincial governments, and, as a licensed service provider we must provide gaming-related services in accordance with applicable provincial laws and regulations. Gaming in Ontario, where the MGE Niagara Resorts are located, is highly regulated. The OLG is empowered to conduct and manage gaming in Ontario and has the power and authority to oversee and/or regulate the gaming industry.
Our operations at Mohegan Sun Pocono are subject to subject to extensive state regulation by the PGCB, the PSHRC and other state regulatory agencies, such as the Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board. Applicable rules and regulations may require that we obtain and periodically renew a variety of licenses, registrations, permits and approvals to conduct our operations. Regulatory agencies may, for any reason set forth in the applicable legislation, rules and regulations, limit, condition, suspend, deny or revoke our license to conduct our operations in Pennsylvania as intended. The sale of alcoholic beverages at our properties is subject to licensing, control and regulation by state and local agencies in Pennsylvania, including the Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board. The liquor agencies have broad powers to limit, condition, suspend or revoke any liquor license. We can provide no assurance that we will be able to continually renew all registrations, permits, approvals or licenses necessary to conduct our operations in Pennsylvania as intended. Any of these events, including any disciplinary action with respect to our liquor license, or any changes in applicable laws or regulations or the enforcement thereof, could, and any failure to renew or revocation of our liquor license would, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in applicable laws or regulations, including statutory changes, tax rates and the implementation or enforcement of applicable laws and regulations could limit or materially affect the types of gaming we may conduct, the services we may provide or the profitability of our operations at Mohegan Sun Pocono. Our ability to continue to operate and our ability to meet our financial obligations could be adversely affected by such legal or regulatory changes and their implementation.
If we are not able to compete successfully with existing and future competitors, we may not be able to generate sufficient cash flows from our operations to fulfill our financial obligations.
The gaming industry is highly competitive for both customers and employees, including those at the management level. We compete with numerous casinos and hotel casinos of varying quality and size in market areas where our properties are located. We also compete with other non-gaming resorts and vacation destinations, and with various other casino and other entertainment businesses, including online gaming websites, and could compete with any new forms of gaming that may be legalized in the future. The casino entertainment business is characterized by competitors that vary considerably in their size, quality of facilities, number of operations, brand identities, marketing and growth strategies, financial strength and capabilities, level of amenities, management talent and geographic diversity. In most markets, we compete directly with other casino facilities operating in the immediate and surrounding market areas. In some markets, we face competition from nearby markets in addition to direct competition within our market areas. Also, our business may be adversely impacted by the additional gaming and room capacity in places where we operate or intend to operate.
With fewer other new markets opening for development, competition in existing markets has intensified in recent years. We and our competitors have invested in expanding existing facilities, developing new facilities, and acquiring established facilities in existing markets. Competition may intensify if our competitors commit additional resources to aggressive pricing and promotional activities in order to attract customers.

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In addition, we also compete to some extent with other forms of gaming on both a local and national level, including state-sponsored lotteries, charitable gaming, video gaming terminals at bars, restaurants, taverns and truck stops, on-and off-track wagering, and other forms of entertainment, including motion pictures, sporting events and other recreational activities. It is possible that these secondary competitors could reduce the number of visitors to our facilities or the amount they are willing to wager, which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to generate revenue or maintain our profitability and cash flows.
If our competitors operate more successfully than we do, if they attract customers away from us as a result of aggressive pricing and promotion, if they are more successful than us in attracting and retaining employees, if their properties are enhanced or expanded, if they operate in jurisdictions that give them operating advantages due to differences or changes in gaming regulations or taxes, or if additional hotels and casinos are established in and around the locations in which we conduct business, we may lose market share or the ability to attract or retain employees. In particular, the expansion of casino gaming in or near any geographic area from which we attract or expect to attract a significant number of our customers could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, increased competition may require us to make substantial capital expenditures to maintain and enhance the competitive positions of our properties, including updating slot machines to reflect changing technology, refurbishing public service areas periodically, replacing obsolete equipment on an ongoing basis and making other expenditures to increase the attractiveness and add to the appeal of our facilities. Because we are highly leveraged, after satisfying our obligations under our outstanding indebtedness, there can be no assurance that we will have sufficient funds to undertake these expenditures or that we will be able to obtain sufficient financing to fund such expenditures. If we are unable to make such expenditures, our competitive position could be materially adversely affected.
The gaming industry in the Northeastern United States and Niagara Falls, Canada has experienced seasonal fluctuations in the past and, as such, we may also experience seasonal variations in our revenues and operating results that could adversely affect our cash flows.
The gaming industry in the Northeastern United States and Niagara Falls, Canada is seasonal in nature, with peak gaming activities often occurring during the months of May through August. Similarly, peak gaming activities at Mohegan Sun, Mohegan Sun Pocono and the MGE Niagara Resorts often occur during the months of May through August. As a result of these seasonal fluctuations, we will likely continue to experience seasonal variations in our quarterly revenues and operating results that could result in decreased cash flows during periods in which gaming activity is not at peak levels. These variations in quarterly revenues and operating results could adversely affect our financial condition.
Negative conditions affecting the lodging industry may have an adverse effect on our revenues and cash flows.
We depend on revenues generated from hotels at our various properties, together with revenues generated from other portions of the facility, to meet our financial obligations and fund our operations. Revenues generated from our hotels are primarily subject to conditions affecting our gaming operations, but are also subject to the lodging industry in general, and as a result, our financial performance and cash flows may be affected not only by the conditions in the gaming industry, but also by those in the lodging industry. Some of these conditions are as follows:
changes in the local, regional or national economic climate, including economic recessions;
changes in local conditions such as an oversupply of hotel properties;
decreases in the level of demand for hotel rooms and related services;
the attractiveness of our hotels to patrons and competition from comparable hotels;
cyclical over-building in the hotel industry;
changes in travel patterns;
public health concerns affecting public accommodations or travel generally or regionally;
changes in room rates and increases in operating costs due to inflation and other factors; and
the periodic need to repair and renovate our hotels.
There are significant risks associated with our construction projects, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We have previously announced our integrated resort and casino project, called Project Inspire, which is under construction at Incheon International Airport in South Korea. This development project and any other construction projects, including renovations to existing facilities we undertake, will entail significant risks.
Construction activity requires us to obtain qualified contractors and subcontractors, the availability of which may be uncertain. Construction projects are subject to cost overruns and delays caused by events outside of our control or, in certain cases,

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our contractors’ control, such as shortages of materials or skilled labor, unforeseen engineering, environmental and/or geological problems, work stoppages, weather interference, unanticipated cost increases and unavailability of construction materials or equipment, fire, flood and other natural disasters. Construction, equipment or staffing problems or difficulties in obtaining any of the requisite materials, licenses, permits, allocations and authorizations from governmental or regulatory authorities could increase the total cost, delay, jeopardize, prevent the construction or opening of our projects, or otherwise affect the design and features. Construction contractors or counterparties for our projects may be required to bear certain cost overruns for which they are contractually liable, and if such counterparties are unable to meet their obligations, we may incur increased costs for such developments. In addition, the location of projects like Project Inspire, including other projects which we may pursue throughout the world, present unique challenges and risks to manage and execute. If our management is unable to manage successfully such international construction projects, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The anticipated costs and completion dates for our current projects are based on budgets, designs, development and construction documents and schedule estimates are prepared with the assistance of architects and other construction development consultants and are subject to change as the design, development and construction documents are finalized and as actual construction work is performed. A failure to complete our projects on budget or on schedule may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Furthermore, while construction activities may be planned to minimize disruption, construction noise and debris and the temporary closing of some of the facility, such activities may disrupt our current operations. Unexpected construction delays could exacerbate or magnify these disruptions. We can provide no assurance that any construction, renovation or expansion projects will not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We may suspend or elect not to proceed with construction, renovation or expansion projects once they have been undertaken, resulting in charges that could adversely affect our financial condition.
We may suspend, elect not to proceed with or fail to complete our construction, renovation or expansion projects once they have been undertaken. In such cases, we may be required to carry assets on our balance sheet for suspended projects or incur significant costs relating to design and construction work performed and materials purchased that may no longer be useful. In addition, our agreements or arrangements with third-parties relating to the suspension or termination of such projects could cause us to incur additional fees and costs. The suspension of, election not to proceed with, or failure to complete any construction, renovation or expansion projects may result in adverse effects to our financial condition.
The risks associated with operating expanded facilities and managing growth could have a material adverse effect on our future performance.
We may expand our facilities from time to time. We can provide no assurance that we will be successful in integrating the new amenities from such expansions into our current operations or in managing the expanded facility. Failure to successfully integrate and manage new services and amenities could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and our ability to meet our financial obligations.
A person or entity's ability to enforce its rights against us is limited by our sovereign immunity and that of the Mohegan Tribe, Mohegan Basketball Club, LLC, Mohegan Golf, LLC, Mohegan Ventures-Northwest, LLC, Mohegan Expo Center, LLC and, to the extent applicable, the Pocono subsidiaries.
Although we, the Mohegan Tribe, Mohegan Basketball Club, LLC, Mohegan Golf, LLC, Mohegan Ventures-Northwest, LLC, Mohegan Expo Center, LLC and, to the extent applicable, the Pocono subsidiaries, or collectively, the tribal entities, each have sovereign immunity and generally may not be sued without our and their respective consents, a limited waiver of sovereign immunity and consent to suit has been granted in connection with substantially all of our outstanding indebtedness. Each such waiver includes suits against us to enforce our obligation to repay certain outstanding indebtedness. Generally, duly authorized express waivers of sovereign immunity have been held to be enforceable against Indian tribes. In the event that any waiver of sovereign immunity is held to be ineffective, a claimant could be precluded from judicially enforcing its rights and remedies. With limited exceptions, the tribal entities have not waived sovereign immunity for claims under federal or state securities laws and therefore a claimant may not have any remedy based on such claims.

Where an entity that enjoys tribal sovereign immunity has waived its immunity and consented to suit in federal and/or state court, disputes may be brought in a federal or state court that has jurisdiction over the matter. However, federal courts may not exercise jurisdiction over disputes not arising under federal law or between litigants that are not citizens of different states, and some courts have ruled that an Indian tribe is not a citizen of any state. The extent to which state courts will assume jurisdiction over disputes involving Indian tribes varies from state to state. In addition, the Mohegan Tribe's Constitution has established a special court, the Gaming Disputes Court, to rule on disputes with respect to Mohegan Sun. The federal and state courts, under the doctrines of comity and exhaustion of tribal remedies, may (i) defer to the jurisdiction of the Gaming Disputes Court or

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(ii) require that any plaintiff exhaust its remedies in the Gaming Disputes Court before bringing any action in federal or state court. Thus, there may be no available federal or state court forum for adjudication of a dispute with an entity that enjoys tribal sovereign immunity.
The limited waiver of sovereign immunity that has been granted in connection with our outstanding indebtedness additionally provides that in the event that none of the specified federal or state courts accept or exercise jurisdiction over a dispute, claims may be brought in arbitration proceedings with enforcement of arbitration awards in courts of competent jurisdiction. Such a dispute would not be decided by a judge, but by an arbitrator appointed in accordance with the commercial arbitration rules of the American Arbitration Association. The scope of a party’s ability to conduct discovery with respect to such a dispute, and the time in which the party is permitted to do so, are more limited than in a judicial proceeding. If any party does not prevail in a dispute before an arbitrator, that party’s ability to appeal the arbitrator’s decision will be limited. Federal and state courts typically are required to enforce a proper arbitration award without a re-examination of the merits of the decision. Enforcement of arbitration awards in the Gaming Disputes Court may not be subject to the same limitations on such re-examination.
If an event of default occurs in connection with our indebtedness, no assurance can be given that a forum will be available to creditors other than arbitration with enforcement of arbitration awards in the Gaming Disputes Court. In such court, there are presently limited precedents for the interpretation of tribal law with respect to insolvency. Any execution of a judgment of the Gaming Disputes Court or any other court on tribal lands will require the cooperation of the Mohegan Tribe's officials in the exercise of their police powers. Thus, to the extent that a judgment of the Gaming Disputes Court must be executed on tribal lands, the practical realization of any benefit of such a judgment will be dependent upon the willingness and ability of tribal officials to carry out such judgment. In addition, the land on which Mohegan Sun is located is owned by the United States in trust for the Mohegan Tribe, and our creditors and the creditors of the Mohegan Tribe may not foreclose upon or obtain title to the land. Additionally, although we do not presently hold any material fee interest in real property, if we did in the future, federal law may not allow for real property interest to be mortgaged or, if mortgaged, transferred as a result of foreclosure.
Any rights as a creditor are limited to our assets and those of our guarantor subsidiaries.
Any rights as a creditor in a bankruptcy, if applicable, liquidation or reorganization or similar proceeding would be limited to our assets and the assets of our guarantor subsidiaries, and would not encompass the assets of any other subsidiary that is not a guarantor, the Mohegan Tribe or its other affiliates.
Our failure to generate sufficient cash flows and current and future economic and credit market conditions could adversely affect our ability to fulfill our debt service obligations or refinance our indebtedness.
Our ability to generate cash flows is subject to financial, economic, political, competitive, regulatory and other factors beyond our control. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flows from operations, or if future borrowings are not available to us, we may be unable to meet our debt service obligations with respect to our outstanding indebtedness. In addition, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to obtain additional debt for refinancing or to fund our growth, or that financing options available, if any, will be on favorable or acceptable terms.
Restrictions contained in our senior secured credit facilities and the indentures to which we are a party may impose limits on our ability to pursue our business interests.
Our senior secured credit facilities and the indentures to which we are a party contain customary operating and financial restrictions that limit our discretion on various business matters. These restrictions include, among other things, covenants limiting our ability to:
incur additional indebtedness;
pay dividends or make other distributions;
make certain investments;
use assets as security in other transactions;
sell certain assets or merge with or into another person;
grant liens;
make capital expenditures; and
enter into transactions with affiliates.
These restrictions may, among other things, reduce our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the gaming industry in general and thereby may negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations and our ability to meet our financial obligations.
Our senior secured credit facilities require us to maintain a fixed charge coverage ratio and not to exceed certain ratios of total leverage and secured leverage. If these ratios are not maintained or are exceeded, as applicable, it may not be possible for us to borrow additional funds to meet our financial obligations. Additionally, our failure to comply with covenants in our senior secured credit facilities, including the fixed charge coverage and leverage ratios described above, could result in an event of default

15


under the senior secured credit facilities, which, if not cured or waived, could have a material adverse effect on us and could result in the acceleration of required repayments of some or all of then-outstanding debt thereunder and an inability to make debt service payments. However, we can provide no assurance that we would be able to obtain such waivers.
In addition, our indentures place certain limitations on our ability to incur indebtedness. Under these indentures, we are generally able to incur indebtedness that otherwise may be restricted, provided we meet a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio, as defined. If we were to fall below the minimum fixed charge coverage ratio, our ability to incur additional indebtedness would be limited and subject to other applicable exceptions contained in the indentures, and the options available to us to refinance our existing indebtedness would be restricted. In such event, we may need to obtain waivers or consents from our lenders in order to obtain additional debt or refinance our existing debt on satisfactory terms; however, we can provide no assurance that we would be able to obtain such waivers or consents. In such event, it may not be possible for us to borrow additional funds to meet our financial obligations or refinance our maturities. At September 30, 2019, we were above the minimum fixed charge coverage ratio.
Additionally, our failure to comply with covenants in our debt instruments could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could have a material adverse effect on us and could result in the acceleration of required repayments of some or all of then-outstanding debt and an inability to make debt service payments.
A change in our current tax-exempt status, and that of our subsidiaries, could reduce our cash flows and have a material adverse effect on our operations and our ability to meet our financial obligations.
Based on current interpretation of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, we, the Mohegan Tribe and certain of our subsidiaries are not subject to United States federal income taxes. However, we can provide no assurance that Congress or the Internal Revenue Service will not reverse or modify the exemption for Indian tribes from United States federal income taxation. A change in the tax law could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.
Weakness or downturn in the United States or Canadian economies could negatively impact our financial performance.
During periods of economic contraction, our revenues may decrease while some of our costs remain fixed, resulting in decreased earnings since gaming and other leisure activities that we offer are discretionary expenditures and participation in such activities may decline during economic downturns because consumers have less disposable income. Even an uncertain economic outlook may adversely affect consumer spending in our gaming operations and related facilities, because consumers spend less in anticipation of a potential economic downturn.
Economic recessions negatively impact consumer confidence and the amount of consumer spending. Economic conditions such as a prolonged regional, national or global economic downturn or slow growth, including periods of increased inflation, rising unemployment levels, tax rates, interest rates, energy and gasoline prices or declining consumer confidence could also reduce consumer spending. Reduced consumer spending has resulted and may continue to result in an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results. Furthermore, uncertainty and adverse changes in the economy could also increase the cost and reduce the availability of sources of financing, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and operating results. If adverse economic conditions continue or worsen, our business, assets, financial condition and results of operations could continue to be affected adversely.
Our diversification efforts may not be successful.
We receive and evaluate various opportunities to diversify our business interests. These opportunities primarily include the development and/or management of, investment in, or ownership of other gaming or other entertainment enterprises through direct investments, acquisitions, joint venture arrangements and loan transactions. In addition to the opportunities we are currently pursuing, we are evaluating other opportunities in various jurisdictions. These efforts may require various levels of regulatory or legislative approval, and may require the commitment of financial and capital resources, and a failure to achieve any such approval or to obtain or generate sufficient funds to meet such financial or capital requirements may result in the termination of the respective project. In addition, our diversification initiatives may not generate the expected (or any) returns on our investments. Additionally, there can be no assurance that we will continue to pursue any of the diversification initiatives we are pursuing or evaluating, or that any of them will be consummated.
The non-impairment provision of the Mohegan Tribe's Constitution is subject to change.
Unlike states, the Mohegan Tribe is not subject to the United States Constitution's provision restricting governmental impairment of contracts. The Mohegan Tribe's Constitution currently has a provision that prohibits the Mohegan Tribe from enacting any law that would impair the obligations of contracts entered into in furtherance of the development, construction, operation and promotion of gaming on tribal lands. However, this provision could be amended by a vote of 75% of the Mohegan Tribe's registered voters to rescind the restriction on impairment of the obligation of such contracts.

16


We and the Guarantors are controlled by a tribal government and may not necessarily be operated in the same way as if we and they were privately owned for-profit businesses.
We and the guarantors are subject to control by the Mohegan Tribe. Our Management Board is comprised of the same nine members as the Mohegan Tribal Council, the governing body of the Mohegan Tribe with legislative and executive authority. As a sovereign government, the Mohegan Tribe is governed by officials elected by tribal members who have a responsibility for the general welfare of all members of the Mohegan Tribe. In making decisions relative to us and the guarantors, these officials may consider the interests of their electorate, instead of pure economic or other business factors.
We may be subject to material environmental liability, including as a result of possible incomplete remediation of known environmental hazards and the existence of unknown environmental hazards.
Our properties and operations are subject to a wide range of federal, state, local and tribal environmental laws and regulations governing, among other things, air emissions, wastewater discharges, the use, management and disposal of, or exposure to, hazardous and non-hazardous materials and wastes, and the clean-up of contamination. Noncompliance with such laws and regulations, and past or future activities resulting in environmental releases, could affect our operations or could cause us to incur substantial costs, including clean-up costs, fines and penalties, or investments to retrofit or upgrade our facilities and programs. In addition, should unknown contamination be discovered on our properties, or should a release of hazardous material occur on our properties, we could be required to investigate and clean up the contamination and could also be held responsible to a governmental entity or third-parties for personal injury, property damage or investigation and cleanup costs, which may be substantial. Moreover, such contamination may also impair the use or value of the affected property. Liability for contamination could be joint and several in nature, and in many instances can be imposed on the owner or operator of property regardless of whether it is responsible for creating the contamination or is otherwise at fault.
At both our Mohegan Sun and Mohegan Sun Pocono properties, investigations and remedial actions have been successfully undertaken to address significant site contamination resulting from historical operations. The site on which Mohegan Sun is located was formerly occupied by United Nuclear Corporation, a naval products manufacturer of, among other things, nuclear reactor fuel components. Prior to the decommissioning of the United Nuclear Corporation facilities on the site, extensive investigations were completed and contaminated soils were remediated to applicable standards. Prior to us taking possession of the property and the development of Mohegan Sun, the site was determined to be safe for general public use. In addition, prior to acquiring Mohegan Sun Pocono, we conducted an extensive environmental investigation of the Pocono facilities. During the course of that investigation, we identified several environmental conditions that required corrective actions to bring the property into compliance with applicable laws and regulations. These remedial actions, including an ongoing monitoring program for the portion of the property that was formerly used as a solid waste landfill, were addressed as part of a comprehensive plan that was fully implemented by Downs Racing by July 2008.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, we can provide no assurance that:
any environmental reports or studies prepared with respect to these sites, or any other properties owned or operated by us, revealed all environmental liabilities;
prior owners or tenants did not create any material environmental condition not presently known to us that may be discovered in the future;
future laws, ordinances or regulations will not impose any material environmental liability with regard to existing conditions or operations; or
a material environmental condition does not otherwise exist on any site.
Any of the above could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and ability to meet our financial obligations.
Our business could be affected by weather-related factors.
Our results of operations could be adversely affected by weather-related factors, such as hurricanes and blizzards and other unfavorable winter weather conditions. Such weather conditions may discourage potential patrons from traveling or may deter or prevent patrons from reaching our facilities. If this occurs, it could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and ability to meet our financial obligations.
Our table games business is subject to volatility which could adversely affect our financial condition.
Table gaming, especially high-end table gaming, is more volatile than other forms of gaming, and variances in table games hold percentage may have a positive or negative impact on our quarterly revenues and operating results. Negative variations in quarterly revenues and operating results could adversely affect our financial condition.



17


Energy and fuel price increases may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our properties use significant amounts of electricity, natural gas and other forms of energy. Increases in the cost of any of our sources of energy may negatively affect our results of operations. In addition, energy and fuel price increases could negatively impact our business and results of operations by making it difficult for potential patrons to travel to our properties or by causing patrons who do visit our properties to decrease their spending due to a reduction in disposable income.
Our information technology and other systems are subject to cyber security risks including misappropriation of patron information or other breaches of information security.
We rely upon sophisticated information technology networks, systems and infrastructure, some of which are managed by third-parties, to process, transmit and store electronic information, and to manage or support a variety of business processes and activities. Additionally, we collect and store sensitive data, including proprietary business information. Despite security measures, our information technology networks and infrastructure may be vulnerable to damage, disruptions or shutdowns due to attack by hackers or breaches, employee error or malfeasance, power outages, computer viruses, telecommunication or utility failures, systems failures, natural disasters or other catastrophic events. Likewise, data privacy or security breaches by employees and others with permitted access to our systems, including in some cases third-parties to which we may outsource certain business functions, may pose a risk that sensitive data, including intellectual property or personal information, may be exposed to unauthorized persons or to the public. Security breaches and other disruptions to our information technology infrastructure could interfere with our operations, compromise information belonging to us and our patrons and suppliers, and expose us to liability which could adversely impact our business and/or result in the loss of critical or sensitive information, which could result in financial, legal, business or reputational harm.
An impairment of our intangible assets could adversely affect our financial condition.
In accordance with authoritative guidance issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board pertaining to intangible assets, we assess our intangible assets at least annually for impairment by comparing their fair value to their carrying value. Fair value is estimated utilizing a discounted cash flow method. As of September 30, 2019, we assessed our intangible assets for impairment and determined that no impairment existed. The evaluation of intangible assets for impairment requires the use of estimates about future cash flows to determine the estimated fair value of the reporting unit. Such estimates are, by their nature, subjective. Actual results may differ materially from our estimates and could result in impairment charges in the future. In the event that the carrying value of our intangible assets exceeds their fair value in a future period, the intangible assets would be impaired and subject to a non-cash write-down, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition. We describe the process for testing intangible assets for impairment and the results of our testing for fiscal 2019 more thoroughly within Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We identified a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting which, if not remedied, could result in material misstatements in our financial statements.
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act. As disclosed in Item 9A, in preparing our financial statements for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019, management identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting relating to our goodwill and other intangible assets impairment analysis review control, which was not designed or operating effectively. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. As a result of this material weakness, our management concluded that, as of September 30, 2019, our internal control over financial reporting was not effective based on the framework set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in “2013 Internal Control-Integrated Framework.” We are committed to maintaining robust internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, our management is in the process of determining a remediation plan. Our goal is to complete the remediation prior to our next intangible asset impairment testing date. If the remediation measures are insufficient to remedy this material weakness, or if other material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting are discovered or occur in the future, our financial statements could contain material misstatements.

We are subject to risks associated with doing business outside of the United States.
With the MGE Niagara Resorts, Project Inspire and other potential projects outside of the United States, we have operations outside of the United States that are subject to risks that are inherent in conducting business under non-United States laws, regulations and customs. In particular, the risks associated with the MGE Niagara Resorts, Project Inspire or other operations that we may engage in other foreign jurisdictions, include:

18


changes in laws and policies that govern operations of companies in Canada, South Korea or other foreign jurisdictions;
changes in non-United States government programs;
possible failure by our employees or agents to comply with anti-bribery laws such as the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions;
general economic conditions and policies in such jurisdictions, including restrictions on travel and currency movements;
difficulty in establishing, staffing and managing non-United States operations;
different labor regulations;
changes in environmental, health and safety laws;
outbreaks of diseases or epidemics;
potentially negative consequences from changes in or interpretations of tax laws;
political instability and actual or anticipated military and political conflicts;
economic instability and inflation, recession or interest rate fluctuations; and
uncertainties regarding judicial systems and procedures.

Any of the above could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. We are also exposed to a variety of market risks, including the effects of changes in foreign currency exchange rates. If the United States dollar strengthens in relation to the currencies of other countries, our United States dollar reported income from sources where revenue is denominated in the currencies of other such countries will decrease.
Any violation of the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or any other similar anti-corruption laws could have a negative impact on us.
A portion of our revenue may be derived from operations outside the United States, which exposes us to complex United States and foreign regulations inherent in doing cross-border business and in each of the countries in which we transact business. We are subject to compliance with the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other similar anti-corruption laws, which generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. While our employees and agents are required to comply with these laws, we can provide no assurance that our internal policies and procedures will always protect us from violations of these laws, despite our commitment to legal compliance and corporate ethics. Violations of these laws by us or our ventures may result in severe criminal and civil sanctions and other penalties against us, as the Securities and Exchange Commission and United States Department of Justice continue to vigorously pursue enforcement of the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The occurrence or allegation of any such violation may adversely affect our business, performance, prospects, value, financial condition and results of operations.

19


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.

20


Item 2. Properties.
Mohegan Sun
Mohegan Sun is located on an approximately 196-acre site on the Mohegan Tribe’s reservation in southeastern Connecticut, adjacent to Uncasville, Connecticut. The land upon which Mohegan Sun is located is held in trust for the Mohegan Tribe by the United States. Mohegan Sun has its own exit from Connecticut Route 2A, providing patrons with direct access to Interstates 395 and 95, the main highways connecting New York City, New York, Boston, Massachusetts, and Providence, Rhode Island. Mohegan Sun is approximately 125 miles from New York City, 100 miles from Boston and 50 miles from Providence. The land upon which Mohegan Sun is located is leased from the Mohegan Tribe. The term of the lease, which commenced in October 2016, is 25 years with an option, exercisable by us, to extend the term for one additional 25-year period provided that we are not in default under the lease. Upon termination of the lease, we will be required to surrender to the Mohegan Tribe possession of the property and improvements, excluding any equipment, furniture, fixtures or other personal property. The lease requires us to pay the Mohegan Tribe a nominal annual rental fee and assume all costs and expenses of owning, operating, constructing, maintaining, repairing, replacing and insuring the property.
Mohegan Sun Pocono
Mohegan Sun Pocono is located on an approximately 400-acre site in Plains Township, Pennsylvania. We also own an OTW facility located in Lehigh Valley (Allentown), Pennsylvania, and lease an OTW facility located in East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania.
MGE Niagara Resorts
We are the service provider for the Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort, Casino Niagara and the future Niagara Falls Entertainment Centre, all in Niagara Falls, Canada. We have entered into lease arrangements for Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort and Casino Niagara which expire March 31, 2040, and we have committed to enter into a lease agreement for the Niagara Falls Entertainment Centre following the completion of its construction. Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort is located on an approximately 21-acre site, located on Fallsview Boulevard, overlooking both the Horseshoe (Canadian) and American Falls. Casino Niagara is located on an approximately 11-acre site, located on Falls Avenue.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
In July 2017, the Mohegan Tribe and the State of Connecticut entered into an agreement to amend the Mohegan Compact and the MOU with regard to the proposed joint and exclusive ownership by the Mohegan Tribe and MPT of a proposed off-reservation casino in East Windsor, Connecticut. In August 2017, that agreement, along with a substantially similar agreement between the MPT and the State of Connecticut, were submitted to the United States Secretary of the Interior for approval pursuant to IGRA and its implementing regulations. In September 2017, the United States Secretary of the Interior returned both agreements without approving or disapproving them. In November 2017, the State of Connecticut, joined by the Mohegan Tribe and the MPT, filed suit in United States District Court for the District of Columbia to compel the United States Secretary of the Interior to publish notice of approval. In June 2018, the Department of the Interior published notice in the Federal Register that no action had been taken on the amendments in the agreement between the Mohegan Tribe and the State of Connecticut within the prescribed 45 days and that the amendments were therefore deemed approved under IGRA. By stipulation, the Mohegan Tribe and its related claims in the federal lawsuit were subsequently dismissed. In March 2019, the Department of the Interior published notice of approval of the MPT amendments. In August 2019, a lawsuit was filed in federal court by a gaming operator in a neighboring state against the United States Department of the Interior, the Secretary and other staff, challenging those approvals. In October 2019, the federal defendants moved to dismiss, and the Mohegan Tribe, State of Connecticut and MPT filed to intervene in that lawsuit. The lawsuit and those motions remain pending.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.

21


PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
We have not issued or sold any equity securities.

Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
The following selected consolidated financial and operating data for the five-year period ended September 30, 2019 are derived from our audited financial statements and should be read in conjunction with Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, our consolidated financial statements and related notes beginning on page F-1 and the other financial information to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
As of or for the Fiscal Years Ended September 30,
 (in thousands)
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Operating Results:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenues
$
1,388,810

  
$
1,355,632

  
$
1,380,003

  
$
1,334,794

  
$
1,291,620

Income from operations (1)
$
136,462

 
$
244,534

 
$
257,235

 
$
261,143

 
$
233,175

Other expenses, net (2)
(137,809
)
 
(112,451
)
 
(180,818
)
 
(128,066
)
 
(141,036
)
Income (loss) before tax provision
(1,347
)
  
132,083

  
76,417

  
133,077

  
92,139

Income tax provision
(1,029
)
 
(475
)
 

 

 

Net income (loss)
(2,376
)
 
131,608

 
76,417

 
133,077

 
92,139

(Income) loss attributable to non-controlling interests
(169
)
  
(1,054
)
  
(972
)
  
(427
)
  
2,255

Net income (loss) attributable to Mohegan Tribal Gaming Authority
$
(2,545
)
  
$
130,554

  
$
75,445

  
$
132,650

  
$
94,394

Other Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense
$
144,130

  
$
126,653

  
$
114,319

  
$
136,194

  
$
143,876

Capital expenditures incurred
$
80,994

  
$
122,802

  
$
101,533

  
$
48,962

  
$
30,024

Net cash flows provided by operating activities
$
200,399

  
$
214,710

  
$
234,236

  
$
201,384

  
$
172,312

Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
2,511,596

  
$
2,312,119

  
$
2,235,681

  
$
2,227,962

  
$
2,020,133

Long-term debt and capital leases, net of current portions
$
1,860,809

  
$
1,740,923

  
$
1,576,078

  
$
1,656,073

  
$
1,612,671

 __________
(1)
Income from operations includes a $39.5 million impairment charge related to Mohegan Sun Pocono's goodwill in fiscal 2019.
(2)
Other expenses, net, include loss on modification and early extinguishment of debt of $74.9 million, $484,000 and $4.0 million in fiscal 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Other expenses, net, also include interest expense.



22


Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with Item 1. Business, Item 6. Selected Financial Data and our consolidated financial statements and related notes beginning on page F-1 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Results of Operations
Summary Operating Results
The following table summarizes our results on a segment basis (in thousands):
 
For the Fiscal Years Ended September 30,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Variance
 
Percentage Variance
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
19 vs. 18
 
18 vs. 17
 
19 vs. 18
 
18 vs. 17
Net revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mohegan Sun
$
992,043

 
$
1,068,892

 
$
1,079,920

 
$
(76,849
)
 
$
(11,028
)
 
(7.2
)%
 
(1.0
)%
Mohegan Sun Pocono
251,054

 
265,691

 
278,938

 
(14,637
)
 
(13,247
)
 
(5.5
)%
 
(4.7
)%
MGE Niagara Resorts (1)
112,525

 

 

 
112,525

 

 
100.0
 %
 

Management, development and other
33,349

 
19,806

 
100,505

 
13,543

 
(80,699
)
 
68.4
 %
 
(80.3
)%
Corporate
1,001

 
1,483

 
1,951

 
(482
)
 
(468
)
 
(32.5
)%
 
(24.0
)%
Inter-segment
(1,162
)
 
(240
)
 
(81,311
)
 
(922
)
 
81,071

 
(384.2
)
 
99.7

Total
$
1,388,810

 
$
1,355,632

 
$
1,380,003

 
$
33,178

 
$
(24,371
)
 
2.4
 %
 
(1.8
)%
Income (loss) from operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mohegan Sun
$
156,276

 
$
230,890

 
$
249,403

 
$
(74,614
)
 
$
(18,513
)
 
(32.3
)%
 
(7.4
)%
Mohegan Sun Pocono (2)
(5,253
)
 
37,541

 
33,145

 
(42,794
)
 
4,396

 
N.M.

 
13.3
 %
MGE Niagara Resorts (1)
7,368

 

 

 
7,368

 

 
100.0
 %
 

Management, development and other
1,152

 
(686
)
 
76,647

 
1,838

 
(77,333
)
 
N.M.

 
N.M.

Corporate
(22,161
)
 
(23,211
)
 
(101,960
)
 
1,050

 
78,749

 
4.5
 %
 
77.2
 %
Inter-segment
(920
)
 

 

 
(920
)
 

 
(100.0
)%
 

Total
$
136,462

 
$
244,534

 
$
257,235

 
$
(108,072
)
 
$
(12,701
)
 
(44.2
)%
 
(4.9
)%
Net income (loss) attributable to Mohegan Tribal Gaming Authority (2)
$
(2,545
)
 
$
130,554

 
$
75,445

 
$
(133,099
)
 
$
55,109

 
N.M.

 
73.0
 %
_________
(1)
Includes financial results from June 11, 2019 through September 30, 2019.
(2)
Includes a $39.5 million impairment charge related to Mohegan Sun Pocono's goodwill in fiscal 2019.
N.M. - Not Meaningful.
The most significant factors and trends that impacted our operating and financial performance in fiscal 2019 were as follows:
increasingly competitive gaming markets;
lower gaming volumes;
lower overall table game hold percentage;
a stronger entertainment calendar at Mohegan Sun;
higher management fees earned;
the acquisition of the MGE Niagara Resorts, which contributed $112.5 million to net revenues and increased operating costs and expenses by $105.2 million;
a $39.5 million impairment charge related to Mohegan Sun Pocono's goodwill;
higher depreciation expense; and
higher interest expense.
The most significant factors and trends that impacted our operating and financial performance in fiscal 2018 were as follows:
lower gaming volumes;
a weaker entertainment calendar at Mohegan Sun;
higher table game hold percentage at Mohegan Sun;
a repositioning of promotional offers at Mohegan Sun Pocono;
higher development costs and expenses associated with our various diversification initiatives;
increasingly competitive gaming markets; and
higher interest expense.


23


Mohegan Sun
Revenues
Net revenues declined by $77.0 million, or 7.2%, to $992.0 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to $1,069.0 million in the prior fiscal year. After factoring in the impact of adopting the new revenue recognition standard, these results were primarily driven by lower gaming revenues, partially offset by higher overall non-gaming revenues. The decline in gaming revenues reflected lower table game revenues which were primarily driven by decreased hold percentage and lower slot revenues which were negatively impacted by softer volumes. Non-gaming revenues benefited from a stronger entertainment calendar featuring additional headliner shows, as well as the opening of our Earth Expo & Convention Center in June 2018.
Net revenues declined by $11.0 million, or 1.0%, to $1,069.0 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $1,080.0 million in the prior fiscal year. These results primarily reflected lower slot revenues driven by declines in both volumes and hold percentage and lower entertainment revenues driven, in part, by a weaker overall entertainment calendar featuring fewer headliner shows, partially offset by increased table game revenues which benefited from higher hold percentage.
Operating Costs and Expenses
Operating costs and expenses declined by $2.2 million, or 0.3%, to $835.8 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to $838.0 million in the prior fiscal year. After factoring in the impact of adopting the new revenue recognition standard, the decrease in operating costs and expenses was primarily driven by lower payroll costs and certain casino marketing and promotional expenses, along with reduced slot machine tax expenses commensurate with the decline in slot revenues. These results were partially offset by higher depreciation expense. During our second quarter of fiscal 2019, we committed to a plan to repurpose the recently closed Casino of the Wind section of Mohegan Sun. In connection with this decision, we determined that certain assets related to the Casino of the Wind had no alternative future use. Accordingly, depreciation on these assets was accelerated by $21.6 million. The increase in depreciation expense also reflected an out-of-period correction which increased depreciation expense by $6.3 million. Overall, these two items increased depreciation expense by $27.9 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019.
Operating costs and expenses increased by $7.5 million, or 0.9%, to $838.0 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $830.5 million in the prior fiscal year. The increase in operating costs and expenses primarily reflected severance costs and expenses resulting from ongoing efforts to streamline staffing levels due to new competition in Massachusetts, combined with higher depreciation expense, primarily driven by the Earth Expo & Convention Center and the Earth Hotel connector.
Mohegan Sun Pocono
Revenues
Net revenues declined by $14.6 million, or 5.5%, to $251.1 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to $265.7 million in the prior fiscal year. After factoring in the impact of adopting the new revenue recognition standard, these results were primarily driven by lower gaming revenues. Both slot and table game revenues were negatively impacted by lower volumes and hold percentages.
Net revenues declined by $13.2 million, or 4.7%, to $265.7 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $278.9 million in the prior fiscal year. These results were primarily driven by lower gaming revenues resulting from declines in slot and table game revenues, both of which were negatively impacted by lower volumes.
Operating Costs and Expenses
Operating costs and expenses increased by $28.1 million, or 12.3%, to $256.3 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to $228.2 million in the prior fiscal year. The increase in operating costs and expenses was primarily driven by a $39.5 million impairment charge related to the goodwill previously recorded in connection with the 2005 acquisition of Mohegan Sun Pocono, partially offset by lower payroll costs, as well as lower slot machine and table game tax expenses commensurate with the declines in slot and table game revenues. The goodwill related to the acquisition of Mohegan Sun Pocono and was not subject to amortization, but was assessed at least annually for impairment by comparing its fair value to its carrying value. As of September 30, 2019, we assessed the goodwill, which totaled $39.5 million, for impairment and determined that its fair value was less than its carrying value. The fair value was estimated utilizing a combination of the income approach (discounted cash flow method) and the market approach (guideline public company method). Accordingly, we determined that the goodwill was fully impaired and recorded an impairment charge in our fourth quarter of fiscal 2019. The amount of the impairment loss was calculated as the excess of the asset’s carrying value over its fair value. The impairment was primarily driven by a continued decline in gaming revenues, a higher weighted average cost of capital utilized for the cash flow valuation and lower operating income growth rates.

24


Operating costs and expenses declined by $17.6 million, or 7.2%, to $228.2 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $245.8 million in the prior fiscal year. These results were primarily driven by lower slot machine and table game tax expenses commensurate with the declines in slot and table game revenues, combined with the impact of a $3.2 million charge that was recorded in the prior fiscal year pertaining to certain Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board start-up costs. The reduction in operating costs and expenses also reflected lower payroll costs and certain casino marketing and promotional expenses, as well as lower costs related to Momentum Dollar redemptions at Mohegan Sun Pocono-owned outlets.
MGE Niagara Resorts
Revenues
Net revenues totaled $112.5 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019. We assumed the day-to-day operations of the MGE Niagara Resorts on June 11, 2019.
Operating Costs and Expenses
Operating costs and expenses totaled $105.2 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019. We assumed the day-to-day operations of the MGE Niagara Resorts on June 11, 2019.
Management, Development and Other
Revenues
Net revenues increased by $13.5 million, or 68.2%, to $33.3 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to $19.8 million in the prior fiscal year. These results primarily reflected higher management fees from ilani Casino Resort driven principally by continued improvement in performance at the property.
Net revenues declined by $80.7 million, or 80.3%, to $19.8 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $100.5 million in the prior fiscal year. The decline in net revenues primarily reflected the impact of approximately $80 million of inter-segment revenues that were recorded in the prior fiscal year.
Operating Costs and Expenses
Operating costs and expenses increased by $11.7 million, or 57.1%, to $32.2 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to $20.5 million in the prior fiscal year. The increase in operating costs and expenses primarily reflected the impact of the recovery of $10.3 million which was previously reserved for reimbursable costs and expenses advanced by us to ilani Casino Resort that was recorded in the prior fiscal year. The increase in operating costs and expenses was also driven by higher pre-opening costs and expenses associated with Project Inspire and higher development costs and expenses associated with our other diversification initiatives, including development efforts elsewhere in Asia.
Operating costs and expenses declined by $3.4 million, or 14.2%, to $20.5 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $23.9 million in the prior fiscal year. The decline in operating costs and expenses primarily reflected the impact of share-based compensation that was recorded in the prior fiscal year, partially offset by higher pre-opening costs and expenses associated with Project Inspire and higher development costs and expenses associated with our other diversification initiatives, including development efforts elsewhere in Asia.    
Corporate
Revenues
Net revenues declined by $482,000, or 33.3%, to $1.0 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to $1.5 million in the prior fiscal year. Net revenues declined by $468,000, or 25.0%, to $1.5 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $2.0 million in the prior fiscal year. These results were primarily driven by lower revenues generated by our “Play 4 Fun” on-line gaming platform.
Operating Costs and Expenses
Operating costs and expenses declined by $1.5 million, or 6.1%, to $23.2 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to $24.7 million in the prior fiscal year. The decrease in operating costs and expenses was primarily due to a reduction in payroll costs, as well as lower costs related to certain governmental services.
Operating costs and expenses declined by $79.2 million, or 76.2%, to $24.7 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $103.9 million in the prior fiscal year. The decline in operating costs and expenses primarily reflected the impact of approximately $80 million of inter-segment expenses that were recorded in the prior fiscal year.

25


Other Expenses
Other expenses increased by $25.3 million, or 22.5%, to $137.8 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to $112.5 million in the prior fiscal year. These results were primarily due to higher interest expense, combined with the impact of lower interest income. Interest expense increased by $17.4 million, or 13.7%, to $144.1 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to $126.7 million in the prior fiscal year. These results were driven by higher weighted average cost of borrowing and weighted average outstanding debt. Weighted average cost of borrowing was 7.4% for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to 7.0% in the prior fiscal year. Weighted average outstanding debt was $1.94 billion for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to $1.83 billion in the prior fiscal year.
Other expenses declined by $68.3 million, or 37.8%, to $112.5 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $180.8 million in the prior fiscal year. These results primarily reflected the impact of the loss on modification and early extinguishment of debt in the prior fiscal year, partially offset by higher interest expense. Interest expense increased by $12.4 million, or 10.8%, to $126.7 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $114.3 million in the prior fiscal year due to higher weighted average cost of borrowing and weighted average outstanding debt. Weighted average cost of borrowing was 7.0% for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to 6.5% in the prior fiscal year. Weighted average outstanding debt was $1.83 billion for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $1.75 billion in the prior fiscal year.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of September 30, 2019 and 2018, we held cash and cash equivalents of $130.1 million and $103.9 million, respectively. Inclusive of letters of credit, which reduce borrowing availability under our senior secured revolving facility, we had $145.7 million of borrowing capacity under the senior secured revolving facility and line of credit as of September 30, 2019. In addition, MGE Niagara Entertainment Inc. had $124.6 million of borrowing capacity under the Niagara revolving facility as of September 30, 2019. As a result of the cash based nature of our business, operating cash flow levels tend to follow trends in our operating income, excluding the effects of non-cash charges, such as depreciation and amortization and impairment charges.
Cash provided by operating activities declined by $14.3 million, or 6.7%, to $200.4 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to $214.7 million in the prior fiscal year. The decrease in cash provided by operating activities was primarily driven by a reduction in net income after factoring in non-cash items and higher working capital requirements, including additional working capital requirements associated with the MGE Niagara Resorts. These results were partially offset by the receipt of $74.6 million from the Cowlitz Tribal Gaming Authority related to accrued interest on funds previously advanced for the Cowlitz Project.
Cash provided by operating activities declined by $19.5 million, or 8.3%, to $214.7 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $234.2 million in the prior fiscal year, primarily due to higher working capital requirements.
Cash used in investing activities decreased by $1.2 million, or 0.8%, to $143.6 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to $144.8 million in the prior fiscal year. The decline in cash used in investing activities was primarily driven by lower capital expenditures and the receipt of $32.0 million from the Cowlitz Tribal Gaming Authority related to funds previously advanced for the Cowlitz Project, partially offset by the acquisition of the MGE Niagara Resorts for $72.3 million. Capital expenditures totaled $78.7 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019, comprising maintenance and development and Project Inspire-related capital expenditures totaling $38.6 million and $40.1 million, respectively.
Cash used in investing activities increased by $41.6 million, or 40.3%, to $144.8 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $103.2 million in the prior fiscal year, primarily due to higher capital expenditures. Capital expenditures totaled $122.8 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018, comprising maintenance and development, Earth Expo & Convention Center and Project Inspire related capital expenditures of $51.0 million, $52.1 million and $19.7 million, respectively.
Cash provided by financing activities totaled $2.0 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 compared to cash used in financing activities of $84.0 million in the same period in the prior year. These results primarily reflected the impact of a $106.7 million membership interest redemption relating to Project Inspire in the prior fiscal year. Cash provided by financing activities for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 reflects additional borrowings to fund the acquisition of the MGE Niagara Resorts.
Cash used in financing activities decreased by $91.1 million, or 52.0%, to $84.0 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 compared to $175.1 million in the prior fiscal year, primarily due to the impact of payments of tender offer and repurchase costs and financing fees related to our October 2016 refinancing transactions in the prior fiscal year. Cash used in financing activities for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 also reflected increased borrowings to pursue new development

26


opportunities and for general corporate purposes, partially offset by a $106.7 million membership interest redemption relating to Project Inspire.
Sufficiency of Resources
We believe that existing cash balances, financing arrangements and operating cash flows will provide us with sufficient resources to meet our existing debt obligations, distributions to the Mohegan Tribe, capital expenditures and working capital requirements, including threshold payments relating to the MGE Niagara Resorts, for at least the next twelve months; however, we can provide no assurance in this regard. Please refer to Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors to this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details regarding risks relating to our sufficiency of resources.    
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
The following table presents estimated future payment obligations related to our debt and certain other material contractual obligations and the timing of those payments as of September 30, 2019 (in thousands):
 
 
 
Payments due by period
Contractual Obligations
Total
 
Less than
1 year (1)
 
1-3 years
 
3-5 years
 
More than
5 years
Long-term debt, including current portions (excludes unamortized debt issuance costs and discounts)
$
1,966,906

 
$
76,909

 
$
438,206

 
$
921,328

 
$
530,463

Capital leases
29,694

 
1,142

 
2,544

 
2,773

 
23,235

Operating leases
863,410

 
30,795

 
58,485

 
59,063

 
715,067

Interest payments on long-term debt and capital leases
495,241

 
109,574

 
191,308

 
128,021

 
66,338

Purchase obligations
80,431

 
30,271

 
39,352

 
7,041

 
3,767

Virgin Hotels Las Vegas obligations (2)
171,000

 

 
9,000

 
18,000

 
144,000

Total
$
3,606,682

 
$
248,691

 
$
738,895

 
$
1,136,226

 
$
1,482,870

 ________
(1)
Represents payment obligations from October 1, 2019 to September 30, 2020.
(2)
Represents payment obligations to the owner of Virgin Hotels Las Vegas. These obligations are contingent upon and subject to us obtaining all necessary approvals from the Nevada gaming regulatory authorities.
In addition to the above listed contractual obligations, we had certain other contractual commitments as of September 30, 2019. The amounts presented in the following table are estimates, and, while certain agreements have perpetual terms, for the purposes of calculating these amounts, we have assumed that the table contains information for only ten years (in thousands):
 
Payments due by period
Contractual Commitments
Less than 1
year (1)
 
1-3 years
 
3-5 years
 
5-10 years
Priority distributions (2)
$
40,000

 
$
80,000

 
$
80,000

 
$
200,000

Pennsylvania slot machine operation fee (3)
10,000

 
20,000

 
20,000

 
50,000

Town of Montville (4)
500

 
1,000

 
1,000

 
2,500

Total
$
50,500

 
$
101,000

 
$
101,000

 
$
252,500

 ____________
(1)
Represents payment obligations from October 1, 2019 to September 30, 2020.
(2)
Represents priority distribution payments to the Mohegan Tribe, which are limited to a minimum annual amount of $40.0 million.
(3)
Represents an annual $10.0 million slot machine operation fee that must be paid to the Pennsylvania Department of Revenue.
(4)
Represents an annual $500,000 that must be paid to the Town of Montville to minimize the impact of Mohegan Tribe’s reservation being held in trust.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities.
We believe the following accounting policies impact significant judgments and estimates utilized in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.




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Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is recognized over the estimated useful lives of the assets, other than land, on a straight-line basis. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the lease terms or the estimated useful lives of the improvements. Estimated useful lives by asset categories are as follows:
Buildings and land improvements
40 years
Furniture and equipment
3 - 7 years
The costs of significant improvements are capitalized. Costs of normal repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred.
Property and equipment are assessed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable. If it is determined that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable based on current and future levels of income and cash flows, as well as other factors, an impairment loss will be recognized at such time.
Goodwill
Goodwill related to the acquisition of Mohegan Sun Pocono and was not subject to amortization, but was assessed at least annually for impairment by comparing its fair value to its carrying value. As of September 30, 2018, we assessed the goodwill, which totaled $39.5 million, for impairment and determined that its fair value exceeded its carrying value. The fair value was estimated utilizing the income approach (discounted cash flow method).
As of September 30, 2019, we assessed the goodwill for impairment and determined that its fair value was less than its carrying value. The fair value was estimated utilizing a combination of the income approach (discounted cash flow method) and the market approach (guideline public company method). Accordingly, we determined that the goodwill was fully impaired and recorded an impairment charge of $39.5 million in our fourth quarter of fiscal 2019. The amount of the impairment loss was calculated as the excess of the asset’s carrying value over its fair value. The impairment was primarily driven by a continued decline in gaming revenues, a higher weighted average cost of capital utilized for the cash flow valuation and lower operating income growth rates.
Other Intangible Assets
Other intangible assets consist primarily of Mohegan Sun's trademark and Mohegan Sun Pocono's various gaming licenses. These intangible assets all have indefinite lives. Intangible assets with indefinite lives are assessed at least annually for impairment by comparing their fair value to their carrying value. As of September 30, 2019 and 2018, we assessed our indefinite live intangible assets for impairment and determined that no impairment existed. The evaluation of intangible assets for impairment requires the use of estimates about future cash flows. Such estimates are, by their nature, subjective. Actual results may differ materially from our estimates and could result in impairment charges in the future.
As of September 30, 2019, Mohegan Sun Pocono's intangible assets totaled $298.5 million. As of September 30, 2019, the estimated fair value of these intangible assets exceeded the carrying value by approximately $10 million. The evaluation of Mohegan Sun Pocono’s intangible assets for impairment includes similar assumptions as those utilized in the goodwill impairment assessment. Accordingly, the decline in Mohegan Sun Pocono’s gaming revenues, a higher weighted average cost of capital utilized for the cash flow valuation and lower operating income growth rates have all lowered the estimated fair value of Mohegan Sun Pocono’s intangible assets. Further deterioration in these assumptions could result in the carrying value of Mohegan Sun Pocono’s intangible assets exceeding their estimated fair value. In the event that the carrying value of Mohegan Sun Pocono’s intangible assets exceed their fair value in a future period, the intangible assets would be impaired and subject to a non-cash write-down, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition.

A 1% reduction in the estimated revenue growth rate would decrease the fair value of Mohegan Sun Pocono’s intangible assets by approximately $23 million and a 1% increase in the discount rate would decrease the fair value of Mohegan Sun Pocono’s intangible assets by approximately $64 million.
Revenues from Casino Operating and Services Agreement
We operate the MGE Niagara Resorts under the terms of a 21-year Casino Operating and Services Agreement (the “COSA”) with the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation (the “OLG”). Pursuant to the laws of Canada and Ontario, the OLG retains legal authority to conduct and manage lottery schemes on behalf of the Ontario government. We are acting as a service provider to the OLG under the COSA and, therefore, recognize gaming revenues net of amounts due to the OLG. We retain all non-gaming revenues and recognize these amounts on a gross basis. The COSA represents a series of distinct goods and services and, therefore, is deemed to be a single performance obligation. The transaction price under the COSA includes both fixed and variable consideration. The fixed consideration is comprised of an annual service provider fee and additional consideration for permitted capital expenditures up to an annual cap. The fixed consideration is recognized as revenue on a straight line basis over

28


the term of the COSA. The variable consideration consists of 70% of gaming revenues (as defined under the COSA), in excess of a guaranteed annual minimum amount payable to the OLG (the “Threshold”). Annual Threshold amounts are contractually established and vary from year to year. If gaming revenues are less than the Threshold for any given year, we are obligated to make a payment to cover the related shortfall. The variable consideration is recognized as revenue as services are rendered under the terms of the COSA. We measure our progress in satisfying this performance obligation based on the output method, which aligns with the benefits provided to the OLG. Projected revenues are estimated based on the most likely amount within a range of possible outcomes to the extent that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenues recognized is not probable of occurring. The difference between revenues recognized and cash received is recorded as an asset or a liability. In the event an asset is recorded, such asset is assessed at least annually for impairment.
Business Acquisitions
We account for business acquisitions using the acquisition method of accounting, which requires that assets acquired and liabilities assumed be recognized at fair value as of the acquisition date. The purchase price of business acquisitions is allocated to the tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on estimated fair values and any excess purchase price over the tangible and identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed, if any, is recorded as goodwill. We may use independent valuation specialists to assist in determining the estimated fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, which could require certain significant management assumptions and estimates.



29


Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.
Market risk is the risk of loss arising from adverse changes in market rates and prices, such as interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates and commodity prices. As of September 30, 2019, our primary exposure to market risk was interest rate risk associated with our credit facilities which accrued interest on the basis of base rate, Eurodollar rate and Bankers’ Acceptance rate formulas, plus applicable rates, as defined under the credit facilities.
We attempt to manage our interest rate risk through a controlled combination of long-term fixed rate borrowings and variable rate borrowings in accordance with established policies and procedures. We do not hold or issue financial instruments for speculative or trading purposes.
The following table presents information about our debt obligations as of September 30, 2019 that were sensitive to changes in interest rates. The table presents principal payments and related weighted average interest rates by expected maturity dates. Weighted average variable interest rates were based on implied forward rates in respective yield curves, which should not be considered to be precise indicators of actual future interest rates. Fair values for our debt obligations were based on quoted market prices or prices of similar instruments as of September 30, 2019.
 
Expected Maturity Date
 
 
 
 
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
2023
 
2024
 
Thereafter
 
Total
 
Fair Value
Liabilities (in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Long-term debt obligations, including current portions (1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fixed rate
$
23,174

 
$
23,175

 
$
23,174

 
$
23,174

 
$
13,483

 
$
500,258

 
$
606,438

 
$
563,784

Average interest rate

 

 

 

 

 
7.9
%
 
6.5
%
 
 
Variable rate
$
53,735

 
$
50,954

 
$
340,903

 
$
15,082

 
$
869,589

 
$
30,205

 
$
1,360,468

 
$
1,281,688

Average interest rate (2)
5.2
%
 
4.9
%
 
5.1
%
 
4.7
%
 
5.1
%
 
8.0
%
 
5.3
%
 
 
 __________
(1)
Excludes unamortized debt issuance costs and discounts.
(2)
A 100 basis point change in average interest rate would impact annual interest expense by approximately $13.6 million.

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto, referred to in Item 15(a)(1) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, are filed as part of this report and appear in this Annual Report on Form 10-K beginning on page F-1.

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Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
None.

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.
Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of September 30, 2019. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company's management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures. Management recognizes that controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives, and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on an evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of September 30, 2019, and due to a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting relating to our goodwill and other intangible assets impairment analysis review control, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective. Notwithstanding this material weakness, our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, has concluded that our financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K present fairly, in all material respects, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Management Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Our internal control over financial reporting is designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Our internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that:
pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of our assets;
provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and that receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management; and
provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Our management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2019. In connection with this assessment, we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting relating to our goodwill and other intangible assets impairment analysis review control, which was not designed or operating effectively. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. In making this assessment, our management used the framework set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in “2013 Internal Control-Integrated Framework.”
Because of this material weakness, our management concluded that, as of September 30, 2019, our internal control over financial reporting was not effective.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K does not include an attestation report from our registered public accounting firm regarding internal control over financial reporting. Our internal control over financial reporting was not subject to such attestation as we are a non-accelerated filer.

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On June 11, 2019, we completed the acquisition of the Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort, Casino Niagara and the future 5,000-seat Niagara Falls Entertainment Centre, all in Niagara Falls, Canada (the “MGE Niagara Resorts”). Since we have not yet fully incorporated the internal controls and procedures of the MGE Niagara Resorts into our internal control over financial reporting, management has excluded the MGE Niagara Resorts from our assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2019. This acquisition constituted approximately 14% of our total assets and approximately 8% of our net revenues as of and for the year ended September 30, 2019, respectively.
We are committed to maintaining robust internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, our management is in the process of determining a remediation plan. Our goal is to complete the remediation prior to our next intangible asset impairment testing date.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There have been no other changes in our internal control over financial reporting, as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act, that occurred during the quarter ended September 30, 2019, that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting, other than the material weakness discussed above. In making our assessment of changes in internal control over financial reporting, we have excluded the MGE Niagara Resorts, which was acquired on June 11, 2019.


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Item 9B. Other Information.
On December 8, 2019, the Mohegan Tribe conducted a special election to elect a member of the Mohegan Tribal Council (who will also thus serve as a member of the Management Board) to fill the vacancy previously created by Kevin P. Brown’s resignation in July 2019. Mark F. Brown, the winner of the special election, was seated on December 18, 2019 and will serve out the remainder of Kevin P. Brown’s term, which expires in October 2021. Mark F. Brown will be compensated in the same manner as are other members of the Mohegan Tribal Council, as described within Part III. Item 11. Executive Compensation. Compensation of Management Board to this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Information concerning material related transactions between Mark F. Brown and the Company was unavailable at the date of this filing.


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PART III

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
We are governed by a nine-member Management Board, whose members also comprise the Mohegan Tribal Council, the governing body of the Mohegan Tribe. Any change in the composition of the Mohegan Tribal Council results in a corresponding change in our Management Board. As of the date of this filing, the members of the Management Board and their terms are as follows: Ralph James Gessner, Jr., Sarah E. Harris, Kathleen M. Regan-Pyne, William Quidgeon, Jr. and Mark F. Brown are each serving terms expiring in October 2021, while Patricia A. LaPierre, Thayne D. Hutchins, Jr., Joseph M. Soper and John G. Harris are each serving terms expiring in October 2023. Members of the Mohegan Tribal Council are elected by the registered voters of the Mohegan Tribe through competitive general elections. Vacancies on the Mohegan Tribal Council, to the extent they arise, are likewise filled by similar special elections. Upon expiration of Mohegan Tribal Council members' terms, registered voters of the Mohegan Tribe may re-elect current Mohegan Tribal Council members who choose to run for re-election or elect new Mohegan Tribal Council members. Incumbent members of the Mohegan Tribal Council do not nominate or otherwise identify candidates for election. Accordingly, the Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board do not screen candidates for election nor do they maintain a nominating committee. The terms of office of our named executive officers, and the periods during which they have served as such, are described in Part III. Item 11. Executive Compensation to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Management Board and Named Executive Officers
The following table presents data related to the members of the Management Board and our named executive officers, as of the date of this filing:
Name
Age
 
Position
Ralph James Gessner, Jr.
50
 
Chairman and Member, Management Board
Sarah E. Harris
41
 
Vice Chairwoman and Member, Management Board 
Kathleen M. Regan-Pyne
63
 
Recording Secretary and Member, Management Board
Patricia A. LaPierre
68
 
Corresponding Secretary and Member, Management Board (1)
Thayne D. Hutchins, Jr.
48
 
Treasurer and Member, Management Board (1)
John G. Harris
65
 
Member, Management Board
William Quidgeon, Jr.
57
 
Member, Management Board
Joseph M. Soper
40
 
Member, Management Board (1)
Mark F. Brown
62
 
Member, Management Board
Mario C. Kontomerkos
43
 
Chief Executive Officer
Drew M. Kelley
43
 
Chief Financial Officer
Michael Silberling
53
 
Chief Operating Officer
________
(1)
Audit Committee member.
Ralph James Gessner, Jr.—Mr. Gessner was first seated on the Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board in October 2005. He was elected Chairman in October 2019, after serving as Vice Chairman since October 2010. Mr. Gessner previously held multiple positions at Mohegan Sun, including Director of Executive Hosts and Vice President of Casino Marketing. Mr. Gessner holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Hotel and Restaurant Management from the University of Southwestern Louisiana.
Sarah E. Harris—Ms. Harris was first seated on the Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board in October 2017. Ms. Harris was elected Vice Chairwoman in October 2019. She previously worked as an attorney at various law firms in the Washington, D.C. area, representing Native American tribes and tribal entities and organizations. Ms. Harris received a presidential appointment to serve as Chief of Staff to the Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs and, prior to that, served as Special Assistant to the Solicitor in the Office of the Secretary of the Interior. Ms. Harris holds a Juris Doctor from American University Washington College of Law and a Bachelor of Arts in Native American Studies from Dartmouth College.
Kathleen M. Regan-Pyne—Ms. Regan-Pyne was first seated on the Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board in October 2009 after serving as Manager of Tribal Career Development for the Mohegan Tribe and Mohegan Sun for three years. Prior to her employment with the Mohegan Tribe and Mohegan Sun, Ms. Regan-Pyne held multiple positions in the insurance/financial services industry, including Director of Life Claims at Lincoln Life & Annuity. Ms. Regan-Pyne is a graduate of Eastern Connecticut State University.
Patricia A. LaPierre—Ms. LaPierre is currently serving her first term on the Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board, having been seated in October 2019. She previously spent over 17 years in various roles within the Human Resources Department at Mohegan Sun. Her most recent position was Vice President of Human Resources. Ms. LaPierre also has a wide

34


range of civic involvement with both her community and the Mohegan Tribe. Over the past 12 years she has served on the Board of Directors for the Norwich Arts Center, the Board of Safe Futures, the Public Health and Safety Committee for the Town of Griswold and as a Board of Education Member of the Mohegan Tribe Ms. LaPierre holds a Bachelor of Arts in Liberal Studies from Providence College and a Master of Arts in Organizational Management from the University of Phoenix.
Thayne D. Hutchins, Jr.—Mr. Hutchins was first seated on the Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board in October 2007 after serving as a staff accountant for the Mohegan Tribe for six years. Mr. Hutchins graduated Magna Cum Laude from Eastern Connecticut State University and holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Economics with a concentration in Accounting.
John G. Harris—Mr. Harris is currently serving his first term on the Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board, having been seated in October 2019. Mr. Harris previously worked as the Engineering Grounds Supervisor at Mohegan Sun for approximately 6 years. Prior to his employment with Mohegan Sun, Mr. Harris served in a wide variety of managerial operational roles in his 30-year career with Pfizer Inc. Mr. Harris has also served as the Chairman of the Mohegan Tribal Housing Authority for nearly 25 years, a Site Operations Director for the Preston Redevelopment Agency for the past 10 years and the Chairman of the Preston Housing Authority from 2007 to 2017.
William Quidgeon, Jr.—Mr. Quidgeon was first seated on the Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board in October 2005. He previously held multiple positions at the Mohegan Tribe and Mohegan Sun, including Senior Project Manager of the Mohegan Tribal Development Department. Prior to his employment with the Mohegan Tribe, Mr. Quidgeon served as Chairman of the Mohegan Information Technology Group, a limited liability company that is majority-owned by the Mohegan Tribe.
Joseph M. Soper—Mr. Soper is currently serving his first term on the Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board, having been seated in October 2019. Mr. Soper previously spent over 15 years working at both Mohegan Sun and Mohegan Gaming & Entertainment, first as a Senior Financial Analyst and later as the Director of Sports and Entertainment, where he managed the day-to-day financial operations for the Sports and Entertainment Department. Mr. Soper holds a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration with a major in Finance from Western New England University.
Mark F. Brown—Mr. Brown, the winner of a special election to fill a vacancy on the Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board, was seated in December 2019. Mr. Brown previously served on the Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board from October 1995 to October 2019. He served as Chairman of the Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board from October 2000 until October 2005. Mr. Brown also served as the Mohegan Tribe's historian and was instrumental in the Mohegan Tribe's pursuit of federal recognition.
Mario C. Kontomerkos—Mr. Kontomerkos was appointed Chief Executive Officer of the Company on October 16, 2017. Mr. Kontomerkos previously served as Chief Financial Officer of the Company, a position he held since September 2011. Prior to his employment with the Company, Mr. Kontomerkos served as Corporate Vice President of Finance at Penn National Gaming, Inc. from March 2010 to July 2011. Mr. Kontomerkos previously served as an analyst at Magnetar Capital, LLC, an investment management company, from July 2007 to May 2009, and a research analyst for the gaming and lodging industries at J.P. Morgan Securities from May 2005 to May 2007.
Drew M. Kelley—Mr. Kelley joined the Company on June 4, 2018 as its Chief Financial Officer. Prior to his employment with the Company, Mr. Kelley served as Chief Financial Officer, and then as interim Chief Executive Officer and a Director, of ARC Group Worldwide, Inc., a publicly traded global manufacturer of precision metallurgic products and advanced 3D printing. Mr. Kelley was with ARC Group Worldwide, Inc. from October 2013 to May 2018. Prior to that, Mr. Kelley spent more than a decade in progressive levels of investment banking and equity research with several leading Wall Street firms, including Merrill Lynch & Co., Bear, Stearns & Co. Inc., and Jefferies LLC.
Michael Silberling—Mr. Silberling joined the Company on October 8, 2018. Mr. Silberling brings over 30 years of experience in leading all facets of multiple global integrated resorts across the United States and internationally. Prior to his employment with the Company, Mr. Silberling served as Chief Executive Officer of Affinity Gaming, where he led a business turnaround which created significant guest service and operating margin improvements. Prior to that, Mr. Silberling was President of International Operations for Caesars Entertainment Corporation and Managing Director for London Clubs International, where he oversaw 15 casinos across Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
Audit Committee
We have established a separately-designated standing Audit Committee in accordance with applicable provisions of the Securities Exchange Act. The Audit Committee is comprised of certain members of the Management Board and two independent ex-officio (non-voting) members appointed by the Management Board, Daniel A. Cassella and Daniel H. Scott. Members of our Audit Committee are capable of reading and understanding financial statements, including balance sheets and statements of income, changes in capital and cash flows. In addition, each of the two ex-officio members satisfies the criteria to qualify as an Audit

35


Committee Financial Expert in accordance with Item 407(d)(5) under Regulation S-K. The Audit Committee may additionally be advised on financial matters through a Financial Advisory Committee comprised of one or more financial experts independent from us.
Code of Ethics
We have adopted a code of ethics that applies to all of our executive officers, including our principal executive and financial officers. Our code of ethics is available on our website at “www.mohegangaming.com” under “Corporate Governance.”
Should we make any significant amendment to the code of ethics or grant any waiver, including any implicit waiver, from a provision of the code of ethics to our principal executive, financial and accounting officers, we will disclose the nature of such amendment or waiver on our website.

Item 11. Executive Compensation.
Compensation Discussion and Analysis
Executive Compensation Objectives
We operate in an extremely competitive environment and believe that our current and future success is closely correlated with our ability to attract and retain highly talented employees and a strong management team. Accordingly, our executive compensation program is intended to meet three principal objectives: (1) attract, reward and retain senior management employees, (2) motivate these individuals to achieve our short-term and long-term business goals and (3) promote internal compensation equity and external competitiveness.
Our philosophy relating to executive compensation is to attract and retain highly qualified individuals by offering competitive base salaries, cash-based incentive opportunities and other employee benefits. We face unique challenges in designing our executive compensation program because, as an instrumentality of the Mohegan Tribe, we cannot offer equity-based compensation to our executives, unlike many of our industry peers. As a result, we strive to offer a cash-based compensation program that rewards our executives with competitive compensation while providing proper incentives to achieve our financial and operational goals at both the operating unit and company-wide levels. We also strive to ensure that our executive compensation program is straightforward, transparent and understandable.
Role of the Compensation Committee and Senior Management
Our nine-member Management Board, whose members also comprise the Mohegan Tribal Council, serves as our Compensation Committee and has final authority over the design, negotiation and implementation of our executive compensation program. As discussed below, our principal executive officer, along with other senior and executive level employees, have taken the leading roles in the design of our executive compensation program. In addition, acting within the boundaries of our annual budget, as approved by the Management Board, our principal executive officer and other senior and executive level employees determine the base salaries and cash-based incentive opportunities offered to our executives.
Elements of Compensation
Compensation offered to our named executive officers, or NEOs, primarily consists of annual compensation in the form of base salaries and employee benefits/perquisites. We also offer our NEOs cash-based incentive opportunities. In addition, we offer our NEOs the opportunity to defer all or a portion of their annual compensation under a deferred compensation plan, or DCP, and to participate in the Mohegan Retirement and 401(k) Plan, both of which are sponsored by the Mohegan Tribe. The following presents additional information relating to the elements of compensation offered to our NEOs for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019:
Annual Compensation
Annual compensation consists of base salaries and employee benefits. These elements are intended to provide some degree of compensation certainty to our NEOs by providing compensation that, unlike incentive compensation, is not “at-risk” based upon company performance.
Base Salary
We believe that a competitive base salary is an important component of compensation as it provides a degree of financial stability and is a critical factor in recruiting and retaining our NEOs. Base salary is also designed to recognize the scope of responsibilities placed under each NEO and to reward each NEO for their unique leadership skills, management experience and contributions to the Company.

36


In determining base salary levels, we take into consideration economic and industry conditions and company performance. We do not assign relative weights to individual and company performance, but instead make a subjective determination after considering such measures collectively. Base salary is also evaluated relative to other components of our executive compensation program to ensure that each NEO's total compensation and mix of components are consistent with our overall compensation objectives and philosophies.
With these factors in mind, we have entered into employment agreements with our NEOs that, among other things, provide for minimum base salary levels and employee benefits that, when combined, provide total compensation reflecting our need to compete for and retain management talent in a competitive environment. Our NEOs base salaries are also subject to annual increases.
Employee Benefits
Our NEOs receive certain employee benefits, including health insurance, dental and vision coverage, prescription drug plans, long-term disability insurance and flexible spending accounts. In addition, our NEOs are provided the opportunity to receive discretionary employer-matching 401(k) contributions of 50%, up to the first 3% of their eligible compensation contributed under the Mohegan Retirement and 401(k) Plan.
Incentive Compensation
We have implemented a discretionary incentive compensation plan covering certain of our employees. As it pertains to our NEOs, the plan sets aside approximately 25% of our Adjusted EBITDA in excess of a target established prior to the beginning of the fiscal year as part of our budgeting process. Adjusted EBITDA eliminates certain items from net income, such as interest, depreciation and amortization and impairment charges. Adjusted EBITDA is not a measure of performance calculated in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or US GAAP. However, we have historically evaluated our operating performance with the non-US GAAP measure Adjusted EBITDA. Under the plan, the base incentive compensation target for our NEOs was set at 35% of base salary, with a maximum payout of 52.5%, of base salary. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019, Adjusted EBITDA for certain business segments exceeded our established targets, however, the Compensation Committee elected not to pay any incentive compensation. For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, the payout rates to our NEOs were approximately 34% and 32%, respectively.
Compensation Committee Report
Our nine-member Management Board serves as our Compensation Committee. The Management Board met with us to review and discuss the preceding Compensation Discussion and Analysis. Based on such review and discussion, the Management Board approved this Compensation Discussion and Analysis and authorized its inclusion in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019.
Management Board
The members of the Management Board, as of the date of this filing, are as follows: Ralph James Gessner, Jr., Sarah E. Harris, Kathleen M. Regan-Pyne, Patricia A. LaPierre, Thayne D. Hutchins, Jr., John G. Harris, William Quidgeon, Jr., Joseph M. Soper and Mark F. Brown.














37


Summary Compensation Table  
Name and Principal Position
Fiscal Year
 
Base Salary
 
Cash Bonus
 
Non-Equity
Incentive
Compensation
 
All Other
Compensation (4)
 
Total
Mario C. Kontomerkos
2019
 
$
1,049,825

 

 

 
714

 
$
1,050,539

Chief Executive Officer
2018
 
$
990,409

 
342,733

 

 
712

 
$
1,333,854

 
2017
 
$
847,770

 
264,375

 

 
744

 
$
1,112,889

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Drew M. Kelley (1)
2019
 
$
713,657

 

 

 
14,960

 
$
728,617

Chief Financial Officer
2018
 
$
199,981

 
300,000

 

 

 
$
499,981

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Michael Silberling (2)
2019
 
$
673,525

 
225,000

 

 
39,179

 
$
937,704

Chief Operating Officer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thomas P. Burke (3)
2019
 
$
128,119

 

 

 
64,544

 
$
192,663

Chief Operating Officer
2018
 
$
769,594

 
263,435

 

 
4,912

 
$
1,037,941

 
2017
 
$
741,798

 
231,329

 

 
4,719

 
$
977,846

 _________
(1)
Commenced employment in June 2018.
(2)
Commenced employment in October 2018.
(3)
Retired in February 2019.
(4)
Amounts reported in this column are comprised of the following:
All Other Compensation Details
Name
Fiscal  Year
 
401(k) (1)
 

Long-Term
Disability (2)
 
Vacation Payout (3)
 
Moving and Living
Allowance (4)
 
Total
Mario C. Kontomerkos
2019
 
$

 
714

 

 

 
$
714

 
2018
 
$

 
712

 

 

 
$
712

 
2017
 
$

 
744

 

 

 
$
744

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Drew M. Kelley
2019
 
$
5,273

 
687

 

 
9,000

 
$
14,960

 
2018
 
$

 

 

 

 
$

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Michael Silberling
2019
 
$
4,200

 
458

 

 
34,521

 
$
39,179

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thomas P. Burke
2019
 
$

 
27

 
64,517

 

 
$
64,544

 
2018
 
$
4,200

 
712

 

 

 
$
4,912

 
2017
 
$
3,975

 
744

 

 

 
$
4,719

 _________
(1)
Employer-matching 401(k) contributions.
(2)
Premium payments on long-term disability policies.
(3)
Payments pertaining to unused vacation time.
(4)
Payments of moving and living expenses.






38


Non-Qualified Deferred Compensation
We offer our NEOs the opportunity to participate in the DCP. The DCP is a non-qualified plan that allows our executives the opportunity to defer all or a portion of their annual compensation. We do not make contributions to the DCP on behalf of our NEOs. The following table presents each NEO's activity within the DCP for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019.
Name
Employee
Contributions
 
Employer
Contributions
 
Aggregate
Additions/ Earnings
 
Aggregate
Withdrawals/
Distributions
 
Balance
September 30, 2019
Mario C. Kontomerkos
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

Drew M. Kelley
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

Michael Silberling
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

Thomas P. Burke
$
237,091

 
$
159,541

 
$
203,815

 
$
(540,615
)
 
$
4,197,424

The amounts deferred by each NEO are deemed to be invested in the fund(s) designated by each NEO from among a number of funds offered under the DCP. NEOs may change their investment selections from time to time.
In accordance with U.S. federal income tax laws and regulations, an election to defer compensation generally must be made prior to the year in which the services to which the compensation relates will be performed. Once made, an election to defer compensation to be earned in the upcoming year is irrevocable. At time of deferral election, each NEO chooses the date on which payment of deferred compensation for the upcoming year is to commence, as well as whether to receive payments in a lump sum or in up to fifteen annual installments. NEOs may change the form and timing of payments elected with respect to particular deferrals, subject to compliance with the terms of the DCP then in effect, including, any grandfathered terms resulting from changes in applicable U.S. federal income tax laws and regulations.
Potential Payments and Benefits upon Termination or Change in Control
The following table presents potential payments to our NEOs in the event of a termination of employment, based on the terms of their employment agreements, as described below. Due to our sovereignty, potential payments upon change in control are not included within the table below, as these are not applicable. The amounts presented represent our estimate of potential payments to our NEOs upon their termination, assuming, in each case, that termination occurred on September 30, 2019, the last day of fiscal 2019. Actual payments can only be determined at the time of each NEO's separation from the Company.
 
Base Salary
 
Medical
Benefits
 
Penalty
Payment
 
Total
Mario C. Kontomerkos
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Termination without cause
$
1,000,000

 
26,047

 
15,000

 
$
1,041,047

Termination due to medical disability (1)
$
500,000

 
1,000,000

 

 
$
1,500,000

Change of Control
$

 

 

 
$

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Drew M. Kelley
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Termination without cause
$
700,000

 
26,047

 
15,000

 
$
741,047

Termination due to medical disability (1)
$
350,000

 
700,000

 

 
$
1,050,000

Change of Control
$

 

 

 
$

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Michael Silberling
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Termination without cause
$
700,000

 
26,047

 
15,000

 
$
741,047

Termination due to medical disability (1)
$
350,000

 
700,000

 

 
$
1,050,000

Change of Control
$

 

 

 
$

  __________
(1)
Under the NEOs' employment agreements, upon termination without cause, we are required to continue to provide medical benefits for a period of one year following such termination. Upon termination due to medical disability, we are required to continue to provide the NEOs' annual base salaries and medical benefits for a period of 180 days; thereafter, if we choose to suspend the NEOs' employment or the NEOs are deemed permanently disabled, we are required to provide disability insurance coverage of 50% of the NEOs' annual base salaries.

Executive Employment Agreements
Mr. Kontomerkos. Mr. Kontomerkos's employment agreement commenced as of October 16, 2017 and expires on March 31, 2021. The agreement provides for a base annual salary of $1,000,000. The agreement is subject to automatic renewals for additional one-year terms unless either party provides notice of an intention not to renew or otherwise terminate the agreement at the stated termination date. The agreement provides that if Mr. Kontomerkos is terminated for cause, as defined therein, or if Mr.

39


Kontomerkos voluntarily terminates his employment, he will not be entitled to any further compensation from and after the termination date. If Mr. Kontomerkos is terminated other than for cause, he will be entitled, among other things, to receive his base annual salary from the termination date through 12 months from the termination date.

Mr. Kelley. Mr. Kelley’s employment agreement commenced as of June 4, 2018 and expires on March 31, 2021. The agreement provides for a base annual salary of $700,000. Under the agreement, Mr. Kelley received a sign-on payment in the amount of $300,000. In the event Mr. Kelley resigns or is terminated for cause within two years after the commencement date of his agreement, Mr. Kelley will be required to reimburse us for the after tax proceeds from this sign-on payment. The agreement is subject to automatic renewal for additional one-year terms unless either party provides notice to the other on or before one year prior to the end of the agreement’s stated term of an intention to terminate the agreement at the stated termination date. We may terminate Mr. Kelley for cause, as defined in his agreement. In the event that we terminate Mr. Kelley for cause, he is not entitled to any further compensation from and after the date of termination. In the event of termination other than for cause, Mr. Kelley is entitled to receive severance payments equal to his base annual salary from the date of termination through 12 months from the date of termination.
    
Mr. Silberling. Mr. Silberling’s employment agreement commenced as of October 8, 2018 and expires on March 31, 2021. The agreement provides for a base annual salary of $700,000. Under the agreement, Mr. Silberling received a sign-on payment in the amount of $225,000. In the event Mr. Silberling resigns or is terminated for cause within two years after the commencement date of his agreement, Mr. Silberling will be required to reimburse us for the after tax proceeds from this sign-on payment. The agreement is subject to automatic renewal for additional one-year terms unless either party provides notice to the other on or before one year prior to the end of the agreement’s stated term of an intention to terminate the agreement at the stated termination date. We may terminate Mr. Silberling for cause, as defined in his agreement. In the event that we terminate Mr. Silberling for cause, he is not entitled to any further compensation from and after the date of termination. In the event of termination other than for cause, Mr. Silberling is entitled to receive severance payments equal to his base annual salary from the date of termination through 12 months from the date of termination.

CEO Pay Ratio
We calculated our CEO Pay Ratio, or the ratio of the pay of our Chief Executive Officer to that of our median employee, as permitted under SEC rules. To determine the compensation for our median employee, we included the base salary and incentive compensation of employees employed by us during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019, excluding our Chief Executive Officer. For full-time and part-time employees, we annualized their hourly pay rate and for seasonal and on-call employees we utilized payroll compensation consistent with what would have been reported on each employee's W-2, Box 1 as of September 30, 2019. Based on the above, for fiscal 2019, our Chief Executive Officer's compensation was $1,050,539 and our median employee's compensation was $24,690, resulting in a ratio of Chief Executive Officer pay to median employee pay of 43:1.












40


Compensation of Management Board
The following table presents data related to compensation of members of the Management Board for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019.
Name
Compensation
 
Other (1)
 
Total
Kevin P. Brown (2)
$
141,254

 
263

 
$
141,517

Ralph James Gessner, Jr.
$
189,331

 
293

 
$
189,624

Cheryl A. Todd (3)
$
153,130

 
238

 
$
153,368

Kathleen M. Regan-Pyne
$
153,130

 
238

 
$
153,368

Thayne D. Hutchins, Jr.
$
127,597

 
198

 
$
127,795

Mark F. Brown (3) (5)
$
202,918

 
315

 
$
203,233

William Quidgeon, Jr.
$
153,130

 
238

 
$
153,368

Joseph W. Smith (3)
$
150,185

 
233

 
$
150,418

Sarah E. Harris
$
150,184

 
233

 
$
150,417

Patricia A. LaPierre (4)
$

 

 
$

John G. Harris (4)
$

 

 
$

Joseph M. Soper (4)
$

 

 
$

__________
(1)
Premium payments on life insurance policies owned by each member.
(2)
Resigned on July 7, 2019.
(3)
Term expired on October 6, 2019.
(4)
Term commenced on October 7, 2019.
(5)
New term commenced on December 18, 2019.
Members of the Management Board are paid annual salaries by the Mohegan Tribe for their services as members of the Mohegan Tribal Council. Due to the dual roles of these individuals in our governance and the Mohegan Tribe's, we are obligated to fund a portion of their compensation pursuant to an arrangement established at the time of Mohegan Sun's inception. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019, we were obligated to fund 60% of each member's annual compensation. This allocation was determined based on the amount of time members acted in their capacity as the Management Board as opposed to their capacity as the Mohegan Tribal Council. We believe that members' activities in fiscal 2020 will be consistent with their fiscal 2019 activities and as such we expect to fund 60% of their fiscal 2020 compensation.
Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation
As noted above, the Management Board serves as our Compensation Committee.

41


Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
We have no outstanding equity securities.

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
Procedure for Review of Related Party Transactions
Potential conflicts of interest, including related party transactions reportable under Securities and Exchange Commission rules, must be approved in advance. We have a code of ethics which applies to our principal executive officer, principal financial officer and all other executive officers, whom we collectively refer to as our principal officers. Our code of ethics addresses, among other things, conflicts of interest and is available on our website at “www.mohegangaming.com”. Under our code of ethics, actual, potential or perceived conflicts of interest must be disclosed to our Management Board, and only the Management Board may waive provisions of our code of ethics.
Our Management Board reviews all transactions between us and principal officers. In addition, our corporate governance practices include procedures for discussing and assessing relationships among us and principal officers, including business, financial and family member, as applicable. Our Management Board also reviews transactions with principal officers, on a case-by-case basis, to determine whether any conflict of interest exists. Additionally, our Management Board ensures that directors voting on such matters have no interest in the matter and discusses transactions with counsel as deemed necessary.
Transactions between the Company and the Company’s Subsidiaries and the Mohegan Tribe
Please refer to Part IV. Note 11—Related Party Transactions to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Corporate Governance and Management Board Independence
We are governed by a nine-member Management Board, whose members also comprise the Mohegan Tribal Council, the governing body of the Mohegan Tribe. Any change in the composition of the Mohegan Tribal Council results in a corresponding change in our Management Board. Upon election, each Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board member serves a four-year term on a staggered basis. Incumbent members of the Mohegan Tribal Council do not nominate or otherwise identify candidates for election. Accordingly, the Mohegan Tribal Council and Management Board do not screen candidates for election nor do they maintain a nominating committee. Instead, the registered voters of the Mohegan Tribe elect all members of the Mohegan Tribal Council. In order to qualify for, and seek election to a position on the Mohegan Tribal Council, an individual: (1) must be at least 21 years of age prior to the date of the election, (2) must be a registered voting member of the Mohegan Tribe in good standing and (3) must not have been convicted of either a felony or a misdemeanor involving moral integrity, such as forgery or bribery. In addition, an individual must comply with the tribal election ordinance, including requirements for declaring the intention to run and submission to a comprehensive background check, to qualify for and seek election.
As described above, members of the Management Board are also members of the Mohegan Tribe and the Mohegan Tribal Council. Due to the relationships between us and the Mohegan Tribe, as described above, none of the Management Board members would qualify as “independent directors” within the rules of The New York Stock Exchange or the NASDAQ Stock Market.


42


Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services.
The Audit Committee has selected Deloitte & Touche LLP, or Deloitte, as our independent registered public accounting firm for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2019 and 2018. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2017 (and going back through our first quarter of fiscal 2002), PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, or PwC, served as our independent registered public accounting firm. Consistent with its duty to oversee our independent registered public accounting firm, the Audit Committee, on May 21, 2018, dismissed PwC as our independent registered public accounting firm following their second quarter fiscal 2018 interim review, and formally engaged Deloitte to be our independent registered public accounting firm.
The following table presents the aggregate fees paid or accrued for professional services rendered by Deloitte:
 
Fiscal 2019
 
Fiscal 2018
Audit fees (1)
$
1,173,000

 
$
563,000

Tax fees
95,000

 

All other fees
27,000

 
165,000

Total
$
1,295,000

 
$
728,000

 _________
(1)
Audit fees include fees for our annual audit, quarterly reviews and services rendered in connection with regulatory filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
The Audit Committee’s independent registered public accounting firm independence policy provides for pre-approval of all services performed by our independent registered public accounting firm. All above services were pre-approved by the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee considered whether the provision of these services was compatible with maintaining independent registered public accounting firm independence.

43


PART IV

Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules.
A(1). Financial Statements
The following financial information appear in this Annual Report on Form 10-K beginning on page F-1 and are incorporated by reference in Part II, Item 8:

A(2). Financial Statement Schedules
The following schedule appears on page S-1 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and is incorporated by reference herein:
Schedule II—Valuation and Qualifying Accounts and Reserves for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2019, 2018 and 2017.
All other financial statement schedules have been omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is included in the consolidated financial statements or the notes thereto.


















44


A(3). Exhibits
Exhibit No.
  
Description
2.1*
 
 
 
 
2.2*
 
 
 
 
2.3*
 
 
 
 
3.1*
  
 
 
 
3.2
  
Ordinance No. 95-2 of the Tribe for Gaming on Tribal Lands, enacted on July 15, 1995 (filed as Exhibit 3.2 to the Mohegan Tribal Gaming Authority’s Amendment No. 1 to its Registration Statement on Form S-1, filed with the SEC on February 29, 1996 (the "1996 Form S-1") and incorporated by reference herein).
 
 
 
4.1*
 
 
 
 
4.2*
 
 
 
 
10.1
  
The Mohegan Tribe—State of Connecticut Gaming Compact between the Mohegan Tribe of Indians of Connecticut and the State of Connecticut (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to the 1996 Form S-1 and incorporated by reference herein).
 
 
 
10.2
  
Agreement, dated as of April 25, 1994, between the Mohegan Tribe of Indians of Connecticut and the State of Connecticut resolving certain land claims (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to the 1996 Form S-1 and incorporated by reference herein).
 
 
 
10.3
  
Memorandum of Understanding, dated as of April 25, 1994, between the Mohegan Tribe of Indians of Connecticut and the State of Connecticut regarding implementation of the Compact and the Resolution Agreement (filed as Exhibit 10.3 to the 1996 Form S-1 and incorporated by reference herein).
 
 
 
10.4
  
Agreement, dated as of June 16, 1994, between the Mohegan Tribe of Indians of Connecticut and the Town of Montville, Connecticut (filed as Exhibit 10.4 to the 1996 Form S-1 and incorporated by reference herein).
 
 
 
10.5*
 
 
 
 
10.6*
 
 
 
 
10.7*
 
 
 
 
10.8*
 
 
 
 
10.9*
 
 
 
 
10.10*
  
 
 
 
10.11*
 
 
 
 
10.12*
 
 
 
 
10.13*
 

45


Exhibit No.
  
Description
10.14*
 
 
 
 
10.15*
 
 
 
 
10.16*
 
 
 
 
10.17*
 
 
 
 
10.18*
 
 
 
 
10.19*
 
 
 
 
10.20*
 
 
 
 
21.1*
 
 
 
 
31.1*
  
 
 
 
31.2*
  
 
 
 
32.1*
  
 
 
 
32.2*
  
 
 
 
101.INS*
 
XBRL Instance Document (filed herewith).****
 
 
 
101.SCH*
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema (filed herewith).****
 
 
 
101.CAL*
 
XBRL Taxonomy Calculation Linkbase (filed herewith).****
 
 
 
101.DEF*
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase (filed herewith).****
 
 
 
101.LAB*
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase (filed herewith).****
 
 
 
101.PRE*
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase (filed herewith).****
_____________
*
Exhibits transmitted via EDGAR.
**
Certain portions of this exhibit have been omitted pursuant to Item 601 of Regulation S-K. Upon request by the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Company hereby undertakes to furnish supplementary to the Securities and Exchange Commission a copy of any omitted information.
***
Management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement.
****
Pursuant to Rule 406T of Regulation S-T, the XBRL related information in Exhibits 101 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K shall not be deemed to be "filed" for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or otherwise subject to liability under that section, and shall not be incorporated by reference into any registration statement or other document filed under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, except as expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.



46


Item 16. Form 10-K Summary.
None.

47


SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, the Mohegan Tribal Gaming Authority has duly caused this Annual Report on Form 10-K to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized on December 20, 2019.
 
MOHEGAN TRIBAL GAMING AUTHORITY
 
 
 
 
By:
/S/    RALPH JAMES GESSNER JR.
 
 
Ralph James Gessner Jr.
Chairman, Management Board
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, this Annual Report on Form 10-K has been signed by the following persons on behalf of the Mohegan Tribal Gaming Authority and in the capacities indicated on December 20, 2019.
SIGNATURE
  
TITLE
 
 
 
/S/    RALPH JAMES GESSNER JR.        
  
Chairman and Member, Management Board
      Ralph James Gessner Jr.
 
 
 
 
 
/S/    SARAH E. HARRIS       
  
Vice Chairwoman and Member, Management Board
         Sarah E. Harris
 
 
 
 
 
  /S/    MARIO C. KONTOMERKOS 
  
Chief Executive Officer, Mohegan Tribal Gaming Authority
           Mario C. Kontomerkos
 
(Principal Executive Officer)

 
 
 
  /S/    DREW M. KELLEY 
  
Chief Financial Officer, Mohegan Tribal Gaming Authority
           Drew M. Kelley
 
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

 
 
 
/S/    KATHLEEN M. REGAN-PYNE        
  
Recording Secretary and Member, Management Board
        Kathleen M. Regan-Pyne
 
 
 
 
 
/S/    PATRICIA A. LAPIERRE       
  
Corresponding Secretary and Member, Management Board
        Patricia A. LaPierre
 
 
 
 
 
/S/    THAYNE D. HUTCHINS JR.        
  
Treasurer and Member, Management Board
       Thayne D. Hutchins Jr.
 
 
 
 
 
    /S/    WILLIAM QUIDGEON JR.  
  
Member, Management Board
             William Quidgeon Jr.
 
 
 
 
 
/S/    JOSEPH M. SOPER       
  
Member, Management Board
         Joseph M. Soper