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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTIONS 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended: September 30, 2018
Commission File Number: 0-18059
 
PTC Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
Massachusetts
 
04-2866152
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
140 Kendrick Street, Needham, MA 02494
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(781) 370-5000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.01 par value per share
 
NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant
to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    YES  þ    NO  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    YES  ¨    NO  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    YES  þ    NO  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to post such files).    YES  þ    NO  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer  þ
Accelerated Filer  o
Non-accelerated Filer  o
Smaller Reporting Company  o
 
 
 
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).     YES  ¨    NO  þ
The aggregate market value of our voting stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $8,976,658,598 on April 1, 2018 based on the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on March 29, 2018. There were 116,337,920 shares of our common stock outstanding on that day and 118,675,240 shares of our common stock outstanding on November 15, 2018.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement in connection with the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (2019 Proxy Statement) are incorporated by reference into Part III.





PTC Inc.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K FOR FISCAL YEAR 2018
Table of Contents
 
 
 
Page
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
Item 15.
Item 16.
 
 
 
 
 
 





Forward-Looking Statements
Statements in this Annual Report about our anticipated financial results and growth, as well as about the development of our products and markets, are forward-looking statements that are based on our current plans and assumptions. Important information about factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from these statements is discussed in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and generally throughout this Annual Report.
Unless otherwise indicated, all references to a year reflect our fiscal year that ends on September 30.
PART I

ITEM 1.
Business
PTC is a global software and services company that delivers solutions to enable our industrial customers' digital transformations, helping them to better design, manufacture, operate, and service their products.
Our Internet of Things (IoT) solutions are focused on Smart Connected Operations (SCO), Smart Connected Products (SCP), and Smart Connect Systems, that enable companies to connect factories and plants, smart products, and enterprise systems, bridging the physical and digital worlds, to transform their businesses. Our Solutions portfolio of innovative Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) solutions enable manufacturers to create, innovate, operate, and service products.
PTC
IoT
Solutions
Internet of Things (IoT)
Augmented Reality (AR)
Computer Aided Design (CAD)
Product Lifecycle Management (PLM)
Industrial Innovation Platform enabling connectivity, rapid application development, and purpose-built solutions
Industrial AR solutions to increase efficiency and technical proficiency of skilled workers in manufacturing and service settings
Effective and collaborative product design across the globe

Efficient and consistent management of product information from concept to retirement across the enterprise processes and distributed teams
Our Principal Products and Services
We generate revenue through the sale of software licenses, subscriptions (which include license access, support and cloud services for a period of time), support (which includes technical support and software updates when and if available), and services (which include consulting and implementation and training). We report revenue by line of business (subscription, support, perpetual license and professional services), by geographic region, and by segment (Software Products and Professional Services).
IoT
Our IoT products and solutions are focused on Smart Connected Operations such as plants and factories, Smart Connected Products, and Smart Connected Systems. With these products and solutions, industrial companies can drive their digital transformations across the enterprise, transforming how they run their plants and factories, how they service their products, and how they better leverage information across their enterprise to increase productivity, improve factory and plant efficiency, reduce operational risk, and achieve better system interoperability. Our solutions enable our customers to bridge their physical and digital worlds.

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Our principal IoT products are described below.
thingworx-colora03.jpg
Our ThingWorx® industrial innovation platform delivers tools, technologies, and solutions that empower companies to rapidly develop and deploy powerful industrial IoT applications, enabling customers to transform their operations, products and services and unlock new business models. ThingWorx enables customers to reduce the time, cost, and risk required to build and deploy IoT applications; connect devices, systems, and applications; manage connected products; and analyze industrial IoT data. Our ThingWorx solutions include cloud-based tools that allow customers to easily and more securely connect products and devices to the cloud, and intelligently process and store product and sensor data. Additionally, ThingWorx offers sophisticated artificial intelligence and machine learning technology that enables customers to simplify and automate complex analytical processes that enhance industrial IoT solutions through real-time insights, predictions and recommendations from information collected from smart, connected products.
 
Our KEPServerEX® solution provides communications connectivity to industrial automation environments, enabling users to connect, manage, monitor, and control disparate devices and software applications, providing users with a single source of real-time industrial sensor and machine data to improve operations, accelerate troubleshooting, perform preventative maintenance, and improve productivity.
vuforia-colora03.jpg
Our Vuforia Studio™ solution is a powerful, easy-to-use, cloud dependent tool that enables industrial enterprises to rapidly author and publish augmented reality experiences. These augmented reality experiences overlay important digital information from IoT onto the view of the physical things on which the user is working, including for example 3D step-by-step operating or repair instructions or a dashboard of analytics data.
Solutions
Our principal Solutions products are described below.
CAD
Our CAD products enable users to create conceptual and detailed designs, analyze designs, perform engineering calculations and leverage the information created downstream using 2D, 3D, parametric and direct modeling. Our principal CAD products are described below.

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creo-colora03.jpg
Our Creo® interoperable suite of product design software provides a scalable set of packages for design engineers to meet a variety of specialized needs. Creo provides capabilities for design flexibility, advanced assembly design, piping and cabling design, advanced surfacing, comprehensive virtual prototyping and other essential design functions. Our Creo solutions include augmented and virtual reality through a native cloud dependent integration with our Vuforia® solution. With every seat of Creo, our customers can create and publish AR experiences and share their design instantly to collaborate with anyone in the world on any device.
In 2019, we will launch a version of Creo that will include the Discovery Live real-time simulation technology from ANSYS. This solution will offer customers a unified modeling and simulation environment and provide design engineers with an interactive design experience that will enable them to create higher quality products, while reducing product and development costs.

PLM
Our PLM products are designed to address common challenges that companies face over the life of their products, from concept to retirement. Our PLM products enable efficient and consistent product data management from inception through design, as well as communication and collaboration across the entire enterprise, including product development, manufacturing and the supply chain.
Our principal PLM products are described below.
windchill-colora03.jpg
Our Windchill® suite of PLM software provides product lifecycle management capabilities - from design to service. Windchill offers a single repository for all product information. As such, it is designed to create a “single source of truth” for all product-related content such as CAD models, documents, technical illustrations, embedded software, calculations and requirement specifications for all phases of the product lifecycle to help companies streamline enterprise-wide communication and make informed decisions.
Additionally, our Windchill product family includes solutions that allow manufacturers, distributors and retailers to collaborate across product development and the supply chain, including sourcing and procurement, to identify an optimal set of parts, materials and suppliers. This functionality provides automated cost modeling and visibility into supply chain risk information to balance cost and quality, and enables customers to design products that meet compliance requirements and performance targets.
With Windchill 11.1, we introduced augmented reality (AR) capabilities to Windchill customers. This cloud dependent functionality enables customers to build a digital product definition and publish the representation of the resulting product in AR. Using AR in the product development process enables companies to connect the digital model to the physical product to determine real-time behavior, conduct product design reviews in real-world environments, and share the product definition with disparate stakeholders.

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Our ThingWorx Navigate™ solution, a ThingWorx-based PLM offering launched in 2016, is a collection of focused, role-based applications that provides complete, contextual, up-to-date and accurate product information from Windchill and other systems of record. Leveraging ThingWorx technology, ThingWorx Navigate applications can easily be tailored and deployed to roles across an enterprise, and extended to include data from other systems of record and even data from smart, connected products.
 
Our Integrity™ solution provides a set of Application Lifecycle Management and Model Based Systems Engineering capabilities that enable users to manage system models, software configurations, test plans and defects. With Integrity, engineering teams can improve productivity and quality, streamline compliance, and gain greater product visibility, ultimately enabling them to bring more innovative products to market.
Other Solutions
servigistics-colora03.jpg
Our Servigistics® suite enables more effective service parts management, enabling customers to continuously improve their products and services and increase customer satisfaction.
Customer Success Solutions and Services
Our Customer Success solutions and services help customers unleash the full value of our software offerings. These include advisory services designed to provide strategic insights for operational, organizational and technological IoT transformation; implementation services; adoption services that include digital learning solutions and change enablement services; success management services that leverage data and systems to monitor and improve the customer experience; cloud services; and customer support resources and tools. Our principal Customer Success offerings are described below.
Global Support
We offer global support plans for our software products. Participating customers receive updates that we make generally available to our support customers and also have direct access to our global technical support team of certified engineers for issue resolution. We also provide self-service support tools that allow our customers access to extensive technical support information.  When products are purchased as a subscription, support is included as part of the subscription.
Professional Services
We offer consulting, implementation, training and cloud services through our Global Professional Services Organization, with approximately 900 professionals worldwide, as well as through third-party resellers and other strategic partners. Our services help customers improve product development performance through technology enabled process improvement and multiple deployment paths.  Our cloud services customers receive hosting and 24/7 application management.
Strategic Partners
Building an ecosystem of strategic partners will become increasingly important as we expand the capabilities of our core solutions, and IoT offerings and as we expand our addressable markets by leveraging our partner sales distribution channels. With this in mind, in 2018, we entered into the three strategic partner relationships below to jointly develop, market and sell integrated products and services.
We partnered with Rockwell Automation to align our respective smart factory technologies to address the market for smart, connected operations, with particular focus on the plant and factory setting. As part of this strategic alliance, we will align our ThingWorx® IoT, Kepware® industrial connectivity, and Vuforia® augmented reality (AR) platforms with Rockwell Automation’s

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FactoryTalk® MES, FactoryTalk Analytics, and Industrial Automation platforms, and we both will offer these solutions in the market. During the term of the contract, Rockwell Automation has exclusive rights to resell certain of our solutions to certain customers and geographic regions. In connection with this strategic alliance, Rockwell Automation made a $1 billion equity investment in PTC.
We partnered with Microsoft to make the ThingWorx® Industrial Innovation Platform available on the Microsoft Azure cloud platform as our preferred cloud platform. By partnering with Microsoft, we are able to leverage the two companies’ complementary technologies and together pursue opportunities in industrial sectors. This integration enables us to deliver a combined and connected solution for industrial IoT and digital product lifecycle management that enable companies to bring new products to market faster, enhance customer service, and introduce new revenue streams, while reducing operating costs.
We partnered with ANSYS to enable us to embed Ansys' Discovery Live real-time simulation within Creo, enabling us to offer a fully-integrated CAD and real-time simulation solution.
Our Markets and How We Address Them
We compete in the Industrial IoT (IIoT) and augmented reality markets and the CAD and PLM markets. The markets we serve present different growth opportunities for us. We see greater opportunity for market growth for our IIoT and Augmented Reality solutions for the enterprise, followed by more moderate market growth for our CAD and PLM solutions.
We derive most of our sales from products and services sold directly by our sales force to end-user customers. Approximately 20% to 30% of our sales of products and services are through third-party resellers and other strategic partners. Our sales force focuses on large accounts, while our reseller channel provides a cost-effective means of covering the small- and medium-size business market. Our strategic services partners provide service offerings to help customers implement our product offerings. As we grow our IIoT business, we expect our go-to-market strategy will rely more on partners, including the types of strategic partners described above, and marketing directly to end users and developers.
Additional financial information about our segments and international and domestic operations may be found in Note Q. Segment Information of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report, which information is incorporated herein by reference.
Competition
We compete with a number of companies that offer solutions that address one or more specific functional areas covered by our solutions. In our IIoT business, we compete with large established companies like Amazon, IBM Corporation, Cisco, Oracle, SAP, and General Electric. There are also a number of small companies that compete in the market for IoT products. We believe our ThingWorx IoT platform is complementary to the offerings of many of our competitors and we have partnered with many of the named competitors. For enterprise CAD and PLM solutions, we compete with companies including Dassault Systèmes SA and Siemens AG; for discrete desktop CAD products, we compete with Autodesk, Siemens and Dassault Systèmes. For PLM solutions, we also compete with Oracle Corporation and SAP AG but we believe our products are more specifically targeted toward the business process challenges of manufacturing companies and offer broader and deeper functionality for those processes than ERP-based solutions.
Proprietary Rights
Our software products and related technical know-how, along with our trademarks, including our company names, product names and logos, are proprietary. We protect our intellectual property rights in these items by relying on copyrights, trademarks, patents and common law safeguards, including trade secret protection. The nature and extent of such legal protection depends in part on the type of intellectual property right and the relevant jurisdiction. In the U.S., we are generally able to maintain our trademark registrations for as long as the trademarks are in use and to maintain our patents for up to 20 years from the earliest effective filing date. We also use license management and other anti-piracy technology measures, as well as contractual restrictions, to curtail the unauthorized use and distribution of our products.

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Our proprietary rights are subject to risks and uncertainties described under Item 1A. “Risk Factors” below. You should read that discussion, which is incorporated into this section by reference.
Deferred Revenue and Backlog (Unbilled Deferred Revenue)
Information about Deferred Revenue and Backlog (Unbilled Deferred Revenue) is discussed in Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Executive Overview” below. You should read that discussion, which is incorporated into this section by reference.
Employees
As of September 30, 2018, we had 6,110 employees, including 2,084 in product development; 1,676 in customer support, training, consulting, cloud services and product distribution; 1,642 in sales and marketing; and 708 in general and administration. Of these employees, 2,151 were located in the United States and 3,959 were located outside the United States.
Website Access to Reports and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics
We make available free of charge on our website at www.ptc.com the following reports as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing them with, or furnishing them to, the SEC: our Annual Reports on Form 10-K; our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q; our Current Reports on Form 8-K; and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Our Proxy Statements for our Annual Meetings and Section 16 trading reports on SEC Forms 3, 4 and 5 also are available on our website. The reference to our website is not intended to incorporate information on our website into this Annual Report by reference.
Our Code of Ethics for Senior Executive Officers is embedded in our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, which is also available on our website. Additional information about this code and amendments and waivers thereto can be found below in Part III, Item 10 of this Annual Report.
Executive Officers
Information about our executive officers is incorporated by reference from our 2019 Proxy Statement.
Corporate Information
PTC was incorporated in Massachusetts in 1985 and is headquartered in Needham, Massachusetts.
 
ITEM 1A.
Risk Factors

The following are important factors we have identified that could affect our future results. You should consider them carefully when evaluating an investment in PTC securities or any forward-looking statements made by us, including those contained in this Annual Report, because these factors could cause actual results to differ materially from historical results or the performance projected in forward-looking statements. The risks described below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and/or operating results. Holders of the 6.00% Senior Notes due 2024 (the “2024 6% Notes”) that we issued in May 2016 should also consider the risk factors related to those notes described in the prospectus supplement we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 5, 2016, which are incorporated herein by reference.
I. Operational Considerations
Our operating results fluctuate from quarter to quarter, making future operating results difficult to predict; failure to meet market expectations could cause the price of our securities to decline.
Our quarterly operating results historically have fluctuated and are likely to continue to fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including:

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a high percentage of our orders historically have been generated in the third month of each fiscal quarter and any failure to receive, complete or process orders at the end of any quarter could cause us to fall short of our revenue and bookings targets;
our adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Topic 606 in 2019 will create significant quarterly revenue volatility;
a significant percentage of our orders comes from transactions with large customers, which tend to have long lead times that are less predictable;
our mix of license, subscription and service revenues can vary from quarter to quarter, creating variability in our financial results;
one or more industries that we serve may have weak or negative growth;
our operating expenses are largely fixed in the short term and are based on expected revenues, so any failure to achieve our revenue targets could cause us to miss our earnings targets as well;
because a significant portion of our revenue and expenses are generated from outside the U.S., shifts in foreign currency exchange rates could adversely affect our reported results; and
we may incur significant expenses in a quarter in connection with corporate development initiatives, restructuring efforts or the investigation, defense or settlement of legal actions that would increase our operating expenses and reduce our earnings for the quarter in which those expenses are incurred.
Accordingly, our quarterly results are difficult to predict prior to the end of the quarter and we may be unable to confirm or adjust expectations with respect to our operating results for a particular quarter until that quarter has closed. Any failure to meet our quarterly revenue or earnings targets could adversely impact the market price of our securities.
We now offer our solutions as subscriptions, which has adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our revenue and earnings in the transition period and make predicting our revenue and earnings more difficult.
We began offering most of our solutions under a subscription option in 2015, in addition to a perpetual license option. Under a subscription, customers pay a periodic fee for the right to use our software and receive support, or to use our cloud services and have us manage the application for a specified period. Through 2018, under a subscription, revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the subscription while under a perpetual license, revenue is generally recognized upon purchase. A significant number of our customers have elected to purchase our solutions as subscriptions rather than under perpetual licenses. As a result, our license revenues have declined. Our support revenue (which comprises a significant portion of our revenue) has also decreased due to support services being included in the subscription offering and to customers converting their support contracts into subscriptions. We discontinued sales of perpetual licenses for most of our products in the Americas and Western Europe as of January 1, 2018 and intend to discontinue sales of such perpetual licenses in all remaining geographic regions as of January 2019, which will likely accelerate these effects on our revenue. As described in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Revenue Sources and Recognition, and in Note B. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, we adopted ASC 606 effective October 1, 2018, which will change how we account for revenue transactions and will affect the timing of our revenue period to period.
We may not be able to predict subscription renewal rates and their impact on our future revenue and operating results.
Although our subscription solutions are designed to increase the number of customers that purchase our solutions as subscriptions and create a recurring revenue stream that increases and is more predictable over time, our customers are not required to renew their subscriptions for our solutions and they may elect not to renew when or as we expect. Customer renewal rates may decline or fluctuate due to a number of factors, including offering pricing, competitive offerings, customer satisfaction, and reductions in customer spending levels or customer activity due to economic downturns, the adverse impact of import tariffs, or other market uncertainty. If our customers do not renew their subscriptions when or as we expect, or if they renew on less favorable terms, our revenues and earnings may decline.

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Our long range financial targets are predicated on bookings and revenue growth and operating margin improvements that we may fail to achieve, which could reduce our expected earnings and cause us to fail to meet the expectations of analysts or investors and cause the price of our securities to decline.
We are projecting long-term bookings, revenue and earnings growth. Our projections are based on the expected growth potential in the IoT and AR markets, as well as more modest growth in our core CAD and PLM markets. We may not achieve the expected bookings and revenue growth if the markets we serve do not grow at expected rates, if customers do not purchase, renew, or expand subscriptions as we expect, if we are not able to deliver solutions desired by customers and potential customers, and/or if acquired businesses do not generate the revenue growth that we expect.
Our long-term operating margin improvement targets are predicated on operating leverage as long-range revenue increases and on improved operating efficiencies, particularly within our sales organization, and on service margin improvements. Services margins are significantly lower than license and support margins. Future projected improvements in our operating margin as a percent of revenue are based in part on our ability to improve services margins by reducing the amount of direct services that we perform through expansion of our service partner program and improving the profitability of services that we perform. If our services revenue increases as a percentage of total revenue and/or if we are unable to improve our services margins, our overall operating margin may not increase to the levels we expect or may decrease. Additionally, if we do not achieve lower sales and marketing expenses as a percentage of revenue through productivity initiatives, we may not achieve our operating margin targets. If operating margins do not improve, our earnings could be adversely affected and the price of our securities could decline.
Our significant investment in our IoT business may not generate the revenues we expect, which could adversely affect our business and financial results. 
We have made significant investments in recent years in our IoT business, including acquisitions totaling approximately $550 million. 
 The Internet of Things is a relatively new market and there are a significant number of competitors in the market.  If the market does not expand as rapidly as we or others expect or if customers adopt competitive solutions rather than our solutions, our IoT business may not generate the revenues we expect.  Further, our customers and potential customers often begin the process of implementing IoT with a proof-of-concept evaluation, in some cases with multiple different technology vendors. Our success in this emerging market will depend on our ability to engage with customers to ensure that their investment moves beyond planning to broader deployment and yields value at their desired speed and expected costs.
Further, one market for our IoT business is as a platform provider to a broad ecosystem of application and solutions providers. This market relies on an extensive and differentiated partner ecosystem to enable us to access markets and customers beyond our traditional markets, customers and buyers. We may be unable to expand our partner ecosystem as we expect and developers may not adopt our IoT solutions as we expect, which would adversely affect our ability to realize revenue from our investments in this business.  
We depend on sales within the discrete manufacturing sector and our business could be adversely affected if manufacturing activity does not grow or if it contracts or if manufacturers are adversely affected by other economic factors.
A large amount of our sales are to customers in the discrete manufacturing sector. If this economic sector does not grow, or if it contracts, our customers in this sector may, as they have in the past, reduce or defer purchases of our products and services, which adversely affects our business. Further, U.S. manufacturers have been adversely affected by tariffs recently imposed on certain imported goods, which could cause them to reduce their purchases of our software, which would adversely affect our revenue and earnings.
Changes in accounting principles and guidance, or their interpretation or implementation, may materially adversely affect our reported results of operations or financial position.
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. These principles are subject to interpretation by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and various bodies formed to create and interpret appropriate accounting

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principles and guidance. A change in these principles or guidance, or in their interpretations, may have a significant effect on our reported results, as well as our processes and related controls.
For example, in May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Topic 606 (ASC 606).  This new standard is both technical and complex. ASC 606 became effective for us on October 1, 2018. We are adopting ASC 606 using the modified retrospective transition method. The adoption of this new standard will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements, including the way we account for arrangements involving our term-based subscription licenses, deferred revenue and sales commissions. In connection with the adoption of ASC 606, we are implementing new processes, systems and internal controls. Such changes and any difficulties implementing such changes could materially adversely affect our reported financial results, our ability to comply with regulatory reporting requirements, and the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting.
For a discussion of the potential impact that the implementation of ASC 606 is expected to have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, see Note B. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We face significant competition, which may reduce our profits and limit or reduce our market share.
The market for product development solutions and IoT solutions is rapidly changing and characterized by vigorous competition, both by entry of competitors with innovative technologies and by consolidation of companies with complementary products and technologies. This competition could result in price reductions for our products and services, reduced margins, loss of customers and loss of market share. Our primary competition comes from:
larger companies that offer competitive solutions;
larger, more well-known enterprise software providers with less product overlap, but greater financial, technical, sales and marketing, and other resources; and
other vendors of various competitive point solutions or IoT platforms.
In addition, barriers to entry into certain segments of the software industry have declined and the ability of customers to adopt software solutions has increased with the ability to offer software in the cloud and the increasing prevalence of subscription license models and customer acceptance of both those models. Because of these and other factors, competitive conditions in the industry are likely to intensify in the future.
Increased competition could result in price reductions, reduced revenue and profit margin and loss of market share, any of which would likely harm our business.
A breach of security in our products or computer systems, or those of our third-party service providers, could compromise the integrity of our products, harm our reputation, create additional liability and adversely impact our financial results.
We have implemented and continue to implement measures intended to maintain the security and integrity of our products, source code and computer systems. The potential consequences of a security breach or system disruption (particularly through cyber-attack or cyber-intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists) have increased in scope as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. Despite efforts to create security barriers to such threats, it is impossible for us to eliminate this risk, and, in fact, we deal with security issues on a regular basis and have experienced security incidents from time to time. Accordingly, there is a risk that we might encounter a material event or issue and that such an event or issue may occur. In addition, we offer cloud services to our customers and some of our products are hosted by third-party service providers, which expose us to additional risks as those repositories of our customers’ proprietary data may be targeted by such hackers. A significant breach of the security and/or integrity of our products or systems, or those of our third-party service providers, could prevent our products from functioning properly, could enable access to sensitive, proprietary or confidential information, including that of our customers, or could disrupt our business operations or those of our customers. This could require us to incur significant costs of investigation, remediation, harm our reputation, cause customers to stop buying our products, and cause us to face lawsuits and potential liability, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

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We may be unable to hire or retain personnel with the technical skills necessary to further develop our software products, which could adversely affect our ability to compete.
Our success depends upon our ability to attract and retain highly skilled technical personnel to develop our products.  Competition for such personnel in our industry is intense, especially for personnel with augmented and virtual reality and analytics expertise as there are comparatively fewer persons with those skills.  If we are unable to attract and retain technical personnel with the requisite skills, our product development efforts could be delayed, which could adversely affect our ability to compete and thereby adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
Our sales and operations are globally dispersed, which exposes us to additional compliance risks, which could adversely affect our business and financial results.
We sell and deliver software and services, and maintain support operations, in a large number of countries whose laws and practices differ from one another and are subject to unexpected changes. Managing these geographically dispersed operations requires significant attention and resources to ensure compliance with laws of those countries and those of the U.S. governing our activities in non-U.S. countries.
Those laws include, but are not limited to, anti-corruption laws and regulations (including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and the U.K. Bribery Act 2010), data privacy laws and regulations (including the European Union's General Data Privacy Regulation), and trade and economic sanctions laws and regulations (including laws administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the U.S. State Department, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the United Nations Security Council and other relevant sanctions authorities). The FCPA and UK Bribery Act prohibit us and business partners or agents acting on our behalf from offering or providing anything of value to persons considered to be foreign officials under those laws for the purposes of obtaining or retaining business. The UK Bribery Act also prohibits commercial bribery and accepting bribes. Our compliance risks with these laws are heightened due to the global nature of our business, our go-to-market approach for our IoT business that relies heavily on expanding our partner ecosystem, the fact that we operate in, and are expanding into, countries with a higher incidence of corruption and fraudulent business practices than others, the fact that we deal with governments and state-owned business enterprises, the employees and representatives of which may be considered foreign officials for purposes of the FCPA and the UK Bribery Act, and the fact global enforcement of anti-corruption laws, data privacy laws, and other laws has significantly increased.
Accordingly, while we strive to maintain a comprehensive compliance program, we cannot guarantee that an employee, agent or business partner will not act in violation of our policies or U.S. or other applicable laws or that we may inadvertently violate such laws. Investigations of alleged violations of those laws can be expensive and disruptive. Violations of such laws can lead to civil and/or criminal prosecutions, substantial fines and other sanctions, including the revocation of our rights to continue certain operations, and also cause business and reputation loss, which could adversely affect our financial results and/or stock price.
Our international businesses present economic and operating risks, which could adversely affect our business and financial results.
We expect that our international operations will continue to expand and to account for a significant portion of our total revenue. Because we transact business in various foreign currencies, the volatility of foreign exchange rates has had and may in the future have a material adverse effect on our revenue, expenses and operating results.
Other risks inherent in our international operations include, but are not limited to, the following:
difficulties in staffing and managing foreign sales and development operations;
possible future limitations upon foreign-owned businesses;
increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;
inadequate local infrastructure; and
greater difficulty in protecting our intellectual property.

10



Our inability to maintain or develop our strategic and technology relationships could adversely affect our business.
We have many strategic and technology relationships with other companies with which we work to offer complementary solutions and services, that market and sell our solutions, and that provide technologies that we embed in our solutions. We may not realize the expected benefits from these relationships and such relationships may be terminated by the other party. If these companies fail to perform or if a company terminates or substantially alters the terms of the relationship, we could suffer delays in product development, reduced sales or other operational difficulties and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
We may be unable to adequately protect our proprietary rights, which could adversely affect our business and our ability to compete effectively.
Our software products are proprietary. We protect our intellectual property rights in these items by relying on copyrights, trademarks, patents and common law safeguards, including trade secret protection, as well as restrictions on disclosures and transferability contained in our agreements with other parties. Despite these measures, the laws of all relevant jurisdictions may not afford adequate protection to our products and other intellectual property. In addition, we frequently encounter attempts by individuals and companies to pirate our software. If our measures to protect our intellectual property rights fail, others may be able to use those rights, which could reduce our competitiveness and revenues.
In addition, any legal action to protect our intellectual property rights that we may bring or be engaged in could be costly, may distract management from day-to-day operations and may lead to additional claims against us, and we may not succeed, all of which would materially adversely affect our operating results.
Intellectual property infringement claims could be asserted against us, which could be expensive to defend and could result in limitations on our use of the claimed intellectual property.
The software industry is characterized by frequent litigation regarding copyright, patent and other intellectual property rights, as well as improper disclosure of confidential or proprietary information. If a lawsuit of this type is filed, it could result in significant expense to us and divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel. We cannot be sure that we would prevail against any such asserted claims. If we did not prevail, we could be prevented from using the claimed intellectual property or be required to enter into royalty or licensing agreements, which might not be available on terms acceptable to us. In addition to possible claims with respect to our proprietary products, some of our products contain technology developed by and licensed from third parties and we may likewise be susceptible to infringement claims with respect to these third-party technologies.
Businesses we acquire may not generate the revenue and earnings we anticipate and may otherwise adversely affect our business.
We have acquired, and intend to continue to acquire, new businesses and technologies. If we fail to successfully integrate and manage the businesses and technologies we acquire, or if an acquisition does not further our business strategy as we expect, our operating results will be adversely affected.
Moreover, business combinations involve a number of risks and uncertainties that can adversely affect our operations and operating results, including:
difficulties managing an acquired company’s technologies or lines of business or entering new markets where we have limited or no prior experience or where competitors may have stronger market positions;
unanticipated operating difficulties in connection with the acquired entities, including potential declines in revenue of the acquired entity;
failure to achieve the expected return on our investments, which could adversely affect our business or operating results and impair the assets that we recorded as a part of an acquisition, including intangible assets and goodwill;
diversion of management and employee attention;
loss of key personnel;

11



assumption of unanticipated legal or financial liabilities or other unidentified issues with the acquired business;
potential incompatibility of business cultures;
significant increases in our interest expense, leverage and debt service requirements if we incur additional debt to pay for an acquisition; and
if we were to issue a significant amount of equity securities in connection with future acquisitions, existing stockholders would be diluted and earnings per share would likely decrease.
Our financial condition could be adversely affected if significant errors or defects are found in our software.
Sophisticated software can sometimes contain errors, defects, security vulnerabilities or other performance problems. If such items are discovered in our products, we may need to expend significant financial, technical and management resources, or divert some of our development resources, in order to resolve or work around those items, and we may not be able to correct them in a timely manner or provide an adequate response to our customers.
Errors, defects, security vulnerabilities or other performance problems in our products could also cause us to lose revenue, lose customers and lose market share, and could subject us to liability. Such items could also damage our business reputation and cause us to lose new business opportunities.
We may have exposure to additional tax liabilities and our effective tax rate may increase or fluctuate, which could increase our income tax expense and reduce our net income.
As a multinational organization, we are subject to income taxes as well as non-income based taxes in the U.S. and in various foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide income tax provision and other tax liabilities. In the ordinary course of a global business, there are many intercompany transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Our tax returns are subject to review by various taxing authorities. Although we believe that our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination of tax audits or tax disputes could be different from what is reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals.
Our effective tax rate can be adversely affected by several factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:
changes in tax laws, regulations, and interpretations in multiple jurisdictions in which we operate;
assessments, and any related tax interest or penalties, by taxing authorities;
changes in the relative proportions of revenues and income before taxes in the various jurisdictions in which we operate that have differing statutory tax rates;
changes to the financial accounting rules for income taxes;
unanticipated changes in tax rates; and
changes to a valuation allowance on net deferred tax assets, if any.
On September 7, 2017, we entered into a lease for a new worldwide headquarters in the Boston Seaport District, beginning in January 2019. Because our current headquarters lease will not expire until November 2022, we are seeking to exit our current headquarters lease or sublease that space, but have not yet done so. If we are unable to do so, or unable to do so for an amount at least equal to our rent obligations under the current headquarters lease, we will bear overlapping rent obligations for those premises and will be required to record a charge related to any rent shortfall, which could adversely affect our financial condition.
Under our current headquarters lease, we pay approximately $7.4 million in annual base rent plus operating expenses (together "rent obligations," an aggregate annual total of approximately $12.0 million). We will begin paying rent under our new headquarters lease on July 1, 2020. Our rent under the new lease when we begin paying rent will be an annual base rent amount of $11.3 million plus our pro rata portions of building operating expenses and real estate taxes (approximately 63% of such amounts, estimated to be approximately $7.1 million in 2020). The base rent will increase by $0.3 million

12



each year over the term of the lease. Accordingly, we will be required to pay rent for both locations from July 1, 2020 until November 30, 2022 unless we can successfully negotiate an exit to our current lease or sublease our current premises. We may be unable to negotiate a financially desirable termination of our current lease or to sublease our current premises for an amount at least equal to our rent obligations under the current lease, which would require us to bear the overlapping rent obligations and to record a charge related to such shortfall, and could adversely affect our cash flow and financial condition. A charge for such shortfall will be recorded in the earlier of the period that we cease using the existing space (which will likely occur in the second quarter of our fiscal 2019) or the period we exit the lease contract.

II. Other Considerations
Our substantial indebtedness could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as our ability to meet our payment obligations under our debt.
We have a significant amount of indebtedness. As of November 15, 2018, our total debt outstanding was approximately $728 million, approximately $228 million of which was under our $700 million secured credit facility (which matures in September 2023) and $500 million of which was associated with the 6% Senior Notes issued May 2016, which mature in May 2024 and are unsecured (see Liquidity and Capital Resources-Outstanding Notes in Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of this Annual Report). All amounts outstanding under the credit facility and the notes will be due and payable in full on their respective maturity dates. As of November 15, 2018, we had unused commitments under our credit facility of approximately $472 million. PTC Inc. (the parent company) and one of our foreign subsidiaries are eligible borrowers under the credit facility and certain other foreign subsidiaries may become borrowers under our credit facility in the future, subject to certain conditions.
Notwithstanding the limits contained in the credit agreement governing our credit facility and the indenture governing our 2024 6% Notes, we may be able to incur substantial additional debt from time to time to finance working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions, or for other purposes. If we do so, the risks related to our high level of debt could intensify. Specifically, our high level of debt could:
make it more difficult for us to satisfy our debt obligations and other ongoing business obligations, which may result in defaults;
result in an event of default if we fail to comply with the financial and other covenants contained in the agreements governing our debt instruments, which could result in all of our debt becoming immediately due and payable or require us to negotiate an amendment to financial or other covenants that could cause us to incur additional fees and expenses;
limit our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate requirements;
reduce the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes and limit our ability to obtain additional financing for these purposes;
increase our vulnerability to the impact of adverse economic and industry conditions;
expose us to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings, including borrowings under the credit facility, are at variable rates of interest;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, and increasing our vulnerability to, changes in our business, the industries in which we operate, and the overall economy;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to other, less leveraged competitors; and
increase our cost of borrowing.
Any of the above-listed factors could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and our ability to meet our payment obligations under our debt agreements.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.

13



Our ability to make scheduled payments on or refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors some of which are beyond our control. We may be unable to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness.
If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures or to dispose of material assets or operations, seek additional debt or equity capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to effect any such alternative measures, if necessary, on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, those alternative actions may not allow us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. Our debt agreements restrict our ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from those dispositions and may also restrict our ability to raise debt or equity capital to be used to repay other indebtedness when it becomes due. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain proceeds in an amount sufficient to meet any debt service obligations then due.
Our inability to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all, would materially and adversely affect our financial position and results of operations and our ability to satisfy our debt obligations.
If we cannot make scheduled payments on our debt, we will be in default and the lenders under our credit facility could terminate their commitments to loan money, the lenders could foreclose against the assets securing their borrowings, the holders of our 2024 6% Notes could declare all outstanding principal, premium, if any, and interest to be due and payable, and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. All of these events could result in a loss of your investment.
We are required to comply with certain financial and operating covenants under our debt agreements. Any failure to comply with those covenants could cause amounts borrowed to become immediately due and payable and/or prevent us from borrowing under the credit facility.
We are required to comply with specified financial and operating covenants under our debt agreements and to make payments under our debt, which limit our ability to operate our business as we otherwise might operate it. Our failure to comply with any of these covenants or to meet any debt payment obligations could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, would result in any amounts outstanding, including any accrued interest and/or unpaid fees, becoming immediately due and payable. We might not have sufficient working capital or liquidity to satisfy any repayment obligations in the event of an acceleration of those obligations. In addition, if we are not in compliance with the financial and operating covenants under the credit facility at the time we wish to borrow funds, we will be unable to borrow funds.
In addition, the financial and operating covenants under the credit facility may limit our ability to borrow funds, including for strategic acquisitions and share repurchases.
We may be unable to meet our goal of returning 40% of free cash flow to shareholders through share repurchases, which could decrease your expected return on investment in PTC stock.
Our capital allocation strategy includes a long-term goal of returning approximately 40% of free cash flow (cash flow from operations less capital expenditures) to shareholders through share repurchases. Meeting this goal requires us to generate consistent free cash flow and have available capital in the years ahead in an amount sufficient to enable us to continue investing in organic and inorganic growth as well as to return a significant portion of the cash generated to stockholders in the form of share repurchases. We may not meet this goal if we do not generate the free cash flow we expect, if we use our available cash to satisfy other priorities, if we have insufficient funds available to make such repurchases, or if we are unable to borrow funds under our credit facility to make such repurchases.
Additionally, our cash flow fluctuates over the course of the year and over multiple years, so, although our goal is to return 40% of free cash flow to shareholders, that is an average over a longer term and the number of shares repurchased and amount of free cash flow returned in any given period will vary and may be more or less than 40% in any such period. Finally, the number of shares repurchased for a given amount of cash will vary based on PTC’s stock price, so the number of shares repurchased will not be a consistent or predictable number or percentage of outstanding stock.

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Our stock price has been volatile, which may make it harder to resell shares at a favorable time and price.
Market prices for securities of software companies are generally volatile and are subject to significant fluctuations that may be unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of ours, may not be predictable. Negative changes in the public’s perception of the prospects of software companies, or of PTC or the markets we serve, could depress our stock price regardless of our operating results.
Also, a large percentage of our common stock is held by institutional investors and by Rockwell Automation. Purchases and sales of our common stock by these investors could have a significant impact on the market price of the stock. For more information about those investors, please see our proxy statement with respect to our most recent annual meeting of stockholders and Schedules 13D and 13G filed with the SEC with respect to our common stock.
Our 2024 6% Notes are not listed on any national securities exchange or included in any automated quotation system, which could make it harder to resell the notes at a favorable time and price.
Our 2024 6% Notes are not listed on any national securities exchange or included in any automated quotation system. As a result, an active market for the notes may not exist or be maintained, which would adversely affect the market price and liquidity of the notes. In that case, holders may not be able to sell their notes at a particular time or at a favorable price.
The market for non-investment grade debt historically has been subject to severe disruptions that have caused substantial volatility in the prices of securities similar to the notes. The market, if any, for the notes may experience similar disruptions and any such disruptions may adversely affect the liquidity in that market or the prices at which the notes may be sold.
ITEM 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

ITEM 2.
Properties
We currently have 76 primary office locations used in operations in the United States and internationally, predominately as sales and/or support offices and for research and development work. Of our total of approximately 1,698,000 square feet of leased facilities used in operations, approximately 837,000 square feet are located in the U.S., including 321,000 square feet at our headquarters facility located in Needham, Massachusetts, and approximately 297,000 square feet are located in India, where a significant amount of our research and development is conducted. In addition, we entered into a new lease in September 2017 for 250,000 square feet in the Boston Seaport District. We expect to relocate our headquarters to this location in the second quarter of 2019. We believe that our facilities are adequate for our present and foreseeable needs.
ITEM 3.
Legal Proceedings
None. 
ITEM 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

PART II
 
ITEM 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "PTC."
On September 30, 2018, the close of our fiscal year, and on November 13, 2018, our common stock was held by 1,138 and 1,137 shareholders of record, respectively.

15



The table below shows the shares of our common stock we repurchased in the fourth quarter of 2018.
Period (1)
Total Number of Shares (or Units) Purchased
Average Price Paid per Share (or Unit)
Total Number of Shares (or Units) Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs  
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares (or Units) that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
July 1, 2018 - July 28, 2018
8,244,873


$97.03

8,244,873

$400,000,000 (2)(3)
July 29, 2018 - August 25, 2018


$—


$400,000,000 (2)(3)
August 26, 2018 - September 30, 2018


$—


$400,000,000 (2)(3)
Total
8,244,873


$97.03

8,244,873

$400,000,000 (2)(3)
(1) Periods are our fiscal months within the fiscal quarter.
(2) Our Board of Directors has authorized us to repurchase up to $1,500 million of our common stock for the period October 1, 2017 through September 30, 2020, which program we initially announced on September 19, 2017 and expanded in July 2018.
(3) In July 2018, we made a payment of $1,000 million to repurchase shares pursuant to an accelerated share repurchase agreement (ASR) with a major financial institution (Bank). Of that amount, 8,244,873 shares valued at $800 million were repurchased in July 2018, with the remaining $200 million held back by the Bank pending final settlement of the ASR.

ITEM 6.         Selected Financial Data
Our five-year summary of selected financial data and quarterly financial data for the past two years is located on pages A-1 and A-2 at the end of this Form 10-K and incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Forward-Looking Statements
Statements in this Annual Report about anticipated financial results and growth, as well as about the development of our products and markets, are forward-looking statements that are based on our current plans and assumptions. Important information about the bases for these plans and assumptions and factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from these statements is contained below and in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report.
Unless otherwise indicated, all references to a year reflect our fiscal year that ends on September 30.
Operating and Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Our discussion of results includes discussion of our operating measures (including “license and subscription bookings” and other subscription-related measures) and non-GAAP financial measures. Our operating measures and non-GAAP financial measures, including the reasons we use those measures, are described below in Results of Operations - Operating Measures and Results of Operations - Non-GAAP Financial Measures, respectively. You should read those sections to understand those operating and non-GAAP financial measures.
Revenue Sources and Recognition
We sell subscription and perpetual licenses to our software, support for perpetual licenses, cloud services and professional services.
Subscription revenue is comprised of time-based licenses whereby customers use our software and receive related support for a specified term, and for which through 2018 revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the contract. Perpetual licenses are a perpetual right to use the software, for which revenue is generally recognized up front upon shipment to the customer. Support revenue is comprised

16



of contracts to maintain new and/or previously purchased perpetual licenses, for which revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the contract. Our subscription revenue includes an immaterial amount of Software as a Service (SaaS) and cloud services for which revenue is generally recognized ratably over the term of the contract. Consulting and training professional services engagements typically result from sales of new licenses, and for which revenue is recognized over the term of the engagement. Our revenue recognition practices are described below in “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” and in Note B. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report.
Beginning with 2019, we will recognize revenue under the Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Topic 606 (ASC 606) revenue recognition standard, which differs significantly from the previous accounting rules. Under ASC 606, all performance obligations under the product that can be separately identified are, and revenue is recognized for each performance obligation. Accordingly, our on-premise subscription contracts will be unbundled into multiple performance obligations (i.e., license, cloud and support). The license portion of such subscription contracts (approximately 50% to 55%) will be recognized upfront and the cloud and support portions (approximately 45% to 50%) of such subscription contracts will be recognized ratably over the term. The effects of our adoption of ASC 606, including expected adjustments to retained earnings related to billed and unbilled deferred revenue, are described below in “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” and in Note B. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report.
Executive Overview
Our revenue results for the year reflect the adoption of subscription licensing by our customers and the compounding effect of the subscription business model as subscription revenue recurs and new subscription revenue is added in the year. Subscription revenue, software revenue and total revenue were all up over fiscal 2017, despite an 800 basis point increase in subscription mix year over year. Recurring software revenue represented approximately 90% of our software revenue in 2018, up from 86% a year ago. Our revenue results also drove our operating margin improvements for the year. Despite increases in sales and marketing and research and development expenses, operating margins and EPS were up over the prior year.
Our CAD and PLM businesses performed well in the year, our IoT business continued to grow as we added new customers and existing customers expanded their implementations, and interest in our augmented reality solutions increased. We made important strides in extending our market reach and further differentiating our technology with strategic relationships we entered into in 2018, including those with Rockwell Automation, Microsoft and ANSYS.
revenueresultsa11.jpg

17



 

 
 
 
 
 
 
Constant Currency Change
 
 
 
Year Ended September 30,
 
 
 
 
Revenue
 
2018
 
2017
 
Change
 
 
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
Subscription
 
$
482.0

 
$
279.2

 
73
 %
 
69
 %
 
Support
 
496.8

 
574.7

 
(14
)%
 
(16
)%
 
Total recurring revenue
 
978.9

 
853.9

 
15
 %
 
12
 %
 
Perpetual license
 
109.6

 
133.4

 
(18
)%
 
(20
)%
 
Total subscription, support and license revenue
 
1,088.5

 
987.3

 
10
 %
 
8
 %
 
Professional services
 
153.3

 
176.7

 
(13
)%
 
(16
)%
 
Total revenue
 
$
1,241.8

 
$
1,164.0

 
7
 %
 
4
 %
 

The increase in total revenue, subscription revenue and EPS reflects our transformation into a subscription software company. As our mix of subscription sales relative to perpetual license sales has increased, perpetual license revenue and support revenue have declined.
Our 2018 revenue results include the impact of a settlement of a customer dispute concerning a professional services receivable. The settlement, reached in September 2018, included partial payment of the receivable and new software purchases. The net revenue write-down recorded in the fourth quarter of 2018 was $9.3 million, comprised of a $14.5 million services revenue write-down, partially offset by subscription revenue of $5.2 million. Additionally, professional services revenue has declined in accordance with our strategy to migrate more services engagements to our partners and to deliver products that require less consulting and training services.

recurringrevenueaspercentoft.jpg
The increase in subscription revenue relative to perpetual license revenue has resulted in an increase in our recurring software revenue, with approximately 90% of our software revenue and 79% of our total revenue in 2018 from recurring software revenue streams, compared to 86% and 73% in 2017 and 82% and 68% in 2016.

18



 
 
Year Ended September 30,
 
 
 
Earnings Measures
 
2018
 
2017
 
Change
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Margin
 
5.9
%
 
3.5
%
 
68
%
 
Earnings Per Share
 
$
0.44

 
$
0.05

 
780
%
 
 
 

 

 

 
Non-GAAP Operating Margin(1)
 
18.4
%
 
16.1
%
 
14
%
 
Non-GAAP EPS(1)
 
$
1.45

 
$
1.17

 
24
%
 
(1) Non-GAAP measures are reconciled to GAAP results under Results of Operations - Non-GAAP Measures below.
GAAP and non-GAAP operating income in 2018 reflect maturity of our subscription program. An increase in gross margin is associated with higher subscription revenue and a lower mix of professional services revenue, which has lower margins than our software revenue. The increase in gross margins was partially offset by higher sales and marketing and research and development costs.
Our GAAP and non-GAAP earnings reflect a combination of revenue growth due to the strength of our subscription model and strong new bookings, as well as continued cost and expense discipline.
We ended 2018 with cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $316 million, down from $330 million at the end of 2017. We generated $248 million of cash from operations in 2018 compared to $135 million in 2017. In the fourth quarter of 2018, Rockwell Automation made a $1 billion equity investment in PTC as part of a strategic partnership. Using the cash proceeds from this investment, PTC entered into a $1,000 million accelerated share repurchase. We also used cash from operations to repurchase another $100 million of common stock and to repay a net $70 million of borrowings under our credit facility in 2018. At September 30, 2018, the balance outstanding under our credit facility was $148 million and total debt outstanding was $648 million.
Operating Measures
We provide these measures to help investors understand the progress of our subscription transition. These measures are not necessarily indicative of revenue for the period or any future period.
License and Subscription Bookings
subscriptionbookingsaspercen.jpg
License and subscription bookings for 2018 were $466 million, up 11% over 2017 (up 9% on a constant currency basis) and up 16% over 2016. Over the past two years, CAD, core PLM and IoT have delivered bookings CAGRs at the high end of market growth rates, as CAD and PLM customers have converted existing license contracts to subscriptions and customers have adopted and expanded IoT implementations.
Subscription ACV
Subscription ACV increased 24% over 2017 to $177 million due to continued adoption of our subscription offerings around the globe.

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Annualized Recurring Revenue (ARR)
ARR was approximately $1,012 million as of the fourth quarter of 2018, an increase of 12% compared to the fourth quarter of 2017 and the seventh consecutive quarter of double-digit year-over-year growth.
Deferred Revenue and Backlog (Unbilled Deferred Revenue)
Deferred revenue primarily relates to software agreements invoiced to customers for which the revenue has not yet been recognized. Unbilled deferred revenue (backlog) is the aggregate of booked orders for license, support and subscription (including multi-year subscription contracts with start dates after October 1, 2018 that are subject to a limited annual cancellation right, of which approximately $50 million was cancellable at September 30, 2018) for which the associated revenue has not been recognized and the customer has not yet been invoiced. We do not record unbilled deferred revenue on our Consolidated Balance Sheets; such amounts are recorded as Deferred Revenue when we invoice the customer. We provide this view of Deferred Revenue and Backlog to enable investors to understand the significant contractual commitments we have to customers, and to provide a view of future revenue that we expect will be recognized, even if those commitments are not reflected on our balance sheet.
billedandunbilleddeferredrev.jpg
 
September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Deferred revenue
$
499

 
$
459

 
$
414

Unbilled deferred revenue
911

 
633

 
369

Total
$
1,410

 
$
1,092

 
$
783

Of the unbilled deferred revenue balance at September 30, 2018, we expect to invoice customers approximately $560 million within the next twelve months. Unbilled deferred revenue grew 44% year over year due to the high volume of new subscription bookings. Many of our subscription bookings are for multiple years and are typically billed annually at the start of each annual subscription period. The average contract duration was approximately 2 years for new subscription contracts in 2018 and 2017.
We expect that the amount of deferred revenue and unbilled deferred revenue will fluctuate from quarter to quarter due to the specific timing, duration and size of customer subscription and support agreements, varying billing cycles of such agreements, the specific timing of customer renewals, foreign currency fluctuations, the timing of when deferred revenue is recognized as revenue and the timing of our fiscal quarter ends.

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The effects of our adoption of ASC 606, including expected adjustments to retained earnings related to billed and unbilled deferred revenue, are described below in “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” and in Note B. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Future Expectations, Strategies and Risks
Our transition to a subscription model has been a headwind for revenue and earnings in 2018 with an increase in our subscription mix of 800 basis points as compared to fiscal 2017. We expect a further increase in our subscription mix of 1100 to 1300 basis points, which will result in a further headwind for revenue and earnings in fiscal 2019. We expect the effect of the transition to moderate in fiscal 2020. A higher mix of subscription bookings is expected to benefit us over the long term, but results in lower revenue and lower earnings in the near term. We expect that IoT and AR adoption rates will continue to expand and will be the most significant driver to growth.
With the growth opportunity in Industrial Internet of Things and Augmented Reality, and other strategic initiatives we’ve undertaken, as well as our continued commitment to operating margin improvement, we are realigning our workforce in the beginning of 2019 to shift investment to support these strategic, high growth opportunities. This realignment will result in a restructuring charge of approximately $18 million in 2019, which consists principally of termination benefits, substantially all of which we expect will be paid in 2019. As this is a realignment of resources rather than a cost-savings initiative, we don’t expect this realignment will result in significant cost savings, and the effect of the realignment is reflected in our 2019 guidance.
In 2019, we will be moving into a new worldwide headquarters in the Boston Seaport District and we will be vacating our current headquarters space. Because our current headquarters lease will not expire until November 2022, we are seeking to sublease that space, but have not yet done so. If we are unable to sublease our current headquarters space for an amount at least equal to our rent obligations under the current headquarters lease, we will bear overlapping rent obligations for those premises and will be required to record a charge related to such rent shortfall. We currently pay approximately $12 million in annual base rent and operating expenses for our current headquarters. We expect to record a charge for any such shortfall in the earlier of the period that we cease using the space (which will likely occur in the second quarter of our fiscal 2019) or the period we sign sublease contracts. Additionally, we will incur other costs associated with the move which will be recorded as incurred.
We are adopting the new revenue recognition standard, ASC 606, effective October 1, 2018. ASC 606 will, among other things, materially impact the timing of our revenue recognition. Refer to Note B. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Form 10-K for additional information about the impact of adopting this guidance.
Our results have been impacted, and we expect will continue to be impacted, by our ability to close large transactions. The amount of bookings and revenue, particularly license and subscriptions, attributable to large transactions, and the number of such transactions, may vary significantly from quarter to quarter based on customer purchasing decisions and macroeconomic conditions. Such transactions may have long lead times as they often follow a lengthy product selection and evaluation process and, for existing customers, are influenced by contract expiration cycles. This may cause volatility in our results.

21



As we move into 2019, our three overriding goals continue to be:
          sustainablegrowtha04.jpg
Sustainable Growth
Our goals are predicated on continuing to drive bookings growth both in the high-growth IoT market and in our core CAD and PLM markets.

          expandsubscriptiona05.jpg

Expand Subscription Licensing
Our goal is to increase the percentage of licenses sold as subscriptions to increase our recurring revenue. Effective January 1, 2018, new software licenses for our core solutions and ThingWorx solutions were available only by subscription in the Americas and Western Europe, and, effective January 1, 2019, new software licenses for those solutions will be available only by subscription worldwide. Kepware will continue to be available under perpetual licensing.

          costctrlsmarginexpansiona05.jpg

Cost Controls and Margin Expansion
Our goal is to drive continued margin expansion over the long term. We continue to proactively manage our cost structure and invest in what we believe are high return opportunities in our business. We expect to deliver continued operating margin expansion in 2019 and beyond, as we realize the compounding benefit of our maturing subscription business.

22



Results of Operations
The following table shows the financial measures that we consider the most significant indicators of the performance of our business. In addition to providing operating income, operating margin, and diluted earnings per share as calculated under generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), it shows non-GAAP operating income, non-GAAP operating margin, and non-GAAP diluted earnings per share for the reported periods. These non-GAAP financial measures exclude the effect of a professional services revenue write-down and subscription revenue associated with the settlement of a previously disclosed disputed customer receivable, fair value adjustments related to acquired deferred revenue, acquired deferred costs, stock-based compensation expense, amortization of acquired intangible assets expense, acquisition-related and pension plan termination costs, restructuring charges, certain identified gains or charges included in non-operating other income (expense) and the related tax effects of the preceding items, as well as the tax items identified. These non-GAAP financial measures provide investors another view of our operating results that is aligned with management budgets and with performance criteria in our incentive compensation plans. Management uses, and investors should use, non-GAAP financial measures only in conjunction with our GAAP results.
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
Percent change 2017 to 2018
 
2016
 
Percent change 2016 to 2017
Actual
 
Constant
Currency
 
Actual
 
Constant
Currency
 
(Dollar amounts in millions, except per share data)
Subscription
$
482.0

 
$
279.2

 
73
 %
 
69
 %
 
$
118.3

 
136
 %
 
135
 %
Support
496.8

 
574.7

 
(14
)%
 
(16
)%
 
651.8

 
(12
)%
 
(12
)%
Total recurring revenue
978.9

 
853.9

 
15
 %
 
12
 %
 
770.1

 
11
 %
 
11
 %
Perpetual license
109.6

 
133.4

 
(18
)%
 
(20
)%
 
173.5

 
(23
)%
 
(23
)%
Total subscription, support and license revenue
1,088.5

 
987.3

 
10
 %
 
8
 %
 
943.6

 
5
 %
 
5
 %
Professional services
153.3

 
176.7

 
(13
)%
 
(16
)%
 
196.9

 
(10
)%
 
(11
)%
Total revenue
1,241.8

 
1,164.0

 
7
 %
 
4
 %
 
1,140.5

 
2
 %
 
2
 %
Total cost of revenue
326.2

 
329.0

 
(1
)%
 
 
 
325.7

 
1
 %
 
 
Gross margin
915.6

 
835.0

 
10
 %
 
 
 
814.9

 
2
 %
 
 
Operating expenses
842.4

 
794.1

 
6
 %
 
 
 
851.9

 
(7
)%
 
 
Total costs and expenses
1,168.6

 
1,123.1

 
4
 %
 
2
 %
 
1,177.5

 
(5
)%
 
(4
)%
Operating income (loss)
$
73.2

 
$
40.9

 
79
 %
 
57
 %
 
$
(37.0
)
 
211
 %
 
214
 %
Non-GAAP operating income (1)
$
230.0

 
$
188.4

 
22
 %
 
16
 %
 
$
172.7

 
9
 %
 
7
 %
Operating margin
5.9
%
 
3.5
%
 
 
 
 
 
(3.2
)%
 
 
 
 
Non-GAAP operating margin (1)
18.4
%
 
16.1
%
 
 
 
 
 
15.1
 %
 
 
 
 
Diluted earnings (loss) per share (2)
$
0.44

 
$
0.05

 
 
 
 
 
$
(0.48
)
 
 
 
 
Non-GAAP diluted earnings per share (2)
$
1.45

 
$
1.17

 
 
 
 
 
$
1.19

 
 
 
 
Cash flow from operations (3)
$
247.8

 
$
135.2

 
 
 
 
 
$
183.3

 
 
 
 
 
(1)
See Non-GAAP Financial Measures below for a reconciliation of our GAAP results to our non-GAAP measures.
(2)
We have a full valuation allowance against our U.S. net deferred tax assets and a valuation allowance against net deferred tax assets in certain foreign jurisdictions. As we are profitable on a non-GAAP basis, the 2018 and 2017 non-GAAP tax provisions are calculated assuming there is no valuation allowance. Income tax adjustments reflect the tax effects of non-GAAP adjustments which are calculated by applying the applicable tax rate by jurisdiction to the non-GAAP adjustments listed above. We recorded the impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act in our 2018 GAAP earnings, resulting in a non-cash benefit of approximately $12 million. We have excluded this benefit from our non-GAAP results.

23



(3)
Cash flow from operations for 2018 includes $3 million of restructuring payments. Cash flow from operations for 2017 includes $37 million of restructuring payments, a $12 million payment related to a Korea tax audit and $3 million of legal settlement payments. Cash flow from operations for 2016 includes $55 million of restructuring payments and a $28 million payment of a legal accrual recorded in 2015 related to the settlement of an investigation in China.
Impact of Foreign Currency Exchange on Results of Operations
Approximately two thirds of our revenue and half of our expenses are transacted in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Currency translation affects our reported results, which are in U.S. Dollars. If actual reported results were converted into U.S. dollars based on the corresponding prior year’s foreign currency exchange rates, 2018 and 2017 revenue would have been lower by $32 million and higher by $1 million, respectively, and expenses would have been lower by $20 million and higher by $3 million, respectively. The net impact on year-over-year results would have been a decrease in operating income of $12 million in 2018 and a decrease in operating income of $2 million in 2017. The results of operations, revenue by line of business and revenue by geographic region in the tables that follow present both actual percentage changes year over year and percentage changes on a constant currency basis.
Revenue
Revenue is reported below by line of business (subscription, support, perpetual license and professional services), by product area (Solutions and IoT) and by geographic region (Americas, Europe, Asia Pacific). Results include combined revenue from direct sales and our channel.
Revenue by Line of Business
revenuebylob.jpg
Software
As our mix of subscription sales relative to perpetual license sales has increased, perpetual license revenue and support revenue have declined and are expected to continue to decline as customers purchase our solutions as subscriptions and convert existing perpetual licenses with support contracts to subscriptions. As our subscription business matures, recurring software revenue growth is expected to continue due to the compounding benefit of a subscription business model.
Professional Services
Professional services revenue was down 13% (16% constant currency) in 2018 compared to 2017. Professional services revenue in 2018 reflects a $14.5 million write-down related to a settlement of a customer dispute concerning a receivable. These results are in line with our expectation that professional services revenue will trend flat-to-down over time due to our strategy to expand margins by migrating

24



more services engagements to our partners and delivering products that require less consulting and training services.

Revenue by Product
 
Year ended September 30,
 
 
 
Percent Change
 
 
 
Percent Change
 
 
 
2018
 
Actual
 
Constant
Currency
 
2017
 
Actual
 
Constant
Currency
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Solutions Products
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Software revenue
$
964.6

 
8
 %
 
5
 %
 
$
893.7

 
3
 %
 
3
 %
 
$
871.2

Professional services
137.9

 
(17
)%
 
(20
)%
 
167.1

 
(12
)%
 
(12
)%
 
189.0

Total revenue
$
1,102.5

 
4
 %
 
1
 %
 
$
1,060.7

 
 %
 
 %
 
$
1,060.2

IoT Products
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Software revenue
$
123.9

 
32
 %
 
31
 %
 
$
93.7

 
29
 %
 
29
 %
 
$
72.4

Professional services
15.4

 
60
 %
 
57
 %
 
9.6

 
22
 %
 
21
 %
 
7.9

Total revenue
$
139.3

 
35
 %
 
33
 %
 
$
103.3

 
28
 %
 
28
 %
 
$
80.3


Solutions
Software revenue grew 8% in 2018 compared to 2017 as a result of strong CAD, PLM and global channel license and subscription bookings over the past several years, offset by a significant increase in the subscription mix in the current period. Subscription sales have increased in part due to our support conversion programs that we have been offering over the past few years whereby customers may convert existing perpetual licenses and support to a new subscription.  Recurring software revenue grew 12% in 2018 over 2017, and has grown double-digits for seven consecutive quarters. As our transition matures, recurring software revenue growth is expected to continue due to the compounding benefit of a subscription business model.
Professional services revenue in 2018 includes a $14.5 million write-down related to a settlement of a previously disclosed customer dispute concerning a receivable. In addition, professional services revenue in 2018 declined compared to 2017 due to our strategy to limit the amount of professional services we provide.
IoT
Software revenue in 2018 increased by 32% compared to 2017 due to increases in license and subscription bookings over the past several years, offset by an 800 basis points increase in the subscription mix. Recurring software revenue grew 42% in 2018 over 2017 due to strong IoT bookings growth over the past several years. Software revenue includes $5.2 million of new subscription revenue related to the settlement of a customer dispute concerning a professional services receivable, which settlement included new subscription purchases.
Professional services revenue increased in 2018 compared to 2017 in part due to implementation and adoption services we provide to our IoT customers as part of our efforts to help their IoT initiatives be successful.

25



Revenue by Geographic Region
Total revenue grew in all regions for 2018 compared to 2017.
revenuebyregiona04.jpg
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
Percent Change
 
2017
 
Percent Change
 
2016
Actual
 
Constant
Currency
 
Actual
 
Constant
Currency
 
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Americas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Software revenue
$
468.3

 
8
 %
 
8
 %
 
$
433.7

 
5
 %
 
4
 %
 
$
414.7

Professional services revenue
42.9

 
(36
)%
 
(36
)%
 
67.2

 
(8
)%
 
(9
)%
 
72.9

Total Revenue
$
511.2

 
2
 %
 
2
 %
 
$
500.9

 
3
 %
 
2
 %
 
$
487.6

Europe
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Software revenue
$
402.9

 
13
 %
 
7
 %
 
$
356.5

 
6
 %
 
7
 %
 
$
335.6

Professional services revenue
83.0

 
5
 %
 
(1
)%
 
78.7

 
(11
)%
 
(11
)%
 
88.7

Total Revenue
$
485.9

 
12
 %
 
5
 %
 
$
435.2

 
3
 %
 
4
 %
 
$
424.3

Asia Pacific
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Software revenue
$
217.3

 
10
 %
 
8
 %
 
$
197.1

 
2
 %
 
 %
 
$
193.3

Professional services revenue
27.4

 
(11
)%
 
(13
)%
 
30.9

 
(13
)%
 
(13
)%
 
35.4

Total Revenue
$
244.7

 
7
 %
 
5
 %
 
$
228.0

 
 %
 
(2
)%
 
$
228.7

Americas
Americas software revenue has benefited from strong license and subscription bookings growth over the past two years (10% CAGR). New license and subscriptions bookings were up 20% in 2018 compared to 2017, despite an 800 basis point increase in the subscription mix.
Europe
Europe constant currency year-over-year revenue growth reflects solid bookings growth over the past two years (8% CAGR). The increase in revenue in Europe in 2018 compared to 2017 was due to the strong bookings in 2017, when this region delivered 28% constant currency growth in bookings. Bookings in Europe declined 10% in 2018 compared to 2017 and were adversely affected in 2018 due to a $7 million deal which closed early in the fourth quarter of 2017 instead of the first quarter of 2018.
Year-over-year changes in foreign currency exchange rates, particularly the Euro, impacted European revenue favorably in 2018 by $28.2 million and unfavorably by $3.9 million in 2017.
Asia Pacific

26



Asia Pacific software revenue growth in the mid-teens reflects solid bookings performance in the broader region over the past two years (5% CAGR), despite the headwinds experienced in Japan in 2017.
Year-over-year changes in foreign currency exchange rates favorably impacted revenue by $4.2 million and $1.6 million in 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Gross Margin
grossmargin.jpg
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
Percent
Change
 
2017
 
Percent
Change
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Gross margin
$
915.6

 
10
%
 
$
835.0

 
2
%
 
$
814.9

Non-GAAP gross margin
964.0

 
10
%
 
876.5

 
3
%
 
853.2

Gross margin as a % of revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
License and subscription gross margin
84
%
 
 
 
79
%
 
 
 
76
%
Support gross margin
82
%
 
 
 
84
%
 
 
 
87
%
Professional Services
6
%
 
 
 
15
%
 
 
 
14
%
Gross margin as a % of total revenue
74
%
 
 
 
72
%
 
 
 
71
%
Non-GAAP gross margin as a % of total non-GAAP revenue
77
%
 
 
 
75
%
 
 
 
75
%
The increase in total gross margin in 2018 compared to 2017 is due to total revenue growth and lower costs of professional services. Total revenue in 2018 grew 7% over 2017. Margins for license and subscription are beginning to expand as the subscription model matures and revenue that has been deferred begins to contribute to current periods. Support gross margins are down for 2018 compared to 2017 primarily due to the 14% decrease in support revenue associated with an increase in our subscription mix and the conversion of existing customers from support contracts to subscription. Support revenue comprised 40% of our total revenue in 2018 compared to 50% in 2017 and 57% in 2016. Professional services gross margin is down due to the $14.5 million revenue write-down related to a settlement of a customer dispute concerning a receivable. Without this revenue write-down, professional services gross margin would have been 15%.


27



Costs and Expenses
costsandexpensesa05.jpg
 
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
Percent
Change
 
2017
 
Percent
Change
 
2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of license and subscription revenue
$
94.1

 
9
 %
 
$
86.0

 
23
 %
 
$
69.7

Cost of support revenue
88.6

 
(4
)%
 
92.2

 
8
 %
 
85.7

Cost of professional services revenue
143.5

 
(5
)%
 
150.8

 
(11
)%
 
170.2

Sales and marketing
414.5

 
11
 %
 
372.9

 
1
 %
 
367.5

Research and development
249.8

 
6
 %
 
236.1

 
3
 %
 
229.3

General and administrative
143.0

 
(1
)%
 
145.1

 
 %
 
145.6

Amortization of acquired intangible assets
31.4

 
(2
)%
 
32.1

 
(3
)%
 
33.2

Restructuring charges
3.8

 
(53
)%
 
7.9

 
(90
)%
 
76.3

Total costs and expenses
$
1,168.6

 
4
 %
(1)
$
1,123.1

 
(5
)%
(1)
$
1,177.5

Total headcount at end of period
6,110

 
1
 %
 
6,041

 
4
 %
 
5,800


(1)
On a constant currency basis from the prior period, total costs and expenses increased 2% from 2017 to 2018 and decreased 4% from 2016 to 2017.

2018 compared to 2017
Costs and expenses in 2018 compared to 2017 increased primarily as a result of the following:
an increase of approximately $45 million in compensation and related costs primarily due to annual salary merit and headcount increases, an increase in commissions expense and an increase in stock-based compensation expense due to over-achievement of certain operating performance targets; and
an increase of $8.6 million in cloud services hosting costs; of which $3.7 million is included in cost of license and subscription revenue. 
The increases above were partially offset by:
a decrease of $8.9 million in restructuring charges.

2017 compared to 2016
Costs and expenses in 2017 compared to 2016 decreased primarily as a result of the following:
substantial completion of restructuring activities in 2016, for which restructuring charges totaled $76.3 million in 2016 compared to $7.9 million in 2017; and

28



a decrease in professional services costs primarily due to a decrease in headcount as we migrated more service engagements to our partners and we delivered products that required less consulting and training services.
The decreases above were partially offset by increases due to:
an increase of $18.1 million in total cost of license, subscription and support compensation costs primarily driven by increased headcount;
an increase of $8.7 million in cloud services hosting costs due to an increase in SaaS revenue and related expenses and an increase in applications hosted in the cloud that support our IT infrastructure.
an increase of $5.0 million in total research and development compensation costs primarily driven by increased headcount; and
annual merit salary increases.
Cost of License and Subscription Revenue
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
Percent
Change
 
2017
 
Percent
Change
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Cost of license and subscription revenue
$
94.1

 
9
%
 
$
86.0

 
23
%
 
$
69.7

% of total revenue
8
%
 
 
 
7
%
 
 
 
6
%
% of total license and subscription revenue
16
%
 
 
 
21
%
 
 
 
24
%
Our cost of license and subscription includes cost of license, which consists of fixed and variable costs associated with reproducing and distributing software and documentation, as well as royalties paid to third parties for technology embedded in or licensed with our software products, and amortization of intangible assets associated with acquired products, and cost of subscription, which includes our cost of cloud services and software as a service revenue, including hosting fees. Costs associated with providing post-contract support such as providing software updates and technical support for both our subscription offerings and our perpetual licenses are included in cost of support revenue. Cost of license and subscription revenue as a percent of license and subscription revenue can vary depending on the subscription mix percentage, the product mix sold, the effect of fixed and variable royalties, headcount and the level of amortization of acquired software intangible assets.
Costs in 2018 compared to 2017 increased primarily as a result of a $3.7 million increase in cloud services hosting costs and a $2.5 million increase in total compensation, benefit and travel expense due to increases in salaries.
Costs in 2017 compared to 2016 increased primarily as a result of a $15.0 million increase in total compensation, benefit and travel expense due to increased headcount, primarily associated with supporting our Cloud products, and a $3.4 million increase in cloud services hosting costs.
Cost of Support Revenue
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
Percent
Change
 
2017
 
Percent
Change
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Cost of support
$
88.6

 
(4
)%
 
$
92.2

 
8
%
 
$
85.7

% of total revenue
7
%
 
 
 
8
%
 
 
 
8
%
% of total support revenue
18
%
 
 
 
16
%
 
 
 
13
%
Cost of support revenue consists of costs such as salaries, benefits, and computer equipment and facilities associated with customer support and the release of support updates (including related royalty costs) associated with providing support for both our perpetual licenses and subscription licenses.
Costs and expense in 2018 compared to 2017 decreased primarily due to a decrease in headcount resulting in 3% ($1.9 million) lower total compensation, benefit and travel costs.

29



Costs and expense in 2017 compared to 2016 increased primarily due to a 5% ($3.1 million) increase in total compensation, benefit and travel costs.

Cost of Professional Services Revenue
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
Percent
Change
 
2017
 
Percent
Change
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Cost of professional services revenue
$
143.5

 
(5
)%
 
$
150.8

 
(11
)%
 
$
170.2

% of total revenue
12
%
 
 
 
13
%
 
 
 
15
%
% of total professional services revenue
94
%
 
 
 
85
%
 
 
 
86
%

Our cost of professional services revenue includes costs such as salaries, benefits, information technology costs and facilities expenses for our training and consulting personnel, and third-party subcontractor fees.
In 2018 compared to 2017, total compensation, benefit and travel expenses were decreased by $6.8 million primarily due to an 8% decrease in headcount.
In 2017 compared to 2016, total compensation, benefit costs and travel expenses decreased by $18.8 million. The cost of third-party consulting services was $4.7 million lower in 2017 compared to 2016.
As a result of decreases in professional services revenue in 2018, 2017 and 2016, we have reduced headcount, resulting in lower compensation-related costs. This is in line with our strategy to have our strategic services partners perform services for customers directly, which has decreased revenue and costs and improved services margins.
Sales and Marketing
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
Percent
Change
 
2017
 
Percent
Change
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Sales and marketing expenses
$
414.5

 
11
%
 
$
372.9

 
1
%
 
$
367.5

% of total revenue
33
%
 
 
 
32
%
 
 
 
32
%

Our sales and marketing expenses primarily include salaries and benefits, sales commissions, advertising and marketing programs, travel, information technology costs and facility expenses.
Costs and expense in 2018 compared to 2017 increased primarily due to a $38.6 million increase in total compensation, benefit costs and travel expenses as a result of increases in headcount, salary increases, higher commissions costs and higher stock-based compensation.
In 2017 compared to 2016, event costs increased $3.1 million due to our LiveWorx event held in May 2017. Our compensation, benefits and travel costs were $3.5 million lower in 2017 compared to 2016 primarily due to lower commissions, which were higher in 2016 as a result of significantly higher than planned subscription bookings.

30



Research and Development
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
Percent
Change
 
2017
 
Percent
Change
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Research and development expenses
$
249.8

 
6
%
 
$
236.1

 
3
%
 
$
229.3

% of total revenue
20
%
 
 
 
20
%
 
 
 
20
%
Our research and development expenses consist principally of salaries and benefits, information technology costs and facility expenses. Major research and development activities include developing new releases and updates of our software that enhance functionality and add features.
In 2018 compared to 2017, total compensation, benefit and travel expenses were higher by 6% ($12.0 million) due to an increase in headcount and salary increases.
In 2017 compared to 2016, total compensation, benefit and travel expenses were higher by 3% ($5.0 million) due to an increase in headcount and a $1.6 million increase in cloud services hosting costs as some product testing has moved to a cloud environment.
General and Administrative (G&A)
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
Percent
Change
 
2017
 
Percent
Change
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
General and administrative
$
143.0

 
(1
)%
 
$
145.1

 
 %
 
$
145.6

% of total revenue
12
%
 
 
 
12
%
 
 
 
13
%
Our G&A expenses include the costs of our corporate, finance, information technology, human resources, legal and administrative functions, as well as acquisition-related and other transactional charges, bad debt expense and outside professional services, including accounting and legal fees. Acquisition-related costs include direct costs of acquisitions and expenses related to acquisition integration activities, including transaction fees, due diligence costs, retention bonuses and severance, and professional fees, including legal and accounting costs, related to the acquisition. In addition, subsequent adjustments to our initial estimated amount of contingent consideration associated with specific acquisitions are included in acquisition-related charges. Other transactional charges include third-party costs related to structuring unusual transactions.
In 2018 compared to 2017, the cost of professional fees decreased $3.3 million, offset by an increase of $2.1 million in compensation due to headcount and merit increases.
In 2017 compared to 2016, total compensation, benefit and travel costs increased by $7.0 million primarily because of merit increases and increased severance costs, as well as higher stock-based compensation due to a higher attainment of performance-based awards, an award modification, and the launch of the employee stock purchase plan (ESPP) in the fourth quarter of 2016. Offsetting the increases, acquisition-related charges decreased $4.9 million because there were no significant acquisitions in the year, and tax and audit fees decreased $1.8 million during the year.
Amortization of Acquired Intangible Assets
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
Percent
Change
 
2017
 
Percent
Change
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Amortization of acquired intangible assets
$
31.4

 
(2
)%
 
$
32.1

 
(3
)%
 
$
33.2

% of total revenue
3
%
 
 
 
3
%
 
 
 
3
%
Amortization of acquired intangible assets reflects the amortization of acquired non-product related intangible assets, primarily customer and trademark-related intangible assets, recorded in connection

31



with completed acquisitions. Amortization of intangible assets typically follows the economic benefit pattern of the acquired intangible assets.
The decrease in amortization of acquired intangible assets from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018 is due to certain intangibles becoming fully amortized as well as the impact of foreign currency exchanges.
Restructuring and Other Charges, net
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Restructuring charges (credits), net
$
(1.0
)
 
$
7.9

 
$
76.3

Headquarters relocation charges
4.8

 

 

Restructuring and Other Charges, Net
$
3.8

 
$
7.9

 
$
76.3

% of total revenue
%
 
1
%
 
7
%
In fiscal 2016, we committed to a plan to restructure our global workforce and consolidate select facilities to reduce our cost structure and to realign our investments with our identified growth opportunities. The restructuring was substantially completed in 2017 and resulted in a total restructuring charge of $84.5 million.
In 2018, we recorded restructuring credits of $1.0 million related to prior year restructuring actions and made cash payments related to restructuring charges of $2.8 million. At September 30, 2018, accrued restructuring totaled $2.4 million, of which we expect to pay $1.5 million within the next twelve months.
Restructuring charges for 2017 were $7.9 million, including $5.6 million of facility related charges and $2.4 million of employee termination-related costs. In 2017 we made cash payments related to restructuring charges of $37.1 million.
Headquarters relocation charges represent accelerated depreciation expense recorded in anticipation of our relocation to a new worldwide headquarters in the Boston Seaport district in 2019 and exiting our current headquarters facility. Because our current headquarters lease will not expire until November 2022, we are seeking to sublease that space but have not yet done so. If we are unable to sublease our current headquarters space for an amount at least equal to our rent obligations under the current headquarters lease (approximately $12 million per year), we will bear overlapping rent obligations for those premises and will be required to record additional headquarters relocation charges related to any rent shortfall. A charge for such shortfall will be recorded in the earlier of the period that we cease using the existing space (which will likely occur in the second quarter of our fiscal 2019) or the period we sign sublease contracts. Additionally, we will incur other costs associated with the move which will be recorded as incurred.
Interest Expense
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Interest expense
$
(41.7
)
 
(42.4
)
 
(29.9
)
The decrease in interest expense in 2018 compared to 2017 is primarily due to the write-off deferred financing fees of $1.2 million in March 2017 when we modified our credit facility and reduced the loan commitment to $600 million from $900 million, offset by an increase in interest expense of $0.4 million.
The increase in interest expense in 2017 compared to 2016 was due to a full year of interest being incurred on the $500 million 6% senior notes (the 2024 6% Notes) which were issued in the third quarter of 2016, and higher average interest rates on our revolving credit facility in 2017 compared to 2016.
The average interest rate on our total borrowings was 5.2% in 2018, 4.9% in 2017 and 3.0% in 2016.

32



Interest Income and Other Expense, net
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Foreign currency losses, net
$
(7.0
)
 
$
(5.7
)
 
$
(1.9
)
Interest income
3.8

 
3.2

 
3.4

Other income (expense), net
0.3

 
2.5

 
(1.8
)
 
$
(2.9
)
 
$
0.1

 
$
(0.3
)
Foreign currency net losses include costs of hedging contracts, certain realized and unrealized foreign currency transaction gains or losses, and foreign exchange gains or losses resulting from the required period-end currency re-measurement of the assets and liabilities of our subsidiaries that use the U.S. dollar as their functional currency. Because a large portion of our revenue and expenses is transacted in foreign currencies, we engage in hedging transactions involving the use of foreign currency forward contracts to reduce our exposure to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Changes in the balance year over year are due to required period-end currency re-measurement of the assets and liabilities of our subsidiaries that use the U.S. Dollar as their functional currency.  Hedging costs increased $2.0 million in 2018 compared to 2017 and $1.3 million in 2017 compared to 2016.
Interest income represents earnings on the investment of our available cash balances.
Other income (expense), net is primarily made up other non-operating gains and losses. In January 2017, we sold a cost method investment for a gain of $3.7 million.
Income Taxes
Tax Provision and Effective Income Tax Rate
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Pre-tax income (loss)
$
28.7

 
$
(1.4
)
 
$
(67.2
)
Tax benefit
(23.3
)
 
(7.6
)
 
(12.7
)
Effective income tax rate
(81
)%
 
544
%
 
19
%

On December 22, 2017, the United States enacted tax reform legislation through the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, (the "Tax Act"), which significantly changed existing U.S. tax laws by a reduction of the corporate tax rate, the implementation of a new system of taxation for non-U.S. earnings, the imposition of a one-time tax on the deemed repatriation of undistributed earnings of non-U.S. subsidiaries, and by the expansion of the limitations on the deductibility of executive compensation and interest expense. As we have a September 30 fiscal year-end, a blended U.S. statutory federal rate of approximately 24.5% applies for our fiscal year ending September 30, 2018 and 21% for subsequent fiscal years. The Tax Act also provides that net operating losses generated in years ending after December 31, 2017 (our fiscal 2018) will be carried forward indefinitely and can no longer be carried back, and that net operating losses generated in years beginning after December 31, 2017 can only reduce taxable income by up to 80% when utilized in a future period.
We have provided no federal income taxes payable as a result of the deemed repatriation of undistributed earnings as the tax will be offset by a combination of current year losses and existing attributes which had a full valuation allowance recorded against the related deferred tax assets. We recorded a state income taxes payable on the deemed repatriation of $2.1 million.  We also recorded a deferred tax benefit of $14.1 million for the impact of the Tax Act on our net U.S. deferred income tax balances. This was primarily attributable to the reduction of the federal tax rate on the net deferred tax liability in the U.S., and the ability to realize net operating losses from the reversal of existing deferred tax assets which can now be carried forward indefinitely and can therefore be netted against deferred tax liabilities for indefinite lived intangible assets.
The changes included in the Tax Act are broad and complex. The Securities Exchange Commission has issued rules that allow for a measurement period of up to one year after the enactment date of the

33



Tax Act to finalize the recording of the related tax impacts. We have finalized our accounting for the effects of the legislation with the exception of any additional guidance that may impact our provisional amounts recorded for the transition tax. We are not able to make reasonable estimates at this time of the effects of certain provisions of the Tax Act that will apply to us beginning in our fiscal year ending September 30, 2019, including the Global Intangible Low Tax Income tax (the "GILTI" tax) and any associated impact on our U.S. valuation allowance. We currently anticipate finalizing and recording any resulting adjustments in the quarter ending December 29, 2018.
    
In 2018 our effective tax rate was lower than the statutory federal income tax rate due to U.S. tax reform, as described above. In 2018, 2017 and 2016, our effective tax rate was materially impacted by our corporate structure in which our foreign taxes are at an effective tax rate lower than the U.S. A significant amount of our foreign earnings is generated by our subsidiaries organized in Ireland. In 2018, 2017 and 2016, the foreign rate differential predominantly relates to these Irish earnings. Additionally, we have a full valuation allowance against deferred tax assets in the U.S., primarily related to net operating loss, tax credit carryforwards, capitalized research and development expense and deferred revenue. As a result, we have not recorded a benefit related to ongoing U.S. losses. Our foreign rate differential in 2018 ,2017 and 2016 includes the continuing rate benefit from a business realignment completed on September 30, 2014 in which intellectual property was transferred between two wholly-owned foreign subsidiaries. The realignment allows us to more efficiently manage the distribution of our products to European customers. In 2018, this realignment resulted in a tax benefit of approximately $24 million and in 2017 and 2016, a benefit of approximately $28 million in each year. In 2017 and 2016, the change in valuation allowance primarily relates to U.S. losses not benefited, partially offset by the release of valuation allowances in foreign subsidiaries of $9.0 million and $3.1 million, respectively. We recorded foreign withholding taxes, an obligation of the U.S. parent of $2.7 million in 2018 and $2.0 million in 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Valuation Allowance
We have concluded, based on the weight of available evidence, that a full valuation allowance continues to be required against our U.S. net deferred tax assets as they are not more likely than not to be realized in the future. We will continue to reassess our valuation allowance requirements each financial reporting period.
Tax Audits and Examinations
In the normal course of business, PTC and its subsidiaries are examined by various taxing authorities, including the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in the U. S. We regularly assess the likelihood of additional assessments by tax authorities and provide for these matters as appropriate. We are currently under audit by tax authorities in several jurisdictions. Audits by tax authorities typically involve examination of the deductibility of certain permanent items, transfer pricing, limitations on net operating losses and tax credits. Although we believe our tax estimates are appropriate, the final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could result in material changes in our estimates.
In the fourth quarter of 2016, we received an assessment of approximately $12 million from the tax authorities in Korea.  The assessment relates to various tax issues, primarily foreign withholding taxes. We have appealed and intend to vigorously defend our positions. We believe that upon completion of a multi-level appeal process it is more likely than not that our positions will be sustained.  Accordingly, we have not recorded a tax reserve for this matter. We paid this assessment in the first quarter of 2017, pending resolution of the appeal process.
Our Future Effective Income Tax Rate
Our future effective income tax rate may be materially impacted by the amount of income taxes associated with our foreign earnings, which are taxed at rates different from the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate, as well as the timing and extent of the realization of deferred tax assets and changes in the tax law. Further, our tax rate may fluctuate within a fiscal year, including from quarter to quarter, due to items arising from discrete events, including settlements of tax audits and assessments, the resolution or identification of tax position uncertainties, and acquisitions of other companies.
Operating Measures
Subscription Bookings and Subscription ACV

34



Given the difference in revenue recognition between the sale of a perpetual software license (revenue is recognized at the time of sale) and a subscription (revenue is recognized ratably over the subscription term), we use bookings for internal planning, forecasting and reporting of new license and subscription sales and cloud services transactions.
In order to normalize between perpetual and subscription licenses, we define subscription bookings as the subscription annualized contract value (subscription ACV) of new subscription bookings multiplied by a conversion factor of 2. We arrived at the conversion factor of 2 by considering many variables, including pricing, support, length of term, and renewal rates. In 2018 and 2017, the average subscription contract term was approximately two years.
We define subscription ACV as the total value of a new subscription booking divided by the term of the contract (in days), multiplied by 365. If the term of the subscription contract is less than a year, and is not associated with an existing contract, the ACV is equal to the total contract value. Beginning in the third quarter of 2018, minimum ACV commitments under our Strategic Alliance Agreement with Rockwell Automation are included in subscription ACV if the period-to-date minimum ACV commitment exceeds actual ACV sold under the Agreement.
We define license and subscription bookings as subscription bookings plus perpetual license bookings plus any monthly software rental bookings during the period.
Because subscription bookings is a metric we use to approximate the value of subscription sales if sold as perpetual licenses, it does not represent the actual revenue that will be recognized with respect to subscription sales or that would be recognized if the sales had been perpetual licenses.
Annualized Recurring Revenue (ARR)
Annualized Recurring Revenue (ARR) for a given quarter is calculated by dividing the non-GAAP subscription and support software revenue for the quarter by the number of days in the quarter and multiplying by 365. ARR should be viewed independently of revenue and deferred revenue as it is an operating measure and is not intended to be combined with or to replace either of those items. ARR is not a forecast and does not include perpetual license or professional services revenues.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures
The non-GAAP financial measures presented in the discussion of our results of operations and the respective most directly comparable GAAP measures are:
non-GAAP revenue—GAAP revenue
non-GAAP gross margin—GAAP gross margin
non-GAAP operating income—GAAP operating income
non-GAAP operating margin—GAAP operating margin
non-GAAP net income—GAAP net income
non-GAAP diluted earnings per share—GAAP diluted earnings per share
The non-GAAP financial measures exclude fair value adjustments related to acquired deferred revenue and deferred costs, stock-based compensation expense, amortization of acquired intangible assets expense, acquisition-related charges, pension plan termination-related costs, a legal accrual, restructuring charges, non-operating credit facility refinancing costs, identified discrete charges included in non-operating other expense, net and the related tax effects of the preceding items, and any other identified tax items.
These items are normally included in the comparable measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP. Our management excludes these items when evaluating our ongoing performance and/or predicting our earnings trends, and therefore excludes them when presenting non-GAAP financial measures. Management uses non-GAAP financial measures in conjunction with our GAAP results, as should investors.
Settlement Revenue Exclusions. In Q4'18, we settled a previously disclosed dispute with respect to a customer receivable. The settlement included partial payment of the receivable and new software purchases. The net revenue write-down recorded in Q4'18 was $9.3 million, comprised of a $14.5 million professional services revenue write-down, partially offset by new subscription revenue of $5.2 million. We

35



excluded the professional services revenue write-down because the write-down related to revenue that was recorded in periods prior to fiscal 2017 and is not reflective of current operating performance and excluded the new subscription revenue because it mitigated the impact of the professional services revenue write-down.
Fair value of acquired deferred revenue is a purchase accounting adjustment recorded to reduce acquired deferred revenue to the fair value of the remaining obligation, so our GAAP revenue after an acquisition does not reflect the full amount of revenue that would have been reported if the acquired deferred revenue was not written down to fair value. We believe excluding these adjustments to revenue from these contracts (and associated costs in fair value adjustment to deferred services cost) is useful to investors as an additional means to assess revenue trends of our business.
Stock-based compensation is a non-cash expense relating to stock-based awards issued to executive officers, employees and outside directors, consisting of restricted stock, stock options and restricted stock units. We exclude this expense as it is a non-cash expense and we assess our internal operations excluding this expense and believe it facilitates comparisons to the performance of other companies in our industry.
Amortization of acquired intangible assets is a non-cash expense that is impacted by the timing and magnitude of our acquisitions. We believe the assessment of our operations excluding these costs is relevant to our assessment of internal operations and comparisons to the performance of other companies in our industry.
Acquisition-related and other transactional charges included in general and administrative costs are
direct costs of potential and completed acquisitions and expenses related to acquisition integration
activities, including transaction fees, due diligence costs, severance and professional fees. Subsequent
adjustments to our initial estimated amount of contingent consideration associated with specific
acquisitions are also included within acquisition-related charges. Other transactional charges include
third-party costs related to structuring unusual transactions. We do not include these costs when
reviewing our operating results internally. The occurrence and amount of these costs will vary depending
on the timing and size of acquisitions.
U.S. pension plan termination-related costs include charges related to our plan that we began terminating in the second quarter of 2014. Costs associated with termination of the plan are not considered part of our regular operations.
Legal accrual includes amounts accrued to settle regulatory and other matters related to our SEC and DOJ FCPA investigation in China. We view these matters as non-ordinary course events and exclude the amounts when reviewing our operating performance.
Restructuring charges include severance costs and excess facility restructuring charges resulting from reductions of personnel driven by modifications to our business strategy. These costs may vary in size based on our restructuring plan.
Headquarters relocation charges include non-cash accelerated depreciation expense recorded in anticipation of exiting our current headquarters facility due to changes in the estimated useful lives of fixed assets. We do not include these costs when reviewing our operating results internally.
Non-operating credit facility refinancing costs are non-operating charges we record as a result of the refinancing of our credit facility. We assess our internal operations excluding these costs and believe it facilitates comparisons to the performance of other companies in our industry.
Income tax adjustments include the tax impact of the items above and assumes that we are profitable on a non-GAAP basis in the U.S. and one foreign jurisdiction, and eliminates the effect of the valuation allowance recorded against our net deferred tax assets in those jurisdictions. Additionally, we exclude other material tax items that we view as non-ordinary course.
We use these non-GAAP financial measures, and we believe that they assist our investors, to make period-to-period comparisons of our operational performance because they provide a view of our operating results without items that are not, in our view, indicative of our core operating results. We believe that these non-GAAP financial measures help illustrate underlying trends in our business, and we use the measures to establish budgets and operational goals (communicated internally and externally) for managing our business and evaluating our performance. We believe that providing non-GAAP financial measures affords investors a view of our operating results that may be more easily compared to the results of peer companies.

36



The items excluded from the non-GAAP financial measures often have a material impact on our financial results and such items often recur. Accordingly, the non-GAAP financial measures included in this Annual Report should be considered in addition to, and not as a substitute for or superior to, the comparable measures prepared in accordance with GAAP. The following tables reconcile each of these non-GAAP financial measures to its most closely comparable GAAP measure on our financial statements. 
 
Year ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(in millions, except per share amounts)
GAAP revenue
$
1,241.8

 
$
1,164.0

 
$
1,140.5

Settlement revenue exclusion
9.3

 

 

Fair value of acquired deferred revenue
1.3

 
2.7

 
3.5

Non-GAAP revenue
$
1,252.4

 
$
1,166.8

 
$
1,144.0

 
 
 
 
 
 
GAAP gross margin
$
915.6

 
$
835.0

 
$
814.9

Settlement revenue exclusion
9.3

 

 

Fair value of acquired deferred revenue
1.3

 
2.7

 
3.5

Fair value to acquired deferred costs
(0.4
)
 
(0.4
)
 
(0.5
)
Stock-based compensation
11.5

 
12.6

 
10.8

Amortization of acquired intangible assets included in cost of revenue
26.7

 
26.6

 
24.6

Non-GAAP gross margin
$
964.0

 
$
876.5

 
$
853.2

 
 
 
 
 
 
GAAP operating income (loss)
$
73.2

 
$
40.9

 
$
(37.0
)
Settlement revenue exclusion
9.3

 

 

Fair value of acquired deferred revenue
1.3

 
2.7

 
3.5

Fair value to acquired deferred costs
(0.4
)
 
(0.4
)
 
(0.5
)
Stock-based compensation
82.9

 
76.7

 
66.0

Amortization of acquired intangible assets included in cost of revenue
26.7

 
26.6

 
24.6

Amortization of acquired intangible assets
31.4

 
32.1

 
33.2

Acquisition-related and other transactional charges included in general and administrative expenses
1.9

 
1.6

 
3.5

U.S. pension plan termination-related costs

 
0.3

 

Legal accrual

 

 
3.2

Restructuring charges (credits), net
(1.0
)
 
7.9

 
76.3

Headquarters relocation charge
4.8

 

 

Non-GAAP operating income
$
230.0

 
$
188.4

 
$
172.7

 
 
 
 
 
 
GAAP net income (loss)
$
52.0

 
$
6.2

 
$
(54.5
)
Settlement revenue exclusion
9.3

 

 

Fair value of acquired deferred revenue
1.3

 
2.7

 
3.5

Fair value to acquired deferred costs
(0.4
)
 
(0.4
)
 
(0.5
)
Stock-based compensation
82.9

 
76.7

 
66.0

Amortization of acquired intangible assets included in cost of revenue
26.7

 
26.6

 
24.6

Amortization of acquired intangible assets
31.4

 
32.1

 
33.2

Acquisition-related and other transactional charges included in general and administrative expenses
1.9

 
1.6

 
3.5

U.S. pension plan termination-related costs

 
0.3

 

Legal accrual

 

 
3.2

Restructuring charges (credits), net
(1.0
)
 
7.9

 
76.3

Headquarters relocation charge
4.8

 

 

Non-operating credit facility refinancing costs

 
1.2

 
2.4

Income tax adjustments (1)
(37.6
)
 
(17.4
)
 
(19.8
)
Non-GAAP net income
$
171.2

 
$
137.6

 
$
137.8

 
 
 
 
 
 
GAAP diluted earnings (loss) per share
$
0.44

 
$
0.05

 
$
(0.48
)
Settlement revenue exclusion
0.08

 

 


37



Fair value of acquired deferred revenue
0.01

 
0.02

 
0.03

Stock-based compensation
0.70

 
0.65

 
0.57

Total amortization of acquired intangible assets
0.49

 
0.50

 
0.50

Acquisition-related and other transactional charges included in general and administrative expenses
0.02

 
0.01

 
0.03

Legal accrual

 

 
0.03

Headquarters relocation charge
0.04

 

 

Restructuring charges (credits), net
(0.01
)
 
0.07

 
0.66

Non-operating credit facility refinancing costs

 
0.01

 
0.02

Income tax adjustments (1)
(0.32
)
 
(0.15
)
 
(0.17
)
Non-GAAP diluted earnings per share (2)
$
1.45

 
$
1.17

 
$
1.19

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year ended September 30,
Operating margin impact of non-GAAP adjustments:
2018
 
2017
 
2016
GAAP operating margin
5.9
 %
 
3.5
%
 
(3.2
)%
Settlement revenue exclusion
0.6
 %
 
%
 
 %
Fair value of acquired deferred revenue
0.1
 %
 
0.2
%
 
0.3
 %
Stock-based compensation
6.7
 %
 
6.6
%
 
5.8
 %
Total amortization of acquired intangible assets
4.7
 %
 
5.0
%
 
5.1
 %
Acquisition-related and other transactional charges included in general and administrative expenses
0.1
 %
 
0.1
%
 
0.3
 %
Legal accrual
 %
 
%
 
0.3
 %
Headquarters relocation charge
0.4
 %
 
%
 
 %
Restructuring charges (credits), net
(0.1
)%
 
0.7
%
 
6.7
 %
Non-GAAP operating margin
18.4
 %
 
16.1
%
 
15.1
 %
 
(1)
We have a full valuation allowance against our U.S. net deferred tax assets and a valuation allowance against net deferred tax assets in certain foreign jurisdictions. As we are profitable on a non-GAAP basis, the 2018, 2017 and 2016 non-GAAP tax provisions are being calculated assuming there is no valuation allowance. Income tax adjustments reflect the tax effects of non-GAAP adjustments which are calculated by applying the applicable tax rate by jurisdiction to the non-GAAP adjustments listed above. We recorded the impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act in 2018 GAAP earnings, resulting in a non-cash benefit of approximately $12 million. We have excluded these benefits from our non-GAAP results. Additionally, we recorded a tax benefit in 2016 for the write-off of a deferred tax liability that resulted from the change in tax status of a foreign subsidiary. This tax benefit has been excluded from non-GAAP tax expense.

(2)
Diluted earnings per share impact of non-GAAP adjustments is calculated by dividing the dollar amount of the non-GAAP adjustment by the diluted weighted average shares outstanding for the respective year.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
We have prepared our consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In preparing our financial statements, we make estimates, assumptions and judgments that can have a significant impact on our reported revenues, results of operations, and net income, as well as on the value of certain assets and liabilities on our balance sheet. These estimates, assumptions and judgments are made based on our historical experience and on other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. These estimates may change as new events occur or additional information is obtained, and we may periodically be faced with uncertainties, the outcomes of which are not within our control and may not be known for a prolonged period of time.
The accounting policies, methods and estimates used to prepare our financial statements are described generally in Note B. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report. The most important accounting judgments and estimates that we made in preparing the financial statements involved:
revenue recognition;

38



accounting for income taxes;
valuation of assets and liabilities acquired in business combinations;
valuation of goodwill;
accounting for pensions; and
legal contingencies.
A critical accounting policy is one that is both material to the presentation of our financial statements and requires us to make subjective or complex judgments that could have a material effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Critical accounting policies require us to make assumptions about matters that are uncertain at the time of the estimate, and different estimates that we could have used, or changes in the estimates that are reasonably likely to occur, may have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations. Because the use of estimates is inherent in the financial reporting process, actual results could differ from those estimates.
Accounting policies, guidelines and interpretations related to our critical accounting policies and estimates are generally subject to numerous sources of authoritative guidance and are often reexamined by accounting standards rule makers and regulators. These rule makers and/or regulators may promulgate interpretations, guidance or regulations that may result in changes to our accounting policies, which could have a material impact on our financial position and results of operations.
Revenue Recognition
Our sources of revenue include: (1) subscription, (2) support, (3) perpetual license and (4) professional services. Through 2018, we recorded revenues for software related deliverables in accordance with the guidance provided by ASC 985-605, Software-Revenue Recognition and revenues for non-software deliverables in accordance with ASC 605-25, Revenue Recognition, Multiple-Element Arrangements. Under those standards, revenue is recorded when the following criteria are met: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (2) delivery has occurred (generally, FOB shipping point or electronic distribution), (3) the fee is fixed or determinable, and (4) collection is probable. We exercise judgment and use estimates in connection with determining the amounts of software license and services revenues to be recognized in each accounting period. Our primary judgments involve the following:
determining whether collection is probable;
assessing whether the fee is fixed or determinable;
determining whether service arrangements, including modifications and customization of the underlying software, are not essential to the functionality of the licensed software and thus would result in the revenue for license and service elements of an agreement being recorded separately; and
determining the fair value of services and support elements included in multiple-element arrangements, which is the basis for allocating and deferring revenue for such services and support.
Our software is distributed primarily through our direct sales force. In addition, we have an indirect distribution channel through alliances with resellers. Revenue arrangements with resellers are generally recognized on a sell-through basis; that is, when we deliver the product to the end-user customer. We record consideration given to a reseller as a reduction of revenue to the extent we have recorded revenue from the reseller. We do not offer contractual rights of return, stock balancing, or price protection to our resellers, and actual product returns from them have been insignificant to date. As a result, we do not maintain reserves for reseller product returns.
At the time of each sale transaction, we must make an assessment of the collectability of the amount due from the customer. Revenue is only recognized at that time if management deems that collection is probable. In making this assessment, we consider customer credit-worthiness and historical payment experience. At that same time, we assess whether fees are fixed or determinable and free of contingencies or significant uncertainties. In assessing whether the fee is fixed or determinable, we consider the payment terms of the transaction, including transactions with payment terms that extend beyond our customary payment terms, and our collection experience in similar transactions without making concessions, among other factors. We have periodically provided financing to credit-worthy customers with payment terms up to 24 months. If the fee is determined not to be fixed or determinable, revenue is recognized only as payments become due from the customer, provided that all other revenue

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recognition criteria are met. Our software license arrangements generally do not include customer acceptance provisions. However, if an arrangement includes an acceptance provision, we record revenue only upon the earlier of (1) receipt of written acceptance from the customer or (2) expiration of the acceptance period.
Generally, our contracts are accounted for individually. However, when contracts are closely interrelated and dependent on each other, it may be necessary to account for two or more contracts as one to reflect the substance of the group of contracts.
Subscription
Subscription revenue includes revenue from two primary sources: (1) subscription-based licenses, and (2) cloud services.
Subscription-based licenses include the right for a customer to use our on-premise licenses and receive related support for a specified term and revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the arrangement since we do not have vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) of fair value for our coterminous support. When sold in arrangements with other elements, VSOE of fair value is established for the subscription-based licenses through the use of a substantive renewal clause within the customer contract for a combined annual fee that includes the term-based license and related support.
Cloud services revenue (which in 2018, 2017 and 2016 represented less than 5% of our total revenue) includes fees for hosting and application management of customers’ perpetual or subscription-based licenses (hosting services) and fees for Software as a Service (SaaS) arrangements. When hosting services are sold as part of a multi-element transaction, revenue is allocated to hosting services based on VSOE, and recognized ratably over the contractual term beginning on the commencement dates of each contract, which is the date the services are made available to the customer. VSOE is established for hosting services either through a substantive stated renewal option or stated contractual overage rates, as these rates represent the value the customer is willing to pay on a standalone basis. We also offer cloud services under SaaS arrangements whereby customers access our software in the cloud. Under SaaS arrangements, customers cannot take possession of the software. Cloud services include set-up fees, which are recognized ratably over the contract term or the expected customer life, whichever is longer.
Support
Support contracts generally include rights to unspecified upgrades (when and if available), telephone and internet-based support, updates and bug fixes. Support revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the support contract on a straight-line basis.
Perpetual License
Under perpetual license arrangements, we generally recognize license revenue up front upon shipment to the customer. We use the residual method to recognize revenue from perpetual license software arrangements that include one or more elements to be delivered at a future date when evidence of the fair value of all undelivered elements exists, and the elements of the arrangement qualify for separate accounting as described below. Under the residual method, the fair value of the undelivered elements (i.e., support and services) based on our VSOE of fair value is deferred and the remaining portion of the total arrangement fee is allocated to the delivered elements (i.e., perpetual software license). If evidence of the fair value of one or more of the undelivered elements does not exist, all revenues are deferred and recognized when delivery of all of those elements has occurred or when fair values can be established. We determine VSOE of the fair value of services and support revenue based upon our recent pricing for those elements when sold separately. For certain transactions, VSOE is determined based on a substantive renewal clause within a customer contract. Our current pricing practices are influenced primarily by product type, purchase volume, sales channel and customer location. We review services and support sold separately on a periodic basis and update, when appropriate, our VSOE of fair value for such elements to ensure that it reflects our recent pricing experience.
Professional Services
Our software arrangements often include implementation, consulting and training services that are sold under consulting engagement contracts or as part of the software license arrangement. When we determine that such services are not essential to the functionality of the licensed software, we record revenue separately for the license and service elements of these arrangements, provided that

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appropriate evidence of fair value exists for the undelivered services (i.e. VSOE of fair value). We consider various factors in assessing whether a service is not essential to the functionality of the software, including if the services may be provided by independent third parties experienced in providing such services (i.e. consulting and implementation) in coordination with dedicated customer personnel, and whether the services result in significant modification or customization of the software’s functionality. When professional services qualify for separate accounting, professional services revenues under time and materials billing arrangements are recognized as the services are performed. Professional services revenues under fixed-priced contracts are generally recognized as the services are performed using a proportionate performance model with hours or costs as the input method of attribution.
When we provide professional services that are considered essential to the functionality of the software, the arrangement does not qualify for separate accounting of the license and service elements, and the license revenue is recognized together with the consulting services using the percentage-of-completion method of contract accounting. Under such arrangements, consideration is recognized as the services are performed as measured by an observable input. In these circumstances, we separate license revenue from service revenue for income statement presentation by allocating VSOE of fair value of the consulting services as service revenue, and the residual portion as license revenue. Under the percentage-of-completion method, we estimate the stage of completion of contracts with fixed or “not to exceed” fees based on hours or costs incurred to date as compared with estimated total project hours or costs at completion. Adjustments to estimates to complete are made in the periods in which facts resulting in a change become known. When total cost estimates exceed revenues, we accrue for the estimated losses when identified. The use of the proportionate performance and percentage-of-completion methods of accounting require significant judgment relative to estimating total contract costs or hours (hours being a proxy for costs), including assumptions relative to the length of time to complete the project, the nature and complexity of the work to be performed and anticipated changes in salaries and other costs.
Reimbursements of out-of-pocket expenditures incurred in connection with providing consulting services are included in professional services revenue, with the offsetting expense recorded in cost of professional services revenue.
Training services include on-site and classroom training. Training revenues are recognized as the related training services are provided.
Accounting for Income Taxes
As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to calculate our income tax expense based on taxable income by jurisdiction. There are many transactions and calculations about which the ultimate tax outcome is uncertain; as a result, our calculations involve estimates by management. Some of these uncertainties arise as a consequence of revenue-sharing, cost-reimbursement and transfer pricing arrangements among related entities and the differing tax treatment of revenue and cost items across various jurisdictions. If we were compelled to revise or to account differently for our arrangements, that revision could affect our tax liability.
The income tax accounting process also involves estimating our actual current tax liability, together with assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included within our consolidated balance sheets. We must then assess the likelihood that our deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income and, to the extent we believe that it is more likely than not that all or a portion of our deferred tax assets will not be realized, we must establish a valuation allowance as a charge to income tax expense.
As of September 30, 2018, we have a valuation allowance of $108.6 million against net deferred tax assets in the U.S. and a valuation allowance of $33.3 million against net deferred tax assets in certain foreign jurisdictions. We have concluded, based on the weight of available evidence, that a full valuation allowance continues to be required against our U.S. net deferred tax assets as they are not more likely than not to be realized in the future. We will continue to reassess our valuation allowance requirements each financial reporting period.
The valuation allowance recorded against net deferred tax assets of certain foreign jurisdictions is established primarily for our net operating loss carryforwards, the majority of which do not expire. There

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are limitations imposed on the utilization of such net operating losses that could further restrict the recognition of any tax benefits.
Prior to the passage of the U.S. Tax Act, the Company asserted that substantially all of the undistributed earnings of its foreign subsidiaries were considered indefinitely invested and accordingly, no deferred taxes were provided. Pursuant to the provisions of the U.S. Tax Act, these earnings were subjected to a one-time transition tax. We maintain our assertion to permanently reinvest these earnings outside the U.S. unless repatriation can be done with no significant tax cost, with the exception of a foreign holding company formed in 2018 and our Taiwan subsidiary. If we decide to repatriate any additional non-U.S. earnings in the future, we may be required to establish a deferred tax liability on such earnings. The amount of unrecognized deferred tax liability on the undistributed earnings would not be material.
In the normal course of business, PTC and its subsidiaries are examined by various taxing authorities, including the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in the U.S. We regularly assess the likelihood of additional assessments by tax authorities and provide for these matters as appropriate. We are currently under audit by tax authorities in several jurisdictions. Audits by tax authorities typically involve examination of the deductibility of certain permanent items, transfer pricing, limitations on net operating losses and tax credits. Although we believe our tax estimates are appropriate, the final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could result in material changes in our estimates.
Valuation of Assets and Liabilities Acquired in Business Combinations
In accordance with business combination accounting, we allocate the purchase price of acquired companies to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. Determining these fair values requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets.
Our identifiable intangible assets acquired consist of developed technology, core technology, tradenames, customer lists and contracts, and software support agreements and related relationships. Developed technology consists of products that have reached technological feasibility. Core technology represents a combination of processes, inventions and trade secrets related to the design and development of acquired products. Customer lists and contracts and software support agreements and related relationships represent the underlying relationships and agreements with customers of the acquired company’s installed base. We have generally valued intangible assets using a discounted cash flow model. Critical estimates in valuing certain of the intangible assets include but are not limited to:
future expected cash flows from software license sales, customer support agreements, customer contracts and related customer relationships and acquired developed technologies and trademarks and trade names;
expected costs to develop the in-process research and development into commercially viable products and estimating cash flows from the projects when completed;
the acquired company’s brand awareness and market position, as well as assumptions about the period of time the acquired brand will continue to be used by the combined company; and
discount rates used to determine the present value of estimated future cash flows.
In addition, we estimate the useful lives of our intangible assets based upon the expected period over which we anticipate generating economic benefits from the related intangible asset.
Net tangible assets consist of the fair values of tangible assets less the fair values of assumed liabilities and obligations. Except for deferred revenues, net tangible assets were generally valued by us at the respective carrying amounts recorded by the acquired company, if we believed that their carrying values approximated their fair values at the acquisition date. The values assigned to deferred revenue reflect an amount equivalent to the estimated cost plus an appropriate profit margin to perform the services related to the acquired company’s software support contracts.
In addition, uncertain tax positions and tax related valuation allowances assumed in connection with a business combination are initially estimated as of the acquisition date and we reevaluate these items quarterly with any adjustments to our preliminary estimates being recorded to goodwill provided that we are within the measurement period (up to one year from the acquisition date) and we continue

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to collect information in order to determine their estimated values. Subsequent to the measurement period or our final determination of the estimated value of uncertain tax positions or tax related valuation allowances, whichever comes first, changes to these uncertain tax positions and tax related valuation allowances will affect our provision for income taxes in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Our estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable at that time, but which are inherently uncertain and unpredictable. Assumptions may be incomplete or inaccurate, and unanticipated events and circumstances may occur, which may affect the accuracy or validity of such assumptions, estimates or actual results.
When events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of a finite-lived intangible asset may not be recoverable, we perform an assessment of the asset for potential impairment. This assessment is based on projected undiscounted future cash flows over the asset’s remaining life. If the carrying value of the asset exceeds its undiscounted cash flows, we record an impairment loss equal to the excess of the carrying value over the fair value of the asset, determined using projected discounted future cash flows of the asset.
Valuation of Goodwill
Our goodwill totaled $1,182.5 million and $1,182.8 million as of September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. We assess goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level. Our reporting units are determined based on the components of our operating segments that constitute a business for which discrete financial information is available and for which operating results are regularly reviewed by segment management. We have two operating and reportable segments: (1) Software Products and (2) Professional Services.
As of September 30, 2018, goodwill and acquired intangible assets in the aggregate attributable to our Software Products and Professional Services segment was $1,352.4 million and $30.2 million, respectively. As of September 30, 2017, goodwill and acquired intangible assets in the aggregate attributable to our Software Products and Professional Services segment was $1,410.0 million and $30.6 million, respectively. We test goodwill for impairment in the third quarter of our fiscal year, or on an interim basis if an event occurs or circumstances change that would, more likely than not, reduce the fair value of a reporting segment below its carrying value. Factors we consider important (on an overall company basis and reportable segment basis, as applicable) that could trigger an impairment review include significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results, significant changes in our use of the acquired assets or a significant change in the strategy for our business, significant negative industry or economic trends, a significant decline in our stock price for a sustained period, or a reduction of our market capitalization relative to net book value.
We completed our annual goodwill impairment review as of June 30, 2018 based on a qualitative assessment. Our qualitative assessment included company specific (financial performance and long-range plans), industry, and macroeconomic factors, and consideration of the fair value of each reporting unit, which was approximately double its carrying value or higher at July 2, 2016, the last valuation date. Based on our qualitative assessment, we believe it is more likely than not that the fair values of our reporting units exceed their carrying values and no further impairment testing is required.
Accounting for Pensions
We sponsor several international pension plans. We make assumptions that are used in calculating the expense and liability of these plans. These key assumptions include the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets and the discount rate used to determine the present value of benefit obligations. In selecting the expected long-term rate of return on assets, we consider the average future rate of earnings expected on the funds invested to provide for the benefits under the pension plan. This includes considering the plans' asset allocations and the expected returns likely to be earned over the life of the plans. The discount rate reflects the estimated rate at which an amount that is invested in a portfolio of high-quality debt instruments would provide the future cash flows necessary to pay benefits when they come due. The actuarial assumptions used by us may differ materially from actual results due to changing market and economic conditions or longer or shorter life spans of the participants. Our actual results could differ materially from those we estimated, which could require us to record a greater amount of pension expense in future years and/or require higher than expected cash contributions.

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Accounting and reporting for these plans requires the use of country-specific assumptions for discount rates and expected rates of return on assets. We apply a consistent methodology in determining the key assumptions that, in addition to future experience assumptions such as mortality rates, are used by our actuaries to determine our liability and expense for each of these plans. The discount rate for Germany was selected with reference to a spot-rate yield curve based on the yields of AA-rated Euro-denominated corporate bonds. In addition, our actuarial consultants determine the expense and liabilities of the plan using other assumptions for future experience, such as mortality rates. In determining our pension cost for 2018, 2017, and 2016, we used weighted average discount rates of 1.8%, 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively, and weighted average expected returns on plan assets of 5.4%, 5.4% and 5.7%, respectively. In 2018, 2017 and 2016, our actual return (loss) on plan assets was $1.0 million, $6.3 million and $1.7 million, respectively. If actual returns are below our expected rates of return, it will impact the amount and timing of future contributions and expense for these plans.
As of September 30, 2018 and 2017, our plans in total were underfunded, representing the difference between our projected benefit obligation and fair value of plan assets, by $17.7 million and $16.7 million, respectively. The projected benefit obligation as of September 30, 2018 was determined using a weighted average discount rate of 1.9%. The most sensitive assumptions used in calculating the expense and liability of our pension plans are the discount rate and the expected return on plan assets. Total GAAP net periodic pension cost was $0.9 million in 2018 and we expect it to be approximately $1.2 million in 2019. A 50 basis point change to our discount rate and expected return on plan assets assumptions would have changed our pension expense for the year ended September 30, 2018 by approximately $1 million. A 50 basis point decrease in our discount rate assumptions would increase our projected benefit obligation as of September 30, 2018 by approximately $7 million.
Legal Contingencies
We are periodically subject to various legal claims and involved in various legal proceedings. We routinely review the status of each significant matter and assess our potential financial exposure. If the potential loss from any matter is considered probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated, we record a liability for the estimated loss. Significant judgment is required in both the determination of probability and the determination as to whether the amount of an exposure is reasonably estimable. Because of inherent uncertainties related to these legal matters, we base our loss accruals on the best information available at the time. Further, estimates of this nature are highly subjective, and the final outcome of these matters could vary significantly from the amounts that have been included in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements. As additional information becomes available, we reassess our potential liability and may revise our estimates. Such revisions could have a material impact on future quarterly or annual results of operations.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
 
September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(in thousands)
Cash and cash equivalents
$
259,946

 
$
280,003

 
$
277,935

Marketable securities
55,951

 
50,315

 
49,616

Total
$
315,897

 
$