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EX-32.2 - EX-32.2 - ACADIA PHARMACEUTICALS INCacad-ex322_6.htm
EX-32.1 - EX-32.1 - ACADIA PHARMACEUTICALS INCacad-ex321_8.htm
EX-31.2 - EX-31.2 - ACADIA PHARMACEUTICALS INCacad-ex312_7.htm
EX-31.1 - EX-31.1 - ACADIA PHARMACEUTICALS INCacad-ex311_9.htm
EX-10.1 - EX-10.1 - ACADIA PHARMACEUTICALS INCacad-ex101_184.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2018

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission File Number: 000-50768

 

ACADIA PHARMACEUTICALS INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

06-1376651

(State of Incorporation)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

3611 Valley Centre Drive, Suite 300

San Diego, California

92130

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(Zip Code)

(858) 558-2871

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

  

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

Total shares of common stock outstanding as of the close of business on April 30, 2018:

 

Class 

 

Number of Shares Outstanding 

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value

 

124,825,969

 

 

 

 


 

ACADIA PHARMACEUTICALS INC.

FORM 10-Q

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

PAGE NO.

 

 

 

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Financial Statements

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

Item 2.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

12

 

 

 

 

 

Item 3.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

17

 

 

 

 

 

Item 4.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

18

 

 

 

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

19

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

19

 

 

 

 

 

Item 6.

 

Exhibits

 

48

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

49

 

 

 

i


 

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

ACADIA PHARMACEUTICALS INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

 

 

March 31,

2018

 

 

December 31,

2017

 

 

 

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

116,328

 

 

$

69,418

 

Investment securities, available-for-sale

 

 

181,735

 

 

 

271,924

 

Accounts receivable, net

 

 

22,445

 

 

 

17,343

 

Interest and other receivables

 

 

903

 

 

 

1,087

 

Inventory

 

 

5,583

 

 

 

5,248

 

Prepaid expenses

 

 

13,020

 

 

 

8,457

 

Total current assets

 

 

340,014

 

 

 

373,477

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

2,709

 

 

 

2,662

 

Intangible assets, net

 

 

5,169

 

 

 

5,538

 

Restricted cash

 

 

2,825

 

 

 

2,475

 

Other assets

 

 

323

 

 

 

354

 

Total assets

 

$

351,040

 

 

$

384,506

 

Liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

2,996

 

 

$

8,786

 

Accrued liabilities

 

 

43,093

 

 

 

40,244

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

46,089

 

 

 

49,030

 

Long-term liabilities

 

 

782

 

 

 

191

 

Total liabilities

 

 

46,871

 

 

 

49,221

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 5,000,000 shares authorized at March 31, 2018

   and December 31, 2017; no shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2018 and

   December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 225,000,000 shares authorized at March 31, 2018

   and December 31, 2017; 124,799,500 shares and 124,410,552 shares issued and

   outstanding at March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively

 

 

12

 

 

 

12

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

1,582,823

 

 

 

1,559,343

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(1,277,967

)

 

 

(1,223,671

)

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

 

(699

)

 

 

(399

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

304,169

 

 

 

335,285

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

$

351,040

 

 

$

384,506

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

1


 

ACADIA PHARMACEUTICALS INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(in thousands, except per share amounts)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product sales, net

 

$

48,868

 

 

$

15,286

 

Total revenues

 

 

48,868

 

 

 

15,286

 

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of product sales

 

 

2,153

 

 

 

2,263

 

License fees and royalties

 

 

1,332

 

 

 

675

 

Research and development

 

 

39,276

 

 

 

35,409

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

 

60,926

 

 

 

65,660

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

103,687

 

 

 

104,007

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(54,819

)

 

 

(88,721

)

Interest income, net

 

 

1,170

 

 

 

963

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(53,649

)

 

 

(87,758

)

Income tax expense

 

 

647

 

 

 

85

 

Net loss

 

$

(54,296

)

 

$

(87,843

)

Net loss per common share, basic and diluted

 

$

(0.44

)

 

$

(0.72

)

Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted

 

 

124,727

 

 

 

121,651

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

2


 

ACADIA PHARMACEUTICALS INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(in thousands)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Net loss

 

$

(54,296

)

 

$

(87,843

)

Other comprehensive loss:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized loss on investment securities

 

 

(298

)

 

 

(11

)

Foreign currency translation adjustments

 

 

(2

)

 

 

(1

)

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(54,596

)

 

$

(87,855

)

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

3


 

ACADIA PHARMACEUTICALS INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(in thousands)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Cash flows from operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(54,296

)

 

$

(87,843

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

20,442

 

 

 

15,571

 

(Amortization of premiums) and accretion of discounts on investment securities, net

 

 

(175

)

 

 

(113

)

Amortization of intangible assets

 

 

369

 

 

 

369

 

Depreciation

 

 

392

 

 

 

270

 

Loss on disposal of assets

 

 

9

 

 

 

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable, net

 

 

(5,102

)

 

 

(1,757

)

Interest and other receivables

 

 

184

 

 

 

(622

)

Inventory

 

 

(177

)

 

 

201

 

Prepaid expenses

 

 

(4,563

)

 

 

674

 

Other assets

 

 

31

 

 

 

117

 

Accounts payable

 

 

(5,790

)

 

 

(1,899

)

Accrued liabilities

 

 

2,849

 

 

 

2,916

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

 

 

 

1,488

 

Long-term liabilities

 

 

591

 

 

 

67

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(45,236

)

 

 

(70,561

)

Cash flows from investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of investment securities

 

 

(26,345

)

 

 

(140,746

)

Maturities of investment securities

 

 

116,411

 

 

 

194,166

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(448

)

 

 

(485

)

Net cash provided by investing activities

 

 

89,618

 

 

 

52,935

 

Cash flows from financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net of issuance costs

 

 

2,880

 

 

 

11,490

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

2,880

 

 

 

11,490

 

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash

 

 

(2

)

 

 

(1

)

Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

47,260

 

 

 

(6,137

)

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beginning of period

 

 

71,893

 

 

 

165,995

 

End of period

 

$

119,153

 

 

$

159,858

 

Supplemental disclosure of noncash information:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Property and equipment purchases in accounts payable and accrued liabilities

 

$

 

 

$

175

 

Stock-based compensation capitalized in inventory

 

$

(158

)

 

$

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

4


 

ACADIA PHARMACEUTICALS INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

 

1. Organization and Business

ACADIA Pharmaceuticals Inc. (the “Company”), based in San Diego, California, is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of innovative medicines to address unmet medical needs in central nervous system disorders. The Company was originally incorporated in Vermont in 1993 as Receptor Technologies, Inc. and reincorporated in Delaware in 1997.

In April 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) approved the Company’s first drug, NUPLAZID® (pimavanserin), for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson’s disease psychosis (“PD Psychosis”). NUPLAZID became available for prescription in the United States in May 2016.

 

 

2. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes thereto as of and for the year ended December 31, 2017 included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Annual Report”) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and in accordance with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, since they are interim statements, the accompanying financial statements do not include all of the information and notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, the accompanying financial statements reflect all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) that are necessary for a fair statement of the financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the interim periods presented. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of results for a full year. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Reclassifications

The Company has reclassified certain prior period amounts to conform to current period presentation. Specifically, it has reclassified income tax expense previously included within selling, general and administrative expense and presented it separately in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations. This reclassification reduced the Company’s previously stated selling, general and administrative expense and total operating expense for the three months ended March 31, 2017 by $0.1 million. The reclassification had no impact on the Company’s net loss or stockholders’ equity as previously reported.

In addition, pursuant to the adoption of ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows: Restricted Cash, the Company is presenting restricted cash with cash and cash equivalents beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts on its Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows. This reclassification reduced the Company’s previously stated net cash used in operations and net decrease in cash and cash equivalents for the three months ended March 31, 2017 by $0.1 million. The reclassification had no impact on the Company’s balance sheet as previously reported. The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported within the statement of cash flows that sum to the total of the same such amounts shown in the statement of cash flows.

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31, 2018

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31, 2017

 

 

 

Beginning of period

 

 

End of period

 

 

Beginning of period

 

 

End of period

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

69,418

 

 

$

116,328

 

 

$

163,620

 

 

$

157,383

 

Restricted cash

 

 

2,475

 

 

 

2,825

 

 

 

2,375

 

 

 

2,475

 

Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash shown in the statement of cash flow

 

$

71,893

 

 

$

119,153

 

 

$

165,995

 

 

$

159,858

 

Accounts Receivable

Accounts receivable are recorded net of customer allowances for distribution fees, prompt payment discounts, chargebacks, and doubtful accounts. Allowances for distribution fees, prompt payment discounts and chargebacks are based on contractual terms. The Company estimates the allowance for doubtful accounts based on existing contractual payment terms, actual payment patterns of its

5


 

customers and individual customer circumstances. At March 31, 2018, the Company determined that an allowance for doubtful accounts was not required. No accounts were written off during the periods presented.

License Fees and Royalties

The Company expenses amounts paid to acquire licenses associated with products under development when the ultimate recoverability of the amounts paid is uncertain and the technology has no alternative future use when acquired. Acquisitions of technology licenses are charged to expense or capitalized based upon management’s assessment regarding the ultimate recoverability of the amounts paid and the potential for alternative future use. The Company has determined that technological feasibility for its product candidates is reached when the requisite regulatory approvals are obtained to make the product available for sale.

In connection with the FDA approval of NUPLAZID in April 2016, the Company made a one-time milestone payment of $8.0 million pursuant to its 2006 license agreement with the Ipsen Group in which the Company licensed certain intellectual property rights that complement its patent portfolio for its serotonin platform, including NUPLAZID. The Company capitalized the $8.0 million payment as an intangible asset and is amortizing the asset on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the licensed patents through the second half of 2021. The Company recorded amortization expense related to its intangible asset of $0.4 million for each of the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017. As of March 31, 2018, estimated future amortization expense related to the Company’s intangible asset was $1.1 million for the remainder of 2018, $1.5 million for each of 2019, and 2020, and $1.0 million for 2021.

Royalties incurred in connection with the Company’s license agreement with the Ipsen Group, as disclosed in Note 9, are expensed to license fees and royalties as revenue from product sales is recognized.

Revenue Recognition

Product Sales, Net

The Company’s net product sales consist of U.S. sales of NUPLAZID. Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), and all the related amendments to all contracts using the modified-retrospective method. While results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 are presented under the new guidance, prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for the prior period. The accounting policy for revenue recognition for periods prior to January 1, 2018 is described in Note 2 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company’s Annual Report. Under Topic 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that an entity determines are within the scope of Topic 606, the entity performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that the entity will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of Topic 606, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations, and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied. Payment terms differ by customer, but typically range from 31 to 35 days from the date of shipment. Revenue for the Company’s product sales has not been adjusted for the effects of a financing component as the Company expects, at contract inception, that the period between when the Company’s transfers control of the product and when the Company receives payment will be one year or less. No cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings was necessary upon adoption, and there is no reconciliation of the Company’s condensed consolidated statement of operations, as no revenue recognition differences were identified when comparing the revenue recognition criteria under Topic 606 to previous requirements.

NUPLAZID was approved by the FDA in April 2016 and the Company commenced shipments of NUPLAZID to specialty pharmacies (“SPs”) and specialty distributors (“SDs”) in late May 2016. Prior to the second quarter of 2017, the Company deferred sales of NUPLAZID and recognized revenue when an SP dispensed product to a patient based on the fulfillment of a prescription and when an SD sold product to a government facility, long-term care pharmacy, or in-patient hospital pharmacy. In the second quarter of 2017 the Company determined that it had sufficient volume of activity to reasonably estimate its allowances for rebates and chargebacks and began recognizing NUPLAZID revenue, net of estimated allowances for rebates, price adjustments, returns, chargebacks, and prompt payment discounts, at the point of sale to the SPs and SDs which is commonly referred to as the “sell-in” revenue recognition model.

6


 

The effect on income from operations and on net income is that the Company is able to recognize revenue earlier using this sell-in method, net of a provision for estimated allowances, since the Company can record revenue once sold to the SP or SD rather than waiting until the product is sold to the end user on a sell-through basis, which it had done for periods prior to the second quarter of 2017.

Product shipping and handling costs are included in cost of product sales.

The Company recognizes revenue from product sales at the net sales price (the “transaction price”) which includes estimates of variable consideration for which reserves are established and reflects each of these as either a reduction to the related account receivable or as an accrued liability, depending on how the allowance is settled. Overall, these reserves reflect the Company’s best estimates of the amount of consideration to which the Company is entitled based on the terms of the contract. The amount of variable consideration that is included in the transaction price may be constrained, and is included in the net sales price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of the cumulative revenue recognized will not occur in a future period. Actual amounts of consideration ultimately received may differ from the Company’s estimates. If actual results in the future vary from estimates, the Company may need to adjust its estimates, which would affect net revenue in the period of adjustment.

Distribution Fees: Distribution fees include distribution service fees paid to the SPs and SDs based on a contractually fixed percentage of the wholesale acquisition cost (“WAC”), fees for data, and prompt payment discounts. Distribution fees are recorded as an offset to revenue based on contractual terms at the time revenue from the sale is recognized.

Rebates: Allowances for rebates include mandated discounts under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit. Rebates are amounts owed after the final dispensing of the product to a benefit plan participant and are based upon contractual agreements with, or statutory requirements pertaining to, Medicaid and Medicare benefit providers. The allowance for rebates is based on statutory discount rates and expected utilization. The Company’s estimates for expected utilization of rebates is based on historical data received from the SPs and SDs since product launch. Rebates are generally invoiced and paid in arrears so that the accrual balance consists of an estimate of the amount expected to be incurred for the current quarter’s activity, plus an accrual balance for prior quarters’ unpaid rebates.

Chargebacks: Chargebacks are discounts and fees that relate to contracts with government and other entities purchasing from the SDs at a discounted price. The SDs charge back to the Company the difference between the price initially paid by the SDs and the discounted price paid to the SDs by these entities. The Company also incurs group purchasing organization fees for transactions through certain purchasing organizations. The Company estimates sales with these entities and accrues for anticipated chargebacks and organization fees, based on the applicable contractual terms. 

Co-Payment Assistance: The Company offers co-payment assistance to commercially insured patients meeting certain eligibility requirements. Co-payment assistance is accrued for based on actual program participation and estimates of program redemption using data provided by third-party administrators.

Product Returns: Consistent with industry practice, the Company offers the SPs and SDs limited product return rights for damages, shipment errors, and expiring product; provided that the return is within a specified period around the product expiration date as set forth in the applicable individual distribution agreement. The Company does not allow product returns for product that has been dispensed to a patient. As the Company receives inventory reports from the SPs and SDs and has the ability to control the amount of product that is sold to the SPs and SDs, it is able to make a reasonable estimate of future potential product returns based on this on-hand channel inventory data and sell-through data obtained from the SPs and SDs. In arriving at its estimate for product returns, the Company also considers historical product returns, the underlying product demand, and industry data specific to the specialty pharmaceutical distribution industry.

 

 

 

3. Net Loss Per Share

Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted average number of common shares and common stock equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury stock method. For purposes of this calculation, stock options, employee stock purchase plan rights, and warrants are considered to be common stock equivalents but are not included in the calculations of diluted net loss per share for the periods presented as their effect would be anti-dilutive. The Company incurred net losses for all periods presented and there were no reconciling items for potentially dilutive securities. More specifically, at March 31, 2018 and 2017, stock options, employee stock purchase plan rights, and warrants totaling approximately 18,081,751 shares and 16,832,000 shares, respectively, were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.

 

7


 

 

4. Stock-Based Compensation

The following table summarizes the total stock-based compensation expense included in the Company’s statements of operations for the periods presented (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Cost of product sales

 

$

1,050

 

 

$

880

 

Research and development

 

 

7,657

 

 

 

5,301

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

 

11,735

 

 

 

9,390

 

 

 

$

20,442

 

 

$

15,571

 

 

 

5. Balance Sheet Details

Inventory consisted of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

March 31,

2018

 

 

December 31,

2017

 

Raw material

 

$

3,975

 

 

$

4,084

 

Finished goods

 

 

1,608

 

 

 

1,164

 

 

 

$

5,583

 

 

$

5,248

 

Accrued liabilities consisted of the following (in thousands):  

 

 

 

March 31,

2018

 

 

December 31,

2017

 

Accrued compensation and benefits

 

$

13,919

 

 

$

15,260

 

Accrued sales allowances

 

 

10,006

 

 

 

3,591

 

Accrued consulting and professional fees

 

 

8,616

 

 

 

9,395

 

Accrued research and development services

 

 

7,350

 

 

 

9,487

 

Other

 

 

3,202

 

 

 

2,511

 

 

 

$

43,093

 

 

$

40,244

 

 

 

6. Investment Securities

Investment securities, all classified as available-for-sale, consisted of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

March 31, 2018

 

 

 

Amortized

Cost

 

 

Unrealized

Gains

 

 

Unrealized

Losses

 

 

Estimated

Fair

Value

 

U.S. Treasury notes

 

$

12,495

 

 

$

 

 

$

(4

)

 

$

12,491

 

Government sponsored enterprise securities

 

 

13,588

 

 

 

 

 

 

(43

)

 

 

13,545

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

124,504

 

 

 

 

 

 

(615

)

 

 

123,889

 

Commercial paper

 

 

31,853

 

 

 

 

 

 

(43

)

 

 

31,810

 

 

 

$

182,440

 

 

$

 

 

$

(705

)

 

$

181,735

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2017

 

 

 

Amortized

Cost

 

 

Unrealized

Gains

 

 

Unrealized

Losses

 

 

Estimated

Fair

Value

 

U.S. Treasury notes

 

$

32,976

 

 

$

 

 

$

(12

)

 

$

32,964

 

Government sponsored enterprise securities

 

 

10,082

 

 

 

 

 

 

(10

)

 

 

10,072

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

138,650

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

(321

)

 

 

138,330

 

Commercial paper

 

 

90,623

 

 

 

 

 

 

(65

)

 

 

90,558

 

 

 

$

272,331

 

 

$

1

 

 

$

(408

)

 

$

271,924

 

 

8


 

At each reporting date, the Company performs an evaluation of impairment to determine if any unrealized losses are other-than-temporary. Factors considered in determining whether a loss is other-than-temporary include the length of time and extent to which fair value has been less than the cost basis, the financial condition of the issuer, and the Company’s intent and ability to hold the investment until recovery of its amortized cost basis. The Company intends, and has the ability, to hold its investments in unrealized loss positions until their amortized cost basis has been recovered. Based on its evaluation, the Company determined that its unrealized losses were not other-than-temporary at March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017.

 

The Company has classified all of its available-for-sale investment securities, including those with maturities beyond one year, as current assets on its consolidated balance sheets based on the highly liquid nature of the investment securities and because these investment securities are considered available for use in current operations. As of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company held $48.3 million and $48.7 million, respectively, of available-for-sale investment securities with contractual maturity dates of more than one year and less than two years.

 

 

7. Fair Value Measurements

The Company’s investments include cash equivalents and available-for-sale investment securities consisting of a money market fund, U.S. Treasury notes, and high quality, marketable debt instruments of corporations and government sponsored enterprises in accordance with the Company’s investment policy. The Company’s investment policy defines allowable investments and establishes guidelines relating to credit quality, diversification, and maturities of its investments to preserve principal and maintain liquidity. All investment securities have a credit rating of at least A3/A- or better, or P-1/A-1 or better, as determined by Moody’s Investors Service or Standard & Poor’s.

The Company’s cash equivalents and available-for-sale investment securities are classified within the fair value hierarchy as defined by authoritative guidance. The Company’s investment securities classified as Level 1 are valued using quoted market prices. The Company obtains the fair value of its Level 2 financial instruments from third-party pricing services. The pricing services utilize industry standard valuation models whereby all significant inputs, including benchmark yields, reported trades, broker/dealer quotes, issuer spreads, bids, offers, or other market-related data, are observable. The Company validates the prices provided by the third-party pricing services by reviewing their pricing methods and matrices, and obtaining market values from other pricing sources. After completing the validation procedures, the Company did not adjust or override any fair value measurements provided by these pricing services as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017.

The Company does not hold any securities classified as Level 3, which are securities valued using unobservable inputs. The Company has not transferred any investment securities between the classification levels.

The recurring fair value measurements of the Company’s cash equivalents and available-for-sale investment securities at March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 consisted of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair Value Measurements at

Reporting Date Using

 

 

 

March 31,

2018

 

 

Quoted Prices

in Active

Markets for

Identical

Assets

(Level 1)

 

 

Significant

Other

Observable

Inputs

(Level 2)

 

 

Significant

Unobservable

Inputs

(Level 3)

 

Money market fund

 

$

34,518

 

 

$

34,518

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

U.S. Treasury notes

 

 

12,492

 

 

 

12,492

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Government sponsored enterprise securities

 

 

13,545

 

 

 

 

 

 

13,545

 

 

 

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

126,458

 

 

 

 

 

 

126,458

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper

 

 

108,957

 

 

 

 

 

 

108,957

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

295,970

 

 

$

47,010

 

 

$

248,960

 

 

$

 

 

9


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair Value Measurements at

Reporting Date Using

 

 

 

December 31,

2017

 

 

Quoted Prices

in Active

Markets for

Identical

Assets

(Level 1)

 

 

Significant

Other

Observable

Inputs

(Level 2)

 

 

Significant

Unobservable

Inputs

(Level 3)

 

Money market fund

 

$

38,057

 

 

$

38,057

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

U.S. Treasury notes

 

 

32,964

 

 

 

32,964

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Government sponsored enterprise securities

 

 

10,072

 

 

 

 

 

 

10,072

 

 

 

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

154,396

 

 

 

 

 

 

154,396

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper

 

 

98,052

 

 

 

 

 

 

98,052

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

333,541

 

 

$

71,021

 

 

$

262,520

 

 

$

 

 

 

8. Stockholders’ Equity

Public Offerings

In August 2016, the Company raised net proceeds of approximately $215.9 million from the sale of 6,969,696 shares of its common stock in a follow-on public offering, including 909,090 shares sold pursuant to the exercise in full of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.

In January 2016, the Company raised net proceeds of approximately $281.6 million from the sale of 10,344,827 shares of its common stock in a follow-on public offering. In connection with the January 2016 offering, the Company entered into a registration rights agreement (the “Registration Rights Agreement”) with 667, L.P., Baker Brothers Life Sciences, L.P. and 14159, L.P. (the “Baker Entities”), all of which are existing stockholders of the Company and are affiliated with two of its directors, Julian C. Baker and Dr. Stephen R. Biggar. Under the Registration Rights Agreement, the Company agreed that, if the Baker Entities demand that the Company register their shares of its common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, for resale under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), the Company would be obligated to effect such registration. The Company’s registration obligations under the Registration Rights Agreement cover all shares of its common stock then held or later acquired by the Baker Entities (including approximately $75.0 million and $43.0 million of shares that the Baker Entities purchased at the public offering price in the January 2016 and August 2016 offerings, respectively), will continue in effect for up to 10 years, and include the Company’s obligation to facilitate certain underwritten public offerings of its common stock by the Baker Entities in the future. The Company has agreed to bear all expenses incurred by it in effecting any registration pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement as well as the legal expenses of the Baker Entities of up to $50,000 per underwritten public offering effected pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement. On April 1, 2016, pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement, the Company filed a registration statement covering all shares owned by the Baker Entities as of March 31, 2016.

Private Equity Financings

In December 2012, the Company raised net proceeds of $80.5 million through the sale of 19,000,000 shares of its common stock at a price of $4.43 per share and the sale of warrants to purchase 500,000 shares of its common stock at a price of $4.42 per warrant share in a private equity financing. The warrants have an exercise price of $0.01 per share and will expire on December 17, 2019. In accordance with authoritative accounting guidance, the warrants’ value of $2.2 million was determined on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes model with the following assumptions: risk free interest rate of 1.1 percent, volatility of 105.8 percent, a 7.0 year term and no dividend yield. These warrants were recorded as a component of stockholders’ equity within additional paid-in capital. Per their terms, the warrants to purchase 500,000 shares of common stock, all of which remained outstanding at March 31, 2018, may not be exercised if the holder’s ownership of the Company’s common stock would exceed 19.99 percent following such exercise.

 

10


 

9. Commitments and Contingencies

Royalty Payments

Pursuant to the terms of its 2006 license agreement with the Ipsen Group, the Company is required to make royalty payments of two percent of net sales of NUPLAZID.

Corporate Credit Card Program

In connection with the Company’s credit card program, the Company established a letter of credit in 2016 for $2.0 million, which has automatic annual extensions and is fully secured by restricted cash.

Fleet Program

In connection with the Company’s fleet program, the Company established a letter of credit in February 2017 for $0.4 million, which has automatic annual extensions and is fully secured by restricted cash.

 

10. Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In December 2017, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) staff issued SAB 118, which provides guidance on accounting for the tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Act”). SAB 118 was issued to address the application of US GAAP in situations when a registrant does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the Act. In accordance with SAB 118, the Company has provisionally determined that there is no deferred tax benefit or expense with respect to the remeasurement of certain deferred tax assets and liabilities due to the full valuation allowance against net deferred tax assets. The Company is still analyzing certain aspects of the Act and refining its calculations, which could potentially affect the measurement of these balances or potentially give rise to new deferred tax amounts. Additional analysis of the law and the impact to the Company will be performed and any impact will be recorded in the respective quarter in 2018.

In November 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows: Restricted Cash, which requires that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. Therefore, amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included within cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. This guidance was effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted this guidance in the first quarter of 2018, using a retrospective transition method. As a result, the Company adjusted its consolidated statement of cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 to include $2.8 million and $2.5 million of restricted cash, respectively, in the beginning cash balances and removed the transfers between cash and restricted cash from operating activities.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which changes the impairment model for most financial assets and certain other instruments. For trade receivables and other instruments, entities will be required to use a new forward-looking expected loss model that generally will result in the earlier recognition of allowances for losses. For available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, the losses will be recognized as allowances rather than as reductions in the amortized cost of the securities. This guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those years, with early adoption permitted only as of annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently evaluating the timing and impact of the adoption of this guidance on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases, which requires a lessee to recognize a lease liability and a right-of-use asset for all leases with lease terms of more than 12 months. This guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those years, and early adoption is permitted. Companies are required to adopt this guidance using a modified retrospective approach for leases that exist or are entered into after the beginning of the earliest comparative period in the financial statements. While the Company is currently evaluating its significant lease arrangement to assess the potential impact of the adoption of this guidance on its consolidated financial statements, it anticipates that the adoption could result in an increase in the assets and liabilities recorded on its consolidated balance sheet.

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which supersedes nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under GAAP. On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2014-09 and all the related guidance.

 

 

11


 

ITEM 2.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis of our consolidated financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q, or this Quarterly Report, and the audited financial statements and notes thereto as of and for the year ended December 31, 2017 included with our Annual Report on Form 10-K, or our Annual Report, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. Past operating results are not necessarily indicative of results that may occur in future periods.

This Quarterly Report contains forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Such forward-looking statements include statements about the benefits to be derived from NUPLAZID® (pimavanserin) and from our drug candidates, the potential market opportunities for pimavanserin and our drug candidates, our strategy for the commercialization of NUPLAZID, our plans for exploring and developing pimavanserin for indications other than in Parkinson’s disease psychosis, our plans and timing with respect to seeking regulatory approvals, the potential commercialization of any of our drug candidates that receive regulatory approval, the progress, timing, results or implications of clinical trials and other development activities involving NUPLAZID and our drug candidates, our strategy for discovering, developing and, if approved, commercializing drug candidates, our existing and potential future collaborations, our estimates of future payments, revenues and profitability, our estimates regarding our capital requirements, future expenses and need for additional financing, possible changes in legislation, and other statements that are not historical facts, including statements which may be preceded by the words “believes,” “expects,” “hopes,” “may,” “will,” “plans,” “intends,” “estimates,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “continues,” “seeks,” “aims,” “projects,” “predicts,” “pro forma,” “anticipates,” “potential” or similar words. For forward-looking statements, we claim the protection of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Readers of this Quarterly Report are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date on which they are made. We undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements. Actual events or results may differ materially from our expectations. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those stated or implied by our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the risk factors set forth under the section captioned “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report.

Overview

Background

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of innovative medicines to address unmet medical needs in central nervous system disorders. We have a portfolio of product opportunities led by our novel drug, NUPLAZID (pimavanserin), which was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, in April 2016 for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson’s disease psychosis, or PD Psychosis, and is the only drug approved in the United States for this condition. NUPLAZID is a selective serotonin inverse agonist, or SSIA, preferentially targeting 5-HT2A receptors. Through this novel mechanism, NUPLAZID demonstrated significant efficacy in reducing the hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis in our Phase 3 pivotal trial and has the potential to avoid many of the debilitating side effects of existing antipsychotics, none of which are approved by the FDA in the treatment of PD Psychosis. We hold worldwide commercialization rights to pimavanserin. We launched NUPLAZID in the United States in May 2016.

We believe that pimavanserin has the potential to address important unmet medical needs in neurological and psychiatric disorders in addition to PD Psychosis and we plan to continue to study the use of pimavanserin in multiple disease states.

For example, we believe Alzheimer’s disease represents one of our most important opportunities for further exploration. In December 2016, we announced positive top-line results from our Phase 2 study exploring the utility of pimavanserin for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease psychosis, or AD Psychosis, a disorder for which no drug is currently approved by the FDA. Following our End-of-Phase 2 Meeting with the FDA and agreement with the agency on our clinical development plan, we initiated our Phase 3 HARMONY relapse prevention study in October 2017, which allows us to evaluate pimavanserin for a broader indication than AD Psychosis alone. More specifically, HARMONY will evaluate pimavanserin for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with dementia-related psychosis, which includes psychosis in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson’s disease dementia, vascular dementia and frontotemporal dementia. Furthermore, in October 2017, the FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation to pimavanserin for this dementia-related psychosis indication.

We also believe schizophrenia represents a disease with multiple unmet or ill-served needs and we are currently exploring the utility of pimavanserin in this area. Despite a large number of FDA-approved therapies for schizophrenia, current drugs do not adequately address some very important symptoms of schizophrenia, such as the inadequate response to current antipsychotic treatment of psychotic symptoms and negative symptoms. In the fourth quarter of 2016, we initiated two studies evaluating the adjunctive use of pimavanserin in patients with schizophrenia. ENHANCE-1 is a Phase 3 study evaluating pimavanserin for

12


 

adjunctive treatment of schizophrenia in patients with an inadequate response to their current antipsychotic therapy. ADVANCE is a Phase 2 study evaluating pimavanserin for adjunctive treatment in patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

Depression is another disorder with a high unmet need that we believe represents an attractive development opportunity for pimavanserin. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that patients with depression often do not receive adequate relief from an antidepressant medication and, due to side effects of currently available therapies, many patients discontinue their medication, significantly increasing their chance of relapse. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests 5-HT2A antagonism may be an effective adjunctive therapy to first-line antidepressants. In the fourth quarter of 2016, we initiated CLARITY, a Phase 2 study evaluating pimavanserin for adjunctive treatment in patients with major depressive disorder, or MDD, who have an inadequate response to standard antidepressant therapy. We expect to report top-line results from the CLARITY study in the second half of 2018.

We maintain a website at www.acadia-pharm.com to which we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us. Our filings with the SEC are available free of charge through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after being electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Interested persons can subscribe on our website to email alerts that are sent automatically when we issue press releases, file our reports with the SEC or post certain other information to our website. Information contained in our website does not constitute a part of this Quarterly Report or our other filings with the SEC.

Financial Operations Overview

Product Revenues

Net product sales consist of sales of NUPLAZID, our first and only commercial product to date. The FDA approved NUPLAZID in April 2016 and we launched the product in the United States in May 2016.

Cost of Product Sales

Cost of product sales consists of third-party manufacturing costs, freight, and indirect overhead costs associated with sales of NUPLAZID. Cost of product sales may also include period costs related to certain inventory manufacturing services, inventory adjustment charges, unabsorbed manufacturing and overhead costs, and manufacturing variances.

License Fees and Royalties

License fees and royalties consist of milestone payments expensed or capitalized and subsequently amortized under our 2006 license agreement with the Ipsen Group. License fees and royalties also include royalties of two percent due to the Ipsen Group based upon net sales of NUPLAZID.

Research and Development Expenses

Our research and development expenses have consisted primarily of fees paid to external service providers, salaries and related personnel expenses, facilities and equipment expenses, and other costs incurred related to pre-commercial product candidates. We charge all research and development expenses to operations as incurred. Our research and development activities have primarily focused on NUPLAZID (pimavanserin) which was approved by the FDA for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis in April 2016. We currently are responsible for all costs incurred in the ongoing development of pimavanserin and we expect to continue to make substantial investments in clinical studies of pimavanserin for indications other than PD Psychosis, including dementia-related psychosis, schizophrenia and depression. Additionally, in connection with the FDA approval of NUPLAZID, we committed to conduct post-marketing studies, including a randomized, placebo-controlled withdrawal study in PD Psychosis patients treated with NUPLAZID and randomized, placebo-controlled eight-week studies in predominantly frail and elderly patients that would add to the NUPLAZID safety database by exposing an aggregate of at least 500 patients to NUPLAZID. We will be responsible for all costs incurred for these post-marketing studies.

We use external service providers to manufacture our product candidates and for the majority of the services performed in connection with the preclinical and clinical development of pimavanserin. Historically, we have used our internal research and development resources, including our employees and discovery infrastructure, across several projects and many of our costs have not been attributable to a specific project. Accordingly, we have not reported our internal research and development costs on a project basis. To the extent that external expenses are not attributable to a specific project, they are included in other programs. The following table summarizes our research and development expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 (in thousands):

13


 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Costs of external service providers:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NUPLAZID (pimavanserin)

 

$

20,339

 

 

$

19,910

 

Other programs

 

 

634

 

 

 

23

 

Subtotal

 

 

20,973

 

 

 

19,933

 

Internal costs

 

 

10,646

 

 

 

10,175

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

7,657

 

 

 

5,301

 

Total research and development

 

$

39,276

 

 

$

35,409

 

Although NUPLAZID was approved by the FDA for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis, at this time, due to the risks inherent in clinical development, we are unable to estimate with certainty the costs we will incur for the ongoing development of pimavanserin in additional indications, including those within dementia-related psychosis, schizophrenia, and depression. Due to these same factors, we are unable to determine with any certainty the anticipated completion dates for our current research and development programs. Clinical development and regulatory approval timelines, probability of success, and development costs vary widely. While our current development efforts are primarily focused on advancing the development of pimavanserin in additional indications other than PD Psychosis, we anticipate that we will make determinations as to which programs to pursue and how much funding to direct to each program on an ongoing basis in response to the scientific and clinical success of each product candidate, as well as an ongoing assessment of the commercial potential of each opportunity and our financial position. We cannot forecast with any degree of certainty which product opportunities will be subject to future collaborative or licensing arrangements, when such arrangements will be secured, if at all, and to what degree any such arrangements would affect our development plans and capital requirements. Similarly, we are unable to estimate with certainty the costs we will incur for post-marketing studies that we committed to conduct in connection with FDA approval of NUPLAZID.

We expect our research and development expenses to increase and continue to be substantial as we conduct studies pursuant to our post-marketing commitments and pursue the development of pimavanserin in additional indications other than PD Psychosis, including our studies within the dementia-related psychosis, schizophrenia, and depression indications. The lengthy process of completing clinical trials and supporting development activities and seeking regulatory approval for our product opportunities requires the expenditure of substantial resources. Any failure by us or delay in completing clinical trials, or in obtaining regulatory approvals, could cause our research and development expenses to increase and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Our selling, general and administrative expenses consist of salaries and other related costs, including stock-based compensation expense, for our commercial personnel, including our specialty sales force, our medical education professionals, and our personnel serving in executive, finance, business development, and business operations functions. Also included in selling, general and administrative expenses are fees paid to external service providers to support our commercial activities associated with NUPLAZID, professional fees associated with legal and accounting services, costs associated with patents and patent applications for our intellectual property and charitable donations to independent charitable foundations that support Parkinson’s disease patients generally. We expect our selling, general and administrative expenses to increase in future periods to support commercial activities associated with NUPLAZID and our further development of pimavanserin in additional indications other than PD Psychosis.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our condensed consolidated financial statements. We have identified the accounting policies that we believe require application of management’s most subjective judgments, often requiring the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain and may change in subsequent periods. Our actual results may differ substantially from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. Other than the adoption of ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) as described in Item 1 of Part I, “Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — Note 2 — Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies” of this quarterly report, there have been no significant changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates since December 31, 2017. For a description of our other critical accounting policies that affect our significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements, refer to our Annual Report.

14


 

Results of Operations

Fluctuations in Operating Results

Our results of operations have fluctuated significantly from period to period in the past and are likely to continue to do so in the future. We anticipate that our quarterly and annual results of operations will be impacted for the foreseeable future by several factors, including the progress and timing of expenditures related to our commercial activities associated with NUPLAZID and the extent to which we generate revenue from product sales, our development of pimavanserin in additional indications other than in PD Psychosis, the progress and timing of expenditures related to studies pursuant to our post-marketing commitments, and the timing and amount of payments received pursuant to any potential future collaborations. Further, we expect our sales allowances to vary from quarter to quarter due to fluctuations in our Medicare Part D Coverage Gap liability and the volume of purchases eligible for government mandated discounts and rebates, as well as changes in discount percentages that may be impacted by potential future price increases and other factors. Due to these fluctuations, we believe that the period-to-period comparisons of our operating results are not a good indication of our future performance.

Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2018 and 2017

Product Sales, Net

Net product sales, comprised of NUPLAZID, were $48.9 million and $15.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The increase in net product sales of $33.6 million was primarily due to growth in NUPLAZID unit sales of approximately 120% in the three months ended March 31, 2018 as compared to the same period in 2017. Also contributing to the increase was a higher average gross selling price of NUPLAZID in 2018 compared to 2017, and a lower sales allowance and accrual rate for sales in the current year, due to the increased average price and changes in our customer mix.

The following table provides a summary of activity with respect to our sales allowances and accruals for the three months ended March 31, 2018 (in thousands):

 

 

 

Distribution Fees, Discounts & Chargebacks

 

 

Rebates, Co-Pay Assistance & Returns

 

 

Total

 

Balance as of December 31, 2017

 

$

246

 

 

$

3,345

 

 

$

3,591

 

Provision related to current period sales

 

 

6,306

 

 

 

8,719

 

 

 

15,025

 

Credits/payments for current period sales

 

 

(6,047

)

 

 

(318

)

 

 

(6,365

)

Credits/payments for prior period sales

 

 

(238

)

 

 

(1,977

)

 

 

(2,215

)

Balance as of March 31, 2018

 

$

267

 

 

$

9,769

 

 

$

10,036

 

Cost of Product Sales

Cost of product sales was $2.2 million and $2.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, or approximately 4% and 15% of net product sales, respectively.  The cost of product sales as a percentage of net sales decreased during the three months ended March 31, 2018 as compared to the same period in 2017 due primarily to higher manufacturing levels, resulting in higher inventory cost absorption, and greater sales volume in the current period. Product sold during the three months ended March 31, 2017 was manufactured with raw material that was previously charged to research and development expense prior to FDA approval of NUPLAZID. This zero cost raw material did not materially impact our cost of product sales and related product gross margins for the three months ended March 31, 2017.

License Fees and Royalties

License fees and royalties were $1.3 million and $0.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and include royalties due to the Ipsen Group of two percent of net sales of NUPLAZID and amortization related to the milestone paid to the Ipsen Group upon FDA approval of NUPLAZID in 2016. The increase in license fees and royalties during the three months ended March 31, 2018 as compared to the same period in 2017 is due to the increase in net sales during the current period.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses increased to $39.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018, including $7.7 million in stock-based compensation expense, from $35.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017, including $5.3 million in stock-based compensation expense. The increase in research and development expenses was due to an increase of $1.0 million in external service costs and an increase of $2.8 million in personnel and related costs, including an increase of $2.4 million in stock-

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based compensation expense. The increase in external service costs was primarily due to increased clinical costs associated with the development of pimavanserin, partially offset by a decrease in consulting fees and outside services. 

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased to $60.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018, including $11.7 million in stock-based compensation expense, from $65.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017, including $9.4 million in stock-based compensation expense. The decrease in selling, general and administrative expenses was due to a decrease of $9.7 million in external service costs, partially offset by an increase of $4.9 million in personnel and related costs and stock-based compensation expenses. The decrease in external service costs was primarily due to lower charitable contributions to independent charitable foundations that support Parkinson’s disease patients generally made during the three months ended March 31, 2018, compared to the same period in 2017 as well as decreased spending during the three months ended March 31, 2018 compared to the same period in 2017 related to speaker programs due to the timing of when these programs occur. The increase in personnel and related costs was largely due to an increase in stock-based compensation and costs associated with our specialty sales force in long-term care that we expanded in the first half of 2017.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

We have funded our operations primarily through sales of our equity securities, payments received under our collaboration agreements, debt financings, interest income and, since 2016, with revenues from sales of NUPLAZID. We anticipate that the level of cash used in our operations will increase in future periods in order to fund our ongoing and planned commercial activities for NUPLAZID, our ongoing and planned development activities for pimavanserin in additional indications other than PD Psychosis, and studies to be conducted pursuant to our post-marketing commitments. We expect that our cash, cash equivalents, and investment securities will be sufficient to fund our planned operations through at least the next twelve months.

We may require significant additional financing in the future to fund our operations. Our future capital requirements will depend on, and could increase significantly as a result of, many factors, including:

 

the progress in, and the costs of, our ongoing and planned development activities for pimavanserin, post-marketing studies for NUPLAZID to be conducted over the next several years, ongoing and planned commercial activities for NUPLAZID, and other research and development programs;

 

the costs of maintaining and developing our sales and marketing capabilities for NUPLAZID;

 

the costs of establishing, or contracting for, sales and marketing capabilities for other product candidates;

 

the amount of U.S. product sales from NUPLAZID;

 

the costs of preparing applications for regulatory approvals for NUPLAZID in jurisdictions other than the United States, and potentially in additional indications other than PD Psychosis and for other product candidates, as well as the costs required to support review of such applications;

 

the costs of manufacturing and distributing NUPLAZID;

 

our ability to obtain regulatory approval for, and subsequently generate product sales from, NUPLAZID in jurisdictions other than the United States or in additional indications other than PD Psychosis, or from other product candidates;

 

the costs of acquiring additional product candidates or research and development programs;

 

the scope, prioritization and number of our research and development programs;

 

our ability to enter into new collaboration and license agreements;

 

the extent to which we are obligated to reimburse collaborators or collaborators are obligated to reimburse us for costs under collaboration agreements;

 

the costs involved in filing, prosecuting, enforcing, and defending patent claims and other intellectual property rights;

 

the costs of securing manufacturing arrangements for clinical or commercial production of NUPLAZID or other product candidates; and

 

the costs associated with litigation, including the costs incurred in defending against any product liability claims that may be brought against us related to NUPLAZID.

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Unless and until we can generate significant cash from our operations, we expect to satisfy our future cash needs through our existing cash, cash equivalents and investment securities, public or private sales of our securities, debt financings, strategic collaborations, or by licensing all or a portion of our product candidates or technology. In the past, periods of turmoil and volatility in the financial markets have adversely affected the market capitalizations of many biotechnology companies, and generally made equity and debt financing more difficult to obtain. These events, coupled with other factors, may limit our access to additional financing in the future. This could have a material adverse effect on our ability to access sufficient funding. We cannot be certain that additional funding will be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If adequate funds are not available when needed, we will be required to delay, reduce the scope of, or eliminate one or more of our research or development programs or our commercialization efforts. We also may be required to relinquish greater or all rights to product candidates at an earlier stage of development or on less favorable terms than we would otherwise choose. Additional funding, if obtained, may significantly dilute existing stockholders and could negatively impact the price of our stock.

We have invested a substantial portion of our available cash in a money market fund, U.S. Treasury notes, and high quality, marketable debt instruments of corporations and government sponsored enterprises in accordance with our investment policy. Our investment policy defines allowable investments and establishes guidelines relating to credit quality, diversification, and maturities of our investments to preserve principal and maintain liquidity. All investment securities have a credit rating of at least A3/A- or better, or P-1/A-1 or better, as determined by Moody’s Investors Service or Standard & Poor’s. Our investment portfolio has not been adversely impacted by the disruptions in the credit markets that have occurred in the past. However, if there are future disruptions in the credit markets, there can be no assurance that our investment portfolio will not be adversely affected.

At March 31, 2018, we had $298.1 million in cash, cash equivalents, and investment securities, compared to $341.3 million at December 31, 2017. This $43.2 million decrease was primarily due to cash used in operations. Net cash used in operating activities decreased to $45.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018 compared to $70.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017. This  $25.4 million decrease in cash used in operations was primarily due to the decrease in our net loss during the current period, partially offset by an increase of $4.9 million in non-cash stock-based compensation.

Net cash provided by investing activities totaled $89.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018 compared to net cash provided by investing activities of $52.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017. The increase in net cash provided by investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2018 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2017 was primarily due to a decrease in purchases of investment securities attributable to cash used to fund operations.

Net cash provided by financing activities decreased to $2.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018 compared to $11.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017. This decrease in net cash provided by financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2018 was attributable to a decrease in proceeds resulting from the exercise of employee stock options.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

To date, we have not had any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, which are established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes. As such, we are not materially exposed to any financing, liquidity, market, or credit risk that could arise if we had engaged in these relationships.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

See Item 1 of Part I, “Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — Note 10 — Recent Accounting Pronouncements”.

 

 

ITEM 3.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

Interest Rate Risk

We invest our excess cash in investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. The primary objective of our investment activities is to preserve principal and liquidity. To achieve this objective, we invest in a money market fund, U.S. Treasury notes, and high quality marketable debt instruments of corporations and government sponsored enterprises with contractual maturity dates of generally less than two years. All investment securities have a credit rating of at least A3/A- or better, or P-1/A-1 or better, as determined by Moody’s Investors Service or Standard & Poor’s. We do not have any direct investments in auction-rate securities or securities that are collateralized by assets that include mortgages or subprime debt. If a 10 percent change in interest rates were to have occurred on March 31, 2018, this change would not have had a material effect on the fair value of our investment portfolio as of that date.

 

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ITEM 4.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our periodic and current reports that we file with the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer (our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, respectively), as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. In designing and evaluating the disclosure controls and procedures, management recognized that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable and not absolute assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In reaching a reasonable level of assurance, management necessarily was required to apply its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. In addition, the design of any system of controls is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions; over time, controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or the degree of compliance with policies or procedures may deteriorate. Because of the inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.

As of March 31, 2018, we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Based on this evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level as of March 31, 2018.

An evaluation was also performed under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of any change in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during our last fiscal quarter and that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting. Beginning January 1, 2018, we implemented ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. Although the new revenue standard is expected to have an immaterial impact on our ongoing net income, we did implement changes to our processes related to revenue recognition and the control activities within them. These included the development of new policies based on the five-step model provided in the new revenue standard, ongoing contract review requirements, and gathering of information provided for disclosures. The evaluation did not identify any other changes in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during our latest fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

 

 

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PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

ITEM 1.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

In March 2015, following our announcement of the update to the timing of our planned NDA submission to the FDA for NUPLAZID for the treatment of PD Psychosis and the subsequent decline of the price of our common stock, two putative securities class action complaints (captioned Rihn v. ACADIA Pharmaceuticals Inc., Case No. 15-cv-0575-BTM-DHB, and Wright v. ACADIA Pharmaceuticals Inc., Case No. 15-cv-0593- BTM-DHB) were filed in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California, or the Court, against us and certain of our current and former officers. The complaints generally alleged that the defendants violated Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 by making materially false and misleading statements regarding the timing of our planned NDA submission to the FDA for NUPLAZID, thereby artificially inflating the price of our common stock. The complaints sought unspecified monetary damages and other relief. On April 10 and June 1, 2015, the Court entered orders deferring the defendants’ response to the Rihn and Wright complaints until after the Court appointed a lead plaintiff and assigned lead counsel. On May 12, 2015, several putative stockholders filed separate motions to consolidate the two actions and be appointed lead plaintiff. On September 8, 2015, the Court issued an order consolidating the two actions, appointing lead plaintiff, and assigning lead counsel. On November 16, 2015, lead plaintiff filed a consolidated complaint with the Court which, like the prior complaints, accuses the defendants of making materially false and misleading statements regarding the anticipated timing of our planned NDA submission to the FDA for NUPLAZID. On January 15, 2016, we filed a motion to dismiss the consolidated complaint. On September 19, 2016, the Court issued an order denying the motion to dismiss the consolidated complaint. On December 6, 2016, the parties had a mediation and agreed in principle to settle the action. On March 13, 2017, the parties signed a Stipulation of Settlement setting forth the terms of the proposed settlement. On June 9, 2017, the Court preliminarily approved the settlement (the “Preliminary Approval Order”). Among other things, the Preliminary Approval Order set an opt-out deadline of August 29, 2017; an objection deadline of September 13, 2017; and a final approval hearing for October 3, 2017. On August 29, 2017, lead plaintiffs filed a motion for final approval of the settlement and a motion for attorneys’ fees and expenses (the “Final Approval Motions”). On October 3, 2017, the Court continued the hearing so that, among other things, lead plaintiff could submit additional documents in support of final approval. On January 22, 2018, the Court issued an order granting the final approval motions and entered final judgment in the consolidated action. 

ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORS

You should consider carefully the following information about the risks described below, together with the other information contained in this Quarterly Report and in our other public filings in evaluating our business. The risk factors set forth below that are marked with an asterisk (*) did not appear as separate risk factors in, or contain changes to the similarly titled risk factor included in, Item 1A of our Annual Report. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and future growth prospects would likely be materially and adversely affected. In these circumstances, the market price of our common stock would likely decline.

Risks Related to Our Business

Our prospects are highly dependent on the successful commercialization of NUPLAZID, which received approval in April 2016 from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, as a treatment for hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson’s disease psychosis, and became available for prescription in the United States in May 2016. To the extent NUPLAZID is not commercially successful, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected and the price of our common stock may decline.*

NUPLAZID is our only drug that has been approved for sale and it has only been approved for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson’s disease psychosis, or PD Psychosis, in the United States. We are focusing a significant portion of our activities and resources on NUPLAZID, and we believe our prospects are highly dependent on, and a significant portion of the value of our company relates to, our ability to successfully commercialize NUPLAZID in the United States.

Successful commercialization of NUPLAZID is subject to many risks. Prior to NUPLAZID, we had never, as an organization, launched or commercialized any product, and there is no guarantee that we will be able to successfully commercialize NUPLAZID for its approved indication. There are numerous examples of failures to meet high expectations of market potential, including by pharmaceutical companies with more experience and resources than us. While we have established our commercial team and have hired our U.S. sales force, we will need to refine and further develop the team in order to successfully commercialize NUPLAZID. Even if we are successful in developing our commercial team, there are many factors that could cause the commercialization of NUPLAZID to be unsuccessful, including a number of factors that are outside our control. Because no drug has previously been approved by the FDA for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis, it is especially difficult to estimate NUPLAZID’s market potential. The commercial success of NUPLAZID depends on the extent to which patients and physicians recognize and diagnose PD Psychosis and accept and adopt NUPLAZID as a treatment for hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis, and we do not know whether our or others’ estimates in this regard will be accurate. For example, if the

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patient population suffering from hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis is smaller than we estimate or if physicians are unwilling to prescribe or patients are unwilling to take NUPLAZID due to its “boxed” warning, perceived safety issues or for other reasons, the commercial potential of NUPLAZID will be limited. We have limited information about how physicians, patients and payors have responded and will respond to the pricing of NUPLAZID. We have changed, and may continue to change, the price of NUPLAZID from time to time. Since April 2017, we have been providing free product for a 14-day period rather than the 30-day period we offered at the initial launch of NUPLAZID, and we have limited information about how physicians, patients and payors have responded or will respond to these changes. Physicians may not prescribe NUPLAZID and patients may be unwilling to use NUPLAZID if coverage is not provided or reimbursement is inadequate to cover a significant portion of the cost. Additionally, any negative publicity related to NUPLAZID or negative development for NUPLAZID in our post-marketing commitments, in clinical development in additional indications, or in regulatory processes in other jurisdictions, may adversely impact the commercial results and potential of NUPLAZID. Thus, significant uncertainty remains regarding the commercial potential of NUPLAZID.

If the commercialization of NUPLAZID is unsuccessful or perceived as disappointing, our stock price could decline significantly and the long-term success of the product and our company could be harmed.

If we do not obtain regulatory approval of NUPLAZID for other indications in the United States, or for any indication in foreign jurisdictions, we will not be able to market NUPLAZID for other indications or in other jurisdictions, which will limit our commercial revenues.*

While NUPLAZID (pimavanserin) has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis, it has not been approved by the FDA for any other indications, and it has not been approved in any other jurisdiction for this indication or for any other indication. In order to market NUPLAZID for other indications or in other jurisdictions, we must obtain regulatory approval for each of those indications and in each of the applicable jurisdictions, and we may never be able to obtain such approval. Approval of NUPLAZID by the FDA for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis does not ensure that foreign jurisdictions will also approve NUPLAZID for that indication, nor does it ensure that NUPLAZID will be approved by the FDA for any other indication. In the fourth quarter of 2016, we initiated clinical studies of pimavanserin in schizophrenia and depression and, in October 2017, we initiated a Phase 3 study of pimavanserin in dementia-related psychosis, an indication for which no drug has been approved. There is no guarantee that any of these studies will be successful, or that the FDA or any regulatory authority in foreign jurisdictions will approve NUPLAZID for any of those indications. The research, testing, manufacturing, labeling, approval, sale, import, export, marketing, and distribution of pharmaceutical product candidates are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory authorities in the United States and other countries, whose regulations differ from country to country. We will be required to comply with different regulations and policies of the jurisdictions where we seek approval for our product candidates, and we have not yet identified all of the requirements that we will need to satisfy to submit NUPLAZID for approval for other indications or in other jurisdictions. This will require additional time, expertise and expense, including the potential need to conduct additional studies or development work for other jurisdictions beyond the work that we have conducted to support our NDA submission in PD Psychosis. In addition, strategic considerations need to be taken into account when determining whether and when to submit NUPLAZID for approval in other jurisdictions. For example, in the fourth quarter of 2016, the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, approved our proposed pediatric investigation plan related to our planned submission of a marketing authorization application, or MAA, for NUPLAZID in Europe. However, in light of our continuing clinical development of pimavanserin in indications other than in PD Psychosis, and the time-limited data exclusivity currently granted by the EMA that commences on first approval of a product in Europe, we deferred submission of the MAA and we do not yet have a revised estimate of when we will make that filing. If we do not receive marketing approval for NUPLAZID for any other indication or from any regulatory agency outside of the United States, we will never be able to commercialize NUPLAZID for any other indication in the United States or for any indication in any other jurisdiction. Even if we do receive additional regulatory approvals, we may not be successful in commercializing those opportunities.

If the results or timing of regulatory filings, the regulatory process, regulatory developments, clinical trials or preclinical studies, or other activities, actions or decisions related to NUPLAZID do not meet our or others’ expectations, the market price of our common stock could decline significantly.

Even though the FDA has granted approval of NUPLAZID for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis, the terms of the approval may limit its commercial potential. Additionally, NUPLAZID is still subject to substantial, ongoing regulatory requirements.

Even though the FDA has granted approval of NUPLAZID, the scope and terms of the approval may limit our ability to commercialize NUPLAZID and, therefore, our ability to generate substantial sales revenues. The FDA has approved NUPLAZID only for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis. The label for NUPLAZID also contains a “boxed” warning that elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death, and

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that NUPLAZID is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis unrelated to the hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis.

Additionally, NUPLAZID is approved only for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis, rather than for the treatment of PD Psychosis and/or other symptoms of PD Psychosis, which may cause confusion for prescribing physicians. This confusion could result in physicians not prescribing NUPLAZID for patients diagnosed with PD Psychosis. In addition, the “boxed” warning may discourage physicians from prescribing NUPLAZID to patients diagnosed with PD Psychosis, including those with dementia.

In connection with the FDA approval, we committed to conduct the following post-marketing studies: (i) a randomized, placebo-controlled withdrawal study in PD Psychosis patients treated with NUPLAZID, (ii) studies to collect additional data to add to the NUPLAZID safety database from an aggregate of at least 500 predominantly frail and elderly subjects on NUPLAZID in one or more randomized, placebo-controlled studies of eight or more weeks duration, (iii) a drug-drug interaction study with NUPLAZID and a strong CYP3A4 inducer, and (iv) re-analysis of tissue samples from certain previously conducted pre-clinical studies. If we fail to comply with our post-marketing commitments, or if the results of the post-marketing studies, or any other ongoing or planned clinical studies of NUPLAZID, are negative, the FDA could decide to withdraw approval, add warnings or narrow the approved indication in the product label.

The manufacturing processes, labeling, packaging, distribution, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising, promotion and recordkeeping for NUPLAZID will also continue to be subject to extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration, as well as continued compliance with current good manufacturing processes, good clinical practices, international council for harmonization guidelines and good laboratory practices, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA for all of our nonclinical and clinical development and for any clinical trials that we conduct post-approval.

Discovery of any issues post-approval, including any safety concerns, such as unexpected side effects or drug-drug interaction problems, adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or concerns over misuse or abuse of the product, problems with the facilities where the product is manufactured, packaged or distributed, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in, among other things, restrictions on NUPLAZID or on us, including:

 

withdrawal of approval, addition of warnings or narrowing of the approved indication in the product label;

 

requirement of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy to mitigate the risk of off-label use in populations where the FDA may believe that the potential risks of use may outweigh its benefits;

 

voluntary or mandatory recalls;

 

warning letters;

 

suspension of any ongoing clinical studies;

 

refusal by the FDA or other regulatory authorities to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications filed by us, or suspension or revocation of product approvals;

 

restrictions on operations, including restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product or the imposition of costly new manufacturing requirements; or

 

seizure or detention, or refusal to permit the import or export of products.

If any of these actions were to occur, we may have to discontinue the commercialization of NUPLAZID, limit our sales and marketing efforts, conduct further post-approval studies, and/or discontinue or change any other ongoing or planned clinical studies, which in turn could result in significant expense and delay or limit our ability to generate sales revenues.

NUPLAZID has only been studied in a limited number of patients and in limited populations. As we continue to commercialize NUPLAZID, it is becoming available to a much larger number of patients and in broader populations, and we do not know whether the results of NUPLAZID use in such larger number of patients and broader populations will be consistent with the results from our clinical studies.

Prior to commencing our commercial launch of NUPLAZID in May 2016, NUPLAZID was administered only to a limited number of patients and in limited populations in clinical studies, including our successful pivotal -020 Phase 3 trial with NUPLAZID for the treatment of PD Psychosis, or the -020 Study. While the FDA granted approval of NUPLAZID based on the data included in the NDA, including data from the -020 Study, we do not know whether the results when a large number of patients and broader populations are exposed to NUPLAZID, including results related to safety and efficacy, will be consistent with the results from earlier

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clinical studies of NUPLAZID that served as the basis for the approval of NUPLAZID. New data relating to NUPLAZID, including from adverse event reports and post-marketing studies in the United States, and from other ongoing clinical studies, may result in changes to the product label and may adversely affect sales, or result in withdrawal of NUPLAZID from the market. The FDA and regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions may also consider the new data in reviewing NUPLAZID marketing applications for indications other than in PD Psychosis and/or in other jurisdictions, or impose additional post‑approval requirements. If any of these actions were to occur, it could result in significant expense and delay or limit our ability to generate sales revenues.

We currently have very limited experience as a company in marketing and distributing pharmaceutical products and rely on a limited network of third-party distributors and pharmacies to distribute NUPLAZID. If we are unable to effectively commercialize NUPLAZID, we may not be able to generate adequate product revenues.*

NUPLAZID is our only drug that has been approved for sale by any regulatory body, and it became available for prescription in the United States in May 2016. As such, we currently have limited experience commercializing pharmaceutical products as an organization. In order to successfully market NUPLAZID, we must continue to develop our sales, marketing, managerial, compliance, and related capabilities or make arrangements with third parties to perform these services. If we are unable to maintain and develop adequate sales, marketing, and distribution capabilities, whether independently or with third parties, we may not be able to appropriately commercialize NUPLAZID and may not become profitable.

We employ our own internal specialty sales force to commercialize NUPLAZID for the treatment of PD Psychosis as part of our commercialization strategy in the United States. We will need to refine and further develop our sales force as we continue our commercialization efforts, and we will be competing with other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to recruit, hire, train and retain marketing and sales personnel. These efforts will continue to be expensive and time-consuming, and we cannot be certain that we will be able to successfully refine and further develop our sales force.

Additionally, our strategy in the United States includes distributing NUPLAZID solely through a limited network of third-party specialty distributors and specialty pharmacies. While we have entered into agreements with each of these distributors and pharmacies to distribute NUPLAZID in the United States, they may not perform as agreed or they may terminate their agreements with us. Also, we may need to enter into agreements with additional distributors or pharmacies, and there is no guarantee that we will be able to do so on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we are unable to maintain and, if needed, expand, our network of specialty distributors and specialty pharmacies, we would be exposed to substantial distribution risk.

In the event we are unable to effectively develop and maintain our commercial team, including our U.S. sales force, or maintain and, if needed, expand, our network of specialty distributors and specialty pharmacies, our ability to effectively commercialize NUPLAZID and generate product revenues would be limited.

If we are unable to effectively train and equip our sales force, our ability to successfully commercialize NUPLAZID will be harmed.

Prior to its launch in May 2016, none of the members of our sales force had ever promoted NUPLAZID. In addition, NUPLAZID is the first drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis. As a result, we are and will continue to be required to expend significant time and resources to train our sales force to be credible, persuasive, and compliant with applicable laws in marketing NUPLAZID for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis to neurologists, select psychiatrists, and pharmacists and physicians in long-term care facilities. In addition, we must ensure that consistent and appropriate messages about NUPLAZID are being delivered to our potential customers by our sales force. If we are unable to effectively train our sales force and equip them with effective materials, including medical and sales literature to help them inform and educate potential customers about the benefits of NUPLAZID and its proper administration, our efforts to successfully commercialize NUPLAZID could be put in jeopardy, which would negatively impact our ability to generate product revenues.

NUPLAZID may not gain acceptance among physicians, patients, and the medical community, thereby limiting our potential to generate revenues.*

The degree of market acceptance by physicians, healthcare professionals and third-party payors of NUPLAZID, and any other product for which we obtain regulatory approval, and our profitability and growth, will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

the ability to provide acceptable evidence of safety and efficacy;

 

the scope of the approved indication(s) for the product;

 

the inclusion of any warnings or contraindications in the product label;

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the relative convenience and ease of administration;

 

the prevalence and severity of any adverse side effects;

 

the availability of alternative treatments;

 

pricing and cost effectiveness, which may be subject to regulatory control;

 

effectiveness of our or our collaborators’ sales and marketing strategy; and

 

our ability to obtain sufficient third-party insurance coverage or adequate reimbursement levels.

If a product does not provide a treatment regimen that is at least as beneficial as the current standard of care or otherwise does not provide patient benefit, that product will not achieve market acceptance and will not generate sufficient revenues to achieve or maintain profitability.

With respect to NUPLAZID specifically, successful commercialization will depend on whether and to what extent physicians, long-term care facilities and pharmacies, over whom we have no control, determine to utilize NUPLAZID. NUPLAZID is available to treat hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis, an indication for which no other FDA-approved pharmaceutical treatment exists. Because of this, it is particularly difficult to estimate NUPLAZID’s market potential and how physicians, payors and patients will respond to changes in the price of NUPLAZID. Industry sources and analysts have a divergence of estimates for the near- and long-term market potential of NUPLAZID, and a variety of assumptions directly impact the estimates for NUPLAZID’s market potential, including assumptions regarding the prevalence of PD Psychosis, the rate of diagnosis of PD Psychosis, the prevalence and rate of hallucinations and delusions in patients diagnosed with PD Psychosis, the rate of physician adoption of NUPLAZID, the potential impact of payor restrictions regarding NUPLAZID, and patient adherence and compliance rates. Small differences in these assumptions can lead to widely divergent estimates of the market potential of NUPLAZID. For example, certain research suggests that patients with Parkinson’s disease may be hesitant to report symptoms of PD Psychosis to their treating physicians for a variety of reasons, including apprehension about societal stigmas relating to mental illness. Research also suggests that physicians who typically treat patients with Parkinson’s disease may not ask about or identify symptoms of PD Psychosis. For these reasons, even if PD Psychosis occurs in high rates among patients with Parkinson’s disease, it may be underdiagnosed. Even if PD Psychosis is diagnosed, physicians may not prescribe treatment for hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis, and if they do prescribe treatment, they may prescribe other drugs, even though they are not approved in PD Psychosis, instead of NUPLAZID. Additionally, NUPLAZID is approved only for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis, rather than for the treatment of PD Psychosis and/or other symptoms of PD Psychosis, which may cause confusion for prescribing physicians. This confusion could result in physicians not prescribing NUPLAZID for patients diagnosed with PD Psychosis. In addition, even if NUPLAZID is prescribed for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis, issues may arise with respect to patient adherence and compliance rates. For example, the recommended dosing of NUPLAZID is two 17 mg tablets, taken together once a day. Patients may elect, whether at the direction of their physician or otherwise, to take only one tablet a day instead of two, to take tablets at different times during the day, or to otherwise not adhere to the recommended dosing, any of which could result in far lower efficacy. If patients do not adhere to the recommended dosing of NUPLAZID, patients and physicians may believe that NUPLAZID is less effective, and as a result they may stop taking it and prescribing it. Although we are currently developing and have submitted an NDA to the FDA for a 34 mg capsule for NUPLAZID to, among other things, try to mitigate this risk, it is not anticipated to be commercially available until the second half of 2018. We have also submitted a supplemental NDA, or sNDA, to the FDA for a 10 mg tablet.

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The label for NUPLAZID also contains a “boxed” warning that elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death, and that NUPLAZID is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis unrelated to the hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis. There has also been recent attention to publicly reported deaths of patients that were prescribed NUPLAZID, and the FDA has indicated that it has been conducting an evaluation of available information about NUPLAZID. While the FDA has previously stated that based on available data, it has not identified a specific safety issue that is not already adequately described in the NUPLAZID label, and is not suggesting that health care providers should not prescribe NUPLAZID or that patients should stop taking NUPLAZID, we cannot predict the ultimate outcome of the FDA’s evaluation. Regardless, perceptions that NUPLAZID is unsafe, even if unfounded, may discourage physicians from prescribing or patients from taking NUPLAZID.

Thus, the commercial success of NUPLAZID depends on acceptance by patients and physicians, and there are a number of factors that could skew our or others’ estimates about prescribing behaviors and market adoption.

Our ability to generate product revenues will be diminished if NUPLAZID does not receive coverage from payors or sells for inadequate prices, or if patients have unacceptably high co-pay amounts.

Patients who are prescribed medicine for the treatment of their conditions generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with their prescription drugs. Coverage and adequate reimbursement from governmental healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and commercial payors is critical to product acceptance. Coverage decisions may depend upon clinical and economic standards that disfavor drug products when lower cost therapeutic alternatives are already available or subsequently become available. Even with coverage for NUPLAZID, or other products we may market, the resulting reimbursement payment rates might not be adequate or may require co-payments that patients find unacceptably high. Patients may not use NUPLAZID if coverage is not provided or reimbursement is inadequate to cover a significant portion of its cost.

In addition, the market for NUPLAZID depends significantly on access to third-party payors’ drug formularies, or lists of medications for which third-party payors provide coverage and reimbursement. The industry competition to be included in such formularies often leads to downward pricing pressures on pharmaceutical companies. Also, third-party payors may refuse to include a particular branded drug in their formularies or otherwise restrict patient access to a branded drug when a less costly alternative is available, even if not approved for the indication for which NUPLAZID is approved.

Third-party payors, whether foreign or domestic, or governmental or commercial, are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs. The current environment is putting pressure on companies to price products below what they may feel is appropriate. Selling NUPLAZID at less than an optimized price could impact our revenues and overall success as a company. We have changed, and may continue to change, the price of NUPLAZID from time to time, however, we do not know if the price we have selected, or may select in the future, for NUPLAZID is or will be the optimized price. Additionally, we do not know whether and to what extent third-party payors will react to any possible future changes in the price of NUPLAZID. In the United States, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for drug products exists among third-party payors. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement for NUPLAZID may differ significantly from payor to payor. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time-consuming and costly process that will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of NUPLAZID to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage will be obtained. If we are unable to obtain coverage of, and adequate payment levels for, NUPLAZID or any other products we may market to third-party payors, physicians may limit how much or under what circumstances they will prescribe or administer them and patients may decline to purchase them. This in turn could affect our ability to successfully commercialize NUPLAZID, or any other products we may market, and thereby adversely impact our profitability, results of operations, financial condition, and future success.

We are subject to federal, state and foreign healthcare laws and regulations and implementation of or changes to such healthcare laws and regulations could adversely affect our business and results of operations.*

In both the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory proposals to change the healthcare system in ways that could impact our ability to sell NUPLAZID, and any other potential products, as described in greater detail in the Government Regulation section of our Annual Report. If we are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other federal or state regulations, we may be subject to administrative, civil and/or criminal penalties, damages, fines, individual imprisonment, exclusion from federal health care programs, additional reporting requirements and/or oversight, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. Any of these could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results. Since many of these laws have not been fully interpreted by the courts, there is an increased risk that we may be found in violation of one or more of their provisions. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we ultimately are successful in our defense, will cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention away from the operation of our business.

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In addition, in many foreign countries, particularly the countries of the European Union, the pricing of prescription drugs is subject to government control. In some non-U.S. jurisdictions, the proposed pricing for a drug must be approved before it may be lawfully marketed. The requirements governing drug pricing vary widely from country to country. For example, the European Union provides options for its member states to restrict the range of medicinal products for which their national health insurance systems provide reimbursement and to control the prices of medicinal products for human use. A member state may approve a specific price for the medicinal product or it may instead adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the medicinal product on the market. We may face competition from lower-priced products in foreign countries that have placed price controls on pharmaceutical products. In addition, there may be importation of foreign products that compete with NUPLAZID, and any other products we may market, which could negatively impact our profitability.

We expect that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively the ACA, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we may receive for any approved product, including NUPLAZID. With respect to pharmaceutical products, the ACA, among other things, expanded and increased industry rebates for drugs covered by Medicaid and made changes to the coverage requirements under Medicare Part D, Medicare’s prescription drug benefits program. There have been judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA, as well as recent efforts by the Trump administration to repeal and replace certain aspects of the ACA, and we expect such challenges to continue. Since January 2017, President Trump has signed two Executive Orders and other directives designed to delay the implementation of certain provisions of the ACA or otherwise circumvent some of the requirements for health insurance mandated by the ACA. Concurrently, Congress has considered legislation that would repeal or repeal and replace all or part of the ACA. While Congress has not passed comprehensive repeal legislation, two bills affecting the implementation of certain taxes under the ACA have been enacted. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 includes a provision repealing, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the ACA on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year that is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate”. Additionally, on January 22, 2018, President Trump signed a continuing resolution on appropriations for fiscal year 2018 that delayed the implementation of certain fees mandated by the ACA, including the so-called “Cadillac” tax on certain high cost employer-sponsored insurance plans and the annual fee imposed on certain health insurance providers based on market share. Further, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, or the BBA, among other things, amends the ACA, effective January 1, 2019, to close the coverage gap in most Medicare drug plans, and also increases in 2019 the percentage that a drug manufacturer must discount the cost of prescription drugs from 50 percent under current law to 70 percent. Given that the current patient population for NUPLAZID is primarily Medicare beneficiaries, accelerating the closure of the coverage gap and the increase in the discount that must be paid, could have a significant impact on the Company’s business in 2019 and beyond. Congress also could consider additional legislation to repeal or repeal and replace other elements of the ACA. At this time, the full effect that the ACA will have on our business in the future remains unclear.

An expansion in the government’s role in the U.S. healthcare industry may increase existing congressional or governmental agency scrutiny on price increases, such as the ones we have implemented for NUPLAZID, cause general downward pressure on the prices of prescription drug products, lower reimbursements for providers using NUPLAZID or any other product for which we obtain regulatory approval, reduce product utilization and adversely affect our business and results of operations. There have been several recent U.S. Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, reduce the cost of drugs under Medicare, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drugs. For example, the Trump administration’s budget proposal for fiscal year 2019 contains additional drug price control measures that could be enacted during the 2019 budget process or in other future legislation, including, for example, measures to permit Medicare Part D plans to negotiate the price of certain drugs under Medicare Part B, to allow some states to negotiate drug prices under Medicaid and to eliminate cost sharing for generic drugs for low-income patients. In addition, cost-control measures legislation has been enacted at the state level. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost-containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize NUPLAZID or any other products for which we may receive regulatory approval.

If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws or regulations described above, comparable laws and regulations of non-U.S. jurisdictions or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, as noted above. Any penalties, damages, fines, curtailment or restructuring of our operations could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. Moreover, achieving and sustaining compliance with applicable federal and state privacy, security and fraud laws may prove costly.

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We are subject, directly and indirectly, to federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, false claims laws, physician payment transparency laws and health information privacy and security laws. If we are unable to comply, or have not fully complied, with such laws, we could face substantial penalties.*

Our operations are directly, and indirectly through our customers and third-party payors, subject to various U.S. federal and state healthcare laws and regulations, including, without limitation, the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the U.S. federal False Claims Act, and physician sunshine laws and regulations. These laws may impact, among other things, our sales, marketing, grants, charitable donations, and education programs and constrain the business or financial arrangements with healthcare providers, physicians, charitable foundations that support Parkinson’s disease patients generally, and other parties that have the ability to directly or indirectly influence the prescribing, ordering, marketing, or distribution of our products for which we obtain marketing approval. In addition, we are subject to patient data privacy and security regulation by both the U.S. federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. Finally, we may be subject to additional healthcare, statutory and regulatory requirements and enforcement by foreign regulatory authorities in jurisdictions in which we conduct our business. The laws that may affect our ability to operate include:

 

the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons or entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or paying any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe, or certain rebates), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce, or in return for, either the referral of an individual, or the purchase, lease, order or recommendation of any good, facility, item or service, for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under U.S. federal and state healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;

 

the U.S. federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalties laws, including the civil False Claims Act, which impose criminal and civil penalties, including through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, on individuals or entities for, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented to the U.S. federal government, claims for payment or approval that are false or fraudulent or from knowingly making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the U.S. federal government. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items and services resulting from a violation of the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the False Claims Act;

 

the U.S. federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which imposes criminal and civil liability for, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises, any of the money or property owned by, or under the custody or control of, any healthcare benefit program, regardless of the payor (e.g., public or private) and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up by any trick or device a material fact or making any materially false statement, in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items or services. Similar to the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;

 

HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, or HITECH, and its implementing regulations, and as amended again by the Final HIPAA Omnibus Rule, Modifications to the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Enforcement and Breach Notification Rules Under HITECH and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act; Other Modifications to the HIPAA Rules, published in January 2013, which imposes certain obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information without appropriate authorization by covered entities subject to the rule, such as health plans, healthcare clearinghouses and healthcare providers as well as their business associates that perform certain services involving the use or disclosure of individually identifiable health information;

 

the U.S. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, which prohibits, among other things, the adulteration or misbranding of drugs, biologics and medical devices;

 

the U.S. federal physician payment transparency requirements, sometimes referred to as the “Physician Payments Sunshine Act”, which was enacted as part of the ACA and its implementing regulations and requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program to report annually to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, information related to certain payments and other transfers of value made to physicians, other healthcare providers, and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and other healthcare providers and their immediate family members;

 

analogous state laws and regulations, including: state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to our business practices, including but not limited to, research, distribution, sales and marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including private insurers; state laws that

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require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the U.S. federal government, or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; and state laws and regulations that require drug manufacturers to file reports relating to pricing and marketing information, which requires tracking gifts and other remuneration and items of value provided to healthcare professionals and entities, and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts; and

 

European and other foreign law equivalents of each of the laws, including reporting requirements detailing interactions with and payments to healthcare providers, and the European General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which becomes effective in May 2018 and contains new provisions specifically directed at the processing of health information, higher sanctions and extra-territoriality measures intended to bring non-EU companies under the regulation, including companies like us that conduct clinical trials in the EU; we anticipate that over time we may expand our business operations to include additional operations in the EU and with such expansion, we would be subject to increased governmental regulation in the EU countries in which we might operate, including the GDPR.

Ensuring that our internal operations and future business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations could involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices do not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law interpreting applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. For example, contributions to third-party charitable foundations are a current area of significant governmental and congressional scrutiny, and we could face action if a federal or state governmental authority were to conclude that our charitable contributions to foundations that support Parkinson’s disease patients generally are not compliant. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental laws and regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant penalties, including civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from U.S. government-funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, disgorgement, individual imprisonment, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits, additional reporting requirements and/or oversight, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. Moreover, while we do not bill third-party payors directly and our customers make the ultimate decision on how to submit claims, from time-to-time, for NUPLAZID, and any other product candidates that may be approved, we may provide reimbursement guidance to patients and healthcare providers. If a government authority were to conclude that we provided improper advice and/or encouraged the submission of a false claim for reimbursement, we could face action against us by government authorities. If any of the physicians or other providers or entities with whom we expect to do business is found to be not in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government-funded healthcare programs and imprisonment. If any of the above occur, it could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. In addition, the approval and commercialization of NUPLAZID, or any other product candidates that may be approved, outside the United States will also likely subject us to foreign equivalents of the healthcare laws mentioned above, among other foreign laws.

If we fail to comply with our reporting and payment obligations under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program or other governmental pricing programs in the United States, we could be subject to additional reimbursement requirements, fines, sanctions and exposure under other laws which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We participate in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, as administered by CMS, and other federal and state government pricing programs in the United States, and we may participate in additional government pricing programs in the future. These programs generally require us to pay rebates or otherwise provide discounts to government payors in connection with drugs that are dispensed to beneficiaries/recipients of these programs. In some cases, such as with the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, the rebates are based on pricing that we report on a monthly and quarterly basis to the government agencies that administer the programs. Pricing requirements and rebate/discount calculations are complex, vary among products and programs, and are often subject to interpretation by governmental or regulatory agencies and the courts. The requirements of these programs, including, by way of example, their respective terms and scope, change frequently. Responding to current and future changes may increase our costs, and the complexity of compliance will be time consuming. Invoicing for rebates is provided in arrears, and there is frequently a time lag of up to several months between the sales to which rebate notices relate and our receipt of those notices, which further complicates our ability to accurately estimate and accrue for rebates related to the Medicaid program as implemented by individual states. Thus, there can be no assurance that we will be able to identify all factors that may cause our discount and rebate payment obligations to vary from period to period, and our actual results may differ significantly from our estimated allowances for discounts and rebates. Changes in estimates and assumptions may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, the Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services and other Congressional, enforcement and administrative bodies have recently increased their focus on pricing requirements for products, including, but not limited to the methodologies used by manufacturers to calculate average manufacturer price, or AMP, and best price, or BP, for

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compliance with reporting requirements under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. We are liable for errors associated with our submission of pricing data and for any overcharging of government payors. For example, failure to submit monthly/quarterly AMP and BP data on a timely basis could result in a civil monetary penalty of $18,107 per day for each day the submission is late beyond the due date. Failure to make necessary disclosures and/or to identify overpayments could result in allegations against us under the Federal False Claims Act and other laws and regulations. Any required refunds to the U.S. government or responding to a government investigation or enforcement action would be expensive and time consuming and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, in the event that the CMS were to terminate our rebate agreement, no federal payments would be available under Medicaid or Medicare for our covered outpatient drugs.

The FDA granted marketing approval of NUPLAZID for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis, and we could face liability if a regulatory authority determines that we are promoting NUPLAZID for any “off-label” uses.

A company may not promote “off-label” uses for its drug products. An off-label use is the use of a product for an indication that is not described in the product’s FDA-approved label in the United States or for uses in other jurisdictions that differ from those approved by the applicable regulatory agencies. Physicians, on the other hand, may prescribe products for off-label uses. Although the FDA and other regulatory agencies do not regulate a physician’s choice of drug treatment made in the physician’s independent medical judgment, they do restrict promotional communications from pharmaceutical companies or their sales force with respect to off-label uses of products for which marketing clearance has not been issued. A company that is found to have promoted off-label use of its product may be subject to significant liability, including civil and criminal sanctions. We intend to comply with the requirements and restrictions of the FDA and other regulatory agencies with respect to our promotion of NUPLAZID, and any other products we may market, but we cannot be sure that the FDA or other regulatory agencies will agree that we have not violated their restrictions. As a result, we may be subject to criminal and civil liability. In addition, our management’s attention could be diverted to handle any such alleged violations. A significant number of pharmaceutical companies have been the target of inquiries and investigations by various U.S. federal and state regulatory, investigative, prosecutorial and administrative entities in connection with the promotion of products for unapproved uses and other sales practices, including the Department of Justice and various U.S. Attorneys’ Offices, the Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, the FDA, the Federal Trade Commission and various state Attorneys General offices. These investigations have alleged violations of various U.S. federal and state laws and regulations, including claims asserting antitrust violations, violations of the FDCA, the federal False Claims Act, the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, anti-kickback laws, and other alleged violations in connection with the promotion of products for unapproved uses, pricing and Medicare and/or Medicaid reimbursement. If the FDA or any other governmental agency initiates an enforcement action against us or if we are the subject of a qui tam suit and it is determined that we violated prohibitions relating to the promotion of products for unapproved uses, we could be subject to substantial civil or criminal fines or damage awards and other sanctions such as consent decrees and corporate integrity agreements pursuant to which our activities would be subject to ongoing scrutiny and monitoring to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Any such fines, awards or other sanctions would have an adverse effect on our revenue, business, financial prospects, and reputation.

We expect our net losses to continue for at least the next few years and are unable to predict the extent of future losses or when we will become profitable, if ever.*

We have experienced significant net losses since our inception. As of March 31, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $1.3 billion. We expect to incur net losses over the next few years as we invest in the commercialization of NUPLAZID and advance our development programs.

Even though we began commercializing NUPLAZID in the United States in May 2016, we still expect to incur significant expenses and net losses for at least the next few years as we continue our commercialization efforts for NUPLAZID and pursue the further development of NUPLAZID and our product candidates. Substantially all of our revenues since May 2016 were from net product sales of NUPLAZID.

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We expect that our near-term revenues will be substantially dependent on our ability to generate net product sales of NUPLAZID. To the extent that we cannot generate significant revenues from the sale of NUPLAZID to cover our expenses, including the significant expenses associated with commercializing NUPLAZID and continuing to develop pimavanserin in additional indications, we may never achieve profitability and/or may have to reduce our commercialization and/or research and development activities to become profitable, which would harm our future growth prospects. Additionally, to obtain revenues from product candidates other than NUPLAZID, we must succeed, either alone or with others, in developing, obtaining regulatory approval for, manufacturing and marketing compounds with significant market potential. We may never succeed in these activities and may never generate revenues from our commercialization of NUPLAZID, or from other product candidates that may be approved, that are significant enough to achieve profitability.

If we fail to obtain the capital necessary to fund our operations, we will be unable to successfully continue the development and commercialization of NUPLAZID or successfully develop and commercialize our product candidates.*

We have consumed substantial amounts of capital since our inception. Our cash, cash equivalents, and investment securities totaled $298.1 million at March 31, 2018. While we believe that our existing cash resources will be sufficient to fund our cash requirements through at least the next twelve months, we may require significant additional financing in the future to continue to fund our operations. Our future capital requirements will depend on, and could increase significantly as a result of, many factors including:

 

the progress in, and the costs of, our ongoing and planned development activities for pimavanserin, post-marketing studies for NUPLAZID to be conducted over the next several years, ongoing and planned commercial activities for NUPLAZID, and other research and development programs;

 

the costs of maintaining and developing our sales and marketing capabilities for NUPLAZID;

 

the costs of establishing, or contracting for, sales and marketing capabilities for other product candidates;

 

the amount of U.S. product sales from NUPLAZID;

 

the costs of preparing applications for regulatory approvals for NUPLAZID in jurisdictions other than the United States, and potentially in additional indications other than in PD Psychosis, and for other product candidates, as well as the costs required to support review of such applications;

 

the costs of manufacturing and distributing NUPLAZID for commercial use in the United States;

 

our ability to obtain regulatory approval for, and subsequently generate product sales from, NUPLAZID in jurisdictions other than the United States or in additional indications other than in PD Psychosis, or from other product candidates;

 

the costs of acquiring additional product candidates or research and development programs;

 

the scope, prioritization and number of our research and development programs;

 

the ability of our collaborators and us to reach the milestones and other events or developments triggering payments under our collaboration or license agreements, or our collaborators’ ability to make payments under these agreements;

 

our ability to enter into new collaboration and license agreements;

 

the extent to which we are obligated to reimburse collaborators or collaborators are obligated to reimburse us for costs under collaboration agreements;

 

the costs involved in filing, prosecuting, enforcing, and defending patent claims and other intellectual property rights;

 

the costs of maintaining or securing manufacturing arrangements and supply for clinical or commercial production of pimavanserin or other product candidates; and

 

the costs associated with litigation, including the costs incurred in defending against any product liability claims that may be brought against us related to NUPLAZID.

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Unless and until we can generate significant cash from our operations, we expect to satisfy our future cash needs through our existing cash, cash equivalents and investment securities, strategic collaborations, public or private sales of our securities, debt financings, grant funding, or by licensing all or a portion of our product candidates or technology. In the past, periods of turmoil and volatility in the financial markets have adversely affected the market capitalizations of many biotechnology companies, and generally made equity and debt financing more difficult to obtain. These events, coupled with other factors, may limit our access to additional financing in the future. This could have a material adverse effect on our ability to access sufficient funding. We cannot be certain that additional funding will be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If funds are not available, we will be required to delay, reduce the scope of, or eliminate one or more of our research or development programs or our commercialization efforts. We also may be required to relinquish greater or all rights to product candidates at an earlier stage of development or on less favorable terms than we would otherwise choose. Additional funding, if obtained, may significantly dilute existing stockholders and could negatively impact the price of our stock.

The pivotal Phase 3 study with NUPLAZID for PD Psychosis, the results of which were announced in November 2012, was our first successful pivotal Phase 3 trial and there is no guarantee that future studies with pimavanserin will be successful.

The historical rate of failures for product candidates in clinical development is extremely high. In November 2012, we announced results from the -020 Study. Additionally, in December 2016, we announced positive top-line results from our Phase 2 exploratory study of pimavanserin in patients with AD Psychosis. Even though we successfully completed this Phase 2 exploratory study, or the -019 Study, and the -020 Study, those results are not predictive of the results of any additional studies that we are currently undertaking or may undertake in the future with pimavanserin, including the post-marketing studies we committed to conduct in connection with FDA approval of NUPLAZID and the ongoing studies of pimavanserin in various indications. We believe that pimavanserin also may have utility in indications other than in PD Psychosis, such as in dementia-related psychosis, schizophrenia, and depression. However, prior to the efficacy study that we initiated in October 2017, we had never tested pimavanserin in clinical studies where the primary outcome was for the broad indication of dementia-related psychosis, and prior to the study in major depressive disorder that we initiated in the fourth quarter of 2016, we had never tested pimavanserin in clinical studies in depression. Additionally, prior to the studies in schizophrenia that we initiated in the fourth quarter of 2016, we had only conducted a Phase 2 trial for pimavanserin as a co-therapy treatment in schizophrenia. There is no guarantee that we will have the same level of success with pimavanserin in other indications that we had with the -020 Study, or that we will have the same level of success with pimavanserin in dementia-related psychosis or in other indications that we had with the -019 Study. Further, there is no guarantee that we will be successful at all in ongoing or future studies for additional indications or in our post-marketing studies, or that future results of studies of NUPLAZID for treatment in PD Psychosis or for other indications, including dementia-related psychosis, will be consistent with those from the -019 Study or -020 Study.

If we do not successfully complete additional development of NUPLAZID, we will be unable to market and sell NUPLAZID or products derived from it for indications other than the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis, or to generate related product revenues.

We do not have a partner for the development of pimavanserin, and are solely responsible for the advancement of this program and commercialization of the product.

We have full responsibility for the pimavanserin program throughout the world. We expect our research and development costs for continued development of pimavanserin to be substantial. While we currently are undertaking the ongoing development work for pimavanserin, including clinical trials of pimavanserin for indications other than in PD Psychosis, in the future we would need to add resources and raise additional funds in order to take this product candidate to market for indications other than in PD Psychosis or in jurisdictions outside the United States, and to conduct the necessary sales and marketing activities, and to conduct further development activities, if we do not secure a partner. Our current strategy is to commercialize NUPLAZID for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis in the United States using our specialty sales force focused primarily on neurologists, a small group of psychiatrists, and pharmacists and physicians in long-term care facilities who treat PD Psychosis patients. In addition, if we are approved to commercialize NUPLAZID in markets outside of the United States, we will more than likely need to establish one or more strategic alliances in the future for that purpose. Without future collaboration partners in the United States and abroad, we might not be able to realize the full value of NUPLAZID.

We conducted, and continue to revisit, our life-cycle planning project for pimavanserin that was initiated in 2015 and through which we have formulated a multi-year plan to develop pimavanserin in additional indications other than in PD Psychosis, including in dementia-related psychosis, schizophrenia and depression, as described above. Given the unique profile of pimavanserin, together with the list of potential indications we could pursue, this has been a substantial and important undertaking. Our life-cycle planning process will be ongoing as we evaluate appropriate indications for pimavanserin to pursue as we seek to maximize the opportunities for this compound. If our life-cycle planning and execution is not conducted successfully, then we may not realize the full value from pimavanserin or may devote substantial resources to develop pimavanserin for indications that are ultimately not successful or do not

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yield adequate returns. Furthermore, even though NUPLAZID is approved for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis, a failure in a subsequent study for another indication, including our ongoing studies in dementia-related psychosis, schizophrenia and depression, or a failure in our post-marketing studies could harm our ability to successfully market NUPLAZID for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PD Psychosis or could lead to it being withdrawn from the market. If we are unable to develop pimavanserin for other indications, we may not be able to maximize the potential of the compound and that could have a material adverse effect on our future revenues and our success as a company.

Pimavanserin is currently in development for several additional indications other than in PD Psychosis, and development is a long, expensive and unpredictable process with a high risk of failure.

Preclinical testing and clinical trials are long, expensive and unpredictable processes that can be subject to delays. It may take several years to complete the preclinical testing and clinical development necessary to commercialize a drug, and delays or failure can occur at any stage. Interim results of clinical trials do not necessarily predict final results, and success in preclinical testing and early clinical trials does not ensure that later clinical trials will be successful. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials even after promising results in earlier trials.

Our drug development programs are at various stages of development and the historical rate of failures for product candidates is extremely high. In fact, we had an unsuccessful Phase 3 trial with NUPLAZID in 2009. An unfavorable outcome in any of our ongoing or future development efforts or in the post-marketing studies for NUPLAZID could be a major set-back for the program and for us, generally. In particular, an unfavorable outcome in our NUPLAZID program or in the post-marketing studies may require us to delay, devote additional substantial resources to, reduce the scope of, or eliminate this program and could have a material adverse effect on us and the value of our common stock. In October 2017, we initiated a Phase 3 study of pimavanserin in patients with dementia-related psychosis, and in the fourth quarter of 2016 we initiated both a Phase 2 and a Phase 3 study of pimavanserin as an adjunctive treatment in patients with schizophrenia as well as a Phase 2 study of pimavanserin as an adjunctive treatment in patients with major depressive disorder. We may plan and conduct additional studies in other indications in the future.

In connection with clinical trials, we face risks that:

 

a product candidate may not prove to be efficacious or safe;

 

patients may die or suffer other adverse effects for reasons that may or may not be related to the product candidate being tested;

 

the results may not be consistent with positive results of earlier trials; and

 

the results may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA or other regulatory agencies.

If we do not successfully complete preclinical and clinical development, we will be unable to market and sell products derived from our product candidates and to generate product revenues. Even if we do successfully complete clinical trials, those results are not necessarily predictive of results of additional trials that may be needed before an NDA may be submitted to the FDA. Of the large number of drugs in development, only a small percentage result in the submission of an NDA to the FDA and even fewer are approved for commercialization.

Delays, suspensions and terminations in our clinical trials could result in increased costs to us and delay our ability to generate product revenues.

The commencement of clinical trials can be delayed for a variety of reasons, including delays in:

 

demonstrating sufficient safety and efficacy to obtain regulatory approval to commence a clinical trial;

 

reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations and clinical trial sites;

 

manufacturing sufficient quantities of a product candidate;

 

obtaining clearance from the FDA to commence clinical trials pursuant to an Investigational New Drug application;

 

obtaining institutional review board approval to conduct a clinical trial at a prospective clinical trial site; and

 

patient recruitment, which is a function of many factors, including the size of the patient population, the nature of the protocol, the proximity of patients to clinical trial sites, the availability of effective treatments for the relevant disease and the eligibility criteria for the clinical trial.

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Once a clinical trial has begun, it may be delayed, suspended or terminated due to a number of factors, including:

 

competition for internal and external resources, including clinical sites and study patients, that we may choose to allocate to other programs;

 

ongoing discussions with regulatory authorities regarding the scope or design of our clinical trials or requests by them for supplemental information with respect to our clinical trial results;

 

imposition of clinical holds by regulatory authorities or institutional review boards;

 

failure to conduct clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements;

 

patient enrollment, which is a function of many factors, including the size of the patient population, the nature of the protocol, the proximity of patients to clinical trial sites, the availability of effective treatments for the relevant disease and the eligibility criteria for the clinical trial;

 

lower than anticipated screening or retention rates of patients in clinical trials;

 

serious adverse events or side effects experienced by participants; and

 

insufficient supply or deficient quality of product candidates or other materials necessary for the conduct of our clinical trials.

Many of these factors may also ultimately lead to denial of regulatory approval of a current or potential product candidate. If we experience delays, suspensions or terminations in a clinical trial, the commercial prospects for the related product candidate will be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenues will be delayed.

We previously have depended, and in the future may depend, on collaborations with third parties to develop and commercialize selected product candidates other than pimavanserin, and we have limited control over how those third parties conduct development and commercialization activities for such product candidates.*

In the past, we have selectively entered into collaboration agreements with third parties. We relied on our collaborators for financial resources and for development, regulatory, and commercialization expertise for selected product candidates and we had limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our collaborators devoted to our product candidates. We may choose to rely on collaborations in the future for certain portions of our pimavanserin program or other product candidates, or for the commercialization of NUPLAZID in certain territories outside of the United States.

Our collaborators may fail to develop or effectively commercialize products using our product candidates or technologies because they:

 

do not have sufficient resources or decide not to devote the necessary resources due to internal constraints such as limited cash or human resources or a change in strategic focus;

 

decide to pursue a competitive product developed outside of the collaboration; or

 

cannot obtain the necessary regulatory approvals.

We also face competition in our search for new collaborators, if we seek a new partner for our pimavanserin program or other programs. Given the current economic and industry environment, it is possible that competition for new collaborators may increase. If we are unable to find new collaborations, we may not be able to continue advancing our programs alone.

If conflicts arise with our collaborators, they may act in their self-interests, which may be adverse to our interests.

Conflicts may arise in our collaborations due to one or more of the following: