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EX-32.2 - EX-32.2 - Invesco DB G10 Currency Harvest Funddbv-ex322_9.htm
EX-32.1 - EX-32.1 - Invesco DB G10 Currency Harvest Funddbv-ex321_8.htm
EX-31.2 - EX-31.2 - Invesco DB G10 Currency Harvest Funddbv-ex312_6.htm
EX-31.1 - EX-31.1 - Invesco DB G10 Currency Harvest Funddbv-ex311_7.htm
EX-23.1 - EX-23.1 - Invesco DB G10 Currency Harvest Funddbv-ex231_31.htm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from              to             

Commission File Number: 001-33020

 

POWERSHARES DB G10 CURRENCY HARVEST FUND

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware

16-6562496

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

c/o Invesco PowerShares Capital Management LLC

3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700

Downers Grove, Illinois

60515

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (800)-983-0903

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Units of Beneficial Interest

 

NYSE Arca, Inc.

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “accelerated filer,” “large accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large Accelerated Filer

 

Accelerated Filer

 

 

 

 

Non-Accelerated Filer

  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company

 

 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

State the market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter: $43,920,000

Number of Common Units of Beneficial Interest outstanding as of January 31, 2018: 1,600,000

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Page

 

 

 

PART I

1

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 1.

  

BUSINESS

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 1A.

  

RISK FACTORS

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 1B.

  

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 2.

  

PROPERTIES

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 3.

  

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 4.

  

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

20

 

 

 

PART II

21

 

 

 

 

ITEM 5.

  

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

21

 

 

 

 

ITEM 6.

  

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

22

 

 

 

 

ITEM 7.

  

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

23

 

 

 

 

ITEM 7A.

  

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

32

 

 

 

 

ITEM 8.

  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

35

 

 

 

 

ITEM 9.

  

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

56

 

 

 

 

ITEM 9A.

  

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

56

 

 

 

 

ITEM 9B.

  

OTHER INFORMATION

56

 

 

 

PART III

57

 

 

 

 

ITEM 10.

  

DIRECTORS AND EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

57

 

 

 

 

ITEM 11.

  

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

59

 

 

 

 

ITEM 12.

  

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

59

 

 

 

 

ITEM 13.

  

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

60

 

 

 

 

ITEM 14.

  

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

60

 

 

 

PART IV

61

 

 

 

 

ITEM 15.

  

EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

61

 

 

 

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This Report includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. The matters discussed throughout this Form 10-K that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based on the registrant’s current expectations, estimates and projections about the registrant’s business and industry and its beliefs and assumptions about future events and speak only as of the date on which they are made. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future results and conditions and important factors, risks and uncertainties in the markets for financial instruments that the Fund trades, in the markets for related physical commodities, in the legal and regulatory regimes applicable to Invesco PowerShares Capital Management LLC, the Fund, and the Fund’s service providers, and in the broader economy may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed by such forward-looking statements. In some cases, investors can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “continue,” or the negative of such terms or other similar expressions. Factors that might cause or contribute to such a discrepancy include, but are not limited to, those described in this report, including in Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation” (MD&A), and our other Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) filings.

 

 

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PART I

ITEM 1.

BUSINESS

Introduction

PowerShares DB G10 Currency Harvest Fund (the “Fund”) was formed as a Delaware statutory trust on April 12, 2006. The term of the Fund is perpetual (unless terminated earlier in certain circumstances) as provided for in the Fifth Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust and Trust Agreement of the Fund, as amended (the “Trust Agreement”). The Fund has an unlimited number of shares authorized for issuance.  The fiscal year end of the Fund is December 31st.

Invesco PowerShares Capital Management LLC (“Invesco”) has served as the managing owner (the “Managing Owner”), commodity pool operator and commodity trading advisor of the Fund since February 23, 2015 (the “Closing Date”). Prior to the Closing Date, a different company served the Fund in those capacities (the “Predecessor Managing Owner”).

The Fund seeks to track changes, whether positive or negative, in the level of the Deutsche Bank G10 Currency Future Harvest Index–Excess Return™, (the “Index”), over time, plus the excess, if any, of the Fund’s income from its holdings of United States Treasury Obligations (“Treasury Income”), dividends from its holdings in money market mutual funds (affiliated or otherwise) (“Money Market Income”) and dividends or distributions of capital gains from its holdings of T-Bill ETFs (as defined below) over the expenses of the Fund. The Fund invests in futures contracts in an attempt to track its Index. The Index is designed to reflect the performance of certain currencies. The currencies comprising the Index, at any time (each an “Index Currency”, and collectively, the “Index Currencies”), are six of the following Group of Ten currencies: United States Dollars, Euros, Japanese Yen, Canadian Dollars, Swiss Francs, British Pounds, Australian Dollars, New Zealand Dollars, Norwegian Krone and Swedish Krona (collectively, the “Eligible Index Currencies”). At any time, the Index will consist of long futures contracts on the three Eligible Index Currencies associated with the highest interest rates and short futures contracts on the three Eligible Index Currencies associated with the lowest interest rates. The ratio of the notional value of futures contracts in the Index to collateral used to margin those contracts is approximately 2:1 when the Index re-balances quarterly. However, if the United States Dollar is one of the Eligible Index Currencies associated with either the three highest or the three lowest interest rates, the Index will not establish a futures position, and the ratio of the notional value of futures contracts to collateral used to margin those contracts will be approximately 1.66:1 when the Index re-balances. The Fund has in the past invested at the quarterly re-balance in excess of the targeted 2:1 ratio of aggregate notional value of futures to collateral used to margin those contracts.

The Fund may invest directly in United States Treasury Obligations. The Fund may also gain exposure to United States Treasury Obligations through investments in exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) (affiliated or otherwise) that track indexes that measure the performance of United States Treasury Obligations with a maximum remaining maturity of up to 12 months (“T-Bill ETFs”). The Fund invests in United States Treasury Obligations, money market mutual funds and T-Bill ETFs (affiliated or otherwise), if any, for margin and/or cash management purposes.

The Fund offers common units of beneficial interest (the “Shares”) only to certain eligible financial institutions (the “Authorized Participants”) in one or more blocks of 200,000 Shares, called a Basket. The Fund commenced investment operations on September 15, 2006. The Fund commenced trading on the American Stock Exchange (which became the NYSE Alternext US LLC (the “NYSE Alternext”)) on September 18, 2006 and, since November 25, 2008, has been listed on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “NYSE Arca”).

Index Description

The Managing Owner pays the Index Sponsor (as defined below) a licensing fee and an index services fee for performing its duties.

These fees constitute a portion of the routine operational, administrative and other ordinary expenses which are paid out of the Management Fee and are not charged to or reimbursed by the Fund.

Neither the Managing Owner nor any affiliate of the Managing Owner has any rights to influence the selection of the futures contracts underlying the Index. The Managing Owner has entered into a license agreement with the Index Sponsor to use the Index.

The Fund is not sponsored or endorsed by Deutsche Bank AG, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. or any subsidiary or affiliate of Deutsche Bank AG or Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. (collectively, “Deutsche Bank”). The Deutsche Bank G10 Currency Future Harvest Index® – Excess Return (the “Index”) is the exclusive property of Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. “DBIQ” is a service mark of Deutsche Bank AG and has been licensed for use for certain purposes by Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. Neither Deutsche Bank nor any other party involved in, or related to, making or compiling the Index makes any representation or warranty, express or implied, concerning the Index, the Fund or the advisability of investing in securities generally. Neither Deutsche Bank nor any other party involved in, or related to, making or compiling the Index has any obligation to take the needs of the Managing Owner or its clients into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Index. Neither Deutsche Bank nor any other party involved in, or related to, making or compiling the Index is responsible for or has participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at,

1


 

quantities or valuation of the Fund. Neither Deutsche Bank nor any other party involved in, or related to, making or compiling the Index has any obligation or liability in connection with the administration or trading of the Fund.

NEITHER DEUTSCHE BANK NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING THE INDEX, WARRANTS OR GUARANTEES THE ACCURACY AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN AND SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR INTERRUPTIONS THEREIN. NEITHER DEUTSCHE BANK NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING THE INDEX, MAKES ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY INVESCO POWERSHARES CAPITAL MANAGEMENT LLC FROM THE USE OF THE INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. NEITHER DEUTSCHE BANK NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING THE INDEX, MAKES ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE WITH RESPECT TO THE INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT SHALL DEUTSCHE BANK OR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING THE INDEX HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR DIRECT, INDIRECT, PUNITIVE, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY OTHER DAMAGES OR LOSSES (INCLUDING LOST PROFITS), EVEN IF NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY THEREOF. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED TO THE CONTRARY, THERE ARE NO THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES OF ANY AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN DEUTSCHE BANK AND INVESCO POWERSHARES CAPITAL MANAGEMENT LLC.

No purchaser, seller or holder of the Shares of this Fund, or any other person or entity, should use or refer to any Deutsche Bank trade name, trademark or service mark to sponsor, endorse, market or promote this Fund without first contacting Deutsche Bank to determine whether Deutsche Bank’s permission is required. Under no circumstances may any person or entity claim any affiliation with Deutsche Bank without the written permission of Deutsche Bank.

The currencies that are eligible for inclusion in the Index are the currencies of The Group of Ten (the “G10”) countries (the “Eligible Index Currencies”), which include the following currencies:

 

Eligible Index Currency

 

Symbol

United States Dollar

 

USD

Euro

 

EUR

Japanese Yen

 

JPY

Canadian Dollar

 

CAD

Swiss Franc

 

CHF

British Pound

 

GBP

Australian Dollar

 

AUD

New Zealand Dollar

 

NZD

Norwegian Krone

 

NOK

Swedish Krona

 

SEK

The futures contracts referencing each of the Eligible Index Currencies (except USD) in which the Fund invests are currently traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (the “CME”), although currency futures contracts on the Eligible Index Currencies also trade on other exchanges in the United States and the Fund may invest in such contracts.

At any time, the Index is comprised of long futures positions in the three Eligible Index Currencies associated with the highest interest rates and short futures positions in the three Eligible Index Currencies associated with the lowest interest rates. The Index’s six component currencies from time-to-time, comprised of the three long and three short futures positions (each an “Index Currency”, and collectively, the “Index Currencies”), are used to calculate the value of the Index. The composition of the Index may be adjusted in the event that the Index Sponsor is not able to calculate the closing prices of the Index Currencies.

2


 

The following table reflects the Fund and Index weights of each Index Currency as of December 31, 2017:

Eligible Index Currency

 

Fund Weight (%)

 

 

Index Weight (%)

 

United States Dollar

 

*

 

 

*

 

Euro

 

 

(32.70

)%

 

 

(34.37

)%

Japanese Yen

 

 

 

 

 

 

Canadian Dollar

 

 

 

 

 

 

Swiss Franc

 

 

(32.52

)%

 

 

(34.20

)%

British Pound

 

 

 

 

 

 

Australian Dollar

 

 

32.86

%

 

 

34.45

%

New Zealand Dollar

 

 

32.67

%

 

 

34.20

%

Norwegian Krone

 

 

 

 

 

 

Swedish Krona

 

 

(33.41

)%

 

 

(34.95

)%

 

*

The United States Dollar was one of the Eligible Index Currencies (as hereinafter defined) associated with the three lowest interest rates. As a result, the Fund did not establish a futures position, and the ratio of the notional value of futures contracts to collateral used to margin those contracts will be 1.66:1 when the Fund re-balances.

Please see http://www.powershares.com with respect to the most recently available weighted composition of the Fund and the composition of the Index.

The Fund is an index tracking fund and does not utilize any trading system, whether discretionary, systematic or otherwise. The Index is a mathematical construct that is comprised of the Index Currencies, each of which is assigned an initial weight. As the value of the underlying Index Currencies changes, the relative weights of each of the Index Currencies will vary. The Index will be re-balanced at a pre-determined frequency in order to restore the target weights. As the Fund will invest in futures contracts tied to the underlying Index Currencies (and their corresponding target base weights) with a view to tracking the changes, whether positive or negative, in the changes in the levels of the Index, the Managing Owner serves in an administrative role in order to ensure that the Fund invests in a manner that seeks to track the Index.

The composition of the Index may be adjusted in the event that the Index Sponsor is not able to calculate the closing prices of the Index Currencies.

The Index Sponsor calculates the Index on both an excess return basis and a total return basis. The excess return basis calculation reflects the change in market value of the applicable underlying currency futures only. The total return basis calculation reflects the sum of the change in market value of the applicable underlying currency futures plus the return on 3-month U.S. Treasury bills. The Fund seeks to track changes, whether positive or negative, in the level of the Index calculated on an excess return basis, over time, plus the excess, if any, of the Fund’s Treasury Income and Money Market Income over the expenses of the Fund. The Fund may hold United States Treasury Obligations and money market mutual funds for margin and/or cash management purposes.

The Fund will make distributions at the discretion of the Managing Owner. To the extent that the Fund’s actual and projected Treasury Income and Money Market Income exceeds the actual and projected fees and expenses of the Fund, the Managing Owner expects periodically to make distributions of the amount of such excess. The Fund currently does not expect to make distributions with respect to its capital gains. Depending on the Fund’s performance for the taxable year and an investor’s own tax situation for such year, an investor’s income tax liability for the taxable year and allocable share of the Fund’s net ordinary income or loss and capital gain or loss may exceed any distributions an investor may receive with respect to such year.

In order to determine which Eligible Index Currencies to include in the Index from time-to-time, the Index Sponsor will review the composition of the Index on a quarterly basis five business days prior to the IMM Date. “IMM Date” means the third Wednesday of March, June, September and December, a traditional settlement date in the International Money Market.

The Index Sponsor will review the three month Libor rate for each Eligible Index Currency other than the SEK and NOK and will review the three month Stibor rate and the three month Nibor rate for the SEK and NOK, respectively. The Libor, Stibor and Nibor rates for the Eligible Index Currencies, as applicable, mean the London, Stockholm and Norway interbank offered rates for overnight deposits, respectively, each of which is published by Reuters. The Eligible Index Currencies are then ranked according to yield. The three highest yielding and three lowest yielding are selected as Index Currencies for inclusion in calculating the Index. If two Index Currencies have the same yield, then the previous quarter’s ranking will be used. Please see http://www.powershares.com with respect to the most recently available weighted composition of the Fund and the composition of the Index.

3


 

The Index is re-weighted quarterly. Upon re-weighting, the high yielding Index Currencies are allocated a base weight of 33 1/3% and the low yielding Index Currencies are allocated a base weight of -33 1/3%. These new weights are applied during the Index re weighting period, which takes place between the fourth and third Index Business Days prior to the applicable IMM Date (the “Index Re-Weighting Period”).

The CME traded futures contract of each applicable Index Currency that is closest to expiration is used in the Index calculation. The futures contracts on the Index Currencies are rolled during the Index Re-Weighting Period. The new futures contract on an Index Currency that has the next closest expiration date is selected. The calculation of the Index on an excess return basis is the weighted return on the change in price of the futures contracts on the Index Currencies.

A 3-month U.S. Treasury bill return is then calculated and included to calculate the total return index. Please refer to Exhibit B of the Trust Agreement for the mathematical formula of the Index.

The Index has been calculated using historical data since March 12, 1993. The Index is composed of notional amounts of each Index Currency. The notional amounts of the Index Currencies included in the Index are based on the Index Closing Level as of the Index Re-Weighting Period. The Index Closing Level reflects an arithmetic weighted return of the change in the Index Currencies’ exchange rates against the USD since March 12, 1993. March 1993 was chosen as a starting period because it represents the earliest date on which reliable data for all the Eligible Index Currencies exists. On March 12, 1993, the closing Index level was USD 100. Between March 12, 1993 to December 31, 2017, the Index level as calculated on an excess return basis has ranged from as high as USD 315.27 (July 25, 2007) to as low as USD 94.03 (July 30, 1993). Past Index results are not necessarily indicative of future changes, positive or negative, in the Index.  

To track the Index, the Fund generally will establish long futures positions in the three Eligible Index Currencies associated with the highest interest rates and short futures positions in the three Eligible Index Currencies associated with the lowest interest rates and will adjust its holdings quarterly as the Index is adjusted. However, if the United States Dollar (“USD”) is among the Index Currencies from time-to-time, the Fund will not establish a long or short futures position (as the case may be) in USD, because USD is the Fund’s home currency and, as a consequence, the Fund can never enjoy profit or suffer loss from long or short futures positions in USD. When the USD is not associated with the highest or lowest interest rates among the Eligible Index Currencies, the aggregate notional value of the Fund’s futures contracts at the time they are established will be double the value of the Fund’s holdings of United States Treasury Obligations and money market mutual funds, which means the Fund will have a leverage ratio at such time of 2:1. If the USD is associated with the highest or lowest interest rates among the Eligible Index Currencies, the aggregate notional value of the Fund’s futures contracts at the time they are established will be approximately 1.66 times the value of the Fund’s holdings of United States Treasury Obligations and money market mutual funds, which means the Fund will have a leverage ratio at such time of approximately 1.66:1.  Holding futures positions with a notional amount in excess of the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”) constitutes a form of leverage. The use of leverage will increase the potential for both trading profits and losses, depending on the changes, positive and negative, in the Index. The Fund’s ability to track the Index will not be affected by the presence or absence of the USD among the Index Currencies. Because the notional value of the Fund’s futures positions and holdings of United States Treasury Obligations and money market mutual funds can rise or fall over time, the leverage ratio could be higher or lower between quarterly adjustments of the Index Currencies.

The use of long and short positions in the construction of the Index causes the Index to rise as a result of any upward price movement of Index Currencies expected to gain relative to the USD and to rise as a result of any downward price movement of Index Currencies expected to lose relative to the USD. The inclusion of both long and short positions is also expected to reduce the country specific foreign exchange risk of the Index (and, therefore, risk in connection with an investment in the Fund) relative to a directional (outright long or short) exposure to any or all of the Index Currencies.

There can be no assurance that the use of both long and short positions will reduce the volatility of the Index during any or all market cycles or performance periods, or that the Fund will achieve its objectives. It is possible that, prior to an Index rebalancing, that Index Currencies expected to lose relative to the USD may rise and/or Index Currencies expected to gain relative to the USD may fall. In such cases, the Fund may experience losses in both its long and short positions at the same time. Such losses will be greater as a result of the Fund’s use of leverage, reflected in its long futures exposure to Index Currencies with a notional value of up to 100% of the Fund’s NAV and its short futures exposure to Index Currencies with a notional value of up to 100% of the Fund’s NAV. Under such circumstances, the Fund’s losses would be greater as a result of its leverage than would be the case were it to limit its overall exposure to Index Currencies with a notional value of 100% of the Fund’s NAV.

As a result of its use of leverage, the Fund will be required to deposit a greater proportion of its net assets as margin, not expected to exceed 10% of net assets. This represents margin deposit requirements approximately twice as great as would be required if the Fund did not use leverage. Similarly, as a result of its use of leverage, the Fund will trade more futures contracts and incur more

4


 

brokerage commission expense than it would if it did not use leverage. The additional amount of brokerage commission expense generally will be proportional to the Fund’s leverage ratio.

The Trustee

Wilmington Trust Company (the “Trustee”), a Delaware trust company, is the sole trustee of the Fund. The Trustee’s duties and liabilities with respect to the offering of the Shares and the management of the Fund are limited to its express obligations under the Trust Agreement. Under the Trust Agreement, the Managing Owner has exclusive management and control of all aspects of the business of the Fund. The Trustee will have no duty or liability to supervise or monitor the performance of the Managing Owner, nor will the Trustee have any liability for the acts or omissions of the Managing Owner in accordance with the Managing Owner’s instructions. The Trustee is compensated by the Fund and is indemnified by the Fund against any expenses it incurs relating to or arising out of the formation, operation or termination of the Fund or the execution, delivery and performance of any other agreements to which the Fund is a party or the action or inaction of the Trustee, except to the extent that such expenses result from the gross negligence or willful misconduct of the Trustee.

The Managing Owner

The Managing Owner was formed on February 7, 2003. The Managing Owner is an affiliate of Invesco Ltd. The Managing Owner was formed to be the managing owner of investment vehicles such as ETFs and has been managing non-commodity futures based ETFs since 2003 and a commodity futures based ETF since 2014. The Managing Owner serves as the commodity pool operator and a commodity trading advisor of the Fund. The Managing Owner is registered as a commodity pool operator and commodity trading advisor with the CFTC and is a member of, and approved as a swap firm by, the National Futures Association (the “NFA”). As a registered commodity pool operator and commodity trading advisor, with respect to the Fund, the Managing Owner must comply with various regulatory requirements under the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936, as amended (the “Commodity Exchange Act”) and the rules and regulations of the CFTC and the NFA, including investor protection requirements, antifraud prohibitions, disclosure requirements, and reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The Managing Owner also is subject to periodic inspections and audits by the CFTC and NFA.

The Managing Owner has served as the managing owner of the Fund since the Closing Date. The Predecessor Managing Owner served as the managing owner of the Fund prior to the Closing Date.

The Managing Owner’s main business offices are located at 3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700, Downers Grove, IL 60515, and its telephone number is (800) 983-0903.

The Fund pays the Managing Owner a management fee, monthly in arrears, in an amount equal to 0.75% per annum of the daily NAV of the Fund (the “Management Fee”).

The Fund may, for margin and/or cash management purposes, invest in money market mutual funds and/or T-Bill ETFs that are managed by affiliates of the Managing Owner. The indirect portion of the management fee that the Fund may incur through such investment is in addition to the Management Fee paid to the Managing Owner. The Managing Owner has contractually agreed to waive the fees that it receives in an amount equal to the indirect management fees that the Fund incurs through its investments in affiliated money market mutual funds and/or affiliated T-Bill ETFs indefinitely.

Pursuant to the Trust Agreement, the Fund will indemnify the Managing Owner against any losses, judgments, liabilities, expenses and amounts paid in settlement of any claims sustained by it in connection with its activities on behalf of the Fund incurred, except for any expenses resulting from gross negligence or willful misconduct.

The Commodity Trading Advisor

Invesco Advisers Inc. (“Invesco Advisers”), a Delaware corporation, is a commodity trading advisor of the Trust and Fund and is an affiliate of the Managing Owner. The Managing Owner may utilize the Invesco Advisers trading desk to place trades for the Fund. Invesco Advisers receives no compensation for providing this service.

The Commodity Broker

Effective November 29, 2016, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, became the Fund’s futures clearing broker (the “Commodity Broker”). The Commodity Broker is registered with the CFTC as a futures commission merchant and is a member of the NFA in such capacity.

A variety of executing brokers execute futures transactions on behalf of the Fund. Such executing brokers give-up all such transactions to the Commodity Broker. In its capacity as clearing broker, the Commodity Broker may execute or receive transactions

5


 

executed by others and clears all of the Fund’s futures transactions and performs certain administrative and custodial services for the Fund. The Commodity Broker is responsible, among other things, for providing periodic accountings of all dealings and actions taken by the Fund during the reporting period, together with an accounting of all securities, cash or other indebtedness or obligations held by it or its nominees for or on behalf of the Fund. Prior to November 29, 2016, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. served as the Fund’s clearing broker (the “Predecessor Commodity Broker”).

The Fund pays the Commodity Broker all brokerage commissions, including applicable exchange fees, NFA fees, give-up fees, pit brokerage fees and other transaction related fees and expenses charged in connection with trading activities. The Commodity Broker’s brokerage commissions and trading fees are determined on a contract-by-contract basis. Brokerage commissions and fees in any future fiscal year or any part of any future fiscal year may be greater than fees incurred in prior fiscal years. On average, total charges paid to the Commodity Broker for the year ended December 31, 2017 and the period from November 29, 2016 to December 31, 2016 were less than $6.00 and $6.00, respectively per round-turn trade1.  On average, total charges paid to the Predecessor Commodity Broker for the period from January 1, 2016 to November 29, 2016 and the year ended December 31, 2015 were less than $6.00 and $6.00, respectively per round-turn trade1.

 

1 

A round-turn trade is a completed transaction involving both a purchase and a liquidating sale, or a sale followed by a covering purchase.

The Administrator, Custodian and Transfer Agent

The Bank of New York Mellon is the administrator (the “Administrator”) and serves as the custodian (the “Custodian”) and transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”) of the Fund. The Bank of New York Mellon has entered into an Administration Agreement, a Global Custody Agreement (the “Custody Agreement”), and a Transfer Agency and Service Agreement, in connection therewith.

The Bank of New York Mellon, a banking corporation organized under the laws of the State of New York with trust powers, has an office at 2 Hanson Place, Brooklyn, New York, 11217. The Bank of New York Mellon is subject to supervision by the New York State Department of Financial Services and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

Pursuant to the Administration Agreement, the Administrator performs or supervises the performance of services necessary for the operation and administration of the Fund (other than making investment decisions), including receiving and processing orders from Authorized Participants to create and redeem Baskets, NAV calculations, accounting and other fund administrative services. The Managing Owner pays the Administrator administrative services fees out of the Management Fee.

The Administrator and any of its affiliates may from time-to-time purchase or sell Shares for their own account, as agent for their customers and for accounts over which they exercise investment discretion.

The Transfer Agent receives a transaction processing fee in connection with orders from Authorized Participants to create or redeem Baskets in the amount of $500 per order. These transaction processing fees are paid directly by the Authorized Participants and not by the Fund.

The Distributor

Invesco Distributors, Inc. is the Fund’s distributor (the “Distributor”). Pursuant to the Distribution Services Agreement among the Managing Owner, the Fund and the Distributor, the Distributor assists the Managing Owner and the Administrator with certain functions and duties relating to distribution and marketing services to the Fund including reviewing and approving marketing materials. Prior to June 20, 2016, ALPS Distributors, Inc. provided distribution services to the Fund.

The Distribution Services Agreement is terminable without penalty on sixty days’ written notice by the Managing Owner or by the Distributor. The Distribution Services Agreement will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment.

Pursuant to the Distribution Services Agreement, the Fund will indemnify and hold harmless the Distributor and each of its directors and officers and each person, if any, who controls the Distributor within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act, against any loss, liability, claim, damages or expenses (including the reasonable cost of investigating or defending any alleged loss, liability, claim, damages or expense and reasonable counsel fees incurred in connection therewith) arising by reason of any person acquiring any Shares, based upon the ground that the registration statement, prospectus, statement of additional information, shareholder reports or other information filed or made public by the Fund (as from time-to-time amended) included an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted a material fact required to be stated or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading under the Securities Act or any other statute or the common law.

The Managing Owner pays the Distributor a distribution fee out of the Management Fee.

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Index Sponsor

The Managing Owner, on behalf of the Fund, has appointed Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. to serve as the index sponsor (the “Index Sponsor”).  The Index Sponsor calculates and publishes the daily index levels and the indicative intraday index levels. The Index Sponsor also calculates the indicative value per Share of the Fund throughout each business day.

The Managing Owner pays the Index Sponsor a licensing fee and an index services fee out of the Management Fee for performing its duties.

Marketing Agent

The Managing Owner, on behalf of the Fund, has appointed Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. as the marketing agent (the “Marketing Agent”) to assist the Managing Owner by providing support to educate institutional investors about the DBIQ indices and to complete governmental or institutional due diligence questionnaires or requests for proposals related to the DBIQ indices.

The Managing Owner pays the Marketing Agent a marketing services fee out of the Management Fee.

The Marketing Agent will not open or maintain customer accounts or handle orders for the Fund. The Marketing Agent has no responsibility for the performance of the Fund or the decisions made or actions taken by the Managing Owner.

Tax Reporting

The Fund has retained the services of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP to assist with certain tax reporting requirements of the Fund and its Shareholders.

Regulation

Futures exchanges in the United States are subject to regulation under the Commodity Exchange Act by the CFTC, the governmental agency having responsibility for regulation of futures exchanges and trading on those exchanges.

The Commodity Exchange Act and the CFTC also regulate the activities of “commodity trading advisors” and “commodity pool operators” and the CFTC has adopted regulations with respect to certain of such persons’ activities. Pursuant to its authority, the CFTC requires a commodity pool operator (such as the Managing Owner) to keep accurate, current and orderly records with respect to each pool it operates. The CFTC may suspend the registration of a commodity pool operator if the CFTC finds that the operator has violated the Commodity Exchange Act or regulations thereunder and in certain other circumstances. Suspension, restriction or termination of the Managing Owner’s registration as a commodity pool operator would prevent it, until such time (if any) as such registration were to be reinstated, from managing, and might result in the termination of, the Fund. The Commodity Exchange Act gives the CFTC similar authority with respect to the activities of commodity trading advisors, such as the Managing Owner. If the registration of a managing owner as a commodity trading advisor were to be terminated, restricted or suspended, the managing owner would be unable, until such time (if any) as such registration were to be reinstated, to render trading advice to the Fund. The Fund is not registered with the CFTC in any capacity.

The Commodity Exchange Act requires all “futures commission merchants,” such as the Commodity Broker, to meet and maintain specified fitness and financial requirements, segregate customer funds from proprietary funds and account separately for all customers’ funds and positions, and to maintain specified books and records open to inspection by the staff of the CFTC.

The Commodity Exchange Act also gives the states certain powers to enforce its provisions and the regulations of the CFTC.

Shareholders are afforded certain rights for reparations under the Commodity Exchange Act. Shareholders may also be able to maintain a private right of action for certain violations of the Commodity Exchange Act. The CFTC has adopted rules implementing the reparation provisions of the Commodity Exchange Act which provide that any person may file a complaint for a reparations award with the CFTC for violation of the Commodity Exchange Act against a floor broker, futures commission merchant, introducing broker, commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, and their respective associated persons.

Pursuant to authority in the Commodity Exchange Act, the NFA was formed and registered with the CFTC as a “registered futures association.” At the present time, the NFA is the only non-exchange self-regulatory organization for derivatives professionals. NFA members are subject to NFA standards relating to fair trade practices, market integrity, and consumer protection. As the self-regulatory body of the derivatives industry, the NFA promulgates rules governing the conduct of derivatives professionals and disciplines those professionals who do not comply with such standards. The CFTC has delegated to the NFA responsibility for the registration of commodity trading advisors, commodity pool operators, futures commission merchants,

7


 

introducing brokers, and swap dealers, among others, and their respective associated persons, as applicable, and floor brokers. The Commodity Broker and the Managing Owner are members of the NFA (the Fund is not required to become a member of the NFA).

The CFTC has no authority to regulate trading on foreign futures exchanges and markets but permits direct access to such markets from the United States with respect to foreign boards of trade that are registered as such with the CFTC.

Employees

The Fund has no employees.

Available Information

The Fund files with or submits to the SEC annual, quarterly and current reports and other information meeting the informational requirements of the Exchange Act. These reports are available on the Managing Owner’s website at http://www.powershares.com. Information in the Managing Owner’s website shall not be deemed to be a part of this Report or incorporated by reference herein unless otherwise expressly stated. Investors may also inspect and copy these reports, proxy statements and other information, and related exhibits and schedules, at the Public Reference Room of the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Investors may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information filed electronically by us with the SEC which are available on the SEC’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov.

The Fund also posts monthly performance reports and its annual report, as required by the CFTC, on the Managing Owner’s website at the address listed above.

ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORS

An investment in the securities of the Fund involves a high degree of risk. Investors should consider carefully all of the risks described below, together with the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the "Report") and the Prospectus, before making a decision to invest in the securities of the Fund. If any of the following risks occur, the business, financial condition and results of operations of the Fund may be adversely affected.

Market Risks

NAV May Not Always Correspond to Market Price and, as a Result, Baskets May be Created or Redeemed at a Value that Differs from the Market Price of the Shares.

Shares may trade at, above or below their NAV. The NAV fluctuates with changes in the market value of the Fund’s assets. The trading price of Shares fluctuates in accordance with changes in the NAV, intraday changes in the value of the futures contracts on the Index Currencies and market supply and demand. The amount of the discount or premium in the trading price of the Shares relative to their NAV may be influenced by non-concurrent trading hours between NYSE Arca (the exchange on which the Shares trade) and the various futures exchanges on which the Index Currencies are traded. While the Shares are expected to trade on NYSE Arca until 4:00 p.m. (Eastern time), liquidity in the markets for the futures contracts on the Index Currencies is expected to be reduced whenever the market for those contracts are closed. As a result, trading spreads, and the resulting premium or discount on Shares, may widen during these gaps in market trading hours.

The NYSE Arca May Halt Trading in the Shares Which Would Adversely Impact Your Ability to Sell Shares.

The Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca under the market symbol DBV.  Trading in Shares may be halted due to market conditions or, in light of NYSE Arca rules and procedures, for reasons that, in the view of the NYSE Arca, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to “circuit breaker” rules that require trading to be halted for a specified period based on a specified market decline. There can be no assurance that the requirements necessary to maintain the listing of the Shares will continue to be met or will remain unchanged. The Fund will be terminated if the Shares are delisted.

The Lack of An Active Trading Market for the Shares May Result in Losses on Your Investment at the Time of Disposition of Your Shares.

Although the Shares are listed and traded on the NYSE Arca, there can be no guarantee that an active trading market for the Shares will be maintained. If you need to sell your Shares at a time when no active market for them exists, the price you receive for your Shares, assuming that you are able to sell them, likely will be lower than the price you would receive if an active market did exist.

 

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Price Volatility May Cause the Total Loss of Your Investment.

Futures contracts have a high degree of price variability and are subject to occasional rapid and substantial changes. Consequently, you could lose all or substantially all of your investment in the Fund. The Index’s average annual volatility is 9.01%. Average annual volatility is the average of yearly volatilities for a given sample period. The yearly volatility is the relative rate at which the price of the Index moves up and down, found by calculating the annualized standard deviation of the daily change in price for each business day in the given year.

Withdrawal from participation by Authorized Participants may affect the liquidity of Shares.

If one or more Authorized Participants withdraws from participation, it may become more difficult to create or redeem Baskets, which may reduce the liquidity of the Shares. If it becomes more difficult to create or redeem Baskets, the correlation between the price of the Shares and the NAV may be affected, which may affect the trading market for the Shares. Having fewer participants in the market for the Shares could also adversely affect the ability to arbitrage any price difference between the futures contracts and the Shares, which may affect the trading market and liquidity of the Shares.

Possible Illiquid Markets May Exacerbate Losses.

Futures positions cannot always be liquidated at the desired price. It is difficult to execute a trade at a specific price when there is a relatively small volume of buy and sell orders in a market. A market disruption, such as when foreign governments may take or be subject to political actions which disrupt the markets in their currencies or major commodities exports, can also make it difficult to liquidate a position.

There can be no assurance that market illiquidity will not cause losses for the Fund. The large size of the positions which the Fund may acquire increases the risk of illiquidity by both making its positions more difficult to liquidate and increasing the losses incurred while trying to do so.

Trading on Futures Exchanges Outside the United States is Not Subject to U.S. Regulation.

Some of the Fund’s trading is expected to be conducted on futures exchanges outside the United States. Trading on such exchanges is not regulated by any United States governmental agency and may involve certain risks not applicable to trading on United States exchanges, including different or diminished investor protections. In trading contracts denominated in currencies other than U.S. dollars, the Fund is subject to the risk of adverse exchange-rate movements between the dollar and the functional currencies of such contracts.

In addition, trading on non-U.S. exchanges is subject to the risks presented by exchange controls, expropriation, increased tax burdens and exposure to local economic declines and political instability, among other factors. An adverse development with respect to any of these factors could reduce the profit or increase the loss earned on the Fund’s trades on non-U.S. exchanges.

The Effect of Market Disruptions and Government Interventions Are Unpredictable and May Have an Adverse Effect on the Value of Your Shares.

The commodity futures markets may be subject to temporary distortions due to various factors, including lack of liquidity, congestion, disorderly closing periods, manipulation and disruptive conduct, limitations on deliverable supplies, the participation of speculators, government regulation and intervention, technical and operational or system failures, nuclear accidents, terrorism, riots and acts of God.

Government intervention has in certain cases been implemented on an “emergency” basis, suddenly and substantially eliminating market participants’ ability to continue to implement certain strategies or manage the risk of their outstanding positions. These interventions have typically been unclear in scope and application, resulting in confusion and uncertainty which in itself has been materially detrimental to the efficient functioning of the markets as well as previously successful investment strategies.

The financial crisis of 2008-2009 and associated regulatory changes, including the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd Frank Act”) are generally considered to have contributed to less credit being available to financial market participants. This is particularly the case for credit extended by banks and other traditional lending sources. The Fund does not borrow from lenders for the purpose of pursuing its investment objective. Nonetheless, restrictions on the availability of credit may adversely affect investors who borrow to purchase Fund shares and participants in the markets for financial instruments in which the Fund trades, including futures markets. Restrictions on credit, whether in stressed market conditions or otherwise, may have a material adverse effect on investors and financial market participants, which in turn could affect the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment objective. Among other things, fewer prospective investors may adversely affect the Fund’s asset levels, and fewer financial market participants may reduce liquidity and adversely affect pricing for the financial instruments that the Fund seeks to trade.

In addition, U.S. futures exchanges and some foreign exchanges have regulations that limit the amount of fluctuation in futures contract prices that may occur during a single business day. These limits are generally referred to as “daily price fluctuation limits,” and the maximum or minimum price of a contract on any given day as a result of these limits is referred to as a “limit price.” Once the

9


 

limit price has been reached in a particular contract, it is possible that no trades may be made at a different price. It is not certain how long any such price limits would remain in effect. Limit prices may have the effect of precluding trading in a particular contract or forcing the liquidation of contracts at disadvantageous times or prices, consequently affecting the value of the futures contracts.

The Fund may incur major losses in the event of disrupted markets and other extraordinary events in which historical pricing relationships become materially distorted. The risk of loss from pricing distortions is compounded by the fact that in disrupted markets many positions become illiquid, making it difficult or impossible to close out or liquidate positions against which the markets are moving. The large size of the positions which the Fund may acquire increases the risk of illiquidity by both making its positions more difficult to liquidate and increasing the losses incurred while trying to do so.

The financing available to market participants from their banks, dealers and other counterparties is typically reduced in disrupted markets. Such a reduction may result in substantial losses to the affected market participants, including the Fund. Market disruptions may from time to time cause dramatic losses, and such events can result in otherwise historically low-risk strategies performing with unprecedented volatility and risk.

An Investment in the Shares May Be Adversely Affected by Competition From Other Methods of Investing in Currencies.

The Fund competes with other financial vehicles, including mutual funds, and other investment companies, ETFs, other index tracking commodity pools, actively traded commodity pools, hedge funds, traditional debt and equity securities issued by companies in the commodities industry, other securities backed by or linked to currencies, and direct investments in the Index Currencies. Market and financial conditions, and other conditions beyond the Managing Owner’s control, may make it more attractive to invest in other financial vehicles or to invest in Index Currencies directly, which could limit the market for the Shares and therefore reduce the liquidity of the Shares.

The NAV Calculation of the Fund May Be Overstated or Understated Due to the Valuation Method Employed When a Settlement Price is not Available on the Date of NAV Calculation.

Calculating the NAV of the Fund includes, in part, any unrealized profits or losses on open  foreign exchange futures contracts. Under normal circumstances, the NAV of the Fund reflects the settlement price of open Index Currencies on the date when the NAV is being calculated. However, if a futures contract could not be liquidated on such day (due to the operation of daily limits or other rules of the exchange upon which that position is traded or otherwise), the Managing Owner may value such futures contract pursuant to policies the Managing Owner has adopted. In such a situation, there is a risk that the calculation of the NAV of the Fund on such day will not accurately reflect the realizable market value of such futures contract. For example, daily limits are generally triggered in the event of a significant change in market price of a futures contract. Therefore, as a result of the daily limit, the current settlement price is unavailable. Because the Managing Owner may value such futures contracts pursuant to policies the Managing Owner has adopted, there is a risk that the resulting calculation of the NAV of the Fund could be under or overstated, perhaps to a significant degree.

Exchange Rates on the Index Currencies Could be Volatile and Could Materially and Adversely Affect the Performance of the Shares.

Foreign exchange rates are influenced by national debt levels and trade deficits, domestic and foreign inflation rates and investors’ expectations concerning inflation rates, domestic and foreign interest rates and investors’ expectations concerning interest rates, currency exchange rates, investment and trading activities of mutual funds, hedge funds and currency funds; and global or regional political, economic or financial events and situations. Additionally, foreign exchange rates on the Index Currencies may also be influenced by changing supply and demand for a particular Index Currency, monetary policies of governments (including exchange control programs, restrictions on local exchanges or markets and limitations on foreign investment in a country or on investment by residents of a country in other countries), changes in balances of payments and trade, trade restrictions, currency devaluations and revaluations. Also, governments from time-to-time intervene in the currency markets, directly and by regulation, in order to influence prices directly. Additionally, expectations among market participants that a currency’s value soon will change may also affect exchange rates on the Index Currencies, and in turn, the Index. These events and actions are unpredictable. The resulting volatility in the exchange rates on the underlying Index Currencies may materially and adversely affect the market value of the futures contracts on the Index Currencies, which would then negatively impact the value of your Shares.

Substantial Sales of Index Currencies by the Official Sector Could Adversely Affect an Investment in the Shares.

The official sector consists of central banks, other governmental agencies and multi-lateral institutions that buy, sell and hold certain Index Currencies as part of their reserve assets. The official sector holds a significant amount of Index Currencies that can be mobilized in the open market. In the event that future economic, political or social conditions or pressures require members of the official sector to sell their Index Currencies simultaneously or in an uncoordinated manner, the demand for Index Currencies might not be sufficient to accommodate the sudden increase in the supply of certain Index Currencies to the market. Consequently, the price of an Index Currency may decline, which may materially and adversely affect the market value of the futures contracts on the Index Currencies, which would negatively impact the Shares.

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Because the Fund’s Trading will be Leveraged, a Relatively Small Movement in the Price of a Contract May Cause Greater Losses.

The Fund will take long futures positions in the high-yielding Eligible Index Currencies and will take short futures positions in the low-yielding Eligible Index Currencies with a view to tracking the changes in the Index over time. Assuming that the USD is not one of the three highest or lowest yielding currencies during any Index Re-Weighting Period, the long futures positions and short futures positions in the Index Currencies will each have a notional value approximately equal to the Fund’s NAV. Accordingly, if the USD is not one of the three highest or lowest yielding currencies during any the Index Re-Weighting Period, the aggregate notional amount of the futures positions held by the Fund is expected to be approximately 200% of the Fund’s NAV, but it may increase due to the reinvestment of collateral or the movements in the market price of the Fund’s future positions. If the USD is one of the three highest or lowest yielding currencies, the Fund will not establish a long or short futures position (as the case may be) in USD, as the Fund never can enjoy profit or suffer loss from long or short futures positions in USD because USD is the Fund’s home currency. Consequently, if USD is one of the three highest or lowest yielding currencies, the aggregate notional amount of the futures positions held by the Fund is expected to be approximately, but not in excess of, 166 2/3% of the Fund’s NAV.

Holding futures positions with a notional amount in excess of the Fund’s NAV constitutes a form of leverage. The use of leverage increases the potential for both trading profits and losses, depending on the changes in market value of the Index Currencies in which the Fund has long futures positions relative to the Index Currencies in which the Fund has short futures positions.

The use of long and short positions in the construction of the Index causes the Index to rise as a result of any upward price movement of Index Currencies expected to gain relative to the USD and to rise as a result of any downward price movement of Index Currencies expected to lose relative to the USD. The inclusion of both long and short positions is also expected to reduce the country specific foreign exchange risk of the Index relative to a directional (outright long or short) exposure to any or all of the Index Currencies.

There can be no assurance that the use of both long and short positions will reduce the volatility of the Index during any or all market cycles or periods, or that the Fund will achieve its objectives. It is possible that, prior to an Index rebalancing, that Index Currencies expected to lose relative to the USD may rise and/or Index Currencies expected to gain relative to the USD may fall. In such cases, the Fund may experience losses in both its long and short positions at the same time. Such losses will be greater as a result of the Fund’s use of leverage, reflected in its long futures exposure to Index Currencies with a notional value of up to 100% of the Fund’s NAV and its short futures exposure to Index Currencies with a notional value of up to 100% of the Fund’s NAV. Under such circumstances, the Fund’s losses would be greater as a result of its leverage than would be the case were it to limit its overall exposure to Index Currencies with a notional value of 100% of the Fund’s net assets.

Futures Risks

Fluctuations in the Price of Assets Held by the Fund Could Have a Materially Adverse Effect on the Value of an Investment in Shares.

The Shares are designed to reflect as closely as possible the changes, positive or negative, in the level of the Index, over time, through the Fund’s investment in the futures contracts on the Index Currencies. The value of the Shares relates directly to the value of the portfolio, less the liabilities (including estimated accrued but unpaid expenses) of the Fund. The prices of the futures contracts on the Index Currencies may fluctuate widely. Several factors may affect the prices of the futures contracts on the Index Currencies, including, but not limited to:  

 

National debt levels and trade deficits, including changes in balances of payments and trade;

 

 

Domestic and foreign interest rates and investors’ expectations concerning interest rates;

 

 

Domestic and foreign inflation rates and investors’ expectations concerning inflation rates;

 

 

Currency exchange rates;

 

 

Investment and trading activities of mutual funds, ETFs, closed-end funds, hedge funds and currency funds;

 

 

Global or regional political, economic or financial events and situations;

 

 

Supply and demand changes which influence the foreign exchange rates of various currencies;

 

 

Monetary policies of central banks within the U.S. and other relevant foreign countries (including exchange control programs, restrictions on local exchanges or markets and limitations on foreign investment in a country or on investment by residents of a country in other countries), trade restrictions, currency devaluations and re-valuations;

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Governmental intervention in the currency market, directly and by regulation, in order to influence currency prices; and

 

 

Expectations among market participants that a currency’s value soon will change.  

Fewer Representative Index Currencies May Result in Greater Index Volatility.

The Eligible Index Currencies are United States Dollars, Euro, Japanese Yen, Canadian Dollars, Swiss Francs, British Pounds, Australian Dollars, New Zealand Dollars, Norwegian Krone and Swedish Krona. The Index is comprised of only six of the ten Eligible Index Currencies, which may be adjusted from time to time by the Index Sponsor.

Accordingly, the Index is concentrated in terms of the number of currencies represented. Other currency indexes are more diversified in terms of the number of currencies included. Concentration in fewer currencies may result in a greater degree of volatility in the Index and the NAV of the Fund which tracks the Index under specific market conditions and over time.

Because the Futures Contracts Have No Intrinsic Value, the Positive Performance of Your Investment Is Wholly Dependent Upon an Equal and Offsetting Loss.

Trading in futures contracts transfers the risk of future price movements from one market participant to another. For every gain in futures trading, there is an equal and offsetting loss rather than an opportunity to participate over time in general economic growth. Futures contracts reflect, in the case of cash-settled contracts, certain rights to receive payment or obligations to make payments to the other party to the contract. In the case of physically-settled contracts, a futures contract is an agreement to make or take delivery of a particular asset at a specified price. Overall stock and bond prices could rise significantly and the economy as a whole could prosper while the Fund experiences losses as a result of pursuing its investment objective through trading the futures contracts on the Index Currencies.

Failure of Currency Futures Markets to Exhibit Low to Negative Correlation to General Financial Markets Will Reduce Benefits of Diversification and May Exacerbate Losses to Your Portfolio.

Historically, currency futures returns have tended to exhibit low to negative correlation with the returns of other assets such as stocks and bonds. Currency futures contracts can provide a diversification benefit to investor portfolios because of their low to negative correlation with other financial assets. However, the fact that the Index is not inversely correlated with financial assets such as stocks and bonds means that the Fund will not necessarily be profitable during unfavorable periods for the stock or bond market. If the Shares perform in a manner that correlates with the stock or bond markets or otherwise do not perform successfully, the Shares may not provide any diversification from losses in those markets. In such a scenario, the Shares may produce no gains to offset your losses from investments in stocks, bonds, or related assets.

Index Risks

The Fund’s Performance May Not Always Replicate the Changes in the Levels of its Index.

It is possible that the Fund’s performance may not fully replicate the changes in closing levels of the Index due to disruptions in the markets for the relevant Index Currencies, the futures contracts on the Index Currencies, or due to other extraordinary circumstances. The Managing Owner may determine to invest in other futures contracts if at any time it is impractical or inefficient to gain full or partial exposure to the Index Currencies through futures contracts.  

In addition, the Fund may not be able to replicate the changes in levels of the Index because the total return generated by the Fund is reduced by expenses and transaction costs, including those incurred in connection with the Fund’s trading activities, and increased by, as applicable, Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income held for margin and/or cash management purposes. Tracking the Index requires trading of the Fund’s portfolio with a view to tracking the Index over time and is dependent upon the skills of the Managing Owner and its trading principals, among other factors.

Interest Rates Will Change Between Re-Weightings of the Index.

The Index is re-weighted quarterly based upon the three highest and three lowest yielding Eligible Index Currencies at the time. At any point in time between quarterly re-weightings, the Index Currencies may not be among the three highest or lowest yielding Eligible Index Currencies. Between quarterly re-weightings of the Index, a currency that was among the three highest yielding Eligible Index Currencies could be among the three lowest yielding Eligible Index Currencies, or vice versa. Under such circumstances, the Fund may not be able to exploit efficiently the trend that currencies associated with relatively high interest rates, on average, tend to rise in value relative to currencies associated with relatively low interest rates. If the interest rates associated with the Eligible Index Currencies change sufficiently during any quarter, the Fund may find itself positioned such that the effects of this trend will cause the Fund to lose money. Even if the interest rates associated with the Eligible Index Currencies vary substantially between re-weightings, the Fund will not adjust its portfolio of currency futures until the next quarterly re-weighting.

 

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The Index may not work as designed, which could adversely affect your investment in the Fund.

The Index is expected to rise as a result of any upward price movement on long positions in futures contracts on the Index Currencies when the prices of these long futures contracts increase relative to the USD. The Index also is expected to rise as a result of any downward price movement on short positions in futures contracts on the Index Currencies when the prices of these short futures contracts decrease relative to the USD. Because the price of your Shares is expected to track the Index, if the price of the Fund’s long futures contracts decreases relative to the USD or the price of the Fund’s short futures contracts increases relative to the USD on any or all of the Index Currencies, the value of your Shares may decrease. The decrease in the value of your Shares will be amplified if both assumptions fail simultaneously (i.e., both the price of the Fund’s long futures contracts decreases relative to the USD and the price of the Fund’s short futures contracts increases relative to the USD on any or all of the Index Currencies).

The Fund Is Not Actively Managed and Tracks the Index During Periods in Which the Index Is Flat or Declining as Well as When the Index Is Rising.

The Fund is not actively managed by traditional methods. Therefore, if positions in any one or more of the Index Currencies are declining in value, the Fund will not close out such positions, except in connection with a change in the composition or weighting of the Index. The Managing Owner seeks to cause the NAV to track the Index during periods in which the Index is flat or declining as well as when the Index is rising.

Leverage Will Fluctuate Between Index Re-Weighting Periods and May be Greater or Less than the Leverage on Each Index Re-Weighting Period.

Although the Fund is not expected to establish positions that exceed a leverage ratio of 2:1 at the time of establishment, reinvestment of collateral or movements in the market price of the Fund’s futures positions between the Index re-weighting periods may increase or decrease the Fund’s leverage ratio. Any such increase or decrease in the Fund’s leverage ratio will magnify or decrease, respectively, the potential for loss or gain of the Fund’s futures positions and, in turn, the value of your Shares.

Regulatory Risks

Regulatory and Exchange Position Limits and Other Rules May Restrict the Creation of Baskets and the Operation of the Fund.

CFTC and futures exchange rules impose position limits on market participants that trade in certain futures contracts. These position limits prohibit any person from holding a position of more than a specific number of futures contracts.

The Index currently is not composed of any Index Currencies subject to position limits imposed by either the CFTC or the rules of the Index. Currently, position limits (i) for corn, oats, wheat, soybean, soybean oil and cotton are determined by the CFTC and (ii) for all other commodities are determined by the futures exchanges. On November 5, 2013, the CFTC proposed for public comment new position limits and aggregation regulations. In December 2016, the CFTC re-proposed the rules on position limits with respect to 25 physical delivery commodity futures and options contracts, as well as to swaps that are economically equivalent to such contracts, referred to herein as the Position Limit Rules. The re-proposed position limits would apply with respect to contracts traded on all U.S. and certain foreign exchanges on an aggregate basis. In addition, under the Position Limit Rules, the CFTC has also proposed amendments to the requirement that U.S. futures exchanges establish corresponding position limits. The re-proposed Position Limit Rules are based on the position limit rules previously proposed in 2013 by the CFTC. In December 2016, the CFTC also adopted final position aggregation regulations requiring that all accounts owned or managed by an entity that is responsible for such accounts’ trading decisions, their principals and their affiliates would be aggregated for position limit purposes, referred to herein as the Aggregation Rules. The Position Limit Rules were published in the Federal Register on December 30, 2016, and the final Aggregation Rules became effective on February 14, 2017. CFTC staff subsequently issued CFTC Letter No. 17-37, which provides time-limited no-action relief from compliance with certain requirements under the final Aggregation Rules and clarification on the meaning of certain terms used throughout the final Aggregation Rules. The relief therein expires on August 12, 2019.

The CFTC’s Aggregation Rules require that a trader aggregate all positions in accounts which the trader owns or over which the trader controls trading. However, a trader is not required to aggregate positions in multiple accounts or commodity pools if that trader (or its applicable divisions/subsidiaries) qualifies as an “independent account controller” under the Aggregation Rules and avails itself of the independent account controller exemption or another exemption under the Aggregation Rules. Failure to comply with the requirements of the independent account controller or other exemption, if applicable, could lead to the Managing Owner being required to aggregate positions in multiple accounts or commodity pools for purposes of the CFTC’s position limits regulations, or an enforcement proceeding against the Managing Owner, and could adversely affect the Fund.

Generally, position limits in the physical delivery markets are set at a stricter level during the spot month, the month when the futures contract matures and becomes deliverable, versus the limits set for all other months. To the extent position limits apply to the Fund, and if the Managing Owner determines that the Fund’s trading may be approaching any of these position limits, the Fund may reduce its trading in the corresponding commodity futures contracts or may trade futures contracts in other commodities that the Managing Owner will best position the Fund to meet its investment objective. Depending on the outcome of any future CFTC or

13


 

futures exchange rulemaking, as applicable, the rules concerning position limits may be amended in a manner that is detrimental to the Fund.

Exchanges may also establish accountability levels applicable to futures contracts. An exchange may order a person who holds or controls a position in excess of a position accountability level not to further increase its position, to comply with any prospective limit that exceeds the size of the position owned or controlled, or to reduce any open position that exceeds the position accountability level if the exchange determines that such action is necessary to maintain an orderly market. Position accountability levels could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to establish and maintain positions in commodity futures contracts to which such levels apply, if the Fund were to trade in such contracts.

As of January 3, 2018, the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive II (“MiFID II”) requires regulatory agencies of member states in the European Union to impose position limits on certain futures contracts. A foreign futures exchange may also impose accountability levels in certain contracts. If the Fund were to trade futures contracts on exchanges in the European Union, position limits may apply to such trading activity pursuant MiFID II as implemented in the relevant national laws and regulations of member states.

Although the Fund is not currently subject to position limits, it may become subject to position limits in the future. Under this circumstance, the Fund may not be able to issue new Baskets or reinvest income in additional currency futures contracts to the extent position limits restrict its ability to establish new futures positions or add to existing positions. Limiting the size of the Fund to stay within these position limits may affect the correlation between the price of the Shares, as traded on the NYSE Arca, and the NAV of the Shares.

Failure of Futures Commission Merchants or Commodity Brokers to Segregate Assets May Increase Losses; Despite Segregation of Assets, the Fund Remains at Risk of Significant Losses Because the Fund May Only Receive a Pro-Rata Share of the Assets or No Assets at All.

The Commodity Exchange Act requires a futures commission merchant to segregate all funds received from customers from such futures commission merchant’s proprietary assets. If the Commodity Broker fails to segregate customer assets as required, the assets of the Fund might not be fully protected in the event of the Commodity Broker’s bankruptcy. Furthermore, in the event of the Commodity Broker’s bankruptcy, the Fund could be limited to recovering either a pro rata share of all available funds segregated on behalf of the Commodity Broker’s combined customer accounts or the Fund may not recover any assets at all, even though certain property specifically traceable to the Fund was held by the Commodity Broker. The Commodity Broker may, from time to time, have been the subject of certain regulatory and private causes of action. Such material actions, if any, are described in the Fund’s Prospectus under “The Commodity Broker.”

The Commodity Exchange Act requires a clearing organization approved by the CFTC as a derivatives clearing organization to segregate all funds and other property received from a clearing member’s customers in connection with U.S. futures and options contracts from any funds held at the clearing organization to support the clearing member’s proprietary trading. Nevertheless, customer funds held at a clearing organization in connection with any futures or options contracts may be held in a commingled omnibus account, which may not identify the name of the clearing member’s individual customers. With respect to futures and options contracts, a clearing organization may use assets of a non-defaulting customer held in an omnibus account at the clearing organization to satisfy payment obligations of a defaulting customer of the clearing member to the clearing organization. In the event of a default of the clearing futures commission merchant’s other clients or the clearing futures commission merchant’s failure to extend its own funds in connection with any such default, a customer may not be able to recover the full amount of assets deposited by the clearing futures commission merchant with the clearing organization on the customer’s behalf. In addition, the protections afforded to cleared swaps customer collateral do not guarantee the full return of such collateral in the event of a futures commission merchant’s bankruptcy.  

In the event of a bankruptcy or insolvency of any exchange or a clearing organization, the Fund could experience a loss of the funds deposited through the Commodity Broker as margin with the exchange or clearing organization, a loss of any unrealized profits on its open positions on the exchange, and the loss of unrealized profits on its closed positions on the exchange.

Regulatory Changes or Actions, Including the Implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act, May Alter the Operations and Profitability of the Fund.

The regulation of commodity interest transactions and markets, including under the Dodd-Frank Act, is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to ongoing modification by governmental and judicial action. In particular, the Dodd-Frank Act has expanded the regulation of markets, market participants and financial instruments. The new regulatory regime under the Dodd-Frank Act has imposed new compliance and legal burdens on participants in the markets for futures and other commodity interests. For example, under the Dodd-Frank Act new capital and risk requirements have been imposed on market intermediaries. Those requirements may cause the cost of trading to increase for market participants, like the Fund, that must interact with those intermediaries to carry out their trading activities. These increased costs can detract from the Fund’s performance.

The Fund is Subject to Extensive Regulatory Reporting and Compliance.

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The Fund is subject to a comprehensive scheme of regulation under the federal commodity futures trading and securities laws. The Fund could be subject to sanctions for a failure to comply with those requirements, which could adversely affect the Fund’s financial performance (in the case of financial penalties) or ability to pursue its investment objective (in the case of a limitation on its ability to trade).

Because the Shares are publicly traded, the Fund is subject to certain rules and regulations of federal, state and financial market exchange entities charged with the protection of investors and the oversight of companies whose securities are publicly traded. These entities, including the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”), the SEC, the CFTC and NYSE-ARCA, have in recent years issued new requirements and regulations, most notably the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. From time to time, since the adoption of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, these authorities have continued to develop additional regulations or interpretations of existing regulations. The Fund’s ongoing efforts to comply with these regulations and interpretations have resulted in, and are likely to continue resulting in, a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance related activities.

The Fund is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. The Fund’s internal control system is designed to provide reasonable assurance to its management regarding the preparation and fair presentation of published financial statements. All internal control systems, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations. Therefore, even those systems determined to be effective may provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation.

Current Discussions between the SEC and PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP regarding PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP's Independence Could Have Potentially Adverse Consequences for the Fund.

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP informed the Fund that it has identified an issue related to its independence under Rule 2-01(c)(1)(ii)(A) of Regulation S-X (referred to as the Loan Rule). The Loan Rule prohibits accounting firms, such as PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, from being deemed independent if they have certain financial relationships with their audit clients or certain affiliates of those clients. The Fund is required under various securities laws to have its financial statements audited by an independent accounting firm.

The Loan Rule specifically provides that an accounting firm would not be independent if it or certain affiliates and covered persons receives a loan from a lender that is a record or beneficial owner of more than ten percent of an audit client’s equity securities (referred to as a “more than ten percent owner”). For purposes of the Loan Rule, audit clients include the Fund as well as all registered investment companies advised by the Managing Owner and its affiliates, including other subsidiaries of the Managing Owner’s parent company, Invesco Ltd. (collectively, the Invesco Fund Complex). PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP informed the Fund it and certain affiliates and covered persons have relationships with lenders who hold, as record owner, more than ten percent of the shares of certain funds within the Invesco Fund Complex, which may implicate the Loan Rule.

On June 20, 2016, the SEC Staff issued a “no-action” letter to another mutual fund complex (see Fidelity Management & Research Company et al., No-Action Letter) related to the audit independence issue described above. In that letter, the SEC confirmed that it would not recommend enforcement action against a fund that relied on audit services performed by an audit firm that was not in compliance with the Loan Rule in certain specified circumstances. In connection with prior independence determinations, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP communicated, as contemplated by the no-action letter, that it believes that it remains objective and impartial and that a reasonable investor possessing all the facts would conclude that PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP is able to exhibit the requisite objectivity and impartiality to report on the Funds’ financial statements as the independent registered public accounting firm. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP also represented that it has complied with PCAOB Rule 3526(b)(1) and (2), which are conditions to the Fund’s relying on the no action letter, and affirmed that it is an independent accountant within the meaning of PCAOB Rule 3520. Therefore, the Managing Owner, the Fund and PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP concluded that PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP could continue as the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm. The Invesco Fund Complex relied upon the no-action letter in reaching this conclusion.

If in the future the independence of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP is called into question under the Loan Rule by circumstances that are not addressed in the SEC’s no-action letter, the Fund will need to take other action in order for the Fund’s filings with the SEC containing financial statements to be deemed compliant with applicable securities laws. Such additional actions could result in additional costs, impair the ability of the Fund to issue new shares or have other material adverse effects on the Fund. The SEC no-action relief was initially set to expire 18 months from issuance but has been extended by the SEC without an expiration date, except that the no-action letter will be withdrawn upon the effectiveness of any amendments to the Loan Rule designed to address the concerns expressed in the letter.

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Tax Risks

Shareholders Will Be Subject to Taxation on Their Allocable Share of the Fund’s Taxable Income, Whether or Not They Receive Cash Distributions.

Shareholders will be subject to U.S. federal income taxation and, in some cases, state, local, or foreign income taxation on their allocable share of the Fund’s taxable income, whether or not they receive cash distributions from the Fund. Shareholders may not receive cash distributions equal to their share of the Fund’s taxable income or even the tax liability that results from such income.

Items of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction With Respect to Shares Could Be Reallocated if the IRS Does Not Accept the Assumptions or Conventions Used by the Fund in Allocating Such Items.

U.S. federal income tax rules applicable to partnerships are complex and often difficult to apply to publicly traded partnerships. The Fund will apply certain assumptions and conventions in an attempt to comply with applicable rules and to report items of income, gain, loss and deduction to Shareholders in a manner that reflects the Shareholders’ beneficial interest in such tax items, but these assumptions and conventions may not be in compliance with all aspects of the applicable tax requirements. It is possible that the United States Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) will successfully assert that the conventions and assumptions used by the Fund do not satisfy the technical requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) and/or the Federal Tax Regulations codified under 26 C.F.R., referred to herein as the Treasury Regulations, and could require that items of income, gain, loss and deduction be adjusted or reallocated in a manner that adversely affects one or more Shareholders.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) Makes Significant Changes to U.S. Federal Income Tax Rules.

The Tax Act makes significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017.   Most of the changes applicable to individuals are temporary and would apply only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026.  In particular for individuals, the Tax Act establishes for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 a 20% deduction for “qualified publicly traded partnership income” within the meaning of Section 199A(e)(5) of the Code.  Qualified publicly traded partnership income includes the Fund’s income effectively connected with the Fund’s trade or business, but does not include certain investment income.  In light of the very recent enactment of the new rules regarding such deduction, the lack of guidance interpreting such rules, and the expected character of the income of the Fund, it is unclear whether any of the Fund’s income will be eligible for the deduction.  Potential investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the availability of such deduction for their allocable share of the Fund’s items of income, gain, deduction and loss.

Regulated Investment Company Investors Will Be Treated as Owning A Proportionate Share of the Fund’s Assets and Will Take Into Account Its Allocable Share of the Fund’s Items of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction.

The Fund does not believe that it will be classified as a qualified publicly traded partnership within the meaning of section 851(h) of the Code. Accordingly, a RIC that invests in Shares will be treated as owning a proportionate share of the Fund’s assets and will take into account its allocable share of the Fund’s items of income, gain, loss, and deduction when testing the various compliance requirements specifically applicable to RICs. RIC investors face a risk that future Treasury Regulations will recharacterize foreign currency gains received by them as nonqualifying income and be retroactive in application. A prospective RIC investor is encouraged to consult a tax advisor regarding the treatment of its investment in Shares under the current tax rules.

PROSPECTIVE INVESTORS ARE STRONGLY URGED TO CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS AND COUNSEL WITH RESPECT TO THE POSSIBLE TAX CONSEQUENCES TO THEM OF AN INVESTMENT IN THE SHARES; SUCH TAX CONSEQUENCES MAY DIFFER WITH RESPECT TO DIFFERENT INVESTORS.

Other Risks

Disruptions in the Ability to Create and Redeem Baskets May Adversely Affect Investors.

It is generally expected that the public trading price per Share will track the NAV per Share closely over time. The relationship between the public trading price per Share and the NAV per Share depends, to a considerable degree, on the ability of Authorized Participants or their clients or customers to purchase and redeem Baskets in the ordinary course. If the process for creating or redeeming Shares is impaired for any reason, Authorized Participants and their clients or customers may not be able to purchase and redeem Baskets or, even if possible, may choose not to do so. The inability to purchase and redeem Baskets, or the partial impairment of the ability to purchase and redeem Baskets, could result in Shares trading at a premium or discount to the NAV of the Fund. Such a premium or discount could be significant, depending upon the nature or duration of the impairment.

If the Fund were to issue all Shares registered in this offering, it would not be able to create new Baskets until it registered additional Shares and those additional Shares became available for sale. An inability to create new Baskets could increase the possibility that the trading price per Share would not track closely the NAV per Share. In addition, the Fund may, in its discretion, suspend the creation of Baskets. Suspension of creations may adversely affect how the Shares are traded and could cause Shares to trade at a premium or discount to the NAV of the Fund, perhaps to a significant degree.

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The Shares Could Decrease in Value if Unanticipated Operational or Trading Problems Arise.

The mechanisms and procedures governing the creation, redemption and offering of the Shares have been developed specifically for the Fund. Consequently, there may be unanticipated problems with respect to the mechanics of the operations of the Fund and the trading of the Shares that could have a material adverse effect on an investment in the Shares. To the extent that unanticipated operational or trading problems arise, the Managing Owner’s past experience and qualifications may not be suitable for solving those problems.

While the Managing Owner manages a number of ETFs that use futures contracts as part of their investment strategy, it has only managed the Fund for a limited period of time. The Managing Owner’s limited experience with the Fund and other similar funds may adversely affect its ability to manage the Fund in accordance with its investment objective.

Short Selling Exposes the Fund to the Potential for Unlimited Losses.

The Fund holds short futures positions in the three lowest-yielding Eligible Index Currencies (other than the USD).

A long futures position in a foreign currency requires the Fund to purchase at a future date the equivalent in USD of a fixed amount of a foreign currency at a fixed price in USD. The Fund profits if the price of the foreign currency rises relative to the USD while the contract is open, and the Fund suffers losses if the price of the foreign currency falls relative to the USD while the contract is open. Because the price in USD of the foreign currency cannot fall below zero, the Fund’s exposure to loss is limited to the value in USD of the fixed amount of the foreign currency at the time of the establishment of the long futures contract.

By contrast, a short futures position in a foreign currency requires the Fund to deliver at a future date an amount in USD equal to the price in USD of a fixed amount of the foreign currency at that future date. The Fund will profit if the price of the foreign currency falls relative to the USD while the contract is open and the Fund will suffer loss if the price of the foreign currency rises relative to the USD while the contract is open. Because the price in USD of a fixed amount of the foreign currency could, in theory, rise to infinity, a short futures position exposes the Fund to theoretically unlimited liability.

The Fund’s losses could result in the total loss of your investment.

Historical Performance of the Fund and the Index is Not Indicative of Future Performance.

Past performance of the Fund or the Index is not necessarily indicative of future results. Therefore, past performance of the Fund or the Index should not be relied upon in deciding whether to buy Shares of the Fund.

Fees and Expenses May Deplete the Fund’s Assets if the Fund’s Investment Performance is Not Favorable.

The Fund pays fees and expenses regardless of its investment performance. Such fees and expenses include asset-based fees of 0.75% per annum. Additional charges include brokerage fees of approximately 0.05% per annum in the aggregate and selling commissions. Selling commissions are not included in the Fund’s breakeven calculation. The sum of the Fund’s Treasury Income, Money Market Income and/or T-Bill ETF Income may not exceed its fees and expenses. If such income does not exceed its fees and expenses, in order to break even, the Fund’s futures trading activity will need to have a favorable performance that exceeds the difference between the sum of the Fund’s Treasury Income, Money Market Income and/or T-Bill ETF Income and its fees and expenses. If the Fund’s futures trading performance is not sufficiently favorable, the Fund’s expenses could deplete its assets over time. In such a scenario, the value of your Shares will decrease.

There May be Circumstances that Could Prevent the Fund from being Operated in a Manner Consistent with its Investment Objective.

There may be circumstances outside the control of the Managing Owner and/or the Fund that make it, for all practical purposes, impossible to re-position the Fund and/or to process a purchase or redemption order. Examples of such circumstances include: natural disasters; public service disruptions or utility problems such as those caused by fires, floods, extreme weather conditions, and power outages resulting in telephone, telecopy, and computer failures; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other information systems affecting the aforementioned parties, as well as DTC, or any other participant in the purchase process, and similar extraordinary events. While the Managing Owner has established and implemented a disaster recovery plan, circumstances such as those identified above may prevent the Fund from being operated in a manner consistent with its investment objective.

You May Be Adversely Affected by Redemption Orders that Are Subject To Postponement, Suspension or Rejection Under Certain Circumstances.

The Managing Owner may, in its discretion, suspend the right of redemption or postpone the redemption order settlement date, for (1) any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which the redemption distribution is not reasonably practicable, or (2) such other period as the Managing Owner determines to be necessary for the protection of the Shareholders. In addition, the Fund will reject a redemption order if the order is not in proper form as described in the participant agreement among the Authorized Participant, the Managing Owner, either in its own capacity or in its capacity as managing owner of the Fund, or if the fulfillment of

17


 

the order, in the opinion of its counsel, might be unlawful. Any such postponement, suspension or rejection could adversely affect a redeeming Authorized Participant. For example, the resulting delay may adversely affect the value of the Authorized Participant’s redemption proceeds if the NAV of the Fund declines during the period of delay. The Fund disclaims any liability for any loss or damage that may result from any such suspension or postponement.

 

Shareholders Do Not Have the Protections Associated With Ownership of Shares in an Investment Company Registered Under the Investment Company Act of 1940.

The Fund is not registered as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended. Consequently, Shareholders do not have the legal and regulatory protections provided to the investors in investment companies that are registered as such.

Various Actual and Potential Conflicts of Interest May Be Detrimental to Shareholders.

The Fund is subject to actual and potential conflicts of interest involving the Managing Owner or any of its affiliates, the Commodity Broker, including its principals and its affiliates, the Index Sponsor and Marketing Agent, and Invesco Distributors. The Managing Owner and its principals, all of whom are engaged in other investment activities, are not required to devote substantially all of their time to the business of the Fund, which also presents the potential for numerous conflicts of interest with the Fund. The Managing Owner and its principals and affiliates are engaged in a broad array of asset management and financial services activities and may engage in activities during the ordinary course of business that cause their interests or those of their other clients to conflict with those of the Fund and its Shareholders.

As a result of these and other relationships, parties involved with the Fund have a financial incentive to act in a manner other than in the best interests of the Fund and the Shareholders. For example, by investing in affiliated money market mutual funds and/or T-Bill ETFs for margin and/or cash management purposes, the Managing Owner may select affiliated money market mutual funds and/or T-Bill ETFs that may pay dividends that are lower than non-affiliated money market mutual funds and/or T-Bill ETFs. In addition, the Managing Owner would have a conflict of interest if it sought to redeem the Fund’s interest in an affiliated money market mutual fund or T-bill ETF in circumstances where such a redemption would be unfavorable for the affiliated fund. The Managing Owner has not established any formal procedure to resolve conflicts of interest. Consequently, investors are dependent on the good faith of the respective parties subject to such conflicts to resolve them equitably. Although the Managing Owner attempts to monitor these conflicts, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, for the Managing Owner to ensure that these conflicts do not, in fact, result in adverse consequences to the Fund and the Shareholders.

The Fund may be subject to certain conflicts with respect to the Commodity Broker, including, but not limited to, conflicts that result from receiving greater amounts of compensation from other clients, or purchasing opposite or competing positions on behalf of third party accounts traded through the Commodity Broker.

Because the Managing Owner and Invesco Distributors are affiliates, the Managing Owner has a disincentive to replace Invesco Distributors. Furthermore, the Managing Owner did not conduct an arm’s length negotiation when it retained Invesco Distributors.

Lack of Independent Advisers Representing Investors.

The Managing Owner has consulted with counsel, accountants and other advisers regarding the operation of the Fund. No counsel has been appointed to represent you in connection with the Fund’s continuous offering of Shares. Accordingly, you should consult your own legal, tax and financial advisers about whether you should invest in the Shares.

Possibility of Termination of the Fund May Adversely Affect Your Portfolio.

It is ultimately within the discretion of the Managing Owner whether it will continue to operate and advise the Fund. The Managing Owner may withdraw from the Fund upon 120 days’ prior written notice to all Limited Owners and the Trustee, which would cause the Fund to terminate unless a substitute managing owner was obtained. Limited Owners of 50% of the Shares have the power to terminate the Fund. If it is so exercised, investors who may wish to continue to invest in a vehicle that tracks the Fund’s Index will have to find another vehicle, and may not be able to find another vehicle that offers the same features as the Fund. See “Description of the Shares; Certain Material Terms of the Trust Agreement – Termination Events” in the Fund’s Prospectus for a summary of termination events. Such detrimental developments could cause you to liquidate your investments and upset the overall maturity and timing of your investment portfolio. If the registrations with the CFTC or memberships in the NFA of the Managing Owner or the Commodity Broker were revoked or suspended, such entity would no longer be able to provide services to the Fund.

Shareholders Do Not Have the Rights Enjoyed by Investors in Certain Other Vehicles.

As interests in an investment trust, the Shares have none of the statutory rights normally associated with the ownership of shares of a corporation. However, under Delaware law, a beneficial owner of a business trust (such as a Shareholder) may, under certain circumstances, institute legal action on behalf of himself and all other similarly situated beneficial owners to recover damages from a third party where a managing owner has failed or refused to institute legal action on behalf of himself and all other similarly situated

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beneficial owners to recover damages from a managing owner for violations of fiduciary duties, or on behalf of a business trust to recover damages from a third party where a managing owner has failed or refused to institute proceedings to recover such damages. The Shares have limited voting and distribution rights (for example, Shareholders do not have the right to elect directors and the Fund is not required to pay regular distributions, although the Fund may pay distributions in the discretion of the Managing Owner).

Competing Claims Over Ownership of Intellectual Property Rights Related to the Fund Could Adversely Affect the Fund and an Investment in the Shares.

While the Managing Owner believes that all intellectual property rights needed to operate the Fund in the manner described in the Fund’s Prospectus are either owned by or licensed to the Managing Owner or have been obtained, third parties may allege or assert ownership of intellectual property rights which may be related to the design, structure and operations of the Fund. To the extent any claims of such ownership are brought or any proceedings are instituted to assert such claims, the issuance of any restraining orders or injunctions, the negotiation, litigation or settlement of such claims, or the ultimate disposition of such claims in a court of law may adversely affect the Fund and an investment in the Shares. For example, such actions could result in expenses or damages payable by the Fund, suspension of activities or the termination of the Fund.

The Value of the Shares Will be Adversely Affected if the Fund is Required to Indemnify the Trustee or the Managing Owner.

Under the Trust Agreement, the Trustee and the Managing Owner have the right to be indemnified for any liability or expense they incur, except for any expenses resulting from gross negligence or willful misconduct. That means the Managing Owner may require the assets of the Fund to be sold in order to cover losses or liability suffered by it or by the Trustee. Any sale of that kind would reduce the NAV of the Fund and, consequently, the value of the Shares.

Although the Shares are Limited Liability Investments, Certain Circumstances such as Bankruptcy of the Fund or Indemnification of the Fund by the Shareholders will Increase a Shareholder’s Liability.

The Shares are limited liability investments; investors may not lose more than the amount that they invest plus any profits recognized on their investment. However, Shareholders could be required, as a matter of bankruptcy law, to return to the estate of the Fund any distribution they received at a time when the Fund was in fact insolvent or in violation of its Trust Agreement. In addition, Shareholders agree in the Trust Agreement that they will indemnify the Fund for any harm suffered by it as a result of:

 

Shareholders’ actions unrelated to the business of the Fund, or

 

taxes imposed on the Shares by the states or municipalities in which such investors reside.

 

The Fund May Potentially Lose Money on its Holdings of Money Market Mutual Funds.

The Fund may invest in government money market funds that have chosen to not rely on the ability to impose fees on shareholder redemptions (“liquidity fees”) or temporarily to suspend redemption privileges (“gates”) if the government money market fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below a certain threshold. Although such government money market funds seek to preserve the value of an investment at $1.00 per share, there is no guarantee that they will be able to do so and the Fund may lose money by investing in a government money market fund. An investment in a government money market fund is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any other government agency. The share price of a government money market fund can fall below the $1.00 share price. The Fund cannot rely on or expect a government money market fund’s adviser or its affiliates to enter into support agreements or take other actions to maintain the government money market fund’s $1.00 share price. The credit quality of a government money market fund’s holdings can change rapidly in certain markets, and the default of a single holding could have an adverse impact on the government money market fund’s share price. Due to fluctuations in interest rates, the market value of securities held by a government money market fund may vary. A government money market fund’s share price can also be negatively affected during periods of high redemption pressures and/or illiquid markets.

Due to the Increased use of Technologies, Intentional and Unintentional Cyber Attacks Pose Operational and Information Security Risks.

With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform necessary business functions, the Fund is susceptible to operational and information security risks. In general, cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. Cyber attacks include, but are not limited to gaining unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. Cyber attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service attacks on websites. Cyber security failures or breaches of the Fund’s third party service providers (including, but not limited to, Index Sponsor, the Administrator and transfer agent) or the issuers of the money market mutual funds and T-Bill ETFs in which the Fund invests, have the ability to cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, the inability of Fund shareholders to transact business, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred in order to prevent any cyber incidents in the future. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result. While the Managing Owner has established business continuity plans and systems to prevent such cyber attacks, there are inherent limitations in

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such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified. Furthermore, the Fund cannot control the cyber security plans and systems put in place by the Fund’s third party service providers. Cyber attacks may also cause disruptions to the futures exchanges and clearinghouses through which the Fund invests in exchange-traded futures contracts, resulting in disruptions to the Fund’s investment objectives and resulting in financial losses.

ITEM 1B.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2.

PROPERTIES

The Fund does not own or use physical properties in the conduct of its business. Its assets consist of futures contracts, cash, United States Treasury Obligations and may consist of money market mutual funds and/or T-Bill ETFs. The Managing Owner’s headquarters are located at 3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700, Downers Grove, IL 60515.

ITEM 3.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

None.

ITEM 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5.

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

The Shares have been trading on the NYSE Arca since November 25, 2008 under the symbol “DBV.”

The following table sets forth, for the calendar quarters indicated, the high and low sales prices per Share, as reported on the applicable exchange.

 

 

 

Shares

 

Quarter ended

 

High

 

 

Low

 

March 31, 2017

 

$

25.97

 

 

$

24.83

 

June 30, 2017

 

$

25.34

 

 

$

24.16

 

September 30, 2017

 

$

24.59

 

 

$

23.74

 

December 31, 2017

 

$

24.04

 

 

$

23.36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quarter ended

 

High

 

 

Low

 

March 31, 2016

 

$

23.67

 

 

$

22.53

 

June 30, 2016

 

$

24.18

 

 

$

23.03

 

September 30, 2016

 

$

24.93

 

 

$

24.16

 

December 31, 2016

 

$

25.66

 

 

$

24.79

 

Holders

As of December 31, 2017, the Fund had 59 holders of record of its Shares.

Distributions

The Managing Owner has sole discretion in determining what distributions, if any, the Fund will make to Shareholders. A distribution for the year ended December 31, 2017 was paid on December 29, 2017 to holders of record as of December 19, 2017 at a rate of $0.01921 for each General Share and Share for a total distribution of $30,737.  The Fund paid no distributions for the year ended December 31, 2016.

Sales of Unregistered Securities and Use of Proceeds of Registered Securities

(a) There have been no unregistered sales of the Fund’s securities. No Fund securities are authorized for issuance by the Fund under equity compensation plans.

(b) Not Applicable.

(c) The following table summarizes the redemptions by Authorized Participants during the Three Months Ended December 31, 2017:

 

Period of Redemption

 

Total Number of

Shares Redeemed

 

 

Average Price

Paid per Share

 

October 1, 2017 to October 31, 2017

 

 

200,000

 

 

$

23.86

 

November 1, 2017 to November 30, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

200,000

 

 

$

23.86

 

21


 

ITEM 6.

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following table summarizes the relevant 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013 financial data for the Fund and should be read in conjunction with the Fund’s financial statements, and the notes and schedules related thereto, which are included in this Report. The Fund commenced investment operations on September 15, 2006.

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

Income (a)

 

$

365,115

 

 

$

171,479

 

 

$

26,162

 

 

$

41,520

 

 

$

151,375

 

Net investment income (loss)

 

$

29,072

 

 

$

(346,854

)

 

$

(755,737

)

 

$

(964,671

)

 

$

(2,142,945

)

Net realized and net change in unrealized gains/(losses) on United States Treasury Obligations, Affiliated Investments and Currency Futures Contracts

 

$

(2,080,639

)

 

$

4,364,069

 

 

$

(8,955,310

)

 

$

3,368,359

 

 

$

(6,004,202

)

Net Income (Loss)

 

$

(2,051,567

)

 

$

4,017,215

 

 

$

(9,711,047

)

 

$

2,403,688

 

 

$

(8,147,147

)

Net Income (Loss) per Share

 

$

(1.22

)

 

$

1.60

 

 

$

(2.16

)

 

$

0.03

 

 

$

(0.73

)

Return of Capital Distributions per General Share

 

$

(0.02

)

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Return of Capital Distributions per Share

 

$

(0.02

)

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash

 

$

 

 

$

(4,652,970

)

 

$

1,767,435

 

 

$

(2,196,131

)

 

$

(21,122,272

)

 

(a)

Income for the years ended December 31, 2014 and prior includes interest expense on overdraft balances. These amounts are included in Interest Expense for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

Total Assets

 

$

38,114,492

 

 

$

50,024,505

 

 

$

88,562,857

 

 

$

86,606,279

 

 

$

203,291,139

 

General Shares NAV

 

$

23.65

 

 

$

24.89

 

 

$

23.29

 

 

$

25.45

 

 

$

25.42

 

Shares NAV

 

$

23.65

 

 

$

24.89

 

 

$

23.29

 

 

$

25.45

 

 

$

25.42

 

Selected Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited)

 

 

For the Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31, 2017

 

 

June 30, 2017

 

 

September 30, 2017

 

 

December 31, 2017

 

Income

 

$

53,983

 

 

$

84,532

 

 

$

117,358

 

 

$

109,242

 

Net investment income (loss)

 

$

(33,916

)

 

$

(1,924

)

 

$

31,924

 

 

$

32,988

 

Net realized and net change in unrealized gains (losses) on United States Treasury Obligations, Affiliated Investments and Currency Futures Contracts

 

$

723,734

 

 

$

(1,467,899

)

 

$

(873,888

)

 

$

(462,586

)

Net Income (loss)

 

$

689,818

 

 

$

(1,469,823

)

 

$

(841,964

)

 

$

(429,598

)

Increase (decrease) in Net Asset Value

 

$

(9,361,513

)

 

$

3,500,454

 

 

$

(841,964

)

 

$

(5,233,151

)

Net Income (loss) per Share

 

$

0.37

 

 

$

(0.86

)

 

$

(0.47

)

 

$

(0.26

)

Return of Capital Distributions per General Share

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

(0.02

)

Return of Capital Distributions per Share

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

(0.02

)

 

22


 

 

 

For the Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31, 2016

 

 

June 30, 2016

 

 

September 30, 2016

 

 

December 31, 2016

 

Income

 

$

42,337

 

 

$

31,984

 

 

$

46,118

 

 

$

51,040

 

Net investment income (loss)

 

$

(127,484

)

 

$

(78,906

)

 

$

(90,464

)

 

$

(50,000

)

Net realized and net change in unrealized gains/(losses) on United States Treasury Obligations and Futures

 

$

760,836

 

 

$

1,473,719

 

 

$

2,386,732

 

 

$

(257,218

)

Net Income/(loss)

 

$

633,352

 

 

$

1,394,813

 

 

$

2,296,268

 

 

$

(307,218

)

Increase/(decrease) in Net Asset Value

 

$

(4,066,257

)

 

$

(12,045,758

)

 

$

(17,463,283

)

 

$

(5,146,253

)

Net Income (loss) per Share

 

$

0.16

 

 

$

0.68

 

 

$

0.84

 

 

$

(0.08

)

ITEM 7.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

This information should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Report”). The discussion and analysis which follows may contain trend analysis and other forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), which reflect our current views with respect to future events and financial results. The matters discussed throughout this Report that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based on the registrant’s current expectations, estimates and projections about the registrant’s business and industry and its beliefs and assumptions about future events. Words such as “anticipate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “seek,” “outlook” and “estimate,” as well as similar words and phrases, signify forward-looking statements. Because forward-looking statements relate to the future, they are subject to inherent uncertainties, risk and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict and many of which are outside of our control. PowerShares DB G10 Currency Harvest Fund’s (the “Fund”) forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future results and conditions and important factors, risks and uncertainties in the markets for financial instruments that the Fund trades, in the markets for related physical commodities, in the legal and regulatory regimes applicable to the Managing Owner, the Fund, and the Fund’s service providers, and in the broader economy may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements.

You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement in this report is based only on information currently available to us and speaks only as of the date on which it is made. Except as expressly required by the Federal securities laws, Invesco PowerShares Capital Management LLC (“Invesco”), undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements or the risks, uncertainties or other factors described in this Report, as a result of new information, future events or changed circumstances or for any other reason after the date of this Report.

Overview/Introduction

Invesco PowerShares Capital Management LLC (“Invesco”) has served as the managing owner (the “Managing Owner”), commodity pool operator and commodity trading advisor of the Fund since February 23, 2015 (the “Closing Date”). Prior to the Closing Date, a different company served the Fund in those capacities (the “Predecessor Managing Owner”).

The Fund seeks to track changes, whether positive or negative, in the level of the Deutsche Bank G10 Currency Future Harvest Index–Excess Return™ (the “Index”) over time, plus the excess, if any, of the sum of the Fund’s interest income from its holdings of United States Treasury Obligations (“Treasury Income”), dividends from its holdings in money market mutual funds (affiliated or otherwise) (“Money Market Income”) and dividends or distributions of capital gains from its holdings of T-Bill ETFs (as defined below) (“T-Bill ETF Income”) over the expenses of the Fund. The Index is designed to reflect the return from investing on a 2:1 leveraged basis in long currency futures positions for certain currencies associated with relatively high yielding interest rates and in short currency futures positions for certain currencies associated with relatively low yielding interest rates.  

The Fund may invest directly in United States Treasury Obligations. The Fund may also gain exposure to United States Treasury Obligations through investments in exchange-traded funds (affiliated or otherwise) that track indexes that measure the performance of United States Treasury Obligations with a maximum remaining maturity of up to 12 months (“T-Bill ETFs”).  The Fund invests in United States Treasury Obligations, money market mutual funds and T-Bill ETFs (affiliated or otherwise), if any, for margin and/or cash management purposes.  

The Index is designed to exploit the trend that currencies associated with relatively high interest rates, on average, tend to rise in value relative to currencies associated with relatively low interest rates. This trend is consistent with economic theory regarding the correct price of a currency future, known as the Interest Rate Parity formula or the Covered Interest Arbitrage formula, and can be seen in the historical trading patterns of currency futures.

23


 

The Fund holds a portfolio of futures contracts (for investment purposes) on the Eligible Index Currencies (as defined below) and United States Treasury Obligations for deposit with Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, the Fund’s commodity broker (the “Commodity Broker”), as margin and United States Treasury Securities, cash, money market mutual funds and T-Bill ETFs, if any, on deposit with The Bank of New York Mellon (the “Custodian”) for cash management purposes. The theoretical or “fair market” price of a currency futures contract is derived from the spot FX rate, interest rates of the two currencies and time to expiry of the currency futures contract and represents an equilibrium relationship among the interest rates, spot markets and futures markets associated with the currencies in question. If an equilibrium relationship does not exist between two currencies, arbitrage opportunities arise and the exploitation of these opportunities by arbitrageurs will tend to drive currency futures prices toward equilibrium. Application of the Interest Rate Parity formula under circumstances in which currencies are not in an equilibrium relationship predicts that if the currency future is based on a rate ranging from a high yielding currency to a low yielding currency, the fair market price of the currency future will be below the spot rate. The longer the time to the expiry of the currency future the greater the amount the fair market price of the currency future will be below the spot rate. If the spot rate stays approximately the same then, as you move closer to the expiry of the currency future, the fair market price will increase. In other words, the currency future rate between a relatively high interest rate currency and low interest rate currency tends to increase over time (assuming spot is relatively stable).

The Index exploits this trend using both long and short futures positions, which is expected to provide more consistent and less volatile returns than could be obtained by taking long positions only or short positions only.

The Fund is an index tracking fund and does not utilize any trading system, whether discretionary, systematic or otherwise. The Index is a mathematical construct that is comprised of the Index Currencies (as defined below), each of which is assigned an initial weight. As the value of the underlying Index Currencies changes, the relative weights of each Index Currency will vary. The Index will be re-balanced at a pre-determined frequency in order to restore the target weights. As the Fund will invest in futures contracts tied to the underlying Index Currencies (and their corresponding target base weights) with a view to tracking the changes, whether positive or negative, in the changes in the levels of the Index, the Managing Owner is responsible for ensuring that the Fund invests in a manner that seeks to track the Index.

The Shares are intended to provide investment results that generally correspond to the changes, positive or negative, in the levels of the Index over time. The value of the Shares is expected to fluctuate in relation to changes in the value of the Fund’s portfolio. The market price of the Shares may not be identical to the net asset value (“NAV”) per Share, but these two valuations are expected to be very close.

Margin Calls

“Initial” or “original” margin is the minimum amount of funds that must be deposited by a futures trader with his commodity broker in order to initiate futures trading or to maintain an open position in futures contracts. “Maintenance” margin is the amount (generally less than initial margin) to which a trader’s account may decline before he must deliver additional margin. A margin deposit is like a cash performance bond. It helps assure the futures trader’s performance of the futures contract that the trader purchases or sells. Futures contracts are customarily bought and sold on margin that represents a very small percentage (ranging upward from less than 2%) of the purchase price of the underlying commodity being traded. Because of such low margins, price fluctuations occurring in the futures markets may create profits and losses that are greater, in relation to the amount invested, than are customary in other forms of investments. The minimum amount of margin required in connection with a particular futures contract is set from time to time by the exchange on which such contract is traded, and may be modified from time to time by the exchange during the term of the contract. “Variation margin” is assessed daily to reflect changes in the value of the position.

Brokerage firms carrying accounts for traders in futures contracts may not accept lower, and generally require higher, amounts of margin as a matter of policy in order to afford further protection for themselves.

Margin requirements are computed each day by a commodity broker. When the market value of a particular open futures contract position changes to a point where the margin on deposit does not satisfy maintenance margin requirements, a margin call is made by the commodity broker. If the margin call is not met within a reasonable time, the broker may close out the Fund’s position. With respect to the Managing Owner’s trading, only the Managing Owner, and not the Fund or its Shareholders personally, will be subject to margin calls.

Net Asset Value

NAV means the total assets of the Fund, including, but not limited to, all currency futures contracts, cash and investments less total liabilities of the Fund, each determined on the basis of U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”), consistently applied under the accrual method of accounting. All open currency futures contracts will be calculated at their then current market value, which will be based upon the settlement price for that particular currency futures contract traded on the applicable primary exchange on the date with respect to which NAV is being determined. Under certain circumstances, including, but not limited to instances where the settlement price is not available, the Managing Owner may value any asset of the Fund pursuant to

24


 

such other principles as the Managing Owner deems fair and equitable so long as such principles are consistent with normal industry standards. The amount of any distribution is a liability of the Fund from the day when the distribution is declared until it is paid.

NAV per Share is the NAV of the Fund divided by the number of outstanding Shares.

Market Risk

Trading in futures contracts involves the Fund entering into contractual commitments to purchase a particular currency at a specified date and price. The market risk associated with the Fund’s commitments to purchase currencies is limited to the gross or face amount of the contracts held.

The Fund’s exposure to market risk is also influenced by a number of factors including the volatility of interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates, the liquidity of the markets in which the contracts are traded and the relationships among the contracts held. The inherent uncertainty of the Fund’s trading as well as the development of drastic market occurrences could ultimately lead to a loss of all or substantially all of the investors’ capital.

Credit Risk

When the Fund enters into futures contracts, the Fund is exposed to credit risk that the counterparty to the contract will not meet its obligations. The counterparty for futures contracts traded on United States and on most foreign futures exchanges is the clearing house associated with the particular exchange. In general, clearing houses are backed by their corporate members who may be required to share in the financial burden resulting from the nonperformance by one of their members and, as such, should significantly reduce this credit risk. In cases where the clearing house is not backed by the clearing members (i.e., some foreign exchanges), it may be backed by a consortium of banks or other financial institutions. There can be no assurance that any counterparty, clearing member or clearinghouse will meet its obligations to the Fund.

The Commodity Broker, when acting as the Fund’s futures commission merchant in accepting orders for the purchase or sale of domestic futures contracts, is required by CFTC regulations to separately account for and segregate as belonging to the Fund all assets of the Fund relating to domestic futures trading and the Commodity Broker is not allowed to commingle such assets with other assets of the Commodity Broker. In addition, CFTC regulations also require the Commodity Broker to hold in a secure account assets of the Fund related to foreign futures trading. Also see Item 1A.—Risk Factors—“Failure of Futures Commission Merchants or Commodity Brokers to Segregate Assets May Increase Losses; Despite Segregation of Assets, the Fund Remains at Risk of Significant Losses Because the Fund May Only Receive a Pro-Rata Share of the Assets or No Assets at All.”

Liquidity

The Fund’s entire source of capital is derived from the Fund’s offering of Shares to Authorized Participants. The Fund in turn allocates its net assets to currency futures trading. A significant portion of the NAV is held in United States Treasury Obligations, which may be used as margin for the Fund’s trading in currency futures contracts and United States Treasury Obligations, money market mutual funds, cash and T-Bill ETFs, if any, which may be used for cash management purposes. The percentage that United States Treasury Obligations bear to the total net assets will vary from period to period as the market values of the Fund’s currency futures change. A portion of the Fund’s United States Treasury Obligations are held for deposit with the Commodity Broker to meet margin requirements. All remaining cash, money market mutual funds, T-Bill ETFs, if any, and United States Treasury Obligations are on deposit with the Custodian. Interest earned on the Fund’s interest-bearing funds and dividends from the Fund’s holdings of money market mutual funds are paid to the Fund.  Any dividends or distributions of capital gains received from the Fund’s holdings of T-Bill ETFs, if any, are paid to the Fund.

The Fund’s foreign currency futures contracts may be subject to periods of illiquidity because of market conditions, regulatory considerations or for other reasons. For example, currency futures exchanges may limit fluctuations in certain futures contract prices during a single day by regulations referred to as “daily limits.” During a single day, no trades may be executed at prices beyond the daily limit. Once the price of a particular futures contract has increased or decreased by an amount equal to the daily limit, positions in the futures contract can neither be taken nor liquidated unless the traders are willing to effect trades at or within the limit. Although the Eligible Index Currencies that the Fund invests in are not currently subject to daily limits, the Eligible Index Currencies could become subject to such limits in the future. Such market conditions could prevent the Fund from promptly liquidating its currency futures positions.

Because the Fund trades futures contracts, its capital is at risk due to changes in the value of futures contracts (market risk) or the inability of counterparties (including the Commodity Broker and/or exchange clearinghouses) to perform under the terms of the contracts (credit risk).

25


 

On any business day, an Authorized Participant may place an order with the Transfer Agent to redeem one or more Baskets. Redemption orders must be placed by 1:00 p.m., Eastern Time. The day on which the Managing Owner receives a valid redemption order is the redemption order date. The day on which a redemption order is settled is the redemption order settlement date. As provided below, the redemption order settlement date may occur up to two business days after the redemption order date. Redemption orders are irrevocable. The redemption procedures allow Authorized Participants to redeem Baskets. Individual Shareholders may not redeem directly from the Fund. Instead, individual Shareholders may only redeem Shares in integral multiples of 200,000 and only through an Authorized Participant.

Unless otherwise agreed to by the Managing Owner and the Authorized Participant as provided in the next sentence, by placing a redemption order, an Authorized Participant agrees to deliver the Baskets to be redeemed through DTC’s book-entry system to the Fund not later than the redemption order settlement date as of 2:45 p.m., Eastern Time, on the business day immediately following the redemption order date. Upon submission of a redemption order, the Authorized Participant may request the Managing Owner to agree to a redemption order settlement date up to two business days after the redemption order date. By placing a redemption order, and prior to receipt of the redemption proceeds, an Authorized Participant’s DTC account is charged the non-refundable transaction fee due for the redemption order.

Redemption orders may be placed either (i) through the Continuous Net Settlement (“CNS”) clearing processes of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (the “NSCC”) (the “CNS Clearing Process”) or (ii) if outside the CNS Clearing Process, only through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company (“DTC” or the “Depository”) (the “DTC Process”), or a successor depository, and only in exchange for cash. By placing a redemption order, and prior to receipt of the redemption proceeds, an Authorized Participant’s DTC account is charged the non-refundable transaction fee due for the redemption order and such fee is not borne by the Fund.

Capital Resources

The Fund does not have any material commitments for capital expenditures as of the end of the latest fiscal period.

The Fund is unaware of any (i) anticipated known demands, commitments or capital expenditures; (ii) material trends, favorable or unfavorable, in its capital resources; or (iii) trends or uncertainties that will have a material effect on operations.

Cash Flows

A primary cash flow activity of the Fund is to raise capital from Authorized Participants through the issuance of Shares. This cash is used to invest in United States Treasury Obligations, money market mutual funds and T-Bill ETFs, if any, and to meet margin requirements as a result of the positions taken in futures contracts to match the fluctuations of the Index the Fund is tracking.

As of the date of this Report, each of BMO Capital Markets Corp., BNP Paribas Securities Corp, Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., Citadel Securities LLC, Citigroup Global Markets, Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Goldman Sachs & Co., Goldman Sachs Execution & Clearing LP, Interactive Brokers LLC, Jefferies LLC, JP Morgan Securities Inc., Knight Clearing Services LLC, Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, Nomura Securities International Inc., RBC Capital Markets LLC, SG Americas Securities LLC, Timber Hill LLC, UBS Securities, Virtu Financial BD LLC and Virtu Financial Capital Markets LLC has executed a Participant Agreement, and those firms are the only Authorized Participants.

Operating Activities

Net cash flow provided by (used for) operating activities was $9.9 million, $38.1 million and $(9.9) million during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. These amounts primarily include net income (loss), net purchases and sales of money market mutual funds and net purchases and sales of United States Treasury Obligations which are held at fair value on the Statements of Financial Condition. The Fund invests in futures contracts in an attempt to track its Index. The Fund may hold United States Treasury Obligations and money market mutual funds for margin and/or cash management purposes.

During the year ended December 31, 2017, $107.6 million was paid to purchase United States Treasury Obligations and $116.0 million was received from sales and maturing United States Treasury Obligations. During the year ended December 31, 2016, $284.3 million was paid to purchase United States Treasury Obligations and $324.0 million was received from sales and maturing United States Treasury Obligations. During the year ended December 31, 2015, $413.6 million was paid to purchase United States Treasury Obligations and $413.1 million was received from sales and maturing United States Treasury Obligations. $46.4 million was received from sales of affiliated investments and $42.4 million was paid to purchase affiliated investments during the year ended December 31, 2017. $40.8 million was received from sales of affiliated investments and $46.9 million was paid to purchase affiliated investments during the year ended December 31, 2016. The Fund had no money market mutual fund holdings during the year ended December 31,

26


 

2015. Unrealized appreciation/depreciation on United States Treasury Obligations and Currency Futures Contracts increased (decreased) net cash by $(0.0) million, $0.0 million and $(0.7) million during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.

Financing Activities

The Fund’s net cash flow provided by (used for) financing activities was $(9.9) million, $(42.7) million and $11.7 million during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. This included $20.2 million, $83.5 million and $94.6 million from the sale of Shares to Authorized Participants and $30.1 million, $126.2 million and $82.9 million from Shares redeemed by Authorized Participants during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

Results of Operations

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2017, 2016 AND 2015

The following graphs illustrate the percentage changes in (i) the market price of the Shares (as reflected by the line “Market”), (ii) the Fund’s NAV (as reflected by the line “NAV”), and (iii) the closing levels of the Index (as reflected by the line “DB G10 Currency Future Harvest Index ER”). Whenever the Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income, if any, earned by the Fund exceeds Fund expenses, the price of the Shares generally exceeds the levels of the Index primarily because the Share price reflects Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income from the Fund’s collateral holdings whereas the Index does not consider such income. There can be no assurances that the price of the Shares or the Fund’s NAV will exceed the Index levels.

No representation is being made that the Index will or is likely to achieve closing levels consistent with or similar to those set forth herein. Similarly, no representation is being made that the Fund will generate profits or losses similar to the Fund’s past performance or changes in the Index closing levels.

27


 

COMPARISON OF MARKET, NAV AND DB G10 CURRENCY FUTURE HARVEST INDEX ER

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2017, 2016 AND 2015

 

 

NEITHER THE PAST PERFORMANCE OF THE FUND NOR THE PRIOR INDEX LEVELS AND CHANGES,

POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE, SHOULD BE TAKEN AS AN INDICATION OF THE FUND’S FUTURE PERFORMANCE.

 

 

 

NEITHER THE PAST PERFORMANCE OF THE FUND NOR THE PRIOR INDEX LEVELS AND CHANGES,

POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE, SHOULD BE TAKEN AS AN INDICATION OF THE FUND’S FUTURE PERFORMANCE.

 

 

 

28


 

 

NEITHER THE PAST PERFORMANCE OF THE FUND NOR THE PRIOR INDEX LEVELS AND CHANGES,

POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE, SHOULD BE TAKEN AS AN INDICATION OF THE FUND’S FUTURE PERFORMANCE.

Performance Summary

This Report covers the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.

Performance of the Fund and the exchange traded Shares are detailed below in “Results of Operations”. The Fund’s performance information from inception up to and excluding the Closing Date is a reflection of the performance associated with the Predecessor Managing Owner. The Managing Owner has served as managing owner of the Fund since the Closing Date, and the Fund’s performance information since the Closing Date is a reflection of the performance associated with the Managing Owner. Past performance of the Fund is not necessarily indicative of future performance.

The Index is intended to reflect the change in market value of its underlying currency futures contracts. The Deutsche Bank G10 Currency Future Harvest Index—Total Return™ (DBCFH-TR™), consists of the Index plus 3-month United States Treasury Obligation returns. Because DBCFH-TR is an index, it does not reflect (i) actual trading and (ii) any fees or expenses. Past Index results are not necessarily indicative of future changes, positive or negative, in the Index closing levels.

The section “Summary of the DBCFH-TR™ and Underlying Index Currency Returns for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015” below provides an overview of the changes in the closing levels of the Index by disclosing the change in closing levels of the Index itself and each underlying component Index Currency plus 3-month United States Treasury Obligations returns. Please note that the Fund’s objective is to track the Index (not DBCFH-TR™) and the Fund does not attempt to outperform or underperform the Index.

The following chart highlights the results of the DBCFH-TR™ for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.

29


 

Summary of the DBCFH-TR™ and Underlying Index Currency Returns for the Years Ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015

 

 

AGGREGATE RETURNS FOR INDEX CURRENCIES IN THE DBCFH-TR™

 

 

 

Long Position

 

 

Short Position

 

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

Underlying Index Currency1

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Australian Dollar (AUD)

 

 

3.06

%

 

 

0.05

%

 

 

(2.44

)%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Canadian Dollar (CAD)

 

 

(1.67

)%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Zealand Dollar (NZD)

 

 

1.17

%

 

 

1.14

%

 

 

(3.97

)%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Norwegian Krone (NOK)

 

 

0.15

%

 

 

0.87

%

 

 

(1.57

)%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Euro (EUR)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(4.05

)%

 

 

1.48

%

 

 

1.25

%

Swedish Krona (SEK)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(3.24

)%

 

 

2.82

%

 

 

(0.98

)%

Swiss Franc (CHF)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(0.38

)%

 

 

1.24

%

 

 

(0.21

)%

 

 

 

DBCFH-TR™ - Index Returns

 

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

3-MONTH UNITED STATES TREASURY OBLIGATIONS

 

 

0.92

%

 

 

0.31

%

 

 

0.01

%

DBCFH-TR™

 

 

(4.08

)%

 

 

7.94

%

 

 

(7.58

)%

 

1

Although the United States Dollar may have been one of the Eligible Index Currencies associated with the top three highest or bottom three lowest interest rates during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, the Index (as per its rules) did not include a long or short USD futures position.

If the Fund’s Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income were to exceed the Fund’s fees and expenses, the aggregate return on an investment in the Fund would be expected to outperform the Index and underperform the DBCFH-TR™. The only difference between (i) the Index (the “Excess Return Index”) and (ii) the DBCFH-TR™ (the “Total Return Index”) is that the Excess Return Index does not include interest income from fixed income securities while the Total Return Index does include such a component. Thus, the difference between the Excess Return Index and the Total Return Index is attributable entirely to the interest income attributable to the fixed income securities reflected in the Total Return Index. The Total Return Index does not actually hold any fixed income securities. If the Fund’s Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income, if any, exceeds the Fund’s fees and expenses, then the amount of such excess is expected to be distributed periodically. The market price of the Shares is expected to closely track the Index. The aggregate return on an investment in the Fund over any period is the sum of the capital appreciation or depreciation of the Shares over the period, plus the amount of any distributions during the period. Consequently, the Fund’s aggregate return is expected to outperform the Excess Return Index by the amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income over its fees and expenses. As a result of the Fund’s fees and expenses, however, the aggregate return on the Fund is expected to underperform the Total Return Index. If the Fund’s fees and expenses were to exceed the Fund’s Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income, if any, the aggregate return on an investment in the Fund is expected to underperform the Excess Return Index.

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2017, 2016 AND 2015

Fund Share Price Performance

For the year ended December 31, 2017, the NYSE Arca market value of each Share decreased 4.74% from $24.88 per Share to $23.68 per Share. The Share price low and high for the year ended December 31, 2017 and related change from the Share price on December 31, 2016 was as follows: Shares traded at a low of $23.36 per Share (-6.11%) on November 30, 2017, and a high of $25.97 per Share (+4.40) on February 23, 2017. On December 29, 2017, the Fund paid a distribution of $0.01921 for each General Share and Share to holders of record as of December 19, 2017. Therefore, the total return for the Fund on a market value basis, was -4.74%.

For the year ended December 31, 2016, the NYSE Arca market value of each Share increased 6.69% from $23.32 per Share to $24.88 per Share. The Share price low and high for the year ended December 31, 2016 and related change from the Share price on December 31, 2015 was as follows: Shares traded at a low of $22.53 per Share (-3.39%) on January 15, 2016 and a high of $25.66 per Share (10.04%) on November 8, 2016. No distributions were paid to Shareholders during the year ended December 31, 2016. Therefore, the total return for the Fund on a market value basis, was +6.69%.

For the year ended December 31, 2015, the NYSE Arca market value of each Share decreased 8.59% from $25.51 per Share to $23.32 per Share. The Share price high and low for the year ended December 31, 2015 and related change from the Share price from December 31, 2014 was as follows: Shares traded at a high of $25.64 per Share (+0.51%) on January 8, 2015 and a low of $21.94 per

30


 

Share (-14.00%) on August 24, 2015. No distributions were paid to Shareholders during the year ended December 31, 2015. Therefore, the total return for the Fund, on a market value basis, was -8.59%.

Fund Share Net Asset Performance

For the year ended December 31, 2017, the NAV of each Share decreased 4.91% from $24.89 per Share to $23.65 per Share. For the year ended December 31, 2017, losses in the short index currency positions in the Euro, Swedish Krona and Swiss Franc along with losses in the long index currency positions in Canadian Dollar were partially offset by gains in the long index currency positions in the Australian Dollar, New Zealand Dollar and Norwegian Krone contributing to an overall 4.97% decrease in the level of the Index and to a 4.08% decrease in the level of the DBCFH-TR™.  On December 29, 2017, the Fund paid a distribution of $0.01921 for each General Share and Share to holders of record as of December 19, 2017.  Therefore, the total return for the Fund on a NAV basis, was  -4.91%.

Net income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $(2.1) million, primarily resulting from income of $0.3 million, net realized gain (loss) of $(2.8) million, net change in unrealized gain (loss) of $0.7 million and operating expenses of $0.3 million.

For the year ended December 31, 2016, the NAV of each Share increased 6.87% from $23.29 per Share to $24.89 per Share. For the year ended December 31, 2016, gains in the long index currency positions in the Australian Dollar, New Zealand Dollar and Norwegian Krone along with gains in the short index currency positions in the Euro, Swedish Krona and Swiss Franc, contributed to an overall 7.94% increase in the level of the DBCFH-TR™. No distributions were paid to Shareholders during the year ended December 31, 2016. Therefore, the total return for the Fund on a NAV basis, was +6.87%.

Net income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $4.0 million, primarily resulting from income of $0.2 million, net realized gain (loss) of $6.9 million, net change in unrealized gain (loss) of $(2.6) million and operating expenses of $0.5 million.

For the year ended December 31, 2015, the NAV of each Share decreased 8.49% from $25.45 per Share to $23.29 per Share. For the year ended December 31, 2015, losses in the long index currency positions in the Australian Dollar, New Zealand Dollar and Norwegian Krone along with losses in the short index currency positions in Swedish Krona and Swiss Franc were partially offset by gains in the short index currency positions in the Euro, contributing to an overall 7.58% decrease in the level of the DBCFH-TR™. No distributions were paid to Shareholders during the year ended December 31, 2015. Therefore, the total return for the Fund on a NAV basis, was -8.49%.

Net income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2015 was $(9.7) million, primarily resulting from net realized gain (loss) of $(9.6) million, net change in unrealized gain (loss) of $0.7 million and operating expenses of $0.8 million.

Critical Accounting Policies

The Fund’s critical accounting policies are as follows:

Preparation of the financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the application of appropriate accounting rules and guidance, as well as the use of estimates, and requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenue and expense and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities during the reporting period of the financial statements and accompanying notes. The Fund’s application of these policies involves judgments and actual results may differ from the estimates used. There were no significant estimates used in the preparation of these financial statements.

Currency futures contracts, United States Treasury Obligations, T-Bill ETFs and money market mutual funds are recorded on a trade date basis and at fair value in the financial statements, with changes in fair value, if any, reported in the Statements of Income and Expenses.

The use of fair value to measure financial instruments, with related unrealized gains or losses recognized in earnings in each period is fundamental to the Fund’s financial statements. The fair value of a financial instrument is the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (the exit price).

United States Treasury Obligations are fair valued using an evaluated quote provided by an independent pricing service. Futures contracts are valued at the final settlement price set by an exchange on which they are principally traded. Investments in open-end and closed-end registered investment companies that do not trade on an exchange are valued at the end of day NAV per share. Investments in open-end and closed-end registered investment companies that trade on an exchange are valued at the last sales price or official closing price as of the close of the customary trading session on the exchange where the security is principally traded. Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification for fair value measurement and disclosure guidance requires a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The objective of a fair

31


 

value measurement is to determine the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (an exit price). The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). Assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. See Note 6 within the financial statements in Item 8 for further information.

When market closing prices are not available, the Managing Owner may value an asset of the Fund pursuant to policies the Managing Owner has adopted, which are consistent with normal industry standards.

Realized gains (losses) from the sale or disposition of securities or derivatives are determined on a specific identification basis and recognized in the Statements of Income and Expenses in the period in which the contract is closed or the sale or disposition occurs, respectively.

Interest income on United States Treasury Obligations is recognized on an accrual basis when earned. Premiums and discounts are amortized or accreted over the life of the United States Treasury Obligations. Dividend income (net of withholding tax, if any) is recorded on the ex-dividend date.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements and Contractual Obligations

In the normal course of its business, the Fund is a party to financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk. The term “off-balance sheet risk” refers to an unrecorded potential liability that, even though it does not appear on the balance sheet, may result in a future obligation or loss. The financial instruments used by the Fund are currency futures, whose values are based upon an underlying asset and generally represent future commitments which have a reasonable possibility to be settled in cash or through physical delivery.

The financial instruments are traded on an exchange and are standardized contracts.

The Fund has not utilized, nor does it expect to utilize in the future, special purpose entities to facilitate off-balance sheet financing arrangements and has no loan guarantee arrangements or off-balance sheet arrangements of any kind, other than agreements entered into in the normal course of business noted above, which may include indemnification provisions related to certain risks service providers undertake in performing services which are in the best interest of the Fund. While the Fund’s exposure under such indemnification provisions cannot be estimated, these general business indemnifications are not expected to have a material impact on the Fund’s financial position. The Managing Owner expects the risk of loss to be remote.

The Fund’s contractual obligations are with the Managing Owner and the Commodity Broker. Management Fee payments made to the Managing Owner are calculated as a fixed percentage of the Fund’s NAV. Commission payments to the Commodity Broker are on a contract-by-contract, or round-turn, basis. As such, the Managing Owner cannot anticipate the amount of payments that will be required under these arrangements for future periods as NAVs are not known until a future date. These agreements are effective for one-year terms, renewable automatically for additional one-year terms unless terminated. Additionally, these agreements may be terminated by either party for various reasons. From inception up to and excluding the Closing Date, all Management Fees and commission payments were paid to the Predecessor Managing Owner and Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. (the “Predecessor Commodity Broker”), respectively. Since the Closing Date, the Managing Owner has served as managing owner of the Fund and all Management Fee accruals since the Closing Date have been paid to the Managing Owner.  Since the Closing Date and up to November 29, 2016, the Predecessor Commodity Broker served as the Fund’s futures clearing broker, and all commission accruals from the Closing Date up to November 29, 2016 have been paid to the Predecessor Commodity Broker.  Since November 29, 2016, all commission accruals have been paid to the Commodity Broker.

ITEM 7A.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

INTRODUCTION

The Fund is designed to replicate positions in a currency futures index. The market sensitive instruments held by it are subject to the risk of trading loss. Unlike an operating company, the risk of market sensitive instruments is integral, not incidental, to the Fund’s main line of business.

Market movements can produce frequent changes in the fair market value of the Fund’s open positions and, consequently, in its earnings and cash flow. The Fund’s market risk is primarily influenced by changes in the prices of currencies.

32


 

Standard of Materiality

Materiality as used in this section, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” is based on an assessment of reasonably possible market movements and the potential losses caused by such movements, taking into account the effects of margin, and any other multiplier features, as applicable, of the Fund’s market sensitive instruments.

QUANTIFYING THE FUND’S TRADING VALUE AT RISK

Quantitative Forward-Looking Statements

The following quantitative disclosures regarding the Fund’s market risk exposures contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the safe harbor from civil liability provided for such statements by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Exchange Act). All quantitative disclosures in this section are deemed to be forward-looking statements for purposes of the safe harbor, except for statements of historical fact (such as the dollar amount of maintenance margin required for market risk sensitive instruments held at the end of the reporting period).

Value at Risk, or VaR, is a statistical measure of the value of losses that would not be expected to be exceeded over a given time horizon and at a given probability level arising from movement of underlying risk factors. Loss is measured as a decline in the fair value of the portfolio as a result of changes in any of the material variables by which fair values are determined. VaR is measured over a specified holding period (one day) and to a specified level of statistical confidence (99th percentile). However, the inherent uncertainty in the markets in which the Fund trades and the recurrence in the markets traded by the Fund of market movements far exceeding expectations could result in actual trading or non-trading losses far beyond the indicated VaR or the Fund’s experience to date (i.e., “risk of ruin”). In light of these considerations, as well as the risks and uncertainties intrinsic to all future projections, the following VaR presentation does not constitute any assurance or representation that the Fund’s losses in any market sector will be limited to VaR.

THE FUND’S TRADING VALUE AT RISK

The Fund calculates VaR using the actual historical market movements of the Fund’s net assets.

The following table indicates the trading VaR associated with the Fund’s net assets as of December 31, 2017.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the Year Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2017

Description

 

Net Assets

 

 

Daily Volatility

 

 

VaR*

(99 Percentile)

 

 

Number of times

VaR Exceeded

PowerShares DB G10 Currency Harvest Fund

 

$

37,843,918

 

 

 

0.33

%

 

$

287,110

 

 

14

The following table indicates the trading VaR associated with the Fund’s net assets as of December 31, 2016.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the Year Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2016

Description

 

Net Assets

 

 

Daily Volatility

 

 

VaR*

(99 Percentile)

 

 

Number of times

VaR Exceeded

PowerShares DB G10 Currency Harvest Fund

 

$

49,780,092

 

 

 

0.41

%

 

$

472,690

 

 

14

 

*

The VaR represents the one day downside risk, under normal market conditions, with a 99% confidence level. It is calculated using historical market moves of the Fund’s net assets and uses a one year look-back.

THE FUND’S NON-TRADING MARKET RISK

The Fund has non-trading market risk as a result of investing in short-term United States Treasury Obligations, T-Bill ETFs and money market mutual funds. As such, the market risk represented by these investments is not expected to be material. Although the Fund purchases and sells shares of T-Bill ETFs on an exchange, it does not establish or liquidate those positions for trading purposes.

33


 

QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES REGARDING PRIMARY TRADING RISK EXPOSURES

The following qualitative disclosures regarding the Fund’s market risk exposures—except for those disclosures that are statements of historical fact—constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. The Fund’s primary market risk exposures are subject to numerous uncertainties, contingencies and risks. Government interventions, defaults and expropriations, illiquid markets, the emergence of dominant fundamental factors, political upheavals, changes in historical price relationships, an influx of new market participants, increased regulation and many other factors could result in material losses as well as in material changes to the risk exposures of the Fund. There can be no assurance that the Fund’s current market exposure will not change materially. Investors may lose all or substantially all of their investment in the Fund.

Several factors may affect the price of the Index Currencies, including, but not limited to:

 

National debt levels and trade deficits, including changes in balances of payments and trade;

 

Domestic and foreign inflation rates and investors’ expectations concerning inflation rates;

 

Domestic and foreign interest rates and investors’ expectations concerning interest rates;

 

Currency exchange rates;

 

Investment and trading activities of mutual funds, hedge funds and currency funds;

 

Global or regional political, economic or financial events and situations;

 

Supply and demand changes which influence the foreign exchange rates of various currencies;

 

Monetary policies of governments (including exchange control programs, restrictions on local exchanges or markets and limitations on foreign investment in a country or on investment by residents of a country in other countries), trade restrictions, currency devaluations and revaluations;

 

Governmental intervention in the currency market, directly and by regulation, in order to influence currency prices; and

 

Expectations among market participants that a currency’s value soon will change.

QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES REGARDING NON-TRADING MARKET RISK EXPOSURE

As noted above, the Fund has non-trading market risk as a result of investing in short-term United States Treasury Obligations, T-Bill ETFs and money market mutual funds. As such, the market risk represented by these investments is not expected to be material.

QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES REGARDING MEANS OF MANAGING RISK EXPOSURE

Under ordinary circumstances, the Managing Owner’s discretionary power is limited to determining whether the Fund will make a distribution. Under emergency or extraordinary circumstances, the Managing Owner’s discretionary powers increase, but remain circumscribed. These special circumstances, for example, include the unavailability of the Index or certain natural or man-made disasters. The Managing Owner does not actively manage the Fund to avoid losses. The Fund takes both long and short positions in investments and does not employ “stop-loss” techniques.

 

 

34


 

ITEM 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

Index to Financial Statements

 

Documents

 

Page

 

 

 

Report of Management on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

 

36

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

37

Statements of Financial Condition as of December 31, 2017 and 2016

 

39

Schedule of Investments as of December 31, 2017

 

40

Schedule of Investments as of December 31, 2016

 

41

Statements of Income and Expenses For the Years Ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015

 

42

Statement of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity For the Year Ended December 31, 2017

 

43

Statement of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity For the Year Ended December 31, 2016

 

44

Statement of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity For the Year Ended December 31, 2015

 

45

Statements of Cash Flows For the Years Ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015

 

46

Notes to Financial Statements

 

47

 

 

35


 

Report of Management on Internal Control

Over Financial Reporting

Management of Invesco PowerShares Capital Management LLC, as managing owner (the “Managing Owner”) of PowerShares DB G10 Currency Harvest Fund (the “Fund”), is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as defined under Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that: (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Fund; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that the Fund’s receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with appropriate authorizations of management; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the Fund’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements, errors or fraud. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

We, Daniel Draper, Principal Executive Officer, and Steven Hill, Principal Financial and Accounting Officer, Investment Pools, of the Managing Owner, assessed the effectiveness of the Fund’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017. In making this assessment, we used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013). The assessment included an evaluation of the design of the Fund’s internal control over financial reporting and testing of the operational effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting. Based on our assessment and those criteria, we have concluded that the Fund maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017.

The Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, has audited the Fund’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, as stated in their report on page 37 of the Fund’s Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

By:

/S/    DANIEL DRAPER

Name:

Daniel Draper

Title:

Principal Executive Officer

of the Managing Owner

 

 

By:

/S/    STEVEN HILL

Name:

Steven Hill

Title:

Principal Financial and Accounting Officer,

Investment Pools, of the Managing Owner

 

February 27, 2018

36


 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

 

To the Board of Managers and Shareholders of PowerShares DB G10 Currency Harvest Fund

 

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

We have audited the accompanying statements of financial condition, including the schedules of investments of PowerShares DB G10 Currency Harvest Fund (the “Fund”) as of December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, and the related statements of income and expenses, changes in shareholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”).  We also have audited the Fund's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).  

 

In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Fund as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.  Also in our opinion, the Fund maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

 

Basis for Opinions

 

The Fund's management is responsible for these financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Report of Management on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting.  Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Fund’s financial statements and on the Fund's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits.  We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Fund in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

 

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB.  Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.  

 

Our audits of the financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks.  Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements.  Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements.  Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk.  Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

 

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

A fund’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.  A fund’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the fund; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the fund are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the fund; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the fund’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

 

37


 

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements.  Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

 

 

 

 

 

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

 

Chicago, Illinois

February 27, 2018

 

We have served as the Fund’s auditor since 2013.

 

38


 

PowerShares DB G10 Currency Harvest Fund

Statements of Financial Condition

December 31, 2017 and 2016

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United States Treasury Obligations, at value (cost $35,958,585 and $43,946,967, respectively)

 

$

35,956,809

 

 

$

43,942,608

 

Affiliated investments, at value and cost

 

 

2,155,742

 

 

 

6,080,476

 

Receivable for:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dividends from affiliates

 

 

1,941

 

 

 

1,421

 

Total assets

 

$

38,114,492

 

 

$

50,024,505

 

Liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other Investments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variation margin payable - Currency Futures Contracts

 

$

211,060

 

 

$

208,113

 

Payable for:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Due to custodian

 

 

30,737

 

 

 

 

Management fees

 

 

23,778

 

 

 

31,300

 

Brokerage commissions and fees

 

 

4,999

 

 

 

5,000

 

Total liabilities

 

 

270,574

 

 

 

244,413

 

Commitments and Contingencies (Note 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shareholder's equity—General Shares

 

 

946

 

 

 

996

 

Shareholders' equity—Shares

 

 

37,842,972

 

 

 

49,779,096

 

Total shareholders' equity

 

 

37,843,918

 

 

 

49,780,092

 

Total liabilities and equity

 

$

38,114,492

 

 

$

50,024,505

 

General Shares outstanding

 

 

40

 

 

 

40

 

Shares outstanding

 

 

1,600,000

 

 

 

2,000,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net asset value per share

 

$

23.65

 

 

$

24.89

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Market value per share

 

$

23.68

 

 

$

24.88

 

 

See accompanying Notes to Financial Statements which are an integral part of the financial statements.

 

 

39


 

PowerShares DB G10 Currency Harvest Fund

Schedule of Investments

December 31, 2017

 

Description

 

Percentage of

Shareholders'

Equity

 

 

Value

 

 

Principal Value

 

United States Treasury Obligations (a)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. Treasury Bills, 1.180% due January 4, 2018

 

 

63.41

%

 

$

23,998,495

 

 

$

24,000,000

 

U.S. Treasury Bills, 1.285% due March 1, 2018 (b)

 

 

21.10

 

 

 

7,983,664

 

 

 

8,000,000

 

U.S. Treasury Bills, 1.450% due June 7, 2018

 

 

10.50

 

 

 

3,974,650

 

 

 

4,000,000

 

Total United States Treasury Obligations (cost $35,958,585)

 

 

95.01

%

 

$

35,956,809

 

 

 

 

 

Affiliated Investments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money Market Mutual Fund