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EX-32.2 - EXHIBIT 32.2 - Philip Morris International Inc.pm-ex322_123117xq4.htm
EX-32.1 - EXHIBIT 32.1 - Philip Morris International Inc.pm-ex321_123117xq4.htm
EX-31.2 - EXHIBIT 31.2 - Philip Morris International Inc.pm-ex312_123117xq4.htm
EX-31.1 - EXHIBIT 31.1 - Philip Morris International Inc.pm-ex311_123117xq4.htm
EX-24 - EXHIBIT 24 - Philip Morris International Inc.pm-ex24_123117xq4.htm
EX-23 - EXHIBIT 23 - Philip Morris International Inc.pm-ex23_123117xq4.htm
EX-21 - EXHIBIT 21 - Philip Morris International Inc.pm-ex21_123117xq4.htm
EX-12 - EXHIBIT 12 - Philip Morris International Inc.pm-ex12q4201710xkversion.htm
EX-10.30 - EXHIBIT 10.30 - Philip Morris International Inc.pm-ex1030con_martinkingxfi.htm
EX-10.26 - EXHIBIT 10.26 - Philip Morris International Inc.pm-ex1026nedcompensationpl.htm

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 FORM 10-K
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017
OR
¨

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
 
Commission File Number: 001-33708
 PHILIP MORRIS INTERNATIONAL INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Virginia
 
13-3435103
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
120 Park Avenue, New York, New York
 
10017
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
917-663-2000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class                    
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, no par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
5.650% Notes due 2018
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.875% Notes due 2019
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.625% Notes due 2019
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.375% Notes due 2019
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.875% Notes due 2019
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.125% Notes due 2019
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.000% Notes due 2020
 
New York Stock Exchange
Floating Notes due 2020
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.750% Notes due 2020
 
New York Stock Exchange
4.500% Notes due 2020
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.875% Notes due 2021
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.875% Notes due 2021
 
New York Stock Exchange
4.125% Notes due 2021
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.900% Notes due 2021
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.625% Notes due 2022
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.375% Notes due 2022
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.500% Notes due 2022
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.500% Notes due 2022
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.625% Notes due 2023
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.125% Notes due 2023
 
New York Stock Exchange
3.600% Notes due 2023
 
New York Stock Exchange



Title of each class                    
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
2.875% Notes due 2024
 
New York Stock Exchange
0.625% Notes due 2024
 
New York Stock Exchange
3.250% Notes due 2024
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.750% Notes due 2025
 
New York Stock Exchange
3.375% Notes due 2025
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.750% Notes due 2026
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.875% Notes due 2026
 
New York Stock Exchange
3.125% Notes due 2027
 
New York Stock Exchange
3.125% Notes due 2028
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.875% Notes due 2029
 
New York Stock Exchange
3.125% Notes due 2033
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.000% Notes due 2036
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.875% Notes due 2037
 
New York Stock Exchange
6.375% Notes due 2038
 
New York Stock Exchange
4.375% Notes due 2041
 
New York Stock Exchange
4.500% Notes due 2042
 
New York Stock Exchange
3.875% Notes due 2042
 
New York Stock Exchange
4.125% Notes due 2043
 
New York Stock Exchange
4.875% Notes due 2043
 
New York Stock Exchange
4.250% Notes due 2044
 
New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  þ  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes  ¨  No  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  þ  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes  þ  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.       þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  þ
 
Accelerated filer ¨
Non-accelerated filer ¨
 (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company ¨
 
 
Emerging growth company ¨
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.       ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes  ¨  No  þ

As of June 30, 2017, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $182 billion based on the closing sale price of the common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.




 
        Class                                
 
Outstanding at

January 31, 2018
Common Stock,
no par value
 
1,553,229,898

shares
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Document
Parts Into Which Incorporated
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for use in connection with its annual meeting of shareholders to be held on May 9, 2018, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on or about March 29, 2018.
Part III




TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
Page
 
Item 1.
 
Item 1A.
 
Item 1B.
 
Item 2.
 
Item 3.
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
 
Item 6.
 
Item 7.
 
Item 7A.
 
Item 8.
 
Item 9.
 
Item 9A.
 
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
 
Item 11.
 
Item 12.
 
Item 13.
 
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
 
 
 
 
 
 
In this report, “PMI,” “we,” “us” and “our” refers to Philip Morris International Inc. and its subsidiaries.




PART I

Item 1.
Business.
 
(a) General Development of Business
 
General
 
Philip Morris International Inc. is a Virginia holding company incorporated in 1987. Our subsidiaries and affiliates and their licensees are engaged in the manufacture and sale of cigarettes and other nicotine-containing products in markets outside of the United States of America. We are building our future on smoke-free products that are a much better consumer choice than continuing to smoke cigarettes.  Through multidisciplinary capabilities in product development, state-of-the-art facilities and scientific substantiation, we aim to ensure that our smoke-free products meet adult consumer preferences and rigorous regulatory requirements. Our vision is that these products ultimately replace cigarettes to the benefit of adult smokers, society, our company and our shareholders.

Our cigarettes are sold in more than 180 markets, and in many of these markets they hold the number one or number two market share position. We have a wide range of premium, mid-price and low-price brands. Our portfolio comprises both international and local brands and is led by Marlboro, the world’s best-selling international cigarette, which accounted for approximately 35% of our total 2017 cigarette shipment volume. Marlboro is complemented in the premium-price category by Parliament. Our other leading international cigarette brands are Bond Street, Chesterfield, L&M, Lark and Philip Morris. These seven international cigarette brands contributed approximately 75% of our cigarette shipment volume in 2017. We also own a number of important local cigarette brands, such as Dji Sam Soe, Sampoerna A and Sampoerna U in Indonesia; Fortune and Jackpot in the Philippines; Belmont and Canadian Classics in Canada; and Delicados in Mexico. While there are a number of markets where local brands remain important, international brands are expanding their share in numerous markets.

In addition to our leading cigarette brand portfolio, we are engaged in the development and commercialization of smoke-free alternatives to cigarettes. Reduced-risk products ("RRPs") is the term we use to refer to products that present, are likely to present, or have the potential to present less risk of harm to smokers who switch to these products versus continued smoking.  We have a range of RRPs in various stages of development, scientific assessment and commercialization.  Because our RRPs do not burn tobacco, they produce an aerosol that contains far lower quantities of harmful and potentially harmful constituents than found in cigarette smoke.

Our leading RRP brand, IQOS, is a precisely controlled device into which a specially designed heated tobacco unit is inserted and heated to generate an aerosol. We market our heated tobacco units under the brand names HEETS, HEETS Marlboro and HEETS FROM MARLBORO, defined collectively as HEETS, as well as Marlboro HeatSticks and Parliament HeatSticks. IQOS was first introduced in Nagoya, Japan in 2014. To date, IQOS is available for sale in key cities in 37 markets and nationwide in Japan.


Source of Funds — Dividends
 
We are a legal entity separate and distinct from our direct and indirect subsidiaries. Accordingly, our right, and thus the right of our creditors and stockholders, to participate in any distribution of the assets or earnings of any subsidiary is subject to the prior rights of creditors of such subsidiary, except to the extent that claims of our company itself as a creditor may be recognized. As a holding company, our principal sources of funds, including funds to make payment on our debt securities, are from the receipt of dividends and repayment of debt from our subsidiaries. Our principal wholly-owned and majority-owned subsidiaries currently are not limited by long-term debt or other agreements in their ability to pay cash dividends or to make other distributions with respect to their common stock.

(b) Financial Information About Segments
 
For all periods presented in this report, we divided our markets into four geographic regions, which constitute our segments for financial reporting purposes:
 
The European Union (“EU”) Region is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland, and covers all the EU countries and also comprises Switzerland, Norway and Iceland, which are linked to the EU through trade agreements;
The Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa (“EEMA”) Region is also headquartered in Lausanne and includes Eastern Europe, certain Balkan countries, Turkey, the Middle East and Africa and our international duty free business;
The Asia Region is headquartered in Hong Kong and covers all other Asian markets as well as Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands; and

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The Latin America & Canada Region is headquartered in New York and covers the South American continent, Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean and Canada.

Net revenues and operating companies income* (together with a reconciliation to operating income) attributable to each segment for each of the last three years are set forth in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Item 8") in Note 12. Segment Reporting to the consolidated financial statements. See Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of our operating results by business segment.
 
The relative percentages of operating companies income attributable to each reportable segment were as follows:
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
European Union
32.0
%
 
35.8
%
 
32.6
%
Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa
24.4

 
27.1

 
31.2

Asia
35.1

 
28.7

 
26.3

Latin America & Canada
8.5

 
8.4

 
9.9

 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
______________________________
*
For all periods presented in this report, our management evaluated segment performance and allocated resources based on operating companies income, which we define as operating income, excluding general corporate expenses and amortization of intangibles, plus equity (income)/loss in unconsolidated subsidiaries, net. The accounting policies of the segments are the same as those described in Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8.


We use the term net revenues to refer to our operating revenues from the sale of our products, net of sales and promotion incentives. Our net revenues and operating income are affected by various factors, including the volume of products we sell, the price of our products, changes in currency exchange rates and the mix of products we sell. Mix is a term used to refer to the proportionate value of premium-price brands to mid-price or low-price brands in any given market (product mix). Mix can also refer to the proportion of shipment volume in more profitable markets versus shipment volume in less profitable markets (geographic mix). We often collect excise taxes from our customers and then remit them to local governments, and, in those circumstances, we include excise taxes in our net revenues and excise taxes on products. Our cost of sales consists principally of tobacco leaf, non-tobacco raw materials, labor and manufacturing costs, as well as the cost of the IQOS devices produced by third-party electronics manufacturing service providers.

Our marketing, administration and research costs include the costs of marketing and selling our products, other costs generally not related to the manufacture of our products (including general corporate expenses), and costs incurred to develop new products. The most significant components of our marketing, administration and research costs are marketing and sales expenses and general and administrative expenses.
 
To provide a greater focus on both parts of our business -- combustible and reduced-risk products -- and to support our transformation toward a smoke-free future, effective January 1, 2018, we began managing our business in six reportable segments as follows:

The European Union Region is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland and covers all the European Union countries and also Switzerland, Norway and Iceland, which are linked to the European Union through trade agreements;
The Eastern Europe Region is also headquartered in Lausanne and includes Southeast Europe, Central Asia, Ukraine, Israel and Russia;
The Middle East & Africa Region is also headquartered in Lausanne and covers the African continent, the Middle East, Turkey and our international duty free business;
The South & Southeast Asia Region is headquartered in Hong Kong and includes Indonesia, the Philippines and other markets in this region;
The East Asia & Australia Region is also headquartered in Hong Kong and includes Australia, Japan, South Korea, the People's Republic of China and other markets in this region, as well as Malaysia and Singapore; and
The Latin America & Canada Region is headquartered in New York and covers the South American continent, Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean and Canada.



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(c) Narrative Description of Business
 
Our total shipments, including cigarettes and heated tobacco units, decreased by 2.7% in 2017 to 798.2 billion units. We estimate that international industry volumes, including cigarettes and heated tobacco units, were approximately 5.2 trillion units in 2017, a 1.3% decrease over 2016. Excluding the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”), we estimate that the international cigarette and heated tobacco unit volume was 2.8 trillion units in 2017, a 2.8% decrease over 2016. We estimate that our reported share of the international market (which is defined as worldwide cigarette and heated tobacco unit volume, excluding the United States of America) was approximately 15.2% in 2017, 15.5% in 2016 and 15.6% in 2015. Excluding the PRC, we estimate that our reported share of the international market was approximately 28.0%, 28.1%, and 28.6% in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
 
Shipments of our principal cigarette brand, Marlboro, decreased by 4.0% in 2017 and represented approximately 9.7% of the international cigarette market, excluding the PRC, in 2017, 9.6% in 2016 and 9.6% in 2015.
 
We have a market share of at least 15% and, in a number of instances, substantially more than 15%, in approximately 100 markets, including Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, the Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Singapore, Switzerland, Turkey and Ukraine.
 
Heated tobacco units is the term we use to refer to heated tobacco consumables, which include our HEETS, HEETS Marlboro and HEETS FROM MARLBORO, defined collectively as HEETS, as well as Marlboro HeatSticks and Parliament HeatSticks. Total shipment volume of heated tobacco units reached 36.2 billion units in 2017, up from 7.4 billion units in 2016.

References to total international market, defined as worldwide cigarette and heated tobacco unit volume excluding the United States, total industry, total market and market shares in this Form 10-K are our estimates for tax-paid products based on the latest available data from a number of internal and external sources.

Distribution & Sales

Our main types of distribution are tailored to the characteristics of each market and are often used simultaneously:
 
Direct sales and distribution, where we have set up our own distribution selling directly to the retailers (including gas stations and other key accounts);
Distribution through independent distributors that often distribute other fast-moving consumer goods and are responsible for distribution in a particular market;
Exclusive zonified distribution, where the distributors are dedicated to us in tobacco products distribution and assigned to exclusive territories within a market;
Distribution through national or regional wholesalers that then supply the retail trade; and
Our own brand retail and e-commerce infrastructures for our RRP products and accessories.
 

Competition    
 
We are subject to highly competitive conditions in all aspects of our business. We compete primarily on the basis of product quality, brand recognition, brand loyalty, taste, R&D, innovation, packaging, customer service, marketing, advertising and retail price and, increasingly, adult smoker willingness to convert to our RRPs. Our competitors include three large international tobacco companies and several regional and local tobacco companies and, in some instances, state-owned tobacco enterprises, principally in Algeria, Egypt, the PRC, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. Industry consolidation and privatizations of state-owned enterprises have led to an overall increase in competitive pressures. Some competitors have different profit and volume objectives, and some international competitors are susceptible to changes in currency exchange rates. In the combustible product category, we predominantly sell American blend cigarette brands, such as Marlboro, L&M, Parliament, Philip Morris and Chesterfield, which are the most popular across many of our markets. In the RRP product category, we predominantly sell IQOS devices and heated tobacco units. We seek to compete in all profitable retail price categories, although our brand portfolio is weighted towards the premium-price category.


3


 Procurement and Raw Materials    
 
We purchase tobacco leaf of various types, grades and styles throughout the world, mostly through independent tobacco suppliers. We also contract directly with farmers in several countries, including Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Italy, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, the Philippines and Poland. In 2017, direct sourcing from farmers represented approximately 22% of PMI’s global leaf requirements. The largest supplies of tobacco leaf are sourced from Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia (mostly for domestic use in kretek products), Malawi, Mozambique, Philippines, Turkey and the United States.

We believe that there is an adequate supply of tobacco leaf in the world markets to satisfy our current and anticipated production requirements.

In addition to tobacco leaf, we purchase a wide variety of direct materials from a total of approximately 450 suppliers. In 2017, our top ten suppliers of direct materials combined represented approximately 50% of our total direct materials purchases. The three most significant direct materials that we purchase are printed paper board used in packaging, acetate tow used in filter making and fine paper used in the manufacturing of cigarettes and heated tobacco units. In addition, the adequate supply and procurement of cloves are of particular importance to our Indonesian business.

The adequate supply chain for our RRP portfolio, including the supply of electronic devices, is important to our business. We work with two electronics manufacturing service providers for the supply of our IQOS devices and a small number of other providers for other products in our RRP portfolio and related accessories. Although we work closely with these service providers on monitoring their production capability and financial health, the commercialization of our RRPs could be adversely affected if they are unable to meet their commitments. The production of our RRP portfolio requires various metals, and we believe that there is an adequate supply of such metals in the world markets to satisfy our current and anticipated production requirements. However, some components and materials necessary for the production of our RRPs are obtained from single or limited sources, and can be subject to industry-wide shortages and price fluctuations. Our inability to secure an adequate supply of such components and materials could negatively impact the commercialization of our RRPs.

Our IQOS devices are subject to product warranties, which are described in more detail in Item 8. Note 5. Product Warranty to our consolidated financial statements. We discuss our RRP products in more detail in Item 7. Business Environment—Reduced Risk Products.


 Business Environment

Information called for by this Item is hereby incorporated by reference to the paragraphs in Item 7, Business Environment.
 

Other Matters
 
Customers
 
None of our business segments is dependent upon a single customer or a few customers, the loss of which would have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations.
 
Employees
 
At December 31, 2017, we employed approximately 80,600 people worldwide, including full time, temporary and part-time staff. Our businesses are subject to a number of laws and regulations relating to our relationship with our employees. Generally, these laws and regulations are specific to the location of each business. In addition, in accordance with European Union requirements, we have established a European Works Council composed of management and elected members of our workforce. We believe that our relations with our employees and their representative organizations are excellent.
 
Executive Officers of the Registrant    

The disclosure regarding executive officers is set forth under the heading “Executive Officers as of February 9, 2018” in Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance of this Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Item 10").
 


4


Research and Development
 
Our product development is based on the elimination of combustion via tobacco heating and other innovative systems for aerosol generation, which we believe is the most promising path to providing a better consumer choice for those who would otherwise continue to smoke. We recognize that no single product will appeal to all adult smokers. Therefore, we are developing a portfolio of products intended to appeal to a variety of distinct preferences. Four RRP platforms are in various stages of development and commercialization readiness. We describe each of them in more detail in Item 7, Business Environment—Reduced-Risk Products.

The research and development expense for our RRP portfolio accounted for 74%, 72% and 70% of our total research and development expense for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

The research and development expense for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, is set forth in Item 8, Note 14. Additional Information to the consolidated financial statements.


Intellectual Property

Our trademarks are valuable assets, and their protection and reputation are essential to us. We own the trademark rights to all of our principal brands, including Marlboro, or have the right to use them in all countries where we use them.
 
In addition, we have more than 7,800 granted patents worldwide and approximately 7,700 pending patent applications. Our patent portfolio, as a whole, is material to our business. However, no one patent, or group of related patents, is material to us. We also have registered industrial designs, as well as unregistered proprietary trade secrets, technology, know-how, processes and other unregistered intellectual property rights.
 
Effective January 1, 2008, PMI entered into an Intellectual Property Agreement with Philip Morris USA Inc. (“PM USA”). The Intellectual Property Agreement governs the ownership of intellectual property between PMI and PM USA. Ownership of the jointly funded intellectual property has been allocated as follows:
 
PMI owns all rights to the jointly funded intellectual property outside the United States, its territories and possessions; and
PM USA owns all rights to the jointly funded intellectual property in the United States, its territories and possessions.

Ownership of intellectual property related to patent applications and resulting patents based solely on the jointly funded intellectual property, regardless of when filed or issued, will be exclusive to PM USA in the United States, its territories and possessions and exclusive to PMI everywhere else.
 
The Intellectual Property Agreement contains provisions concerning intellectual property that is independently developed by us or PM USA following March 28, 2008, the date of the spin-off from Altria Group, Inc. For ten years following that date, independently developed intellectual property may be subject to rights under certain circumstances that would allow either us or PM USA a priority position to obtain the rights to the new intellectual property from the other party, with the price and other commercial terms to be negotiated.

In the event of a dispute between us and PM USA under the Intellectual Property Agreement, we have agreed with PM USA to submit the dispute first to negotiation between our and PM USA’s senior executives and then to binding arbitration.

Seasonality
 
Our business segments are not significantly affected by seasonality, although in certain markets cigarette consumption trends rise during the summer months due to longer daylight time and tourism.
 

5


Environmental Regulation    
 
We are subject to international, national and local environmental laws and regulations in the countries in which we do business. We have specific programs across our business units designed to meet applicable environmental compliance requirements and reduce our carbon footprint and wastage as well as water and energy consumption. We report externally about our climate change mitigation strategy, together with associated targets and results in reducing our carbon footprint, through CDP (formerly, the Carbon Disclosure Project), the leading international non-governmental organization assessing the work of thousands of companies worldwide in the area of climate change. We have developed and implemented a consistent environmental and occupational health, safety and security management system ("EHSS"), which involves policies, standard practices and procedures at all our manufacturing centers. We also conduct regular safety assessments at our offices, warehouses and car fleet organizations. Furthermore, we have engaged an external certification body to validate the effectiveness of our EHSS management system at our manufacturing centers around the world, in accordance with internationally recognized standards for safety and environmental management. The environmental performance data we report externally is also verified by a qualified third party. Our subsidiaries expect to continue to make investments in order to drive improved performance and maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations. We assess and report the compliance status of all our legal entities on a regular basis. Based on the management and controls we have in place and our review of climate change risks (both physical and regulatory), environmental expenditures have not had, and are not expected to have, a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, capital expenditures, financial position, earnings or competitive position.

(d) Financial Information About Geographic Areas
 
The amounts of net revenues and long-lived assets attributable to each of our geographic segments for each of the last three fiscal years are set forth in Item 8, Note 12. Segment Reporting to the consolidated financial statements.
 
(e) Available Information    
 
We are required to file with the SEC annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information required by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Investors may read and copy any document that we file, including this Annual Report on Form 10-K, at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Investors may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet website at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, from which investors can electronically access our SEC filings.
 
We make available free of charge on, or through, our website at www.pmi.com our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Investors can access our filings with the SEC by visiting www.pmi.com.
 
The information on our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part of this report or incorporated into any other filings we make with the SEC.


Item 1A.     Risk Factors.     
     

The following risk factors should be read carefully in connection with evaluating our business and the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any of the following risks could materially adversely affect our business, our operating results, our financial condition and the actual outcome of matters as to which forward-looking statements are made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements
We may from time to time make written or oral forward-looking statements, including statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and other filings with the SEC, in reports to stockholders and in press releases and investor webcasts. You can identify these forward-looking statements by use of words such as "strategy," "expects," "continues," "plans," "anticipates," "believes," "will," "estimates," "intends," "projects," "goals," "targets" and other words of similar meaning. You can also identify them by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts.
We cannot guarantee that any forward-looking statement will be realized, although we believe we have been prudent in our plans and assumptions. Achievement of future results is subject to risks, uncertainties and inaccurate assumptions. Should known or unknown risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove inaccurate, actual results could vary materially from those anticipated,

6


estimated or projected. Investors should bear this in mind as they consider forward-looking statements and whether to invest in or remain invested in our securities. In connection with the “safe harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, we are identifying important factors that, individually or in the aggregate, could cause actual results and outcomes to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements made by us; any such statement is qualified by reference to the following cautionary statements. We elaborate on these and other risks we face throughout this document, particularly in Item 7, Business Environment. You should understand that it is not possible to predict or identify all risk factors. Consequently, you should not consider the following to be a complete discussion of all potential risks or uncertainties. We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statement that we may make from time to time, except in the normal course of our public disclosure obligations.


Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Consumption of tax-paid cigarettes continues to decline in many of our markets.
This decline is due to multiple factors, including increased taxes and pricing, governmental actions, the diminishing social acceptance of smoking, continuing economic and geopolitical uncertainty, and the continuing prevalence of illicit products. These factors and their potential consequences are discussed more fully below and in Item 7, Business Environment.

Cigarettes are subject to substantial taxes. Significant increases in cigarette-related taxes have been proposed or enacted and are likely to continue to be proposed or enacted in numerous jurisdictions. These tax increases may disproportionately affect our profitability and make us less competitive versus certain of our competitors.
Tax regimes, including excise taxes, sales taxes and import duties, can disproportionately affect the retail price of cigarettes versus other combustible tobacco products, or disproportionately affect the relative retail price of our cigarette brands versus cigarette brands manufactured by certain of our competitors. Because our portfolio is weighted toward the premium-price cigarette category, tax regimes based on sales price can place us at a competitive disadvantage in certain markets. As a result, our volume and profitability may be adversely affected in these markets.
Increases in cigarette taxes are expected to continue to have an adverse impact on our sales of cigarettes, due to resulting lower consumption levels, a shift in sales from manufactured cigarettes to other combustible tobacco products and from the premium-price to the mid-price or low-price cigarette categories, where we may be under-represented, from local sales to legal cross-border purchases of lower price products, or to illicit products such as contraband, counterfeit and "illicit whites."

Our business faces significant governmental action aimed at increasing regulatory requirements with the goal of reducing or preventing the use of tobacco products.
Governmental actions, combined with the diminishing social acceptance of smoking and private actions to restrict smoking, have resulted in reduced industry volume in many of our markets, and we expect that such factors will continue to reduce consumption levels and will increase down-trading and the risk of counterfeiting, contraband, "illicit whites" and legal cross-border purchases. Significant regulatory developments will take place over the next few years in most of our markets, driven principally by the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (“FCTC”). The FCTC is the first international public health treaty on tobacco, and its objective is to establish a global agenda for tobacco regulation. The FCTC has led to increased efforts by tobacco control advocates and public health organizations to promote increasingly restrictive regulatory measures on the marketing and sale of tobacco products to adult smokers. Regulatory initiatives that have been proposed, introduced or enacted include:

restrictions on or licensing of outlets permitted to sell cigarettes;
the levying of substantial and increasing tax and duty charges;
restrictions or bans on advertising, marketing and sponsorship;
the display of larger health warnings, graphic health warnings and other labeling requirements;
restrictions on packaging design, including the use of colors, and plain packaging;
restrictions on packaging and cigarette formats and dimensions;
restrictions or bans on the display of tobacco product packaging at the point of sale and restrictions or bans on cigarette vending machines;
requirements regarding testing, disclosure and performance standards for tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and other smoke constituents;
disclosure, restrictions, or bans of tobacco product ingredients;
increased restrictions on smoking in public and work places and, in some instances, in private places and outdoors;

7


restrictions on the sale of novel tobacco or nicotine-containing products;
elimination of duty free sales and duty free allowances for travelers; and
encouraging litigation against tobacco companies.
Our operating income could be significantly affected by regulatory initiatives resulting in a significant decrease in demand for our brands, in particular requirements that lead to a commoditization of tobacco products, as well as any significant increase in the cost of complying with new regulatory requirements.

Litigation related to tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke could substantially reduce our profitability and could severely impair our liquidity.

There is litigation related to tobacco products pending in certain jurisdictions. Damages claimed in some tobacco-related litigation are significant and, in certain cases in Brazil, Canada and Nigeria, range into the billions of U.S. dollars. We anticipate that new cases will continue to be filed. The FCTC encourages litigation against tobacco product manufacturers. It is possible that our consolidated results of operations, cash flows or financial position could be materially affected in a particular fiscal quarter or fiscal year by an unfavorable outcome or settlement of certain pending litigation. See Item 8, Note 18. Contingencies (“Note 18. Contingencies”) for a discussion of pending litigation.

We face intense competition, and our failure to compete effectively could have a material adverse effect on our profitability and results of operations.
We compete primarily on the basis of product quality, brand recognition, brand loyalty, taste, R&D, innovation, packaging, customer service, marketing, advertising and retail price and, increasingly, adult smoker willingness to convert to our RRPs. We are subject to highly competitive conditions in all aspects of our business. The competitive environment and our competitive position can be significantly influenced by weak economic conditions, erosion of consumer confidence, competitors' introduction of lower-price products or innovative products, higher tobacco product taxes, higher absolute prices and larger gaps between retail price categories, and product regulation that diminishes the ability to differentiate tobacco products. Competitors include three large international tobacco companies and several regional and local tobacco companies and, in some instances, state-owned tobacco enterprises, principally in Algeria, Egypt, the PRC, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. Industry consolidation and privatizations of state-owned enterprises have led to an overall increase in competitive pressures. Some competitors have different profit and volume objectives, and some international competitors are susceptible to changes in different currency exchange rates.

Because we have operations in numerous countries, our results may be influenced by economic, regulatory and political developments, natural disasters or conflicts.
Some of the countries in which we operate face the threat of civil unrest and can be subject to regime changes. In others, nationalization, terrorism, conflict and the threat of war may have a significant impact on the business environment. Economic, political, regulatory or other developments or natural disasters could disrupt our supply chain, manufacturing capabilities or distribution capabilities. In addition, such developments could lead to loss of property or equipment that are critical to our business in certain markets and difficulty in staffing and managing our operations, which could reduce our volumes, revenues and net earnings.
In certain markets, we are dependent on governmental approvals of various actions such as price changes, and failure to obtain such approvals could impair growth of our profitability.
In addition, despite our high ethical standards and rigorous control and compliance procedures aimed at preventing and detecting unlawful conduct, given the breadth and scope of our international operations, we may not be able to detect all potential improper or unlawful conduct by our employees and partners.


8


We may be unable to anticipate changes in consumer preferences or to respond to consumer behavior influenced by economic downturns.
Our business is subject to changes in adult consumer preferences, which may be influenced by local economic conditions. To be successful, we must:

promote brand equity successfully;
anticipate and respond to new adult consumer trends;
develop new products and markets and broaden brand portfolios;
improve productivity;
convince adult smokers to convert to our RRPs;
ensure adequate production capacity to meet demand for our products; and
be able to protect or enhance margins through price increases.
In periods of economic uncertainty, adult consumers may tend to purchase lower-price brands, and the volume of our premium-price and mid-price brands and our profitability could suffer accordingly. Such down-trading trends may be reinforced by regulation that limits branding, communication and product differentiation.

We lose revenues as a result of counterfeiting, contraband, cross-border purchases, “illicit whites” and non-tax-paid volume produced by local manufacturers.
Large quantities of counterfeit cigarettes are sold in the international market. We believe that Marlboro is the most heavily counterfeited international cigarette brand, although we cannot quantify the revenues we lose as a result of this activity. In addition, our revenues are reduced by contraband, legal cross-border purchases, “illicit whites” and non-tax-paid volume produced by local manufacturers.

From time to time, we are subject to governmental investigations on a range of matters.
Investigations include allegations of contraband shipments of cigarettes, allegations of unlawful pricing activities within certain markets, allegations of underpayment of customs duties and/or excise taxes, allegations of false and misleading usage of descriptors and allegations of unlawful advertising. We cannot predict the outcome of those investigations or whether additional investigations may be commenced, and it is possible that our business could be materially affected by an unfavorable outcome of pending or future investigations. See Note 18. Contingencies—Other Litigation and Item 7, Business Environment-Governmental Investigations for a description of certain governmental investigations to which we are subject.

We may be unsuccessful in our attempts to introduce reduced-risk products, and regulators may not permit the commercialization of these products or the communication of scientifically substantiated risk-reduction claims.

Our key strategic priorities are: to develop and commercialize products that present less risk of harm to adult smokers who switch to those products versus continued smoking; and to convince current adult smokers who would otherwise continue to smoke to switch to those RRPs. For our efforts to be successful, we must: develop RRPs that such adult smokers find acceptable alternatives to smoking; conduct rigorous scientific studies to substantiate that they reduce exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents in smoke and, ultimately, that these products present, are likely to present, or have the potential to present less risk of harm to adult smokers who switch to them versus continued smoking; and effectively advocate for the development of science-based regulatory frameworks for the development and commercialization of RRPs, including communication of scientifically substantiated information to enable adult smokers to make better consumer choices. We might not succeed in our efforts. If we do not succeed, but others do, we may be at a competitive disadvantage. Furthermore, we cannot predict whether regulators will permit the sale and/or marketing of RRPs with scientifically substantiated risk-reduction claims. Such restrictions could limit the success of our RRPs.

We may be unsuccessful in our efforts to differentiate reduced-risk products and cigarettes with respect to taxation.

To date, we have been largely successful in demonstrating to regulators that our RRPs are not cigarettes, and as such they are generally taxed either as a separate category or as other tobacco products, which typically yields more favorable tax rates than cigarettes. If we cease to be successful in these efforts, RRP unit margins may be adversely affected.


9


Our reported results could be adversely affected by unfavorable currency exchange rates, and currency devaluations could impair our competitiveness.
We conduct our business primarily in local currency and, for purposes of financial reporting, the local currency results are translated into U.S. dollars based on average exchange rates prevailing during a reporting period. During times of a strengthening U.S. dollar, our reported net revenues and operating income will be reduced because the local currency translates into fewer U.S. dollars. During periods of local economic crises, foreign currencies may be devalued significantly against the U.S. dollar, reducing our margins. Actions to recover margins may result in lower volume and a weaker competitive position.

Changes in the earnings mix and changes in tax laws may result in significant variability in our effective tax rates. Our ability to receive payments from foreign subsidiaries or to repatriate royalties and dividends could be restricted by local country currency exchange controls.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act that was signed into law in December 2017 constitutes a major change to the U.S. tax system. Our estimated impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act is based on management’s current interpretations, and our analysis is ongoing.  Our final tax liability may be materially different from current estimates due to developments such as implementing regulations and clarifications. In future periods, our effective tax rate and our ability to recover deferred tax assets could be subject to additional uncertainty as a result of such developments. Furthermore, changes in the earnings mix or applicable foreign tax laws may result in significant variability in our effective tax rates. Because we are a U.S. holding company, our most significant source of funds is distributions from our non-U.S. subsidiaries. Certain countries in which we operate have adopted or could institute currency exchange controls that limit or prohibit our local subsidiaries' ability to convert local currency into U.S. dollars or to make payments outside the country. This could subject us to the risks of local currency devaluation and business disruption.

Our ability to grow profitability may be limited by our inability to introduce new products, enter new markets or improve our margins through higher pricing and improvements in our brand and geographic mix.
Our profit growth may suffer if we are unable to introduce new products or enter new markets successfully, to raise prices or to improve the proportion of our sales of higher margin products and in higher margin geographies.

We may be unable to expand our brand portfolio through successful acquisitions or the development of strategic business relationships.
One element of our growth strategy is to strengthen our brand portfolio and market positions through selective acquisitions and the development of strategic business relationships. Acquisition and strategic business development opportunities are limited and present risks of failing to achieve efficient and effective integration, strategic objectives and anticipated revenue improvements and cost savings. There is no assurance that we will be able to acquire attractive businesses on favorable terms, or that future acquisitions or strategic business developments will be accretive to earnings.

Government mandated prices, production control programs, shifts in crops driven by economic conditions and the impact of climate change may increase the cost or reduce the quality of the tobacco and other agricultural products used to manufacture our products.
As with other agricultural commodities, the price of tobacco leaf and cloves can be influenced by imbalances in supply and demand, and crop quality can be influenced by variations in weather patterns, including those caused by climate change. Tobacco production in certain countries is subject to a variety of controls, including government mandated prices and production control programs. Changes in the patterns of demand for agricultural products could cause farmers to produce less tobacco or cloves. Any significant change in tobacco leaf and clove prices, quality and quantity could affect our profitability and our business.

Our ability to implement our strategy of attracting and retaining the best global talent may be impaired by the decreasing social acceptance of cigarette smoking.

The tobacco industry competes for talent with consumer products and other companies that enjoy greater societal acceptance. As a result, we may be unable to attract and retain the best global talent.


10


The failure of our information systems to function as intended or their penetration by outside parties with the intent to corrupt them or our failure to comply with privacy laws and regulations could result in business disruption, litigation and regulatory action, and loss of revenue, assets or personal or other confidential data.
We use information systems to help manage business processes, collect and interpret business data and communicate internally and externally with employees, suppliers, customers and others. Some of these information systems are managed by third-party service providers. We have backup systems and business continuity plans in place, and we take care to protect our systems and data from unauthorized access. Nevertheless, failure of our systems to function as intended, or penetration of our systems by outside parties intent on extracting or corrupting information or otherwise disrupting business processes, could place us at a competitive disadvantage, result in a loss of revenue, assets or personal or other sensitive data, litigation and regulatory action, cause damage to our reputation and that of our brands and result in significant remediation and other costs. Failure to protect personal data and respect the rights of data subjects could subject us to substantial fines under regulations such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation.

We may be required to replace third-party contract manufacturers or service providers with our own resources.

In certain instances, we contract with third parties to manufacture some of our products or product parts or to provide other services. We may be unable to renew these agreements on satisfactory terms for numerous reasons, including government regulations. Accordingly, our costs may increase significantly if we must replace such third parties with our own resources.


Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments.
 
None.
 

Item 2. Properties.
 
At December 31, 2017, we operated and owned 46 manufacturing facilities and maintained contract manufacturing relationships with 25 third-party manufacturers across 23 markets. In addition, we work with 38 third-party operators in Indonesia who manufacture our hand-rolled cigarettes.
 
PMI-Owned Manufacturing Facilities
 
 
EU (1)
 
EEMA
 
Asia
 
Latin
America
&
Canada
 
TOTAL
Fully integrated
7

 
8

 
9

 
7

 
31

Make-pack
3

 

 
1

 
2

 
6

Other
3

 
1

 
3

 
2

 
9

Total
13

 
9

 
13

 
11

 
46

 
(1) Includes facilities that produced heated tobacco units in 2017.

In 2017, 23 of our facilities each manufactured over 10 billion cigarettes, of which eight facilities each produced over 30 billion units. Our largest factories are in Karawang and Sukorejo (Indonesia), Izmir (Turkey), Krakow (Poland), St. Petersburg and Krasnodar (Russia), Batangas and Marikina (Philippines), Berlin (Germany), Kharkiv (Ukraine), and Kutna Hora (Czech Republic). Our smallest factories are mostly in Latin America and Asia, where due to tariff and other constraints we have established small manufacturing units in individual markets. We will continue to optimize our manufacturing base, taking into consideration the evolution of trade blocks.
 
The plants and properties owned or leased and operated by our subsidiaries are maintained in good condition and are believed to be suitable and adequate for our present needs.

We are integrating the production of heated tobacco units into a number of our existing manufacturing facilities and progressing with our plans to build manufacturing capacity for our other RRP platforms.



11


Item 3.
Legal Proceedings.
 
The information called for by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to Item 8. Note 18. Contingencies.

Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures.
 
Not applicable.


PART II
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
 
The principal stock exchange on which our common stock (no par value) is listed is the New York Stock Exchange. At January 31, 2018, there were approximately 57,300 holders of record of our common stock.
 



12



Performance Graph

The graph below compares the cumulative total shareholder return on PMI's common stock with the cumulative total return for the same period of PMI's Peer Group and the S&P 500 Index. The graph assumes the investment of $100 as of December 31, 2012, in PMI common stock (at prices quoted on the New York Stock Exchange) and each of the indices as of the market close and reinvestment of dividends on a quarterly basis.

pm12312014_chart-46538a14.jpg
Date
 
PMI
 
 
PMI Peer Group (1)
 
S&P 500 Index
December 31, 2012
 
$100.00
 
 
$100.00
 
$100.00
December 31, 2013
 
$108.50
 
 
$122.80
 
$132.40
December 31, 2014
 
$106.20
 
 
$132.50
 
$150.50
December 31, 2015
 
$120.40
 
 
$143.50
 
$152.60
December 31, 2016
 
$130.80
 
 
$145.60
 
$170.80
December 31, 2017
 
$156.80
 
 
$172.70
 
$208.10

(1) The PMI Peer Group presented in this graph is the same as that used in the prior year, except Reynolds American Inc. was removed following the completion of its acquisition by British American Tobacco p.l.c. on July 25, 2017. The PMI Peer Group was established based on a review of four characteristics: global presence; a focus on consumer products; and net revenues and a market capitalization of a similar size to those of PMI. The review also considered the primary international tobacco companies. As a result of this review, the following companies constitute the PMI Peer Group: Altria Group, Inc., Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV, British American Tobacco p.l.c., The Coca-Cola Company, Colgate-Palmolive Co., Diageo plc, Heineken N.V., Imperial Brands PLC, Japan Tobacco Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Kimberly-Clark Corporation, The Kraft-Heinz Company, McDonald's Corp., Mondelēz International, Inc., Nestlé S.A., PepsiCo, Inc., The Procter & Gamble Company, Roche Holding AG, and Unilever NV and PLC.

Note: Figures are rounded to the nearest $0.10.


13




Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities During the Quarter Ended December 31, 2017

Our share repurchase activity for each of the three months in the quarter ended December 31, 2017, was as follows:
 
Period
 
Total
Number of
Shares
Repurchased
 
Average
Price Paid
per Share
 
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced
Plans or
Programs
 
Approximate
Dollar Value
of Shares that
May Yet be
Purchased
Under the Plans
or Programs
October 1, 2017 –
October 31, 2017 (1)
 

 
$

 

 
$

November 1, 2017 –
November 30, 2017 (1)
 

 
$

 

 
$

December 1, 2017 –
December 31, 2017 (1)
 

 
$

 

 
$

Pursuant to Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs
 

 
$

 
 
 
 
October 1, 2017 –
October 31, 2017 (2)
 
672

 
$
112.68

 
 
 
 
November 1, 2017 –
November 30, 2017 (2)
 
271

 
$
104.73

 
 
 
 
December 1, 2017 –
December 31, 2017 (2)
 
497

 
$
102.99

 
 
 
 
For the Quarter Ended
December 31, 2017
 
1,440

 
$
107.84

 
 
 
 
 
(1)
During this reporting period, we did not have an authorized share repurchase program.
(2)
Shares repurchased represent shares tendered to us by employees who vested in restricted share unit awards and used shares to pay all, or a portion of, the related taxes.

The other information called for by this Item is included in Item 8, Note 22. Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited) to the consolidated financial statements.


14


Item 6.     Selected Financial Data

(in millions of dollars, except per share data)

 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Summary of Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenues
$
78,098

 
$
74,953

 
$
73,908

 
$
80,106

 
$
80,029

Cost of sales
10,432

 
9,391

 
9,365

 
10,436

 
10,410

Excise taxes on products
49,350

 
48,268

 
47,114

 
50,339

 
48,812

Gross profit
18,316

 
17,294

 
17,429

 
19,331

 
20,807

Operating income
11,503

 
10,815

 
10,623

 
11,702

 
13,515

Interest expense, net
914

 
891

 
1,008

 
1,052

 
973

Earnings before income taxes
10,589

 
9,924

 
9,615

 
10,650

 
12,542

Pre-tax profit margin
13.6
%
 
13.2
%
 
13.0
%
 
13.3
%
 
15.7
%
Provision for income taxes
4,307

 
2,768

 
2,688

 
3,097

 
3,670

Net earnings
6,341

 
7,250

 
7,032

 
7,658

 
8,850

Net earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests
306

 
283

 
159

 
165

 
274

Net earnings attributable to PMI
6,035

 
6,967

 
6,873

 
7,493

 
8,576

Basic earnings per share
3.88

 
4.48

 
4.42

 
4.76

 
5.26

Diluted earnings per share
3.88

 
4.48

 
4.42

 
4.76

 
5.26

Dividends declared per share
4.22

 
4.12

 
4.04

 
3.88

 
3.58

Capital expenditures
1,548

 
1,172

 
960

 
1,153

 
1,200

Depreciation and amortization
875

 
743

 
754

 
889

 
882

Property, plant and equipment, net
7,271

 
6,064

 
5,721

 
6,071

 
6,755

Inventories
8,806

 
9,017

 
8,473

 
8,592

 
9,846

Total assets
42,968

 
36,851

 
33,956

 
35,187

 
38,168

Long-term debt
31,334

 
25,851

 
25,250

 
26,929

 
24,023

Total debt
34,339

 
29,067

 
28,480

 
29,455

 
27,678

Stockholders' deficit
(10,230
)
 
(10,900
)
 
(11,476
)
 
(11,203
)
 
(6,274
)
Common dividends declared as a % of Diluted EPS
108.8
%
 
92.0
%
 
91.4
%
 
81.5
%
 
68.1
%
Market price per common share — high/low
123.55-89.97

 
104.20-84.46

 
90.27-75.27

 
91.63-75.28

 
96.73-82.86

Closing price of common share at year end
105.65

 
91.49

 
87.91

 
81.45

 
87.13

Price/earnings ratio at year end — Diluted
27

 
20

 
20

 
17

 
17

Number of common shares outstanding at year end (millions)
1,553

 
1,551

 
1,549

 
1,547

 
1,589

Number of employees
80,600

 
79,500

 
80,200

 
82,500

 
91,100

 
This Selected Financial Data should be read in conjunction with Item 7 and Item 8.



15


Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
 
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the consolidated financial statements and related notes contained in Item 8, and the discussion of risks and cautionary factors that may affect future results in Item 1A. Risk Factors.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Description of Our Company

We are a leading international tobacco company engaged in the manufacture and sale of cigarettes and other nicotine-containing products in markets outside the United States of America. We are building our future on smoke-free products that are a much better consumer choice than continuing to smoke cigarettes.  Through multidisciplinary capabilities in product development, state-of-the-art facilities and scientific substantiation, we aim to ensure that our smoke-free products meet adult consumer preferences and rigorous regulatory requirements. Our vision is that these products ultimately replace cigarettes to the benefit of adult smokers, society, our company and our shareholders.

Our cigarettes are sold in more than 180 markets, and in many of these markets they hold the number one or number two market share position. We have a wide range of premium, mid-price and low-price brands. Our portfolio comprises both international and local brands. In addition to the manufacture and sale of cigarettes, we are engaged in the development and commercialization of reduced-risk products ("RRPs"). RRPs is the term we use to refer to products that present, are likely to present, or have the potential to present less risk of harm to smokers who switch to these products versus continued smoking.  We have a range of RRPs in various stages of development, scientific assessment and commercialization.  Because our RRPs do not burn tobacco, they produce an aerosol that contains far lower quantities of harmful and potentially harmful constituents than found in cigarette smoke.

For all periods presented in this report, we managed our business in four segments:
European Union;
Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa (“EEMA”);
Asia; and
Latin America & Canada.

To provide a greater focus on both parts of our business -- combustible and reduced-risk products -- and to support our transformation toward a smoke-free future, effective January 1, 2018, we are managing our business in six reportable segments as follows:

European Union - Covers all the European Union countries and also Switzerland, Norway and Iceland, which are linked to the European Union through trade agreements;
Eastern Europe - Includes Southeast Europe, Central Asia, Ukraine, Israel and Russia;
Middle East & Africa - Covers the African continent, the Middle East, Turkey and PMI Duty Free;
South & Southeast Asia - Includes Indonesia, the Philippines and other markets in this region;
East Asia & Australia - Includes Australia, Japan, South Korea, the People's Republic of China and other markets in this region, as well as Malaysia and Singapore; and
Latin America & Canada - Covers the South American continent, Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean and Canada.

We use the term net revenues to refer to our operating revenues from the sale of our products, net of sales and promotion incentives. Our net revenues and operating income are affected by various factors, including the volume of products we sell, the price of our products, changes in currency exchange rates and the mix of products we sell. Mix is a term used to refer to the proportionate value of premium-price brands to mid-price or low-price brands in any given market (product mix). Mix can also refer to the proportion of shipment volume in more profitable markets versus shipment volume in less profitable markets (geographic mix). We often collect excise taxes from our customers and then remit them to governments, and, in those circumstances, we include the excise taxes in our net revenues and in excise taxes on products. Our cost of sales consists principally of tobacco leaf, non-tobacco raw materials, labor and manufacturing costs, as well as the cost of the IQOS devices produced by third-party electronics manufacturing service providers.

Our marketing, administration and research costs include the costs of marketing and selling our products, other costs generally not related to the manufacture of our products (including general corporate expenses), and costs incurred to develop new products. The most

16


significant components of our marketing, administration and research costs are marketing and sales expenses and general and administrative expenses.

Philip Morris International Inc. is a legal entity separate and distinct from its direct and indirect subsidiaries. Accordingly, our right, and thus the right of our creditors and stockholders, to participate in any distribution of the assets or earnings of any subsidiary is subject to the prior rights of creditors of such subsidiary, except to the extent that claims of our company itself as a creditor may be recognized. As a holding company, our principal sources of funds, including funds to make payment on our debt securities, are from the receipt of dividends and repayment of debt from our subsidiaries. Our principal wholly-owned and majority-owned subsidiaries currently are not limited by long-term debt or other agreements in their ability to pay cash dividends or to make other distributions with respect to their common stock.

Executive Summary

The following executive summary provides significant highlights from the Discussion and Analysis that follows.

Consolidated Operating Results

Net Revenues and Net Revenues, Excluding Excise Taxes on Products The changes in our net revenues, and net revenues, excluding excise taxes, for the year ended December 31, 2017, from the comparable 2016 amounts, were as follows:

 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Variance
 
Variance due to
(in millions)
2017
2016
 
$
%
 
Currency
Volume/Mix
Pricing
Net revenues
$
78,098

$
74,953

 
$
3,145

4.2
 %
 
$
(2,355
)
$
(439
)
$
5,939

Excise taxes on products
(49,350
)
(48,268
)
 
(1,082
)
(2.2
)%
 
1,918

1,553

(4,553
)
Net revenues, excluding excise taxes on products
$
28,748

$
26,685

 
$
2,063

7.7
 %
 
$
(437
)
$
1,114

$
1,386


Net revenues include $3.8 billion in 2017 and $739 million in 2016 related to the sale of RRPs, mainly driven by Japan. These net revenue amounts include excise taxes billed to customers, where we collect and remit the excise tax. Excluding excise taxes, net revenues for RRPs were $3.6 billion in 2017 and $733 million in 2016. In some jurisdictions, including Japan, we are not responsible for collecting excise taxes.

Diluted Earnings Per Share The changes in our reported diluted earnings per share (“diluted EPS”) for the year ended December 31, 2017, from the comparable 2016 amounts, were as follows:
 
Diluted EPS
% Growth
For the year ended December 31, 2016
$
4.48

 
 
 
 
2016 Asset impairment and exit costs

 
2016 Tax items

 
       Subtotal of 2016 items

 
 
 
 
2017 Asset impairment and exit costs

 
2017 Tax items
(0.84
)
 
       Subtotal of 2017 items
(0.84
)
 
 
 
 
Currency
(0.21
)
 
Interest
0.01

 
Change in tax rate
(0.03
)
 
Operations
0.47

 
For the year ended December 31, 2017
$
3.88

(13.4
)%

17



Income Taxes Our effective income tax rate for 2017 increased by 12.8 percentage points to 40.7%. The 2017 tax items that decreased our diluted EPS by $0.84 per share in the table above were primarily due to the impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which was signed into law in December 2017.

The principal elements of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act relevant to our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017, were:
A reduction of the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%; and
The requirement to pay a one-time transition tax on accumulated foreign earnings, including 2017 earnings ("transition tax").
In connection with these elements of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, we recognized a provisional expense of $1.6 billion, which was included as a component of income tax expense as follows:
A provisional charge of $1.4 billion, which represents the transition tax of $2.2 billion, net of a reversal of $0.7 billion of previously recorded deferred tax liabilities on part of the accumulated foreign earnings, and other items of $0.1 billion.
Re-measurement of U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities using a rate of 21%, which, under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, is expected to be in place when such deferred assets and liabilities reverse in the future. In connection with this re-measurement, we recorded a provisional charge of $0.2 billion.
While the impacts of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act reduced net earnings by $1.6 billion, there was no net impact on operating cash flows for the year, as the changes in deferred taxes and income taxes payable offset the net earnings impact. At December 31, 2017, we recorded an income tax payable of $1.7 billion representing the transition tax of $2.2 billion, partially offset by foreign tax credits related to foreign withholding taxes previously paid of $0.5 billion. The income tax payable is due over an 8-year period beginning in 2018. For further details, see Item 8, Note 11. Income Taxes to our consolidated financial statements.

The change in the effective tax rate that decreased our diluted EPS by $0.03 per share in the table above was primarily due to earnings mix by taxing jurisdiction.

Currency The unfavorable currency impact during 2017 results from the fluctuations of the U.S. dollar, especially against the Brazilian real, Egyptian pound, Euro, Japanese yen and Turkish lira, partially offset by the Russian ruble. This unfavorable currency movement has impacted our profitability across our primary revenue markets and local currency cost bases.

Interest The favorable impact of interest was due primarily to higher interest income, partly offset by higher average debt levels.

Operations The increase in diluted EPS of $0.47 from our operations in the table above was due primarily to the following segments:

Asia: Favorable volume/mix, higher pricing and lower manufacturing costs, partially offset by higher marketing, administration and research costs; and
Latin America & Canada: Higher pricing, partially offset by unfavorable volume/mix;
partially offset by
EEMA: Unfavorable volume/mix and higher marketing, administration and research costs, partially offset by higher pricing; and
European Union: Unfavorable volume/mix and higher marketing, administration and research costs, partially offset by higher pricing.

For further details, see the Consolidated Operating Results and Operating Results by Business Segment sections of the following Discussion and Analysis.

2018 Forecasted Results – On February 8, 2018, we announced our forecast for 2018 full-year reported diluted EPS to be in a range of $5.20 to $5.35, representing a projected increase of approximately 34% to 38% at prevailing exchange rates, versus $3.88 in 2017. Excluding a favorable currency impact, at then-prevailing exchange rates, of approximately $0.16 per share for the full-year 2018, the forecast range represents a projected increase of approximately 7% to 10% versus adjusted diluted earnings per share of $4.72 in 2017.


18


This forecast assumes:

Net revenue growth, excluding excise taxes, of over 8.0%, excluding currency;
Operating cash flow of over $9.0 billion;
Capital expenditures of approximately $1.7 billion; and
No share repurchases.

Following the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, our 2018 full-year diluted earnings per share forecast -- based on the current interpretation of the legislation -- assumes a full-year effective tax rate of approximately 28%, subject to future regulatory developments and earnings mix by taxing jurisdiction. The difference between the 21% statutory rate under the new law and our effective rate reflects the fact that we operate in markets outside the United States and is driven by three main factors: foreign tax rate differences, non-deductibility of interest expense and a partial disallowance of foreign tax credits related to the application of the rules for global intangible low-taxed income.

We calculated 2017 adjusted diluted EPS as reported diluted EPS of $3.88, plus the $0.84 per share charge related to tax items. During 2017, we did not have an EPS impact related to asset impairment and exit costs.

Adjusted diluted EPS is not a measure under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("U.S. GAAP"). We define adjusted diluted EPS as reported diluted EPS adjusted for asset impairment and exit costs, tax items and unusual items. We believe it is appropriate to disclose this measure as it represents core earnings, improves comparability and helps investors analyze business performance and trends. Adjusted diluted EPS should be considered neither in isolation nor as a substitute for reported diluted EPS prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

This 2018 guidance excludes the impact of any future acquisitions, unanticipated asset impairment and exit cost charges, future changes in currency exchange rates, further developments related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, and any unusual events. The factors described in Item 1A. Risk Factors represent continuing risks to these projections.

Discussion and Analysis

Critical Accounting Estimates

Item 8, Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our consolidated financial statements includes a summary of the significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. In most instances, we must use a particular accounting policy or method because it is the only one that is permitted under U.S. GAAP.

The preparation of financial statements requires that we use estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of our assets, liabilities, net revenues and expenses, as well as our disclosure of contingencies. If actual amounts differ from previous estimates, we include the revisions in our consolidated results of operations in the period during which we know the actual amounts. Historically, aggregate differences, if any, between our estimates and actual amounts in any year have not had a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.

The selection and disclosure of our critical accounting estimates have been discussed with our Audit Committee. The following is a discussion of the more significant assumptions, estimates, accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements:

Revenue Recognition - We recognize revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery of product has occurred, the sales price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. For our company, this means that revenue is recognized when title and risk of loss is transferred to our customers. Title transfers to our customers upon shipment or upon receipt at the customer's location as determined by the sales terms for each transaction. The company estimates the cost of sales returns based on historical experience, and these estimates are immaterial. Estimated costs associated with warranty programs for IQOS devices are generally provided for in cost of sales in the period the related revenues are recognized, based on a number of factors including historical experience, product failure rates and warranty policies.

Goodwill and Non-Amortizable Intangible Assets Valuation - We test goodwill and non-amortizable intangible assets for impairment annually or more frequently if events occur that would warrant such review. During the second quarter of 2016, we changed the date of

19


our annual goodwill impairment test from the first quarter to the second quarter.  The change was made to more closely align the impairment testing date with our long-range planning and forecasting process. We had determined that this change in accounting principle was preferable under the circumstances and believe that the change in the annual impairment testing date did not delay, accelerate, or avoid an impairment charge. While the company has the option to perform a qualitative assessment for both goodwill and non-amortizable intangible assets to determine if it is more likely than not that an impairment exists, the company elects to perform the quantitative assessment for our annual impairment analysis. The impairment analysis involves comparing the fair value of each reporting unit or non-amortizable intangible asset to the carrying value. If the carrying value exceeds the fair value, goodwill or a non-amortizable intangible asset is considered impaired. To determine the fair value of goodwill, we primarily use a discounted cash flow model, supported by the market approach using earnings multiples of comparable global and local companies within the tobacco industry. At December 31, 2017, the carrying value of our goodwill was $7.7 billion, which is related to ten reporting units, each of which consists of a group of markets with similar economic characteristics. The estimated fair value of each of our ten reporting units exceeded the carrying value as of December 31, 2017. To determine the fair value of non-amortizable intangible assets, we primarily use a discounted cash flow model applying the relief-from-royalty method. We concluded that the fair value of our non-amortizable intangible assets exceeded the carrying value. These discounted cash flow models include management assumptions relevant for forecasting operating cash flows, which are subject to changes in business conditions, such as volumes and prices, costs to produce, discount rates and estimated capital needs. Management considers historical experience and all available information at the time the fair values are estimated, and we believe these assumptions are consistent with the assumptions a hypothetical marketplace participant would use. Since the March 28, 2008, spin-off from Altria Group, Inc., we have not recorded a charge to earnings for an impairment of goodwill or non-amortizable intangible assets.

Marketing and Advertising Costs - We incur certain costs to support our products through programs that include advertising, marketing, consumer engagement and trade promotions. The costs of our advertising and marketing programs are expensed in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Recognition of the cost related to our consumer engagement and trade promotion programs contain uncertainties due to the judgment required in estimating the potential performance and compliance for each program. For volume-based incentives provided to customers, management continually assesses and estimates, by customer, the likelihood of the customer's achieving the specified targets, and records the reduction of revenue as the sales are made. For other trade promotions, management relies on estimated utilization rates that have been developed from historical experience. Changes in the assumptions used in estimating the cost of any individual marketing program would not result in a material change in our financial position, results of operations or operating cash flows.

Employee Benefit Plans - As discussed in Item 8, Note 13. Benefit Plans to our consolidated financial statements, we provide a range of benefits to our employees and retired employees, including pensions, postretirement health care and postemployment benefits (primarily severance). We record annual amounts relating to these plans based on calculations specified by U.S. GAAP. These calculations include various actuarial assumptions, such as discount rates, assumed rates of return on plan assets, compensation increases, mortality, turnover rates and health care cost trend rates. We review actuarial assumptions on an annual basis and make modifications to the assumptions based on current rates and trends when it is deemed appropriate to do so. As permitted by U.S. GAAP, any effect of the modifications is generally amortized over future periods. We believe that the assumptions utilized in calculating our obligations under these plans are reasonable based upon our historical experience and advice from our actuaries.

Weighted-average discount rate assumptions for pensions and postretirement plans are as follows:
 
2017
2016
Pension plans
1.51%
1.52%
Postretirement plans
3.79%
3.68%

We anticipate that assumption changes will decrease 2018 pre-tax pension and postretirement expense to approximately $164 million as compared with approximately $199 million in 2017, excluding amounts related to early retirement programs. The anticipated decrease is primarily due to higher expected return on assets of $21 million, coupled with lower amortization out of other comprehensive earnings for prior service cost of $12 million and unrecognized actuarial gains/losses of $10 million, partially offset by other movements of $8 million.

Weighted-average expected rate of return and discount rate assumptions have a significant effect on the amount of expense reported for the employee benefit plans.  A fifty-basis-point decrease in our discount rate would increase our 2018 pension and postretirement expense by approximately $38 million, and a fifty-basis-point increase in our discount rate would decrease our 2018 pension and postretirement expense by approximately $54 million. Similarly, a fifty-basis-point decrease (increase) in the expected return on plan assets would increase (decrease) our 2018 pension expense by approximately $45 million. See Item 8, Note 13. Benefit Plans to our consolidated financial statements for a sensitivity discussion of the assumed health care cost trend rates.


20


Income Taxes - Income tax provisions for jurisdictions outside the United States, as well as state and local income tax provisions, are determined on a separate company basis, and the related assets and liabilities are recorded in our consolidated balance sheets.

The extent of our operations involves dealing with uncertainties and judgments in the application of complex tax regulations in a multitude of jurisdictions. The final taxes paid are dependent upon many factors, including negotiations with taxing authorities in various jurisdictions and resolution of disputes arising from federal, state, and international tax audits. In accordance with the authoritative guidance for income taxes, we evaluate potential tax exposures and record tax liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues based on our estimate of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be due. We adjust these reserves in light of changing facts and circumstances; however, due to the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in a payment that is materially different from our current estimate of the tax liabilities. If our estimate of tax liabilities proves to be less than the ultimate assessment, an additional charge to expense would result. If payment of these amounts ultimately proves to be less than the recorded amounts, the reversal of the liabilities would result in tax benefits being recognized in the period when we determine the liabilities are no longer necessary.

The effective tax rates used for interim reporting are based on our full-year geographic earnings mix projections. Changes in currency exchange rates or earnings mix by taxing jurisdiction could have an impact on the effective tax rates. Significant judgment is required in determining income tax provisions and in evaluating tax positions.

For further details, see Item 8, Note 11. Income Taxes to our consolidated financial statements.

Hedging - As discussed below in “Market Risk,” we use derivative financial instruments principally to reduce exposures to market risks resulting from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange and interest rates by creating offsetting exposures. For derivatives to which we have elected to apply hedge accounting, gains and losses on these derivatives are initially deferred in accumulated other comprehensive losses on the consolidated balance sheet and recognized in the consolidated statement of earnings in the periods when the related hedged transactions are also recognized in operating results. If we had elected not to use the hedge accounting provisions, gains (losses) deferred in stockholders’ (deficit) equity would have been recorded in our net earnings for these derivatives.

Contingencies - As discussed in Item 8, Note 18. Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements, legal proceedings covering a wide range of matters are pending or threatened against us, and/or our subsidiaries, and/or our indemnitees in various jurisdictions. We and our subsidiaries record provisions in the consolidated financial statements for pending litigation when we determine that an unfavorable outcome is probable and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. The variability in pleadings in multiple jurisdictions, together with the actual experience of management in litigating claims, demonstrate that the monetary relief that may be specified in a lawsuit bears little relevance to the ultimate outcome. Much of the pending tobacco-related litigation is in its early stages, and litigation is subject to uncertainty. At the present time, while it is reasonably possible that an unfavorable outcome in a case may occur, after assessing the information available to it: (i) management has not concluded that it is probable that a loss has been incurred in any of the pending tobacco-related cases; (ii) management is unable to estimate the possible loss or range of loss for any of the pending tobacco-related cases; and (iii) accordingly, no estimated loss has been accrued in the consolidated financial statements for unfavorable outcomes in these cases, if any. Legal defense costs are expensed as incurred.



21


Consolidated Operating Results

Our net revenues, excise taxes on products and operating companies income by segment were as follows:
(in millions)
2017
2016
2015
Net Revenues
 
 
 
European Union
$
27,580

$
27,129

$
26,563

Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa
18,045

18,286

18,328

Asia
22,635

20,531

19,469

Latin America & Canada
9,838

9,007

9,548

Net Revenues
$
78,098

$
74,953

$
73,908

 


(in millions)
2017
2016
2015
Excise Taxes on Products
 
 
 
European Union
$
19,262

$
18,967

$
18,495

Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa
11,346

11,286

10,964

Asia
11,845

11,850

11,266

Latin America & Canada
6,897

6,165

6,389

Excise Taxes on Products
$
49,350

$
48,268

$
47,114

(in millions)
2017
2016
2015
Operating Income
 
 
 
Operating companies income:
 
 
 
European Union
$
3,775

$
3,994

$
3,576

Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa
2,888

3,016

3,425

Asia
4,149

3,196

2,886

Latin America & Canada
1,002

938

1,085

Amortization of intangibles
(88
)
(74
)
(82
)
General corporate expenses
(164
)
(161
)
(162
)
Less:
 
 
 
Equity (income)/loss in unconsolidated subsidiaries, net
(59
)
(94
)
(105
)
Operating Income
$
11,503

$
10,815

$
10,623


As discussed in Item 8, Note 12. Segment Reporting to our consolidated financial statements, we evaluate segment performance and allocate resources based on operating companies income, which we define as operating income, excluding general corporate expenses and amortization of intangibles, plus equity (income)/loss in unconsolidated subsidiaries, net. We believe it is appropriate to disclose this measure to help investors analyze the business performance and trends of our various business segments.


22


Our shipment volume by segment for cigarettes and heated tobacco units was as follows:
PMI Shipment Volume (Million Units)
 
2017
2016
2015
Cigarettes
 
 
 
European Union
187,293

193,586

194,589

Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa
256,157

271,393

279,411

Asia
234,253

260,029

281,350

Latin America & Canada
84,223

87,938

91,920

Total Cigarettes
761,926

812,946

847,270

Heated Tobacco Units
 
 
 
European Union
1,889

224

24

Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa
1,581

100

2

Asia
32,729

7,070

370

Latin America & Canada
27



Total Heated Tobacco Units
36,226

7,394

396

Cigarettes and Heated Tobacco Units
 
 
 
European Union
189,182

193,810

194,613

Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa
257,738

271,493

279,413

Asia
266,982

267,099

281,720

Latin America & Canada
84,250

87,938

91,920

Total Cigarettes and Heated Tobacco Units
798,152

820,340

847,666


Heated tobacco units is the term we use to refer to heated tobacco consumables, which include our HEETS, HEETS Marlboro and HEETS FROM MARLBORO, defined collectively as HEETS, as well as Marlboro HeatSticks and Parliament HeatSticks.

Our net revenues by product category, which include excise taxes billed to customers, were as follows:
PMI Net Revenues by Product Category
 
 
 
 
(in millions)
2017
2016
2015
Combustible Products
 
 
 
European Union
$
27,261

$
27,067

$
26,533

Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa
17,886

18,276

18,328

Asia
19,325

19,865

19,434

Latin America & Canada
9,833

9,006

9,547

Total Combustible Products
$
74,305

$
74,214

$
73,842

Reduced-Risk Products
 
 
 
European Union
$
320

$
62

$
30

Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa
158

9


Asia
3,310

666

35

Latin America & Canada
5

2

1

Total Reduced-Risk Products
$
3,793

$
739

$
66

 
 
 
 
Total PMI Net Revenues
$
78,098

$
74,953

$
73,908

Note: Sum of product categories or Regions might not foot to total PMI due to rounding.

23



Net revenues related to combustible products refer to the operating revenues generated from the sale of these products, net of sales and promotion incentives. These net revenue amounts consist of the sale of our cigarettes and other tobacco products combined. Other tobacco products primarily include roll-your-own and make-your-own cigarettes, pipe tobacco, cigars and cigarillos and do not include reduced-risk products.

Net revenues related to reduced-risk products refer to the operating revenues generated from the sale of these products, net of sales and promotion incentives. These net revenue amounts consist of the sale of our heated tobacco units, IQOS devices and related accessories, and other nicotine-containing products, which primarily include our e-vapor products.

References to total international market, defined as worldwide cigarette and heated tobacco unit volume excluding the United States, total industry, total market and market shares throughout this "Discussion and Analysis" are our estimates for tax-paid products based on the latest available data from a number of internal and external sources.

2017 compared with 2016

The following discussion compares our consolidated operating results for the year ended December 31, 2017, with the year ended December 31, 2016.

Estimated international cigarette and heated tobacco unit volume, excluding China and the United States, of 2.8 trillion was down by 2.8%.

Our total shipment volume decreased by 2.7%, principally due to:

European Union, notably reflecting lower cigarette shipment volume in Greece, Italy and Spain, partly offset by higher heated tobacco unit shipment volume;
EEMA, notably reflecting lower cigarette shipment volume in Russia, Saudi Arabia - where our cigarette shipment volume declined by 35.8%, impacted by the new excise tax implemented in June 2017 that resulted in the doubling of retail prices - and Ukraine; partly offset by higher cigarette shipment volume in North Africa, notably Algeria, and higher heated tobacco unit shipment volume;
Asia, notably reflecting lower cigarette shipment volume in Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Pakistan - impacted by excise tax-driven price increases and an increase in the prevalence of illicit trade - and the Philippines; fully offset by higher heated tobacco unit shipment volume, mainly in Japan and Korea; and
Latin America & Canada, notably reflecting lower cigarette shipment volume in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia and Mexico.
Excluding the favorable net impact of estimated cigarette and heated tobacco unit inventory movements of approximately 3.3 billion units, our total shipment volume decreased by 3.1%. The favorable inventory movements were driven primarily by approximately 8.5 billion units net in Japan reflecting: the increasing demand for HeatSticks, anticipated to further increase in the first quarter of 2018 following a planned lifting of the restriction on IQOS device sales; the establishment of appropriate distributor inventory levels of heated tobacco units, given the current high dependence on a single manufacturing center; and the transition from air freight to sea freight of heated tobacco units, largely completed in the fourth quarter of 2017. These favorable inventory movements were partly offset by a reduction of combustible product inventory levels, mainly in: the European Union, notably Italy and Spain; EEMA, notably North Africa, Russia and Saudi Arabia.


24


Our cigarette shipment volume by brand and heated tobacco unit shipment volume are shown in the table below:
PMI Shipment Volume by Brand (Million Units)
 
Full-Year
 
2017

2016

Change

Cigarettes
 
 
 
Marlboro
270,366

281,720

(4.0
)%
L&M
90,817

96,770

(6.2
)%
Chesterfield
55,075

46,291

19.0
 %
Philip Morris
48,522

35,914

35.1
 %
Parliament
43,965

45,671

(3.7
)%
Bond Street
37,987

44,567

(14.8
)%
Lark
24,373

27,571

(11.6
)%
Others
190,821

234,442

(18.6
)%
Total Cigarettes
761,926

812,946

(6.3
)%
Heated Tobacco Units
36,226

7,394

+100.0%

Total Cigarettes and Heated Tobacco Units
798,152

820,340

(2.7
)%

Cigarette shipment volume of Marlboro decreased in: the European Union, mainly due to Greece, Italy and Spain; EEMA, predominantly due to Saudi Arabia, reflecting the impact of the new excise tax implemented in June 2017 that resulted in the doubling of the retail price of Marlboro from SAR 12 to SAR 24 per pack, partly offset by North Africa, notably Algeria and Egypt, and Turkey; Asia, mainly due to Japan and Korea, principally reflecting out-switching to heated tobacco products, partly offset by Indonesia and the Philippines; and Latin America & Canada, mainly due to Argentina and Brazil.

Cigarette shipment volume of the following brands decreased: L&M, mainly due to Russia, Saudi Arabia and Turkey, partly offset by Algeria, Argentina, Colombia and Kazakhstan; Parliament, mainly due to Japan, Russia and Saudi Arabia, partly offset by Kazakhstan; Bond Street, mainly due to Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine; Lark, principally due to Japan; and "Others," mainly due to low-price brands in Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia and Ukraine.

Cigarette shipment volume of the following brands increased: Chesterfield, notably driven by Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Venezuela, partly offset by Italy and Russia; and Philip Morris, mainly driven by Russia and Ukraine, notably reflecting successful portfolio consolidation of local, low-price brands in "Others," partly offset by Argentina and Italy.

Our net revenues and excise taxes on products were as follows:
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Variance
(in millions)
 
2017
 
2016
 
$
 
%
Net revenues
 
$
78,098

 
$
74,953

 
$
3,145

 
4.2
%
Excise taxes on products
 
49,350

 
48,268

 
1,082

 
2.2
%
Net revenues, excluding excise taxes on products
 
$
28,748

 
$
26,685

 
$
2,063

 
7.7
%

Net revenues, which include excise taxes billed to customers, increased by $3.1 billion. Excluding excise taxes, net revenues increased by $2.1 billion, due to:

price increases ($1.4 billion) and
favorable volume/mix ($1.1 billion), partly offset by
unfavorable currency ($437 million).

The unfavorable currency was due primarily to the Argentine peso, Egyptian pound, Japanese yen, Philippine peso and Turkish lira, partially offset by the Russian ruble.
 

25


Net revenues include $3.8 billion in 2017 and $739 million in 2016 related to the sale of RRPs, mainly driven by Japan. These net revenue amounts include excise taxes billed to customers. Excluding excise taxes, net revenues for RRPs were $3.6 billion in 2017 and $733 million in 2016. In some jurisdictions, including Japan, we are not responsible for collecting excise taxes. In 2017, approximately $0.9 billion of our $3.6 billion in RRP net revenues, excluding excise taxes, were from IQOS devices and accessories.

Excise taxes on products increased by $1.1 billion, due to:

higher excise taxes resulting from changes in retail prices and tax rates ($4.6 billion), partially offset by
favorable currency ($1.9 billion) and
lower excise taxes resulting from volume/mix ($1.6 billion).
Our cost of sales; marketing, administration and research costs; and operating income were as follows:
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Variance
(in millions)
 
2017
 
2016
 
$
 
%
Cost of sales
 
$
10,432

 
$
9,391

 
$
1,041

 
11.1
%
Marketing, administration and research costs
 
6,725

 
6,405

 
320

 
5.0
%
Operating income
 
11,503

 
10,815

 
688

 
6.4
%

Cost of sales increased by $1.0 billion, due to:

higher cost of sales resulting from volume/mix ($1.1 billion), partly offset by
lower manufacturing costs ($36 million) and
favorable currency ($30 million).

Marketing, administration and research costs increased by $320 million, due to:

higher expenses ($570 million, largely reflecting increased investment behind reduced-risk products, predominately in the European Union and Asia), partly offset by
favorable currency ($250 million).

Operating income increased by $688 million, due primarily to:

price increases ($1.4 billion), partly offset by
higher marketing, administration and research costs ($570 million) and
unfavorable currency ($157 million).

Interest expense, net, of $914 million increased by $23 million, due primarily to unfavorably currency and higher average debt levels, partly offset by higher interest income.

Our effective tax rate increased by 12.8 percentage points to 40.7%. The 2017 effective tax rate was unfavorably impacted by $1.6 billion due to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. For further details, see Item 8, Note 11. Income Taxes to our consolidated financial statements. We are continuing to evaluate the impact that the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act will have on our tax liability. Based upon our current interpretation of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, we estimate that our 2018 effective tax rate will be approximately 28%, subject to future regulatory developments and earnings mix by taxing jurisdiction.

We are regularly examined by tax authorities around the world, and we are currently under examination in a number of jurisdictions. It is reasonably possible that within the next 12 months certain tax examinations will close, which could result in a change in unrecognized tax benefits along with related interest and penalties. An estimate of any possible change cannot be made at this time.

Net earnings attributable to PMI of $6.0 billion decreased by $932 million (13.4%). This decrease was due primarily to a higher effective tax rate as discussed above, partly offset by higher operating income. Diluted and basic EPS of $3.88 decreased by 13.4%. Excluding

26


an unfavorable tax impact of $0.84 primarily related to the implementation of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and an unfavorable currency impact of $0.21, diluted EPS increased by 10.0%.

2016 compared with 2015

The following discussion compares our consolidated operating results for the year ended December 31, 2016, with the year ended December 31, 2015.
Our cigarette shipment volume decreased by 4.1%, or by 4.7% excluding net estimated inventory movements, due to:

European Union, principally Italy, Germany and Greece, partly offset by Poland and Spain;
EEMA, mainly North Africa, primarily Algeria, and Russia, partly offset by Saudi Arabia and Ukraine;
Asia, principally Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand, partly offset by Korea; and
Latin America & Canada, predominantly Argentina, partly offset by Mexico.

Our cigarette market share increased in a number of markets, including Brazil, Canada, Colombia, the Czech Republic, France, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates.

Our cigarette shipment volume by brand is shown in the table below:
PMI Cigarette Shipment Volume by Brand (Million Units)
 
Full-Year
 
2016

2015

Change

Marlboro
281,720

285,583

(1.4
)%
L&M
96,770

97,884

(1.1
)%
Chesterfield
46,291

41,397

11.8
 %
Parliament
45,671

44,879

1.8
 %
Bond Street
44,567

43,608

2.2
 %
Philip Morris
35,914

35,815

0.3
 %
Lark
27,571

28,828

(4.4
)%
Others
234,442

269,276

(12.9
)%
Total PMI
812,946

847,270

(4.1
)%

Cigarette shipment volume of Marlboro decreased, driven by Algeria, Argentina, Egypt and Vietnam, as well as in-switching to heated tobacco units, partly offset by Korea, Mexico, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia and Spain.

Cigarette shipment volume of L&M decreased, notably in Russia, Thailand and Turkey, partly offset by Algeria, Kazakhstan and Ukraine. Cigarette shipment volume of Chesterfield increased, mainly driven by Argentina, the Czech Republic, reflecting the morphing of Red & White, Turkey and the United Kingdom, partly offset by Russia. Cigarette shipment volume of Parliament increased, mainly driven by Korea, Turkey and Ukraine, partly offset by Japan and Russia. Cigarette shipment volume of Bond Street increased, mainly driven by Ukraine, partly offset by Kazakhstan. Cigarette shipment volume of Philip Morris increased, driven mainly by Italy and Russia, partly offset by Argentina. Cigarette shipment volume of Lark decreased, principally due to Japan and Turkey. Cigarette shipment volume of "Others" decreased, mainly due to local, largely low-margin brands in Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia and Ukraine.

Total shipment volume of heated tobacco units reached 7.4 billion units, up from 396 million units in 2015.

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Our net revenues and excise taxes on products were as follows:
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Variance
(in millions)
 
2016
 
2015
 
$
 
%
Net revenues
 
$
74,953

 
$
73,908

 
$
1,045

 
1.4
 %
Excise taxes on products
 
48,268

 
47,114

 
1,154

 
2.4
 %
Net revenues, excluding excise taxes on products
 
$
26,685

 
$
26,794

 
$
(109
)
 
(0.4
)%

Net revenues, which include excise taxes billed to customers, increased by $1.0 billion. Excluding excise taxes, net revenues decreased by $109 million, due to:

unfavorable currency ($1.3 billion) and
unfavorable volume/mix ($450 million), partly offset by
price increases ($1.6 billion).
The unfavorable currency was due primarily to the Argentine peso, Canadian dollar, Egyptian pound, Euro, Kazakh tenge, Mexican peso, Philippine peso, Russian ruble and Turkish lira, partially offset by the Japanese yen.
 
Net revenues include $739 million in 2016 related to sale of RRPs, mainly driven by Japan. This amount includes excise taxes billed to customers. Excluding excise taxes, net revenues for RRPs were $733 million in 2016. In some jurisdictions, including Japan, we are not responsible for collecting excise taxes. Approximately 22% of our $733 million in 2016 RRP net revenues, excluding excise taxes, were from IQOS devices.

Excise taxes on products increased by $1.2 billion, due to:

higher excise taxes resulting from changes in retail prices and tax rates ($5.3 billion), partly offset by
favorable currency ($3.9 billion) and
lower excise taxes resulting from volume/mix ($236 million).
Our cost of sales; marketing, administration and research costs; and operating income were as follows:
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Variance
(in millions)
 
2016
 
2015
 
$
 
%
Cost of sales
 
$
9,391

 
$
9,365

 
$
26

 
0.3
 %
Marketing, administration and research costs
 
6,405

 
6,656
 
(251
)
 
(3.8
)%
Operating income
 
10,815

 
10,623

 
192

 
1.8
 %

Cost of sales increased by $26 million, due to:

higher cost of sales resulting from volume/mix ($242 million), partly offset by
favorable currency ($216 million).


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Marketing, administration and research costs decreased by $251 million, due to:

lower expenses ($210 million, driven by a favorable comparison to 2015, notably related to cigarette brand building and business optimization initiatives, partly offset by increased support behind Reduced-Risk Products) and
favorable currency ($41 million).

Operating income increased by $192 million, due primarily to:

price increases ($1.6 billion),
lower marketing, administration and research costs ($210 million) and
the non-recurrence of the 2015 pre-tax charges for asset impairment and exit costs ($68 million), partly offset by
unfavorable currency ($1.0 billion) and
unfavorable volume/mix ($692 million).

Interest expense, net, of $891 million decreased by $117 million, due primarily to lower effective interest rates on debt and higher interest income.

Our effective tax rate decreased by 0.1 percentage point to 27.9%. The 2015 effective tax rate was unfavorably impacted by changes to repatriation assertions on certain foreign subsidiary historical earnings ($58 million), partially offset by a reduction in unrecognized tax benefits of $41 million following the conclusion of the IRS examinations of Altria Group, Inc.'s consolidated tax returns for the years 2007 and 2008 and PMI's consolidated tax returns for the years 2009 through 2011. Prior to March 28, 2008, PMI was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Altria Group, Inc.

Net earnings attributable to PMI of $7.0 billion increased by $94 million (1.4%). This increase was due primarily to higher operating income as discussed above, and lower interest expense, net. Diluted and basic EPS of $4.48 increased by 1.4%. Excluding an unfavorable currency impact of $0.46, diluted EPS increased by 11.8%.


Operating Results by Business Segment

Business Environment         
Taxes, Legislation, Regulation and Other Matters Regarding the Manufacture, Marketing, Sale and Use of Tobacco Products
The tobacco industry and our business face a number of challenges that may adversely affect our business, volume, results of operations, cash flows and financial position. These challenges, which are discussed below and in “Cautionary Factors That May Affect Future Results,” include:

regulatory restrictions on our products, including restrictions on the packaging, marketing, and sale of tobacco or other nicotine-containing products that could reduce our competitiveness, eliminate our ability to communicate with adult consumers, or even ban certain of our products;
fiscal challenges, such as excessive excise tax increases and discriminatory tax structures;
illicit trade in cigarettes and other tobacco products, including counterfeit, contraband and so-called “illicit     whites”;
intense competition, including from non-tax paid volume by certain local manufacturers;
pending and threatened litigation as discussed in Item 8, Note 18. Contingencies; and
governmental investigations.

Regulatory Restrictions: The tobacco industry operates in a highly regulated environment. The well-known risks of smoking have led regulators to impose significant restrictions and high excise taxes on cigarettes.

We support a comprehensive regulatory framework for tobacco products based on the principle of harm reduction, including mandated health warnings, minimum age laws, restrictions on advertising, and public place smoking restrictions. We also support regulatory measures that help reduce illicit trade.


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Much of the regulation that shapes the business environment in which we operate is driven by the World Health Organization's (“WHO”) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (“FCTC”), which entered into force in 2005. The FCTC is the first international public health treaty and has as its main objective to establish a global agenda for tobacco regulation, with the purpose of reducing tobacco use. To date, 180 countries and the European Union are Parties to the FCTC. The treaty requires Parties to have in place various tobacco control measures and recommends others. The FCTC governing body, the Conference of the Parties (“CoP”), has also adopted non-binding guidelines and policy recommendations related to certain articles of the FCTC that go beyond the text of the treaty.

We have opposed certain measures and continue to engage in a dialogue with regulators with respect to those measures that we do not believe would protect public health and, if implemented, could disrupt competition, severely limit our ability to market and sell our products to adult smokers, or increase illicit trade. Certain measures are discussed in more detail below. It is not possible to predict whether or to what extent measures recommended in the FCTC guidelines will be implemented.

Fiscal Challenges: Excessive and disruptive excise, sales and other tax increases and discriminatory tax structures are expected to continue to have an adverse impact on our profitability, due to lower consumption and consumer down-trading to non-premium, discount, other low-price or low-taxed combustible tobacco products such as fine cut tobacco and illicit cigarettes. In addition, in certain jurisdictions, some of our combustible products are subject to tax structures that discriminate against premium-price products and manufactured cigarettes. We believe that such tax policies undermine public health by encouraging consumers to turn to illicit trade, and ultimately undercut government revenue objectives, disrupt the competitive environment, and encourage criminal activity. Other jurisdictions have imposed, or are seeking to impose, levies or other taxes specifically on tobacco companies, such as taxes on revenues and/or profits.

EU Tobacco Products Directive: In April 2014, the EU adopted the text of a significantly revised EU Tobacco Products Directive (TPD), which entered into force in May 2016. All 28 Member States and Norway have adopted laws transposing the TPD.  The TPD sets forth a comprehensive set of regulatory requirements for tobacco products, including:

health warnings covering 65% of the front and back panels of cigarette packs, with an option for Member States to further standardize tobacco packaging, including the introduction of plain packaging;
a ban on characterizing flavors in some tobacco products, with a transition period for menthol expiring in May 2020;
security features and tracking and tracing measures that will become effective on May 20, 2019, and will increase operational expenses; and
a framework for the regulation of novel tobacco products and e-cigarettes, including requirements for health warnings and information leaflets, a prohibition on product packaging text related to reduced risk, and the introduction of notification requirements or authorization procedures in advance of commercialization.

Plain Packaging and Other Packaging Restrictions: Plain packaging legislation bans the use of branding, logos and colors on packaging other than the brand name and variant that may be printed only in specified locations and in a uniform font. To date, Australia, France, Georgia, Hungary, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway, Slovenia and the U.K. have adopted plain packaging laws, which are in various degrees of implementation.

Several countries have initiated World Trade Organization (“WTO”) dispute settlement proceedings against Australia related to Australia's plain packaging legislation. The matter is still pending before the WTO panel.

Other countries are also considering adopting plain packaging legislation, including, but not limited to, Canada, Singapore, South Africa and Turkey.

Some countries have adopted, or are considering adopting, packaging restrictions that could have an impact similar to plain packaging. Examples of such restrictions include standardizing the shape and size of packages, prohibiting certain colors or the use of certain descriptive phrases on packaging, and requiring very large graphic health warnings that leave little space for branding.

Restrictions and Bans on the Use of Ingredients: The WHO and others in the public health community have recommended restrictions or total bans on the use of some or all ingredients in tobacco products, including menthol. Broad restrictions and ingredient bans would require us to reformulate our American blend tobacco products and could reduce our ability to differentiate these products in the market in the long term. Menthol bans would eliminate the entire category of mentholated tobacco products. The European Union has banned flavored tobacco products, subject to an exemption until May 2020 for menthol. Other countries may follow the EU’s approach. For instance, Turkey has banned menthol as of May 2020. Broader ingredient bans have been adopted by Canada and Brazil. While the Canadian ingredient ban initially exempted menthol, amendments to the federal Tobacco Act banned menthol in cigarettes as of October 2017. In addition, the Canadian parliament is considering further amendments to the Act that would extend the menthol ban to all tobacco products. The majority of Canadian provinces have also adopted or are in the process of adopting menthol bans. The Brazil ingredients

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ban, which would prohibit the use of virtually all ingredients with flavoring or aromatic properties, is not in force due to a legal challenge by a tobacco industry union, of which our Brazilian subsidiary is a member. Other lawsuits are also pending against the Brazil ingredients ban. It is not possible to predict the outcome of these legal proceedings.
 
Bans on Display of Tobacco Products at Retail: In a number of our markets, including, but not limited to, Australia, Canada, Norway, Russia, and Singapore, governments have banned the display of tobacco products at the point of sale. Other countries are also considering similar bans.

Bans and Restrictions on Advertising, Marketing, Promotions and Sponsorships: For many years, the FCTC has called for, and countries have imposed, partial or total bans on tobacco advertising, marketing, promotions and sponsorships, including bans and restrictions on advertising on radio and television, in print and on the Internet. The FCTC's non-binding guidelines recommend that governments prohibit all forms of communication with adult smokers.

Restrictions on Product Design: Some members of the public health community are calling for the further standardization of tobacco products by requiring, for example, that cigarettes have a certain minimum diameter, which would amount to a ban on slim cigarettes, or requiring the use of standardized filter and cigarette paper designs. In addition, at its meeting in November 2016, the CoP adopted non-binding guidelines recommending that countries regulate product design features that increase the attractiveness of tobacco products, such as the diameter of cigarettes and the use of flavor capsules.

Restrictions on Public Smoking: The pace and scope of public smoking restrictions have increased significantly in most of our markets. Many countries around the world have adopted, or are likely to adopt, regulations that restrict or ban smoking in public and/or work places, restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Some public health groups have called for, and some countries, regional governments and municipalities have adopted or proposed, bans on smoking in outdoor places, as well as bans on smoking in cars (typically, when minors are present) and private homes.

Other Regulatory Issues: Some regulators are considering, or in some cases have adopted, regulatory measures designed to reduce the supply of tobacco products. These include regulations intended to reduce the number of retailers selling tobacco products by, for example, reducing the overall number of tobacco retail licenses available or banning the sale of tobacco products within arbitrary distances of certain public facilities.

In a limited number of markets, most notably Japan, we are dependent on governmental approvals that may limit our pricing flexibility.

Illicit Trade: The illicit tobacco trade creates a cheap and unregulated supply of tobacco products, undermines efforts to reduce smoking prevalence, especially among youth, damages legitimate businesses, stimulates organized crime, increases corruption and reduces government tax revenue. Illicit trade may account for as much as 10% of global cigarette consumption; this includes counterfeit, contraband and the growing problem of “illicit whites,” which are cigarettes legally produced in one jurisdiction for the sole purpose of being exported and illegally sold in another jurisdiction where they have no legitimate market. We estimate that illicit trade in the European Union accounted for slightly less than 10% of total cigarette consumption in 2016.

A number of jurisdictions are considering actions to prevent illicit trade. In November 2012, the FCTC adopted the Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products (the “Protocol”), which includes supply chain control measures, such as licensing of manufacturers and distributors, enforcement in free trade zones, controls on duty free and Internet sales and the implementation of tracking and tracing technologies. To date, 54 Parties have signed the Protocol, and 35 Parties, including the European Union, have ratified it. The Protocol will come into force once the fortieth Party ratifies it, after which countries must implement its measures via national legislation. We expect, and welcome, that other Parties will ratify the Protocol.

As discussed in the EU Tobacco Products Directive section above, the EU regulations that mandate tracking and tracing of cigarettes and roll-your-own products manufactured or destined for the EU will become effective on May 20, 2019. The effective date for other tobacco-containing products, including some of our RRPs such as the heated tobacco units used with IQOS, is May 20, 2024.

In 2009, our Colombian subsidiaries entered into an Investment and Cooperation Agreement with the national and regional governments of Colombia to promote investment in, and cooperation on, anti-contraband and anti-counterfeit efforts. The agreement provides $200 million in funding over a 20-year period to address issues such as combating the illegal cigarette trade and increasing the quality and quantity of locally-grown tobacco.

In May 2016, PMI launched PMI IMPACT, a global initiative that supports third-party projects dedicated to fighting illegal trade and related crimes such as corruption, organized criminal networks and money laundering. The centerpiece of PMI IMPACT is a council of external independent experts with impeccable credentials in the fields of law, anti-corruption and law enforcement. The experts are

31


responsible for evaluating and approving funding proposals for PMI IMPACT grants. PMI has pledged $100 million to fund projects within PMI IMPACT over three funding rounds. Substantially all grants under the first funding round were awarded in 2017. The second funding round began in September 2017.

In November 2016, PMI signed a joint Declaration of Intent to Prevent the Maritime Transportation of Counterfeit Goods together with eight other global brand owners and five of the world’s largest shipping companies. This commitment was a result of a dialogue with the International Chamber of Commerce’s Business Action to Stop Counterfeiting and Piracy. The signatories aim to tackle the infiltration of shipping services by criminal networks that exploit vessels to transport counterfeit goods, including “illicit whites,” across the oceans.

Reduced-Risk Products (RRPs)    

Our Approach to RRPs: We recognize that smoking cigarettes causes serious diseases and that the best way to avoid the harms of smoking is never to start or to quit. Nevertheless, it is predicted that over the next decade the number of smokers will remain largely unchanged from the current estimate of 1.1 billion, despite the considerable efforts to discourage smoking.

Cigarettes burn tobacco, which produces smoke. As a result of the combustion process, the smoker inhales various toxic substances. In contrast, RRPs do not burn tobacco and produce an aerosol that contains significantly lower levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents ("HPHCs") than found in cigarette smoke.

For smokers who would otherwise continue to smoke, we believe that RRPs offer a much better consumer choice. Accordingly, our key strategic priorities are: to develop and commercialize products that present less risk of harm to adult smokers who switch to those products versus continued smoking; and to convince current adult smokers who would otherwise continue to smoke to switch to those products.

We recognize that this transformation from cigarettes to RRPs will take time and that the speed of transformation will depend in part upon factors beyond our control, such as the willingness of governments, regulators and other policy groups to embrace RRPs as a desired alternative to continued cigarette smoking. We also recognize that our part in this transformation must be funded from our existing cigarette business. For as long as a significant number of adult smokers continues to smoke, it is critical that the industry be led by responsible and ethical manufacturers. Therefore, during the transformation, we intend to remain a leading international cigarette manufacturer.

We have a range of RRPs in various stages of development, scientific assessment and commercialization. We conduct rigorous scientific assessments of our RRP platforms to substantiate that they reduce exposure to HPHCs and, ultimately, that these products present, are likely to present, or have the potential to present less risk of harm to adult smokers who switch to them versus continued smoking. We draw upon a team of expert scientists and engineers from a broad spectrum of scientific disciplines and our extensive learnings of adult consumer preferences to develop and assess our RRPs. Our efforts are guided by the following key objectives:

to develop RRPs that adult smokers who would otherwise continue to smoke find to be satisfying alternatives to smoking;
for those adult smokers, our goal is to offer RRPs with a scientifically substantiated risk-reduction profile that approaches as closely as possible that associated with smoking cessation;
to substantiate the reduction of risk for the individual adult smoker and the reduction of harm to the population as a whole, based on scientific evidence of the highest standard that is made available for scrutiny and review by external independent scientists and relevant regulatory bodies; and
to advocate for the development of science-based regulatory frameworks for the development and commercialization of RRPs, including the communication of scientifically substantiated information to enable adult smokers to make better consumer choices.

Our RRP Platforms: Our product development is based on the elimination of combustion via tobacco heating and other innovative systems for aerosol generation, which we believe is the most promising path to providing a better consumer choice for those who would otherwise continue to smoke. We recognize that no single product will appeal to all adult smokers. Therefore, we are developing a portfolio of products intended to appeal to a variety of distinct adult consumer preferences.

Four RRP platforms are in various stages of development and commercialization readiness:

        Platform 1 uses a precisely controlled heating device that we are commercializing under the IQOS brand name, into which a specially designed and proprietary tobacco unit is inserted and heated to generate an aerosol. We have conducted a series of clinical studies for this platform, the results of which were included in our submission to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) described below. As anticipated, the results of the first six-month term of the 6+6 month exposure response study were received at the

32


end of 2017, and the related report is under preparation. We expect to submit the final report for these results to the FDA in May of 2018. We expect to receive the results of the second six-month term of the study for analysis in the second quarter of 2018.

    Platform 2 uses a pressed carbon heat source which, when ignited, generates an aerosol by heating tobacco. The results of our pharmacokinetic study (that measured the nicotine pharmacokinetic profile and subjective effects) and of our five-day reduced exposure study with Platform 2 indicate that this platform could be an acceptable substitute for adult smokers who seek an alternative to cigarettes. Furthermore, the reduced exposure study showed a substantial reduction in relevant biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs in those who switched to Platform 2 compared to those who continued to smoke cigarettes over a five-day period. The sustainability of this reduction as well as changes in clinical risk markers were assessed in a 3-month reduced exposure study. As anticipated, the results of this study were received at the end of 2017, and the related report is under preparation. We expect the report to be finalized in the second quarter of 2018. Subsequently, in accordance with standard scientific practices, we intend to share the conclusions in scientific forums and to submit them for inclusion in peer-reviewed publications.

    Platform 3 provides an aerosol of nicotine salt formed by the chemical reaction of nicotine with a weak organic acid. We have explored two routes for this platform, one with electronics and one without, and have initiated a new nicotine pharmacokinetic study. We expect to receive the results for analysis in the second quarter of 2018.

    Platform 4 covers e-vapor products, which are battery-powered devices that produce an aerosol by vaporizing a nicotine-containing liquid solution. Our e-vapor products comprise devices using current generation technology, and we are well advanced in the development and commercialization of our new e-vapor mesh technology that addresses certain challenges presented by some e-vapor products currently on the market. Our MESH products are designed to ensure the consistency and quality of the generated aerosol. We have initiated a nicotine pharmacokinetic study for which we expect to receive the results for analysis in the second quarter of 2018; the results of this study are expected to contribute to further developments of Platform 4 products.

Commercialization of RRPs: We are building a new product category and tailor our commercialization strategy to the characteristics of each specific market. We focus our commercialization efforts on retail experience, guided consumer trials and customer care, as well as digital communication programs.  In order to accelerate switching to IQOS, our initial market introductions typically entail one-on-one consumer engagement and introductory device discounts.  These initial commercialization efforts require substantial investment.

In 2014, we introduced the IQOS system in pilot city launches in Nagoya, Japan, and in Milan, Italy. Since then, we have expanded our commercialization activities to include all of Japan, as well as multiple cities in Italy. To date, IQOS is available for sale in key cities in 37 markets and nationwide in Japan.

On the basis of our experience in Japan and Italy, we estimate that only a very small percentage of adult smokers who convert to IQOS switch back to cigarettes.

In the first quarter of 2016, we started the large scale commercial production of heated tobacco units. During 2017, we experienced supply shortages resulting from stronger-than-anticipated demand, primarily in Japan. Currently, we are no longer experiencing capacity limitations. We are integrating the production of our heated tobacco units into a number of our existing manufacturing facilities and progressing with our plans to build manufacturing capacity for our other RRP platforms.

In 2017, we secured a second supplier of IQOS devices. We are no longer experiencing supply constraints on the IQOS devices and, based on demand forecasts, we expect to be able to fully supply our current and planned launch markets with such devices.

The adequate supply chain for our RRP portfolio, including the supply of electronic devices, is important to our business. We work with two electronics manufacturing service providers for the supply of our IQOS devices and a small number of other providers for other products in our RRP portfolio and related accessories. Although we work closely with these service providers on monitoring their production capability and financial health, the commercialization of our RRPs could be adversely affected if they are unable to meet their commitments. The production of our RRP portfolio requires various metals, and we believe that there is an adequate supply of such metals in the world markets to satisfy our current and anticipated production requirements. However, some components and materials necessary for the production of our RRPs, including those for the electronic devices, are obtained from single or limited sources, and can be subject to industry-wide shortages and price fluctuations. Our inability to secure an adequate supply of such components and materials could negatively impact the commercialization of our RRPs.

Our IQOS devices are subject to standard product warranties generally for a period of 12 months from the date of purchase or such other periods as required by law. We discuss product warranties in more detail in Note 5. Product Warranty. The significance of warranty claims is dependent on a number of factors including warranty policies and product failure rates and may increase with the number of devices sold.

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To further improve the consumer experience, we introduced a new version of the IQOS device in the first quarter of 2017 and continue to develop product improvements.

We are also progressing with our commercialization efforts for the other platforms:

We currently market our e-vapor products in several markets, including Ireland, Israel, Spain and the U.K. A city test of MESH, one of our Platform 4 products, is ongoing in Birmingham, U.K., and we expect to initiate a pilot launch of a next-generation version of this product in 2018.

In December 2017, we initiated a small-scale city test of TEEPS, our Platform 2 product, in Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic.

In 2018, we plan to conduct a consumer test of our Platform 3 product.

RRP Regulation and Taxation: RRPs contain nicotine and are not risk-free. We therefore support science-based regulation and taxation of RRPs. Regulation and taxation should differentiate between cigarettes and products that present, are likely to present, or have the potential to present less risk of harm to adult smokers who switch to these products versus continued smoking. Regulation should provide minimum standards for RRPs and specific rules for product assessment methodologies, ingredients, labelling and consumer communication, and should ensure that the public is informed about the health risks of all combustible and non-combustible tobacco and nicotine-containing products. Regulation, as well as tobacco industry activities, should reflect the fact that youth should not consume nicotine in any form.

Some governments have banned or are seeking to ban or severely restrict emerging tobacco and nicotine-containing products such as our RRPs. These regulations might foreclose or unreasonably restrict adult consumer access even to products that might be shown to be a better consumer choice than continuing to smoke. We oppose such blanket bans and unreasonable restrictions of products that have the potential to present less risk of harm compared to continued smoking. By contrast, we support regulation that sets clear standards and propels innovation to benefit adult smokers who would otherwise continue to smoke.

In the United States, an established regulatory framework for assessing “Modified Risk Tobacco Products” and “New Tobacco Products” exists under the jurisdiction of the FDA. We submitted to the FDA a Modified Risk Tobacco Product Application (“MRTPA”) for IQOS in December 2016, and a Premarket Tobacco Product Application (“PMTA”) for IQOS in March 2017. In May 2017, the FDA formally accepted and filed our MRTPA for substantive scientific review and, in June 2017, the FDA opened the period for the public to provide comments on our application. In August 2017, the FDA completed a preliminary review of our PMTA and accepted our application for substantive review. The FDA referred our MRTPA to the Tobacco Product Scientific Advisory Committee (“TPSAC”). TPSAC held a meeting on January 24 and January 25, 2018 on our MRTPA. The recommendations and votes of TPSAC are not binding on the FDA. By regulation, the FDA’s decision on our MRTPA will take into account, in addition to the views of TPSAC, scientific evidence as well as comments, data and information submitted by interested persons.

Separately, on July 28, 2017, the FDA issued a policy announcement aiming to explore the potential of nicotine reduction in cigarettes in conjunction with less harmful products that deliver nicotine for adults who choose to use such products.

Future FDA actions may influence the regulatory approach of other governments.

In the EU, all EU Member States and Norway have transposed the EU Tobacco Products Directive, including the provisions on novel tobacco products, such as heated tobacco units, and e-cigarettes. Most of the EU Member States require a notification submitted six months before the intended placing on the market of a novel tobacco product, while some require pre-market authorizations for the introduction of such products. To date, we have filed a comprehensive dossier summarizing our scientific assessment of IQOS in 22 Member States.

On December 12, 2017, at the request of the U.K. Department of Health and Public Health England, the U.K. Committee on Toxicity published its assessment of the risk of heated tobacco products relative to cigarette smoking. This assessment included analysis of scientific data for two heated tobacco products, one of which was IQOS. The assessment concluded that, while still harmful to health, compared with the known risks from cigarettes, heated tobacco products are probably less harmful. Subsequently, on February 6, 2018, Public Health England published a report stating that the available evidence suggests that heated tobacco products may be considerably less harmful than cigarettes and more harmful than e-cigarettes.


34


We make our scientific findings publicly available for scrutiny and peer review through several channels, including our websites. From time to time, adult consumers, competitors, members of the scientific community, and others inquire into our scientific methodologies, challenge our scientific conclusions or request further study of certain aspects of our RRPs and their health effects. We are committed to a robust and open scientific debate but believe that such debate should be based on accurate and reliable scientific information. We seek to provide accurate and reliable scientific information about our RRPs; nonetheless, we may not be able to prevent third-party dissemination of false, misleading or unsubstantiated information about these products.

To date, we have been largely successful in demonstrating to regulators that our RRPs are not cigarettes, and as such they are generally taxed either as a separate category or as other tobacco products, which typically yields more favorable tax rates than cigarettes. Although we believe that this is sensible from the public health perspective, we cannot guarantee that regulators will continue this approach.

There can be no assurance that we will succeed in our efforts to replace cigarettes with RRPs or that regulation will allow us to commercialize RRPs in all markets, to communicate scientifically substantiated risk-reduction claims, or to treat RRPs differently from cigarettes.

Our RRP Business Development Initiatives: In December 2013, we established a strategic framework with Altria Group, Inc. (“Altria”) under which Altria will make available its e-vapor products exclusively to us for commercialization outside the United States, and we will make available two of our RRPs exclusively to Altria for commercialization in the United States. In March 2015, we launched Solaris, a Platform 4 e-vapor product licensed from Altria, in Spain. In December 2015, we introduced Solaris in Israel.

In July 2015, we extended the strategic framework with Altria to include a Joint Research, Development and Technology Sharing Agreement. The additional agreement provides the framework under which PMI and Altria will collaborate to develop the next generation of e-vapor products for commercialization in the United States by Altria and in markets outside the United States by PMI. The collaboration between PMI and Altria in this endeavor is enabled by exclusive technology cross licenses and technical information sharing. The agreements also provide for cooperation on the scientific assessment of, and for the sharing of improvements to, the existing generation of licensed products.

Other Developments: On September 12, 2017, we announced our support of the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World. We agreed to contribute $80 million per year over the next 12 years, as specified in the agreement. We made an initial contribution of $4.5 million in 2017 and the first annual contribution of $80 million in the beginning of 2018. The Foundation is an independent body and is governed by its independent Board of Directors. The Foundation’s role, as set out in its corporate charter, includes funding research in the field of tobacco harm reduction, encouraging measures that reduce the harm caused by smoking, and assessing the effect of reduced cigarette consumption on the industry value chain.

Governmental Investigations

From time to time, we are subject to governmental investigations on a range of matters. We describe certain matters pending in Thailand and South Korea in Item 8, Note 18. Contingencies.

In November 2010, a WTO panel issued its decision in a dispute relating to facts that arose from August 2006 between the Philippines and Thailand concerning a series of Thai customs and tax measures affecting cigarettes imported by PM Thailand into Thailand (see Item 8, Note 18. Contingencies for additional information). The WTO panel decision, which was upheld by the WTO Appellate Body, concluded that Thailand had no basis to find that PM Thailand's declared customs values and taxes paid were too low, as alleged by the DSI in 2009. The decision also created obligations for Thailand to revise its laws, regulations, or practices affecting the customs valuation and tax treatment of future cigarette imports. Thailand agreed in September 2011 to fully comply with the decision by October 2012. The Philippines asserts that to date Thailand has not fully complied with the WTO panel decision. The Philippines has repeatedly expressed concerns with ongoing investigations by Thailand of PM Thailand, including those that led to the criminal charges described in Item 8, Note 18. Contingencies, and has commenced two formal proceedings at the WTO to challenge criminal charges against PM Thailand arguing that the criminal charges appear to be based on grounds not supported by WTO customs valuation rules and inconsistent with several decisions already taken by Thai Customs and other Thai governmental agencies.

Acquisitions and Other Business Arrangements

We discuss our acquisitions and other business arrangements in Item 8, Note 6. Acquisitions and Other Business Arrangements to our consolidated financial statements.


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Investments in Unconsolidated Subsidiaries

We discuss our investments in unconsolidated subsidiaries in Item 8, Note 4. Investments in Unconsolidated Subsidiaries to our consolidated financial statements.

Trade Policy

We are subject to various trade restrictions imposed by the United States of America and countries in which we do business (“Trade Sanctions”), including the trade and economic sanctions administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control and the U.S. Department of State. It is our policy to comply fully with these Trade Sanctions.

Tobacco products are agricultural products under U.S. law and are not technological or strategic in nature. From time to time we make sales in countries subject to Trade Sanctions, either where such sanctions do not apply to our business or pursuant to exemptions or licenses.

To our knowledge, none of our commercial arrangements results in the governments of any country identified by the U.S. government as a state sponsor of terrorism, nor entities controlled by those governments, receiving cash or acting as intermediaries in violation of U.S. laws.

We do not sell products in Iran, Sudan, North Korea and Syria. From time to time, we explore opportunities to sell our products in one or more of these countries, as permitted by law.

In January 2018, we commenced sales of cigarettes in Cuba, as permitted by law.

Certain states within the U.S. have enacted legislation permitting state pension funds to divest or abstain from future investment in stocks of companies that do business with certain countries that are sanctioned by the U.S. We do not believe such legislation has had a material effect on the price of our shares.

2017 compared with 2016

The following discussion compares operating results within each of our reportable segments for 2017 with 2016.

Unless otherwise stated, references to total industry, total market, our shipment volume and our market share performance reflect cigarettes and heated tobacco units.

European Union:
European Union
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Variance
(in millions)
 
2017
 
2016
 
$
 
%
Net revenues
 
$
27,580

 
$
27,129

 
$
451

 
1.7
 %
Excise taxes on products
 
19,262

 
18,967

 
295

 
1.6
 %
Net revenues, excluding excise taxes on products
 
8,318

 
8,162

 
156

 
1.9
 %
Operating companies income
 
3,775

 
3,994

 
(219
)
 
(5.5
)%

Net revenues increased by $451 million. Excluding excise taxes, net revenues increased by $156 million, due to:

price increases ($156 million) and
favorable currency ($45 million), partially offset by
unfavorable volume/mix ($45 million).

The net revenues of the European Union segment include $320 million in 2017 and $62 million in 2016 related to the sale of RRPs. Excluding excise taxes, net revenues for RRPs were $269 million in 2017 and $57 million in 2016.
Operating companies income decreased by $219 million during 2017. This decrease was due primarily to:


36


higher marketing, administration and research costs ($223 million, primarily related to increased investment behind reduced-risked products),
unfavorable volume/mix ($119 million) and
unfavorable currency ($43 million), partly offset by
price increases ($156 million) and
lower manufacturing costs ($14 million).

European Union - Total Market, PMI Shipment & Market Share Commentaries

The estimated total market in the European Union decreased by 1.9% to 492.1 billion units. Our Regional market share was flat at 38.3%, with gains in France, Germany and Poland offset by declines in Italy and Spain.


Shipment volume and market share performance by brand for cigarettes and heated tobacco units are shown in the tables below:

European Union Shipment Volume by Brand (Million Units)

 
Full-Year
 
2017

2016

Change

Cigarettes
 
 
 
Marlboro
93,088

96,245

(3.3
)%
L&M
34,261

34,691

(1.2
)%
Chesterfield
29,087

30,140

(3.5
)%
Philip Morris
15,158

16,290

(6.9
)%
Others
15,699

16,220

(3.2
)%
Total Cigarettes
187,293

193,586

(3.3
)%
Heated Tobacco Units
1,889

224

+100.0%

Total European Union
189,182

193,810

(2.4
)%

European Union Market Shares by Brand
 
Full-Year
 
 
 
Change

 
2017

2016

p.p.

Marlboro
18.8
%
19.0
%
(0.2
)
L&M
6.9
%
6.9
%

Chesterfield
6.0
%
5.9
%
0.1

Philip Morris
3.1
%
3.2
%
(0.1
)
HEETS
0.3
%
%
0.3

Others
3.2
%
3.3
%
(0.1
)
Total European Union
38.3
%
38.3
%



Our total shipment volume decreased by 2.4% to 189.2 billion units, or by 1.9% excluding estimated net inventory movements, notably in Italy and Spain. The decrease in cigarette shipment volume of Marlboro was mainly due to Greece, Italy and Spain. The decrease in cigarette shipment volume of L&M was mainly due to Germany, Romania and Spain, partly offset by France. The decrease in cigarette shipment volume of Chesterfield was mainly due to Italy, Portugal and Spain, partly offset by Poland. The decrease in cigarette shipment volume of Philip Morris was mainly due to Italy. The decrease in cigarette shipment volume of "Others" was due notably to Muratti in Italy.



37


European Union - Key Market Commentaries

In France, estimated industry size, our shipment volume and market share performance, shown in the table below, include cigarettes and our heated tobacco units.
 
France Key Market Data

 
Full-Year
 
 
 
Change

 
2017

2016

% / p.p.

Total Market (billion units)
44.4

44.9

(1.2
)%
 
 
 
 
PMI Shipments (million units)
19,264

19,247

0.1
 %
 
 
 
 
PMI Market Share
 
 
 
Marlboro
27.1
%
26.4
%
0.7

Philip Morris
10.3
%
10.2
%
0.1

Chesterfield
3.0
%
3.1
%
(0.1
)
Others*
2.8
%
2.7
%
0.1

Total
43.2
%
42.4
%
0.8

*Includes heated tobacco units.

The estimated total market decreased by 1.2%. The increase in our shipment volume was driven by higher market share, notably of Marlboro, reflecting the growth of both Marlboro Red and Gold in 30s packs launched in March 2017.

In Germany, estimated industry size, our shipment volume and market share performance, shown in the table below, include cigarettes and our heated tobacco units.
 
Germany Key Market Data
 
Full-Year
 
 
 
Change

 
2017

2016

% / p.p.

Total Market (billion units)
76.9

78.1

(1.6
)%
 
 
 
 
PMI Shipments (million units)
28,575

28,958

(1.3
)%
 
 
 
 
PMI Market Share
 
 
 
Marlboro
22.7
%
22.5
%
0.2

L&M
11.5
%
11.6
%
(0.1
)
Chesterfield
1.5
%
1.6
%
(0.1
)
Others*
1.5
%
1.4
%
0.1

Total
37.2
%
37.1
%
0.1

*Includes heated tobacco units.

The estimated total market decreased by 1.6%, or by 2.7% excluding the net impact of estimated trade inventory movements, mainly reflecting the impact of price increases in March 2017. The decrease in our shipment volume was mainly due to the lower total market, partly offset by higher market share.





38


In Italy, estimated industry size, our shipment volume and market share performance, shown in the table below, include cigarettes and our heated tobacco units.
 
Italy Key Market Data
 
Full-Year
 
 
 
Change

 
2017

2016

% / p.p.

Total Market (billion units)
69.8

72.1

(3.2
)%
 
 
 
 
PMI Shipments (million units)
36,767

38,744

(5.1
)%
 
 
 
 
PMI Market Share
 
 
 
Marlboro
23.9
%
24.3
%
(0.4
)
Chesterfield
11.3
%
11.5
%
(0.2
)
Philip Morris
7.7
%
8.5
%
(0.8
)
HEETS
0.7
%
0.1
%
0.6

Others
8.6
%
8.1
%
0.5

Total
52.2
%
52.5
%
(0.3
)

The estimated total market decreased by 3.2%, partly reflecting the implementation of the Tobacco Product Directive's ban on pack sizes of ten cigarettes at the end of 2016. The decline of our shipments, down by 3.6% excluding the net impact of distributor inventory movements, mainly reflected the lower total market, as well as lower cigarette market share, principally due to Marlboro, partly reflecting the ban on pack sizes of ten cigarettes, and low-price Philip Morris, impacted by the growth of the super-low price segment, partly offset by HEETS and Merit in "Others."

In Poland, estimated industry size, our shipment volume and market share performance, shown in the table below, include cigarettes and our heated tobacco units.
 
Poland Key Market Data
 
Full-Year
 
 
 
Change

 
2017

2016

% / p.p.

Total Market (billion units)
41.7

41.3

0.9
%
 
 
 
 
PMI Shipments (million units)
17,784

17,485

1.7
%
 
 
 
 
PMI Market Share
 
 
 
Marlboro
10.7
%
11.6
%
(0.9
)
L&M
18.4
%
18.5
%
(0.1
)
Chesterfield
10.4
%
9.1
%
1.3

HEETS
0.2
%
%
0.2

Others
3.0
%
3.1
%
(0.1
)
Total
42.7
%
42.3
%
0.4


The estimated total market increased by 0.9%. The increase in our shipment volume was primarily driven by the higher total market and higher market share, driven by Chesterfield, benefiting from brand support, partly offset by Marlboro, reflecting pressure from competitive brands in the below premium segment.





39


In Spain, estimated industry size, our shipment volume and market share performance, shown in the table below, include cigarettes and our heated tobacco units.
 
Spain Key Market Data
 
Full-Year
 
 
 
Change

 
2017

2016

% / p.p.

Total Market (billion units)
45.0

46.7

(3.5
)%
 
 
 
 
PMI Shipments (million units)
14,456

16,374

(11.7
)%
 
 
 
 
PMI Market Share
 
 
 
Marlboro
16.5
%
18.0
%
(1.5
)
L&M
5.3
%
5.4
%
(0.1
)
Chesterfield
8.6
%
8.6
%