Attached files

file filename
EX-32.1 - EX-32.1 - Viracta Therapeutics, Inc.snss-ex321_562.htm
EX-31.2 - EX-31.2 - Viracta Therapeutics, Inc.snss-ex312_561.htm
EX-31.1 - EX-31.1 - Viracta Therapeutics, Inc.snss-ex311_560.htm
EX-10.2 - EX-10.2 - Viracta Therapeutics, Inc.snss-ex102_559.htm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2017

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from              to             

Commission file number: 000-51531

 

SUNESIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

94-3295878

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

395 Oyster Point Boulevard, Suite 400

South San Francisco, California 94080

(Address of Principal Executive Offices including Zip Code)

(650) 266-3500

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 12b-2).    Yes      No  

The registrant had 21,460,543 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, outstanding as of April 28, 2017.

 

 

 


 

SUNESIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Page

No.

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

3

Item 1.

  

Financial Statements:

3

 

  

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016

3

 

  

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2017 and 2016

4

 

  

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2017 and 2016

5

 

  

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

6

Item 2.

  

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

14

Item 3.

  

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

20

Item 4.

  

Controls and Procedures

21

 

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

22

Item 1.

  

Legal Proceedings

22

Item 1A.

  

Risk Factors

22

Item 2.

  

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

36

Item 3.

  

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

36

Item 4.

  

Mine Safety Disclosures

36

Item 5.

  

Other Information

37

Item 6.

  

Exhibits

37

 

  

Signatures

38

 

 

 

 


 

PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1.

Financial Statements

 

  

SUNESIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands)

 

 

March 31,

2017

 

 

December 31,

2016

 

 

(Unaudited)

 

 

(1)

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

$

11,470

 

 

$

8,056

 

Marketable securities

 

23,706

 

 

 

34,532

 

Prepaids and other current assets

 

714

 

 

 

643

 

Total current assets

 

35,890

 

 

 

43,231

 

Property and equipment, net

 

1

 

 

 

3

 

Total assets

$

35,891

 

 

$

43,234

 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

$

2,647

 

 

$

1,871

 

Accrued clinical expense

 

1,351

 

 

 

1,434

 

Accrued compensation

 

1,055

 

 

 

2,000

 

Other accrued liabilities

 

1,782

 

 

 

1,691

 

Current portion of deferred revenue

 

 

 

 

610

 

Current portion of notes payable

 

4,583

 

 

 

3,333

 

Total current liabilities

 

11,418

 

 

 

10,939

 

Non-current portion of notes payable

 

9,930

 

 

 

11,102

 

Other accrued liabilities

226

 

 

169

 

Commitments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Convertible preferred stock

 

18,808

 

 

 

18,808

 

Common stock

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

602,755

 

 

 

599,632

 

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

(18

)

 

 

(22

)

Accumulated deficit

 

(607,230

)

 

 

(597,396

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

14,317

 

 

 

21,024

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

35,891

 

 

$

43,234

 

  

 

(1)

The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2016, has been derived from the audited financial statements as of that date included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016.

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

3


 

SUNESIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

 

 

Three months ended

March 31,

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

(Unaudited)

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

License and other revenue

$

669

 

 

$

640

 

Total revenues

 

669

 

 

 

640

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

6,162

 

 

 

6,209

 

General and administrative

 

3,942

 

 

 

4,295

 

Total operating expenses

 

10,104

 

 

 

10,504

 

Loss from operations

 

(9,435

)

 

 

(9,864

)

Interest expense

 

(484

)

 

 

(298

)

Other income, net

 

85

 

 

 

76

 

Net loss

 

(9,834

)

 

 

(10,086

)

Unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale securities

 

4

 

 

 

13

 

Comprehensive loss

$

(9,830

)

 

$

(10,073

)

Basic and diluted loss per common share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(9,834

)

 

$

(10,086

)

Shares used in computing net loss per common share

 

21,029

 

 

 

14,443

 

Basic and diluted loss per common share

$

(0.47

)

 

$

(0.70

)

 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

4


 

SUNESIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(In thousands)

 

 

Three months ended

March 31,

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

(Unaudited)

 

Cash flows from operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(9,834

)

 

$

(10,086

)

Adjustments to reconcile loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

887

 

 

 

1,453

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

Amortization of debt discount and debt issuance costs

 

78

 

 

 

122

 

Write-off debt discount upon note repayment

 

 

 

 

27

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaids and other assets

 

(71

)

 

 

(143

)

Accounts payable

 

776

 

 

 

128

 

Accrued clinical expense

 

(83

)

 

 

231

 

Accrued compensation

 

(945

)

 

 

(677

)

Other accrued liabilities

 

143

 

 

 

(1,163

)

Deferred revenue

 

(610

)

 

 

(610

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

(9,657

)

 

 

(10,715

)

Cash flows from investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of marketable securities

 

 

 

 

(43,514

)

Proceeds from maturities of marketable securities

 

10,830

 

 

 

46,913

 

Net cash  provided by investing activities

 

10,830

 

 

 

3,399

 

Cash flows from financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from notes payable

 

 

 

 

12,500

 

Principal payments on notes payable

 

 

 

 

(830

)

Payoff of notes payable and final payment

 

 

 

 

(7,153

)

Payment of financing fees and debt issuance costs

 

 

 

 

(229

)

Proceeds from issuance of common stock through controlled equity offering facilities, net

 

2,241

 

 

 

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

2,241

 

 

 

4,288

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

 

3,414

 

 

 

(3,028

)

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

 

8,056

 

 

 

26,886

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

$

11,470

 

 

$

23,858

 

Supplemental disclosure of non-cash activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair value of warrants issued in connection with notes payable

$

 

 

$

537

 

 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

5


 

SUNESIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

MARCH 31, 2017

(Unaudited)

 

1. Company Overview

Description of Business

Sunesis Pharmaceutical, Inc. (Sunesis” or the “company”) is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of new oncology therapeutics for the treatment of solid and hematologic cancers. The Company’s primary activities since incorporation have been conducting research and development internally and through corporate collaborators, in-licensing and out-licensing pharmaceutical compounds and technology, conducting clinical trials and raising capital.

In January 2014, Sunesis announced the expansion of its oncology pipeline through separate global licensing agreements for two preclinical kinase inhibitor programs. The first agreement, with Biogen Idec MA, Inc., “Biogen,” is for global commercial rights to SNS-062, a selective non-covalently binding oral inhibitor of BTK.  The second agreement, with Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, or Takeda, is for global commercial rights to several potential first-in class, pre-clinical inhibitors of the novel target PDK1.

In January 2017, the Company announced that its Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for SNS-062, is now actively supporting the initiation of a Phase 1B/2 study to assess the candidate's safety and efficacy in patients with advanced B-cell malignancies after prior ibrutinib exposure, including in patients with C481S mutations.

The Company is in a collaboration with Takeda for the development of TAK-580 (formerly MLN2480), an oral pan-RAF inhibitor, for which Takeda is conducting a multi-arm, open-label Phase 1B study in combination with nivolumab, a PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor; TAK-228, an oral mTORC 1/2 inhibitor; alisertib, an oral aurora A kinase inhibitor; and several chemotherapeutic agents, in adult patients with advanced non-hematologic malignancies.

Sunesis’ most advanced program is QINPREZOTM (vosaroxin), our product candidate for the potential treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (“AML”). Vosaroxin is an anticancer quinolone derivative (“AQD”) —a class of compounds that has not been used previously for the treatment of cancer.

In October 2014, the Company announced the results of a Phase 3, multi-national, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vosaroxin in combination with cytarabine in patients with relapsed or refractory AML, or the VALOR trial. The VALOR trial did not meet its primary endpoint of demonstrating a statistically significant improvement in overall survival. However, based upon the favorable results of other predefined analyses of the data, in November 2014, the Company submitted a letter of intent to the European Medicines Agency (“EMA”) describing its intention to file a marketing authorization application (“MAA”) for marketing authorization of vosaroxin plus cytarabine for the treatment of relapsed or refractory AML. In June 2015, the Company met separately with the Rapporteur and Co-Rapporteur, who are two appointed members of the EMA’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (“CHMP”). Based upon feedback from these meetings, the Company filed an MAA with the EMA at the end of 2015. In April 2016, the Company received a list of questions relating to our MAA filing (the “Day 120 Questions”) the Company responded to these questions in October 2016 and in December 2016 the Company received a list of outstanding issues (the “Day 180 LOI”).  In March 2017, the Company submitted responses to the European Medicine Agency (EMA) Day 180 List of Outstanding Issues issued by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) as part of the centralized review process of the Marketing Authorization (MAA) for vosaroxin as a treatment for relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in patients aged 60 years and older.  In April 2017, the Company presented to the Scientific Advisory Group – Oncology (“SAG-O”) and also to the CHMP.  As a result of these interactions, feedback from its CHMP rapporteurs and its retained regulatory consultants and an internal assessment, the Company announced on May 1, 2017 its intention to withdraw its MAA.

In July 2015, management met with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”), to discuss a potential regulatory filing in the U.S. Based upon the meeting, the FDA recommended that we provide additional clinical evidence prior to any regulatory filing in the U.S. As a result, we are evaluating regulatory and clinical strategies with the goal of gaining future marketing approval in the U.S.

It is the Company’s intention to continue to support investigator-sponsored group trials with vosaroxin and to resume Company-sponsored studies if a development partner can be secured.

6


 

Significant Risks and Uncertainties

The Company has incurred significant losses and negative cash flows from operations since its inception, and as of March 31, 2017, had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities totaling $35.2 million and an accumulated deficit of $607.2 million. Management considered its plans to withdraw the European MAA for vosaroxin and significantly curtail the development of vosaroxin and concluded the Company would be able to meet its obligations as they become due  into June 2018.

 

The Company will need to raise substantial additional capital to pursue a regulatory strategy for the potential commercialization of QINPREZOTM (vosaroxin), its product candidate for the potential treatment of acute myeloid leukemia, and to continue the development of vosaroxin and the Company’s kinase inhibitor programs, including SNS-062. The Company expects to finance its future cash needs primarily through equity issuances, debt arrangements, one or more possible licenses, collaborations or other similar arrangements with respect to development and/or commercialization rights to vosaroxin and its other development programs, or a combination of the above. However, the Company does not know whether additional funding will be available on acceptable terms, or at all. If the Company is unable to raise required funding on acceptable terms or at all, it will need to reduce operating expenses, enter into a collaboration or other similar arrangement with respect to development and/or commercialization rights to our development programs, outlicense intellectual property rights to sell unsecured assets, or a combination of the above, or be forced to delay or reduce the scope of our development programs and/or limit or cease operations.

Concentrations of Credit Risk

In accordance with its investment policy, the Company invests cash that is not currently being used for operational purposes. The policy allows for the purchase of low risk debt securities issued by: (a) the United States and certain European governments and government agencies, and (b) highly rated banks and corporations, denominated in U.S. dollars, Euros or British pounds, subject to certain concentration limits. The policy limits maturities of securities purchased to no longer than 24 months and the weighted average maturity of the portfolio to 12 months. Management believes these guidelines ensure both the safety and liquidity of any investment portfolio the Company may hold.

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk generally consist of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. The Company is exposed to credit risk in the event of default by the institutions holding its cash, cash equivalents and any marketable securities to the extent of the amounts recorded in the balance sheets.

 

 

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. The financial statements include all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) that management believes are necessary for a fair presentation of the periods presented. The balance sheet as of December 31, 2016 was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date. These interim financial results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full year or any other period. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the notes accompanying them should be read in conjunction with the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016.

Reverse Stock Split

On September 7, 2016, the Company effected a one-for-six reverse split of its common stock (the "Reverse Split"), as previously authorized and approved at the annual meeting of stockholders on June 7, 2016. As a result of the Reverse Split, every six shares of common stock were combined into one share of capital stock. The Reverse Split affected the shares of Company's common stock: (a) outstanding immediately prior to the effective time of the Reverse Split, (b) available for issuance under the Company's equity incentive plans, (c) issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants and (d) issuable upon conversion of the outstanding Series B Preferred Stock. All share and per-share data in our condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto give retroactive effect to the Reverse Split for all periods presented.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), that will supersede most existing revenue recognition guidance under GAAP.

7


 

The new revenue standard requires an entity to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that is expected to be received in exchange for those goods or services. Entities can choose either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. The new revenue standard as amended by ASU No. 2015-14, is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017. In March, April and May 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-08, Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net), ASU 2016-10, Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing, and ASU 2016-12, Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients.  These pronouncements have the same effective date as the new revenue standard and provide additional guidance, clarification and practical expedients to reduce the cost and complexity of applying the new standard.  The guidance allows for adoption on either a full retrospective or a modified retrospective basis. The Company has identified the existing contracts likely to fall under ASC 606 and plans to adopt this guidance on January 1, 2018 applying the modified-retrospective approach.

In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. ASU 2016-01 made modifications to how certain financial instruments should be measured and disclosed, including using the exit price notion when measuring the fair value, separating the presentation of financial assets and financial liabilities by measurement category on the balance sheet and eliminating the requirement to disclose the method and significant assumptions used to estimate the fair value that is required to be disclosed for financial instruments measured at amortized cost on the balance sheet. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods. The Company will evaluate the guidance and present the required disclosures in its consolidated financial statements at the time of adoption.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases. ASU 2016-02 is aimed at making leasing activities more transparent and comparable, and requires substantially all leases be recognized by lessees on their balance sheet as a right-of-use asset and corresponding lease liability, including leases currently accounted for as operating leases. ASU 2016-02 is effective for the Company’s interim and annual reporting periods during the year ending December 31, 2019, and all annual and interim reporting periods thereafter. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of ASU 2016-02 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which will require a reporting entity to use a new forward-looking impairment model for most financial assets that generally will result in the earlier recognition of allowances for losses.  For available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, credit losses will be recognized as allowances rather than as reductions in amortized cost. The standard will be effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted beginning in 2019. Entities will apply the guidance as a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is adopted.  The Company will evaluate the guidance and present the impact in its consolidated financial statements at the time of adoption.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business. The guidance changes the definition of a business to assist entities when evaluating if a set of transferred activities is a business, or an acquired asset. The guidance requires an entity to evaluate if substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar intangible assets: if so, the set of transferred assets and activities is not a business. The guidance also requires a business to include at least one substantive process and narrows the definition of outputs by more closely aligning it with how outputs are described in ASC 606. The standard will become effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those years. The ASU will be applied prospectively to any transactions occurring with the period of adoption. Early adoption is permitted, including for interim periods. The Company will evaluate the guidance, but does not anticipate it will have a material impact on its financial results.

 

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Sunesis Europe Limited, a United Kingdom corporation, and Sunesis Pharmaceuticals (Bermuda) Ltd., a Bermuda corporation, as well as a Bermuda limited partnership, Sunesis Pharmaceuticals International LP. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Segment Reporting

Management has determined that the Company operates as a single reportable segment.

Significant Estimates and Judgments

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the Company’s consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes thereto. Actual results could

8


 

differ materially from these estimates. Estimates, assumptions and judgments made by management include those related to the valuation of equity and related instruments, debt instruments, revenue recognition, stock-based compensation and clinical trial accounting.

Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities

Invoices for certain services provided to the Company are denominated in foreign currencies. To manage the risk of future movements in foreign exchange rates that would affect such amounts, the Company may purchase certain European currencies or highly-rated investments denominated in those currencies, subject to similar criteria as for other investments defined in the Company’s investment policy. There is no guarantee that the related gains and losses will substantially offset each other, and the Company may be subject to exchange gains or losses as currencies fluctuate from quarter to quarter. To date, the Company has purchased Euros and Euro-denominated obligations of foreign governments and corporate debt. As of March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the Company held cash and investments denominated in Euros with an aggregate fair value of $0.7 million. Any cash, cash equivalent and marketable securities balances denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at their fair value based on the current exchange rate as of each balance sheet date. The resulting exchange gains or losses and those from amounts payable for services originally denominated in foreign currencies are recorded in other income, net in the statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

Fair Value Measurements

The Company measures cash equivalents and marketable securities at fair value on a recurring basis and warrants issued in connection with debt on a non-recurring basis using the following hierarchy to prioritize valuation inputs, in accordance with applicable GAAP:

Level 1 - quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets and liabilities that can be accessed at the measurement date.

Level 2 - inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly.

Level 3 - unobservable inputs.

The Company’s Level 2 valuations of marketable securities are generally derived from independent pricing services based upon quoted prices in active markets for similar securities, with prices adjusted for yield and number of days to maturity, or based on industry models using data inputs, such as interest rates and prices that can be directly observed or corroborated in active markets.

The carrying amounts of the Company’s financial instruments, including cash, prepayments, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, deferred revenue and notes payable approximated their fair value as of March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016.

 

 

3. Loss per Common Share

Basic loss per common share is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted loss per common share is computed by dividing (a) net loss, less any anti-dilutive amounts recorded during the period for the change in the fair value of warrant liabilities, by (b) the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period plus dilutive potential common shares as determined using the treasury stock method for options and warrants to purchase common stock. All share and per-share data presented for the three months ended March 31, 2016 has been retroactively adjusted to reflect Reverse Split.

The following table represents the potential common shares issuable pursuant to outstanding securities as of the related period end dates that were excluded from the computation of diluted loss per common share because their inclusion would have had an anti-dilutive effect (in thousands):

 

 

Three months ended

March 31,

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Warrants to purchase shares of common stock

 

218

 

 

 

371

 

Convertible preferred stock

 

4,270

 

 

 

3,367

 

Options to purchase shares of common stock

 

2,655

 

 

 

2,034

 

Restricted stock units

 

53

 

 

 

66

 

Outstanding securities not included in calculations

 

7,196

 

 

 

5,838

 

 

 

9


 

4. Financial Instruments

Financial Assets

The following tables summarize the estimated fair value of the Company’s financial assets measured on a recurring basis as of the dates indicated, which were comprised solely of available-for-sale marketable securities with remaining contractual maturities of one year or less (in thousands):

 

March 31, 2017

 

Input Level

 

Amortized

Cost

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Gains

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Losses

 

 

Estimated Fair

Value

 

Money market funds

 

Level 1

 

$

6,146

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

6,146

 

U.S. Treasury securities

 

Level 1

 

 

11,520

 

 

 

 

 

 

(9

)

 

 

11,511

 

U.S. certificates of deposit

 

Level 1

 

 

3,159

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

3,159

 

U.S. corporate debt obligations

 

Level 2

 

 

7,048

 

 

 

 

 

 

(7

)

 

 

7,041

 

U.S. commercial paper

 

Level 2

 

 

3,497

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2

)

 

 

3,495

 

Total available-for-sale securities

 

 

 

 

31,370

 

 

 

 

 

 

(18

)

 

 

31,352

 

Less amounts classified as cash equivalents

 

 

 

 

(7,646

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(7,646

)

Amounts classified as marketable securities

 

 

 

$

23,724

 

 

$

 

 

$

(18

)

 

$

23,706

 

 

December 31, 2016

 

Input Level

 

Amortized

Cost

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Gains

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Losses

 

 

Estimated Fair

Value

 

Money market funds

 

Level 1

 

$

3,270

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

3,270

 

U.S. Treasury securities

 

Level 1

 

 

16,029

 

 

 

 

 

 

(9

)

 

 

16,020

 

U.S. certificates of deposit

 

Level 1

 

 

4,868

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,868

 

U.S. corporate obligations

 

Level 2

 

 

11,617

 

 

 

 

 

 

(11

)

 

 

11,606

 

U.S. commercial paper

 

Level 2

 

 

2,521

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2

)

 

 

2,519

 

Total available-for-sale securities

 

 

 

 

38,305

 

 

 

 

 

 

(22

)

 

 

38,283

 

Less amounts classified as cash equivalents

 

 

 

 

(3,751

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(3,751

)

Amounts classified as marketable securities

 

 

 

$

34,554

 

 

$

 

 

$

(22

)

 

$

34,532

 

 

The following table summarizes the available-for-sale securities that were in an unrealized loss position as of the date indicated, having been in such position for less than 12 months, and none having been deemed to be other-than temporarily impaired (in thousands):    

 

March 31, 2017

 

Gross

Unrealized

Losses

 

 

Estimated Fair

Value

 

U.S. Treasury securities

 

$

(9

)

 

$

11,511

 

U.S. corporate debt obligations

 

 

(7

)

 

 

7,041

 

U.S. commercial paper

 

 

(2

)

 

 

3,495

 

 

 

$

(18

)

 

$

22,047

 

 

December 31, 2016

 

Gross

Unrealized

Losses

 

 

Estimated Fair

Value

 

U.S. Treasury securities

 

$

(9

)

 

$

16,020

 

U.S. corporate debt obligations

 

 

(11

)

 

 

11,606

 

U.S. commercial paper

 

 

(2

)

 

 

2,519

 

 

 

$

(22

)

 

$

30,145

 

 

No significant facts or circumstances have arisen to indicate that there has been any deterioration in the creditworthiness of the issuers of these securities. As of March 31, 2017, we did not hold any investments with a maturity exceeding 12 months or that have been in a continuous loss position for 12 months or more. We do not intend to sell the securities that are in an unrealized loss position and it is more likely than not that the investments will be held until recovery of the amortized cost bases. We have determined that the gross unrealized losses on our securities as of March 31, 2017 were temporary in nature.  There were no realized gains or losses on the available-for-sale securities during either three months ended March 31, 2017 or 2016.         

 

 

10


 

5. Royalty Agreement

In March 2012, the Company entered into a Revenue Participation Agreement (the “Royalty Agreement”), with RPI Finance Trust (“RPI”), an entity related to Royalty Pharma. In September 2012, pursuant to the provisions of the Royalty Agreement, RPI made a $25.0 million cash payment to the Company. The payment, less $3.1 million representing the fair value of the warrants granted under the arrangement, was initially classified as deferred revenue and is fully amortized to revenue over the related performance period.

  

Revenue participation right payments will be made to RPI when and if vosaroxin is commercialized, at a rate of 6.75% of net sales of vosaroxin, on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis world-wide through the later of: (a) the expiration of the last to expire of certain specifically identified patents; (b) 10 years from the date of first commercial sale of such product in such country; or (c) the expiration of all applicable periods of data, market or other regulatory exclusivity in such country with respect to such product.

 

 

6. License Agreements

Biogen

In December 2013, the Company entered into a second amended and restated collaboration agreement with Biogen Idec MA, Inc. (the “Biogen 2nd ARCA”), to provide the Company with an exclusive worldwide license to develop, manufacture and commercialize SNS-062, a BTK inhibitor synthesized under the first amended and restated collaboration agreement with Biogen (the “Biogen 1st ARCA”), solely for oncology indications. The Company may be required to make a $2.5 million milestone payment depending on its development of SNS-062 and royalty payments depending on related product sales of SNS-062. All other of Sunesis’ rights and obligations contained in the Biogen 1st ARCA remain unchanged, except that potential future royalty payments to Sunesis were reduced to equal those amounts due to Biogen for potential future sales of SNS-062.

Takeda

In March 2011, Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (“Takeda”) purchased and exclusively licensed Biogen’s rights to a PDK1 inhibitor program and a pan-Raf inhibitor program which were both originally developed through a collaboration agreement between Sunesis and Biogen. In January 2014, the Company entered into an amended and restated license agreement with Takeda (the “Amended Takeda Agreement”), to provide the Company with an exclusive worldwide license to develop and commercialize preclinical inhibitors of PDK1. In connection with the execution of the Amended Takeda Agreement, the Company paid an upfront fee and may be required to make up to $9.2 million in pre-commercialization milestone payments depending on its development of PDK1 inhibitors and royalty payments depending on related product sales, if any.

With respect to the pan-Raf inhibitor program, the Company may in the future receive up to $57.5 million in pre-commercialization event-based payments related to the development by Takeda of the first two indications for each of the licensed products directed against the Raf target and royalty payments depending on related product sales. Under this program, Takeda is currently conducting Phase 1 clinical studies of an oral investigative drug, TAK-580 (formerly MLN2480).

 

 

7. Notes Payable

On March 31, 2016, the Company entered into a loan and security agreement (the “Loan Agreement”) with Western Alliance Bank (“Western Bank”) and Solar Capital Ltd. (“Solar Capital,” and collectively with Western Bank, the “Lenders”) and Western Alliance, as Collateral Agent (the “Collateral Agent”). Pursuant to the terms of the Loan Agreement, the Lenders provided the Company with a loan in the principal amount of $15,000,000 of which $12,500,000 was funded on March 31, 2016 and $2,500,000 was funded on April 1, 2016, for working capital, to fund its general business requirements and to repay indebtedness of the Company to Oxford Finance LLC, Silicon Valley Bank and Horizon Technology Finance Corporation (collectively, the “Existing Lenders”) pursuant to the Loan and Security Agreement, dated as of October 18, 2011, entered into by and among the Existing Lenders and the Company (the “Oxford Loan Agreement”). On March 31, 2016, the Company used $7.2 million of the loan proceeds to repay the outstanding principal of $6.0 million, a final payment fee of $1.2 million and accrued interest of $45,000 under the Oxford Loan Agreement. The Company paid the Lenders a $0.1 million facility fee and $0.1 million in legal fees. 

The Company will be required to pay interest on the borrowings under the Loan Agreement at a per annum rate equal to 8.54% plus the then effective one-month U.S. LIBOR rate. Payments under the Loan Agreement are monthly in arrears and interest-only for the first 12-months. Thereafter and until the scheduled maturity date of April 1, 2020, in addition to interest accrued during such period, the monthly payments will include an amount equal to the outstanding principal divided by 36 months, unless the interest only period is extended by a further six months, in which case the amortization period will be 30 months. A final payment equal to 3.75% of the original principal amount borrowed will be due upon maturity or such earlier date specified in the Loan Agreement. If the Company repays all

11


 

amounts owed under the Loan Agreement prior to the maturity date, the Company will pay a prepayment fee equal to 1.0% of the amount prepaid if the prepayment occurs after March 31, 2017 but on or prior to March 31, 2018 and 0.5% of the amount prepaid if the prepayment occurs thereafter.       

The facility fee and legal fees related to the debt are being accounted for as a debt discount and classified within notes payable on the Company’s balance sheet and amortized as interest expense over the term of the loan using the effective interest method.  The final payment is being accreted as interest expense over the term of the loan using the effective interest method.

In conjunction with the Loan Agreement, the Lenders were issued five-year warrants to purchase an aggregate of up to 208,002 shares of the Company’s common stock at a per share exercise price of $3.2454. The fair value of the warrants issued was estimated to be $0.5 million using a Black-Scholes valuation model with the following assumptions: common stock price at issuance of $3.24; exercise price of $3.2454; risk-free interest rate of 1.21% based upon observed risk-free interest rates; expected volatility of 111.96% based on the Company’s average historical volatility; expected term of five years, which is the contractual life of the warrants; and a dividend yield of 0%. The fair value was recorded as a debt discount within notes payable and an increase to additional paid-in capital on the Company’s balance sheet. The debt discount is being amortized as interest expense over the term of the Loan Agreement, using the effective interest method.

 

Pursuant to the Loan Agreement, the Company is bound by a variety of affirmative covenants during the term of the Loan Agreement, including, without limitation, certain information delivery requirements, notice requirements and obligations to maintain certain insurance. Additionally, the Company is bound by certain negative covenants setting forth actions that are not permitted to be taken during the term of the Loan Agreement without the Lenders’ consent, including, without limitation, incurring certain additional indebtedness, making certain asset dispositions, entering into certain mergers, acquisitions or other business combination transactions or incurring any non-permitted lien or other encumbrance on the Company’s assets. Upon the occurrence of an event of default under the Loan Agreement (subject to cure periods for certain events of default), all amounts owed by the Company thereunder would begin to bear interest at a rate that is 5.0% higher than the rate that would otherwise be applicable and may be declared immediately due and payable by the Collateral Agent. Events of default under the Loan Agreement include, among other things, the following: the occurrence of certain bankruptcy events; the failure to make payments under the Loan Agreement when due; the occurrence of a material impairment on the Collateral Agent’s security interest over the collateral, a material adverse change in the business, operations or condition (financial or otherwise) of the Company or material impairment of the prospect of repayment of the obligations under the Loan Agreement; the occurrence of a default under certain other agreements entered into by the Company; the rendering of certain types of judgments against the Company; the revocation of certain government approvals of the Company; any breach by the Company of any covenant (subject to cure periods for certain covenants) made in the Loan Agreement; and the failure of any representation or warranty made by the Company in connection with the Loan Agreement to be correct in all material respects when made. The Loan Agreement defines certain events of default, including instances of a Material Adverse Change in our operations, which may require prepayment of the outstanding Term Loan.  No such events have occurred or are anticipated as of March 31, 2017.

The Collateral Agent, for the benefit of the Lenders, has a perfected security interest in substantially all of the Company’s property, rights and assets, except for intellectual property, to secure the payment of all amounts owed to the Lenders under the Loan Agreement.

Aggregate future minimum payments due under the Loan Agreement as of March 31, 2017 were as follows (in thousands):

 

Year ending December 31,

 

Total

 

2017

 

$

4,310

 

2018

 

 

5,893

 

2019

 

 

5,417

 

2020

 

 

2,262

 

Total minimum payments

 

 

17,882

 

Less amount representing interest

 

 

(2,882

)

Total notes payable as of March 31, 2017

 

 

15,000

 

Less unamortized debt discount and issuance costs

 

 

(487

)

Less current portion of notes payable

 

 

(4,583

)

Non-current portion of notes payable

 

$

9,930

 

 

 

12


 

8. Stockholders’ Equity

Controlled Equity Offerings

In August 2011, the Company entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM sales agreement (the “Sales Agreement”), with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (“Cantor”), as agent and/or principal, pursuant to which the Company could issue and sell shares of its common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $20.0 million. In April 2013, the Sales Agreement was amended to provide for an increase of $30.0 million in the aggregate gross sales price under the Sales Agreement. In March 2015, the Sales Agreement was further amended to provide for an additional increase of $30.0 million in the aggregate gross sales price under the Sales Agreement. The Company will pay Cantor a commission of up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from any common stock sold through the Sales Agreement, as amended.

During the three months ended March 31, 2017, 536,021 shares of common stock were sold under the Sales Agreement with net proceeds of $2.2 million. As of March 31, 2017, $15.7 million of common stock remained available to be sold under this facility, subject to certain conditions as specified in the Sales Agreement, as amended.

 

 

9. Stock-Based Compensation

Employee stock-based compensation expense is calculated based on the grant-date fair value of awards ultimately expected to vest, and recognized under the straight-line attribution method, assuming that all stock-based awards will vest. Forfeitures are recognized as they occur.

The following table summarizes stock-based compensation expense related to the Company’s stock-based awards for the periods indicated (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three months ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Research and development

 

$

252

 

 

$

550

 

General and administrative

 

 

611

 

 

 

893

 

Employee stock-based compensation expense

 

 

863

 

 

 

1,443

 

Non-employee stock-based compensation expense

 

 

24

 

 

 

10

 

Total stock-based compensation expense

 

$

887

 

 

$

1,453

 

 

 

 

13


 

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition as of March 31, 2017 and results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016 should be read together with our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in our other Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, filings, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, filed with the SEC on March 9, 2017.

This discussion and analysis contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, which involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, are “forward-looking statements” for purposes of these provisions, including without limitation any statements relating our regulatory and clinical strategies for gaining marketing approval in the United States or Europe, our marketing plans and commercialization strategies for vosaroxin, SNS-062 and other product candidates, if approved, and the commercial potential of vosaroxin, SNS-062 and other product candidates, presenting clinical data and initiating clinical trials, our future research and development activities, including clinical testing and the costs and timing thereof, sufficiency of our cash resources, our ability to raise additional funding when needed, any statements concerning anticipated regulatory activities or licensing or collaborative arrangements, our research and development and other expenses, our operations and legal risks, and any statement of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of terminology such as “anticipates,” “believe,” “continue,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intend,” “look forward,” “may,” “could,” “seeks,” “plans,” “potential,” or “will” or the negative thereof or other comparable terminology. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements contained herein are reasonable, there can be no assurance that such expectations or any of the forward-looking statements will prove to be correct, and actual results could differ materially from those projected or assumed in the forward-looking statements as a result of these risks and uncertainties, which include, without limitation, the risk that we may not be able to receive regulatory approval of our products in the U.S. or Europe, that our development activities for our products could be otherwise halted or significantly delayed for various reasons, risks related to our need for substantial additional funding to complete the development and commercialization of our product candidates, the risk that our clinical studies for our product candidates, including vosaroxin, SNS-062 and our other kinase inhibitors, may not demonstrate safety or efficacy or lead to regulatory approval, the risk that data to date and trends may not be predictive of future data or results, risks related to the conduct of our clinical trials, and risks related to our ability to raise the capital that we believe to be accessible and is required to fully finance the development and commercialization of our product candidates. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including but not limited to those set forth under “Risk Factors,” and elsewhere in this report. We urge you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this report. All forward-looking statements included in this report are based on information available to us on the date of this report, and we assume no obligation to update any forward-looking statements contained in this report.

In this report, “Sunesis,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Sunesis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, except where it is made clear that the term means only the parent company.

Overview

Sunesis is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of new oncology therapeutics for the treatment of solid and hematologic cancers. Our primary activities since incorporation have been conducting research and development internally and through corporate collaborators, in-licensing and out-licensing pharmaceutical compounds and technology, conducting clinical trials and raising capital.

In January 2014, we announced the expansion of our oncology pipeline through separate global licensing agreements for two preclinical kinase inhibitor programs. The first agreement, with Biogen Idec MA, Inc., “Biogen,” is for global commercial rights to SNS-062, a selective non-covalently binding oral inhibitor of BTK. We filed a Clinical Trial Authorization application in the first quarter of 2016 in Belgium and enrolled the first patients in a Phase 1A study of SNS-062 in healthy volunteers. In September and again in in December 2016, we announced results from our Phase 1A study in healthy volunteers evaluating oral non-covalent, reversible BTK inhibitor SNS-062. The study demonstrated a favorable safety, pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile for SNS-062 in healthy subjects.  In December 2016 we filed an Investigational New Drug (“IND”) application with the FDA to conduct a Phase 1B/2 trial in patients with various B-cell malignancies. In January 2017, we announced that our Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for SNS-052, is active and supports the initiation of the Phase 1B/2 study to assess the drug candidate's safety and efficacy in patients with advanced B-cell malignancies after prior ibrutinib exposure, including in patients with C481S mutations.

We are also developing several potential first-in class, pre-clinical inhibitors of the novel target PDK1. In 2014, we selected two PDK1 inhibitors, SNS-229 and SNS-510, which are currently being evaluated in pre-clinical absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and toxicology studies.

14


 

We are in a collaboration with Takeda for the development of TAK-580 (formerly MLN2480), an oral pan-RAF inhibitor, for which Takeda is conducting a multi-arm, open-label Phase 1B study in combination with nivolumab, a PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor; TAK-228, an oral mTORC 1/2 inhibitor; alisertib, an oral aurora A kinase inhibitor; and several chemotherapeutic agents, in adult patients with advanced non-hematologic malignancies.

Our most advanced program is QINPREZOTM (vosaroxin), our product candidate for the potential treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (“AML”). Vosaroxin is an anticancer quinolone derivative (“AQD”) —a class of compounds that has not been used previously for the treatment of cancer.

In October 2014, we announced the results of a Phase 3, multi-national, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vosaroxin in combination with cytarabine in patients with relapsed or refractory AML, or the VALOR trial. The VALOR trial did not meet its primary endpoint of demonstrating a statistically significant improvement in overall survival. However, based upon the favorable results of other predefined analyses of the data, in November 2014, the Company submitted a letter of intent to the European Medicines Agency (“EMA”) describing its intention to file a marketing authorization application (“MAA”) for marketing authorization of vosaroxin plus cytarabine for the treatment of relapsed or refractory AML. In June 2015, the Company met separately with the Rapporteur and Co-Rapporteur, who are two appointed members of the EMA’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (“CHMP”). Based upon feedback from these meetings, the Company filed an MAA with the EMA at the end of 2015. In April 2016, the Company received a list of questions relating to our MAA filing (the “Day 120 Questions”) the Company responded to these questions in October 2016 and in December 2016 received a list of outstanding issues (the “Day 180 LOI”).  In March 2017, the Company submitted responses to the European Medicine Agency (EMA) Day 180 List of Outstanding Issues issued by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) as part of the centralized review process of the Marketing Authorization (MAA) for vosaroxin as a treatment for relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in patients aged 60 years and older.  In April 2017, the Company presented to the Scientific Advisory Group – Oncology (“SAG-O”) and also to the CHMP.  As a result of these interactions, feedback from its CHMP rapporteurs and its retained regulatory consultants and an internal assessment, the Company announced on May 1, 2017 the withdrawal of its MAA. It is the Company’s intention to continue to support investigator-sponsored group trials with vosaroxin and to resume Company-sponsored studies if a development partner can be secured.

Recent Financial History

Reverse Stock Split

On September 7, 2016, the Company effected a one-for-six reverse split of its common stock (the "Reverse Split"), as previously authorized and approved at the annual meeting of stockholders on June 7, 2016. As a result of the Reverse Split, every six shares of common stock were combined into one share of capital stock. The Reverse Split affected the shares of Company's common stock: (a) outstanding immediately prior to the effective time of the Reverse Split, (b) available for issuance under the Company's equity incentive plans, (c) issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants and (d) issuable upon conversion of the outstanding Series B Preferred Stock. All references to share numbers are presented on a post-split basis, unless provided otherwise.

Controlled Equity Offerings

In August 2011, we entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM sales agreement, or the Sales Agreement, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor, as agent and/or principal, pursuant to which we could issue and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $20.0 million. In April 2013, the Sales Agreement was amended to provide for an increase of $30.0 million in the aggregate gross sales price under the Sales Agreement. In March 2015, the Sales Agreement was further amended to provide for an additional increase of $30.0 million in the aggregate gross sales price under the Sales Agreement. We will pay Cantor a commission of up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from any common stock sold through the Sales Agreement, as amended.

During the three months ended, March 31, 2017, 536,021 shares of common stock were sold under the Sales Agreement with net proceeds of $2.2 million. As of March 31, 2017, $15.7 million of common stock remains available to be sold under the Sales Agreement, as amended, subject to certain conditions as specified in the agreement.

         

Capital Requirements

We have incurred significant losses in each year since our inception. As of March 31, 2017, we had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $35.2 million and an accumulated deficit of $607.2 million. We expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future as we continue the development of vosaroxin and our kinase inhibitor pipeline, including our BTK inhibitor SNS-062. considered its plans to withdraw the European MAA for vosaroxin and significantly curtail the development of vosaroxin and concluded the Company would be able to meet its obligations as they become due into June 2018.

15


 

We will need to raise substantial additional capital to complete the development and potential commercialization of our development programs, and expect to finance our future cash needs primarily through equity issuances, debt arrangements, one or more possible licenses, collaborations or other similar arrangements with respect to development and/or commercialization rights to our development programs, or a combination of the above. However, we do not know whether additional funding will be available on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise required funding on acceptable terms or at all, we will need to reduce operating expenses, enter into a collaboration or other similar arrangement with respect to development and/or commercialization rights, out-license intellectual property rights to our other development programs, sell unsecured assets, or a combination of the above, or be forced to delay or reduce the scope of our development program.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

There have been no significant changes during the three months ended March 31, 2017 to our critical accounting policies and significant judgments and estimates as disclosed in our management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016.

Overview of Revenues

We have not generated any revenue from the sale of commercial products. Over the past several years, we have generated revenue primarily through the Royalty Agreement with RPI, and the license and collaboration agreement with Biogen and is fully amortized to revenue over the related performance period. We cannot predict whether we will receive any additional event-based payments or royalties from these agreements, as amended, in the foreseeable future, or at all.

Overview of Operating Expenses

Research and Development expense. Research and development expense consists primarily of clinical trial costs, which include: payments for work performed by our contract research organizations, clinical trial sites, labs and other clinical service providers and for drug packaging, storage and distribution; drug manufacturing costs, which include costs for producing drug substance and drug product, and for stability and other testing; personnel costs, including non-cash stock-based compensation; other outside services and consulting costs; and payments under license agreements. We expense all research and development costs as they are incurred.

We are currently focused on the development of SNS-062 for the treatment of B-cell malignancies and to a lesser extent vosaroxin for the treatment of AML. Research and development costs typically increase as product development candidates move from early stage to later stage, larger clinical trials.  As a result, our research and development costs may increase in the future. Due to the above uncertainties and other risks inherent in the development process, we are unable to estimate the costs we will incur in the development of our product candidates in the future.

If we engage a development or commercialization partner for our development programs, or if, in the future, we acquire additional product candidates, our research and development expenses could be significantly affected. We cannot predict whether future licensing or collaborative arrangements will be secured, if at all, and to what degree such arrangements would affect our development plans and capital requirements.

We anticipate continuing expenditures associated with advancing the SNS-062 and SNS-229 programs in 2017 and beyond. Additionally, under the Takeda Agreement, we have the right to participate in co-development and co-promotion activities for the related product candidates, including TAK-580 (formerly MLN2480), an oral pan-RAF inhibitor currently in Phase 1 clinical studies being conducted by Takeda. If we were to exercise our option on this or other product candidates, our research and development expense would increase significantly.

General and Administrative expense. General and administrative expense consists primarily of personnel costs for the related employees, including non-cash stock-based compensation; outside service costs, including fees paid to external legal advisors, marketing consultants and our independent registered public accounting firm; facilities expenses; and other administrative costs. If we proceed to commercialization in either Europe or the United States, we anticipate general and administrative expenses to increase in the future, including additional costs related to selling and marketing.

Results of Operations

Revenue

Total revenue was $0.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017 as compared to $0.6 million for the same period in 2016. Revenue in each period was primarily due to deferred revenue recognized related to the Royalty Agreement with RPI.

16


 

Research and Development Expense

Research and development expense was $6.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017 as compared to $6.2 million for the same periods in 2016, primarily relating to the vosaroxin development program in each period. While research and development expenses overall did not increase between the comparable three month periods there was increase of $0.1 million in professional services, and an increase $0.2 million in clinical trials expenses, offset by a decrease of $0.3 million in personnel costs.

General and Administrative Expense

General and administrative expense was $3.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017 as compared to $4.3 million for the same period in 2016. The decrease of $0.4 million between the comparable three month periods was primarily due to a decrease of $0.1 million in personnel expenses and $0.3 million in commercial expenses.

Interest Expense

Interest expense was $0.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017 as compared to $0.3 million for the same period in 2016. The increase in the 2017 period was primarily due to the increase in the notes payable.

Other Income, Net

Net other income was $0.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and for the same period in 2016. The other income was primarily comprised of interest income from the short term investments.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Sources of Liquidity

Since our inception, we have funded our operations primarily through the issuance of common and preferred stock and other equity instruments, debt financings, receipts from our collaboration partners, the sale of revenue participation rights, and research grants. Management considered its plans to withdraw the European MAA for vosaroxin and significantly curtail the development of vosaroxin and concluded the Company would be able to meet its obligations as they become due into June 2018.

 

In August 2011, we entered into the Sales Agreement, with Cantor as agent and/or principal, pursuant to which we could issue and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $20.0 million. In April 2013, the Sales Agreement was amended to provide for an increase of $30.0 million in the aggregate gross sales price under the Sales Agreement. In March 2015, the Sales Agreement was further amended to provide for an additional increase of $30.0 million in the aggregate gross sales price under the Sales Agreement. We will pay Cantor a commission of up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from any common stock sold through the Sales Agreement, as amended.

During the three months ended March 31, 2017, 536,021 shares of common stock were sold under the Sales Agreement with Cantor. As of March 31, 2017, $15.7 million of common stock remains available to be sold under this facility, subject to certain conditions as specified in the Sales Agreement.

Our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities totaled $35.2 million as of March 31, 2017, as compared to $42.6 million as of December 31, 2016. The decrease of $7.4 million was primarily due to $9.7 million of net cash used in operating activities, offset by $2.2 million in net proceeds from issuing and selling shares under the Sales Agreement with Cantor.    

Cash Flows

Net cash used in operating activities was $9.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017, as compared to $10.7 million for the same period in 2016. Net cash used in the 2017 period resulted primarily from the net loss of $9.8 million and changes in operating assets and liabilities of $0.9 million, partially offset by net adjustments for non-cash items of $1.0 million. Net cash used in the three months period ended March 31, 2016 resulted primarily from the net loss of $10.1 million and changes in operating assets and liabilities of $2.2 million, including the payment of a final fee of $1.2 million under the Oxford Loan agreement, partially offset by net adjustments for non-cash items of $1.6 million.

Net cash provided by investing activities was $10.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017, as compared to net cash provided by investing activities of $3.4 million for the same period in 2016. Net cash provided in both periods consisted primarily of proceeds from maturities of marketable securities, partially offset by purchases of marketable securities.

17


 

Net cash provided by financing activities was $2.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017, as compared to $4.3 million for the same period in 2016. Net cash provided in the 2017 period resulted from net proceeds of $2.2 million from the sales of our common stock under the Sales Agreement with Cantor. Net cash provided in the 2016 period resulted from net proceeds of $12.3 million from debt financing, offset by $8.0 million of principal and final payments against notes payable.

Operating Capital Requirements

We have incurred significant operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since our inception. As of December 31, 2016, we had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $35.2 million and cash used in operating activities of $37 million. We adopted FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements — Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40) effective December 31, 2016. We have evaluated and concluded there are no conditions or events, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern for a period of one year following the date that these financial statements are issued.

We expect to continue to incur substantial operating losses in the future. We will not receive any product revenue until a product candidate has been approved by the EMA, FDA, or similar regulatory agencies in other countries, and has been successfully commercialized, if at all. We will need to raise substantial additional funding to complete the development and potential commercialization of any of our development programs. Additionally, we may evaluate in-licensing and acquisition opportunities to gain access to new drugs or drug targets that would fit with our strategy. Any such transaction would likely increase our funding needs in the future.

Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including but not limited to:

 

the rate of progress and cost of our clinical trials;

 

the need for additional or expanded clinical trials;

 

the timing, economic and other terms of any licensing, collaboration or other similar arrangement into which we may enter;

 

the costs and timing of seeking and obtaining EMA, FDA, or other regulatory approvals;

 

the extent of our other development activities, including our in-license agreements;

 

the costs associated with building or accessing commercialization and additional manufacturing capabilities and supplies;

 

the costs of acquiring or investing in businesses, product candidates and technologies, if any;

 

the costs of filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing any patent claims and other intellectual property rights;

 

the effect of competing technological and market developments; and

 

the costs, if any, of supporting our arrangements with Biogen and Takeda.

We believe that we currently have the resources to fund our operations into June 2018. We will need to raise substantial additional capital to complete the development and potential commercialization of our development programs. Until we can generate a sufficient amount of licensing or collaboration or product revenue to finance our cash requirements, which we may never do, we expect to finance future cash needs primarily through equity issuances, debt arrangements, one or more possible licenses, collaborations or other similar arrangements with respect to development and/or commercialization rights to vosaroxin, SNS-062 or our development programs, or a combination of the above.

Our failure to raise significant additional capital in the future would force us to delay or reduce the scope of our vosaroxin and other development programs, potentially including any additional clinical trials or subsequent regulatory filings in Europe or the United States, and/or limit or cease our operations. Any one of the foregoing would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

18


 

Contractual Obligations

The following table summarizes our long-term contractual obligations as of March 31, 2017 (in thousands):

 

 

Payments Due by Period

 

 

Total

 

 

Less Than

1 Year

 

 

1-3 Years

 

 

3-5 Years

 

Debt obligations(1)

$

17,882

 

 

$

4,310

 

 

$

11,310

 

 

$

2,262

 

Operating lease obligations(2)

$

825

 

 

$

659

 

 

$

166

 

 

$

 

  

 

(1)

Upon the occurrence of an event of default under the Loan Agreement (subject to cure periods for certain events of default), all amounts owed by the Company thereunder would begin to bear interest at a rate that is 5.0% higher than the rate that would otherwise be applicable and may be declared immediately due and payable by the Collateral Agent. A final payment equal to 3.75% of the original principal amount borrowed will be due upon maturity or such earlier date specified in the Loan Agreement. We may elect to prepay all amounts owed under the Loan Agreement prior to the maturity date therefore, subject to a prepayment fee equal to 1.0% of the amount prepaid if the prepayment occurs after March 31, 2017 but on or prior to March 31, 2018 and 0.5% of the amount prepaid if the prepayment occurs thereafter.

(2)

Operating lease obligations relate solely to the leasing of office space in a building at 395 Oyster Point Boulevard in South San Francisco, California, which is currently our corporate headquarters. In January 2014, a lease for 15,378 square feet was entered into with an expiration date of April 30, 2015. In June 2014, the lease was amended to extend the expiration date to June 30, 2015, and to add 6,105 square feet of additional office space within the same building. In January 2015, the lease was amended to extend the expiration date to December 31, 2015, in September 2015, the lease was amended to extend the expiration date to September 30, 2016, and in May 2016, the lease was amended to extend the expiration date to June 30, 2018.

The above amounts exclude potential payments under:

 

our 2003 license agreement with Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd., or Sumitomo, pursuant to which we are required to make certain milestone payments in the event we file new drug applications in the United States, Europe or Japan, and if we receive regulatory approvals in any of these regions, for cancer-related indications, including a payment following the filing of an MAA with the EMA. If vosaroxin is approved for a non-cancer indication, an additional milestone payment becomes payable to Sumitomo. We are also required to make royalty payments to Sumitomo in the event that vosaroxin is commercialized.

 

our Royalty Agreement with RPI, pursuant to which we are required to make certain revenue participation when and if vosaroxin is commercialized, at a rate of 6.75% of net sales of vosaroxin, on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis world-wide through the later of: (a) the expiration of the last to expire of certain specifically identified patents; (b) 10 years from the date of first commercial sale of such product in such country; or (c) the expiration of all applicable periods of data, market or other regulatory exclusivity in such country with respect to such product.

 

our December 2013 second amended and restated collaboration agreement with Biogen and our January 2014 amended license agreement with Takeda, pursuant to which we are required to make certain milestone and royalty payments.

We also have agreements with contract research organizations clinical sites and other third party contractors for the conduct of our clinical trials. We generally make payments to these entities based upon the activities they perform related to the particular clinical trial. There are generally no penalty clauses for cancellation of these agreements if notice is duly given and payment is made for work performed by the third party under the related agreement.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

Since our inception, we have not had any off-balance sheet arrangements or relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or variable interest entities, which are typically established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.

 

 

19


 

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

Interest Rate and Market Risk

As of March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we had $35.2 million and $42.6 million, respectively, in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. The securities in our investment portfolio are not leveraged and are classified as available-for-sale, which, due to their short-term nature, are subject to minimal interest rate risk. We currently do not hedge our interest rate risk exposure. Because of the short-term maturities of our investments, we do not believe that a change in market rates would have a significant impact on the value of our investment portfolio.

The primary objective of our investment activities is to preserve capital while at the same time maximizing the income we receive from our investments without significantly increasing risk. To achieve this objective, we maintain our portfolio of cash equivalents and short-term investments in a variety of highly rated securities, which may include money market funds and U.S. and European government obligations and corporate debt obligations (including certificates of deposit, corporate notes and commercial paper). These securities are classified as available for sale and consequently are recorded on the balance sheet at fair value with unrealized gains or losses reported as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). In the past, we have generally purchased investments with an original maturity of less than one year, although our policy allows for the purchase of securities with a maturity of up to two years. Our holdings of the securities of any one corporate issuer do not exceed 10% of the portfolio at the time of purchase. If interest rates rise, the market value of our investments may decline, which could result in a realized loss if we are forced to sell an investment before its scheduled maturity. We do not utilize derivative financial instruments to manage our interest rate risks.

The tables below present the original principal amounts and weighted-average interest rates by maturity period for our investment portfolio as of the dates indicated (in thousands, except percentages):

 

 

Expected Maturity

 

 

Total

 

 

0-3

months

 

 

Over 3

months

 

 

Fair Value as of

March 31,

2017

 

Available-for-sale securities

$

20,348

 

 

$

11,004

 

 

$

31,352

 

Average interest rate

 

0.7

%

 

 

0.6

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expected Maturity

 

 

Total

 

 

0-3

months

 

 

Over 3

months

 

 

Fair Value as of

December 31,

2016

 

Available-for-sale securities

$

16,074

 

 

$

22,209

 

 

$

38,283

 

Average interest rate

 

0.5

%

 

 

0.7

%

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk

We consider our direct exposure to foreign exchange rate fluctuations to be minimal. Invoices for certain services provided to us are denominated in foreign currencies, including the Euro and British pound, among others. Therefore, we are exposed to adverse movements in the related foreign currency exchange rates. To manage this risk, we may purchase certain European currencies or highly-rated investments denominated in those currencies, subject to similar criteria as for other investments allowed by our investment policy. We do not make these purchases for trading or speculative purposes, and there is no guarantee that the related gains and losses will substantially offset each other.

As of March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we held cash and investments denominated in Euros with an aggregate fair value of $0.7 million. The balances are recorded at their fair value based on the current exchange rate as of each balance sheet date. The resulting exchange gains or losses and those from amounts payable for services originally denominated in foreign currencies are recorded in other income, net in the statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

20


 

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

We maintain disclosure controls and procedures, as such term is defined in SEC Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(e), that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our reports under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and interim Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate, to allow for timely decisions regarding required disclosure. In designing and evaluating the disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives, and management is required to apply its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures.

As required by SEC Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(b), we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Based on the foregoing, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level as of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting , as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that occurred during the quarter ended March 31, 2017, that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

 

 

21


 

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

 

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

From time to time, we may be involved in routine legal proceedings, as well as demands, claims and threatened litigation, which arise in the normal course of our business. The ultimate outcome of any litigation is uncertain and unfavorable outcomes could have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition. Regardless of outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of the defense costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.

We believe there is no litigation pending that could, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below and all information contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as each of these risks could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial conditions. If any of the possible adverse events described below actually occurs, we may be unable to conduct our business as currently planned and our financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations. In addition, the trading price of our common stock could decline due to the occurrence of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Please see the language regarding forward-looking statements in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

We have marked with an asterisk (*) those risk factors below that reflect substantive changes from the risk factors included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 that was filed with the SEC on March 9, 2017.

Risks Related to Our Business

We need to raise substantial additional funding to pursue our regulatory strategy for the development and potential commercialization of SNS-062, QINPREZOTM (vosaroxin), and our other programs.*

We believe that with $35.2 million in cash and investments held as of March 31, 2017, we currently have the resources to fund our operations into June of 2018.

However, we will need to raise substantial additional capital to:

 

complete the development, regulatory strategy and potential commercialization of vosaroxin for AML in Europe and the United States, including additional clinical evidence the EMA and FDA will likely require that we provide prior to any regulatory filing for vosaroxin in the United States and re-filing of our MAA in Europe;

 

fund additional clinical trials of vosaroxin and SNS-062 and seek regulatory approvals, including additional clinical evidence the FDA recommended that we provide prior to any regulatory filing for vosaroxin in the United States;

 

expand our development activities;

 

implement additional internal systems and infrastructure; and

 

build or access commercialization and additional manufacturing capabilities and supplies.

Our future funding requirements and sources will depend on many factors, including but not limited to the:

 

rate of progress and cost of our clinical trials;

 

need for additional or expanded clinical trials;

 

timing, economic and other terms of any licensing, collaboration or other similar arrangement into which we may enter;

 

costs and timing of seeking and obtaining EMA, FDA or other regulatory approvals;

 

extent of our other development activities, including our other clinical programs and in-license agreements;

 

costs associated with building or accessing commercialization and additional manufacturing capabilities and supplies;

22


 

 

costs of acquiring or investing in businesses, product candidates and technologies, if any;

 

costs of filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing any patent claims and other intellectual property rights;

 

effect of competing technological and market developments; and

 

costs of supporting our arrangements with Biogen, Takeda or any potential future licensees or partners.

Until we can generate a sufficient amount of licensing, collaboration or product revenue to finance our cash requirements, which we may never do, we expect to finance future cash needs primarily through equity issuances, debt arrangements, one or more possible licenses, collaborations or other similar arrangements with respect to development and/or commercialization rights to vosaroxin, SNS-062 or our other development programs, or a combination of the above. Any issuance of convertible debt securities, preferred stock or common stock may be at a discount from the then-current trading price of our common stock. If we issue additional common or preferred stock or securities convertible into common or preferred stock, our stockholders will experience additional dilution, which may be significant. Further, we do not know whether additional funding will be available on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise substantial additional funding on acceptable terms, or at all, we will be forced to delay or reduce the scope of our vosaroxin, SNS-062 or other development programs, potentially including any additional clinical trials or subsequent regulatory filings in Europe and the United States and/or limit or cease our operations.

We have incurred losses since inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future. We may not ever achieve or sustain profitability.

We are not profitable and have incurred losses in each year since our inception in 1998. Our net losses for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 were $9.8 million, $38.0 million and $36.7 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2017, we had an accumulated deficit of $607.2 million. We do not currently have any products that have been approved for marketing, and we continue to incur substantial development and general and administrative expenses related to our operations. We expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future, and we expect these losses to increase significantly as we seek regulatory approvals for vosaroxin, and as we prepare to commercialize vosaroxin, if approved. Our losses, among other things, have caused and will continue to cause our stockholders’ equity and working capital to decrease.

To date, we have derived substantially all of our revenue from license and collaboration agreements. We currently have two agreements; the Biogen 2nd ARCA and the Amended Takeda Agreement, which each include certain pre-commercialization event-based and royalty payments. We cannot predict whether we will receive any such payments under these agreements in the foreseeable future, or at all.

We are unable to predict when we will generate revenue from the sale of products, if at all. In the absence of additional sources of capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all, the development of vosaroxin, SNS-062 or future product candidates may be reduced in scope, delayed or terminated. If our product candidates or those of our collaborators fail in clinical trials or do not gain regulatory approval, or if our future products do not achieve market acceptance, we may never become profitable. Even if we achieve profitability in the future, we may not be able to sustain profitability in subsequent periods.

The development of vosaroxin and/or SNS-062 could be halted or significantly delayed for various reasons; our clinical trials for vosaroxin and SNS-062 may not lead to regulatory approval.

Our product candidates are vulnerable to the risks of failure inherent in the drug development process. Our VALOR trial failed to meet its primary endpoint, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for commercialization for vosaroxin in any of the United States, Europe, or other regions. Based upon a meeting with the FDA held in July 2015, the FDA recommended that we provide additional clinical evidence prior to any regulatory filing in the United States. We may also need to conduct significant additional preclinical studies and clinical trials before we can attempt to demonstrate that vosaroxin is safe and effective to the satisfaction of the EMA and other regulatory authorities. Failure can occur at any stage of the development process, and successful preclinical studies and early clinical trials do not ensure that later clinical trials will be successful. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials, even after obtaining promising results in earlier trials.

For example, we terminated two Phase 2 clinical trials of vosaroxin in small cell and non-small cell lung cancer, and the LI-1 trial, conducted by a co-operative group in Europe, was halted at an interim data analysis. If our clinical trials result in unacceptable toxicity or lack of efficacy, we may have to terminate them. If clinical trials are halted, or if they do not show that our product candidates are safe and effective in the indications for which we are seeking regulatory approval, our future growth will be limited and we may not have any other product candidates to develop.

23


 

On May 1, 2017, we announced our intention to withdraw our MAA based on our interactions with the SAG-O and our CHMP rapporteurs, our retained regulatory consultants and an internal assessment.  

We do not know whether any future clinical trials with vosaroxin, SNS-062 or any of our product candidates will be completed on schedule, or at all, or whether our ongoing or planned clinical trials will begin or progress on the time schedule we anticipate. The commencement of future clinical trials could be substantially delayed or prevented by several factors, including:

 

delays or failures to raise additional funding;

 

results of meetings with the EMA, FDA and/or other regulatory bodies;

 

a limited number of, and competition for, suitable patients with particular types of cancer for enrollment in our clinical trials;

 

delays or failures in obtaining regulatory approval to commence a clinical trial;

 

delays or failures in obtaining sufficient clinical materials;

 

delays or failures in obtaining approval from independent institutional review boards or ECs to conduct a clinical trial at prospective sites; or

 

delays or failures in reaching acceptable clinical trial agreement terms or clinical trial protocols with prospective sites.

The completion of our clinical trials could be substantially delayed or prevented by several factors, including:

 

delays or failures to raise additional funding;

 

slower than expected rates of patient recruitment and enrollment;

 

failure of patients to complete the clinical trial;

 

delays or failures in reaching the number of events pre-specified in the trial design;

 

the need to expand the clinical trial;

 

delays or failures in obtaining sufficient clinical materials, including vosaroxin and SNS-062 and any drugs to be tested in combination with vosaroxin or SNS-062;

 

unforeseen safety issues;

 

lack of efficacy during clinical trials;

 

inability or unwillingness of patients or clinical investigators to follow our clinical trial protocols; and

 

inability to monitor patients adequately during or after treatment.

Additionally, our clinical trials may be suspended or terminated at any time by the FDA, other regulatory authorities, or ourselves. Any failure to complete or significant delay in completing clinical trials for our product candidates could harm our financial results and the commercial prospects for our product candidates.

We rely on a limited number of third-party manufacturers that are capable of manufacturing the vosaroxin and SNS-062 API and FDP to supply us with our vosaroxin and SNS-062 API and FDP. If we fail to obtain sufficient quantities of these materials, the development and potential commercialization of vosaroxin and SNS-062 could be halted or significantly delayed.

We do not currently own or operate manufacturing facilities and lack the capability to manufacture vosaroxin on a clinical or commercial scale. As a result, we rely on third parties to manufacture vosaroxin API and FDP. The vosaroxin API is classified as a cytotoxic substance, limiting the number of available manufacturers for both API and FDP.

We currently rely on single contract manufacturers for the production of vosaroxin API and a single contract manufacturer to formulate the vosaroxin API and fill and finish vials of the vosaroxin FDP. If our third-party vosaroxin API or FDP manufacturers are unable or unwilling to produce the vosaroxin API or FDP we require, we would need to establish arrangements with one or more alternative suppliers. However, establishing a relationship with an alternative supplier would likely delay our ability to produce vosaroxin API or FDP. Our ability to replace an existing manufacturer would also be difficult and time consuming because the number of potential manufacturers is limited and the FDA, EMA or other corresponding state agencies must approve any replacement manufacturer before it can be an approved commercial supplier. Such approval would require new testing, stability programs and compliance inspections. It may be difficult or impossible for us to identify and engage a replacement manufacturer on acceptable

24


 

terms in a timely manner, or at all. We expect to continue to depend on third-party contract manufacturers for all our vosaroxin API and FDP needs for the foreseeable future.

Vosaroxin requires precise, high quality manufacturing. In addition to process impurities, the failure of our contract manufacturers to achieve and maintain high manufacturing standards in compliance with cGMP regulations could result in other manufacturing errors leading to patient injury or death, product recalls or withdrawals, delays or interruptions of production or failures in product testing or delivery. Although contract manufacturers are subject to ongoing periodic unannounced inspection by the FDA, EMA or other corresponding state agencies to ensure strict compliance with cGMP and other applicable government regulations and corresponding foreign standards, any such performance failures on the part of a contract manufacturer could result in the delay or prevention of filing or approval of marketing applications for vosaroxin, cost overruns or other problems that could seriously harm our business. This would deprive us of potential product revenue and result in additional losses.

In 2016 we performed process validation studies on API and FDP batches of vosaroxin. The results of these process validation studies met preset criteria. In 2017, we have manufactured one lot of commercial scale vosaroxin finished product. This lot is currently being evaluated for stability.  There can be no assurances that this or future lots will meet stability requirements and if it does not, the commercial launch following approval in the EU, if any, of vosaroxin may be delayed.

We currently rely on one contract manufacturer for SNS-062 API and FDP.  Third party contract manufacturing organizations are relied on to manufacture key starting materials and intermediates required in the manufacture of SNS-062 API.  The manufacturing requires high purity materials to meet the final product specifications. A number of suitable manufacturers are available in North America for the manufacturing of API and FDP.  There is limited manufacturing experience. Only two lots of API have been manufactured at a clinical scale.  Scale-up to commercial scale has not been done.  The cost to manufacture at large scale is unknown.

The failure to enroll patients for clinical trials may cause delays in developing vosaroxin and SNS-062.

We may encounter delays if we are unable to enroll enough patients to complete clinical trials of vosaroxin or SNS-062. Based upon a meeting with the FDA held in July 2015 concerning vosaroxin, the FDA recommended that we provide additional clinical evidence prior to any regulatory filing in the United States, therefore we will need to enroll patients in the related clinical trial or trials and may also be required to enroll patients for additional clinical trials required by the EMA or other regulatory authorities. Patient enrollment depends on many factors, including the size of the patient population, the nature of the protocol, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, the number and nature of competing treatments and ongoing clinical trials of competing drugs for the same indication, and the eligibility criteria for the trial. Patients participating in our trials may elect to leave our trials and switch to alternative treatments that are available to them, either commercially or on an expanded access basis, or in other clinical trials. Competing treatments for vosaroxin include nucleoside analogs, anthracyclines and hypomethylating agents. Competing treatments for SNS-062 include other BTK inhibitors, PI3K inhibitors, and several other drug classes.  Moreover, when one product candidate is evaluated in multiple clinical trials simultaneously, patient enrollment in ongoing trials can be adversely affected by negative results from completed trials.

The results of preclinical studies and clinical trials may not satisfy the requirements of the EMA, FDA or other regulatory agencies.

Prior to receiving approval to commercialize vosaroxin, SNS-062 or future product candidates in Europe, the United States or in other territories, we must demonstrate with substantial evidence from well-controlled clinical trials, to the satisfaction of the EMA, FDA and other regulatory authorities, that such product candidates are safe and effective for their intended uses. The results from preclinical studies and clinical trials can be interpreted in different ways, and based upon a meeting with the FDA held in July 2015, the FDA recommended that we provide additional clinical evidence prior to any regulatory filing for vosaroxin in the United States. Even if we believe preclinical or clinical data from preclinical studies and clinical trials are promising, such data may not be sufficient to support approval by the EMA, FDA and other regulatory authorities. As a result of recent interactions with the EMA, the Company announced on May 1, 2017 its withdrawal of its MAA for vosaroxin in relapsed and refractory AML.

We rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or fail to meet expected deadlines, we may be unable to obtain regulatory approval for, or commercialize, vosaroxin, SNS-062 or other product candidates.

We rely on third parties, such as contract research organizations, medical institutions, clinical investigators and contract laboratories, to conduct our planned and existing clinical trials for vosaroxin and SNS-062. If the third parties conducting our clinical trials do not perform their contractual duties or obligations, do not meet expected deadlines or need to be replaced, or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical trial protocols or for any other reason, we may need to enter into new arrangements with alternative third parties and our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or

25


 

terminated or may need to be repeated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize the product candidate being tested in such trials.

We may expand our development capabilities in the future, and any difficulties hiring or retaining key personnel or managing this growth could disrupt our operations.

We are highly dependent on the principal members of our development staff. We may expand our research and development capabilities in the future by increasing expenditures in these areas, hiring additional employees and potentially expanding the scope of our current operations. Future growth will require us to continue to implement and improve our managerial, operational and financial systems and continue to retain, recruit and train additional qualified personnel, which may impose a strain on our administrative and operational infrastructure. The competition for qualified personnel in the biopharmaceutical field is intense. We are highly dependent on our continued ability to attract, retain and motivate highly qualified management and specialized personnel required for clinical development. Due to our limited resources, we may not be able to effectively manage any expansion of our operations or recruit and train additional qualified personnel. If we are unable to retain key personnel or manage our growth effectively, we may not be able to implement our business plan.

If we are sued for infringing intellectual property rights of third parties, litigation will be costly and time consuming and could prevent us from developing or commercializing vosaroxin, SNS-062 or other product candidates.

Our commercial success depends on not infringing the patents and other proprietary rights of third parties and not breaching any collaboration or other agreements we have entered into with regard to our technologies and product candidates. If a third party asserts that we are using technology claimed in issued and unexpired patents owned or controlled by the third party, we may need to obtain a license, enter into litigation to challenge the validity of the patents or incur the risk of litigation in the event that a third party asserts that we infringe its patents.

If a third party asserts that we infringe its patents or other proprietary rights, we could face a number of challenges that could seriously harm our competitive position, including:

 

infringement and other intellectual property claims, which would be costly and time consuming to litigate, whether or not the claims have merit, and which could delay the regulatory approval process and divert management’s attention from our business;

 

substantial damages for past infringement, which we may have to pay if a court determines that vosaroxin, SNS-062 or any future product candidates infringe a third party’s patent or other proprietary rights;

 

a court order prohibiting us from selling or licensing vosaroxin, SNS-062 or any future product candidates unless a third party licenses relevant patent or other proprietary rights to us, which it is not required to do; and

 

if a license is available from a third party, we may have to pay substantial royalties or grant cross-licenses to our patents or other proprietary rights.

If our competitors develop and market products that are more effective, safer or less expensive than vosaroxin, SNS-062 or other product candidates, our commercial opportunities will be negatively impacted.

The life sciences industry is highly competitive, and we face significant competition from many pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that are researching, developing and marketing products designed to address the treatment of cancer, including AML, MDS and B-cell malignancies. Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, manufacturing, marketing and drug development resources than we do. Large pharmaceutical companies in particular have extensive experience in the clinical testing of, obtaining regulatory approvals for, and marketing drugs.

We believe that our ability to successfully compete in the marketplace with vosaroxin, SNS-062 and any future product candidates, if any, will depend on, among other things:

 

our ability to develop novel compounds with attractive pharmaceutical properties and to secure, protect and maintain intellectual property rights based on our innovations;

 

the efficacy, safety and reliability of our product candidates;

 

the speed at which we develop our product candidates;

 

our ability to design and successfully execute appropriate clinical trials;

 

our ability to maintain a good relationship with regulatory authorities;

26


 

 

our ability to obtain, and the timing and scope of, regulatory approvals;

 

our ability to manufacture and sell commercial quantities of future products to the market;

 

the availability of reimbursement from government agencies and private insurance companies; and

 

acceptance of future products by physicians and other healthcare providers.

Vosaroxin is a small molecule therapeutic that, if approved, will compete with other drugs and therapies currently used for AML, such as nucleoside analogs, anthracyclines, hypomethylating agents, other inhibitors of topoisomerase II, and other novel agents. Additionally, other compounds currently in development could become potential competitors of vosaroxin, if approved for marketing.

If approved, we expect competition for vosaroxin for the treatment of AML and other potential future indications to increase as additional products are developed and approved in various patient populations. If our competitors market products that are more effective, safer or less expensive than vosaroxin or our other future products, if any, or that reach the market sooner we may not achieve commercial success or substantial market penetration. In addition, the biopharmaceutical industry is characterized by rapid change. Products developed by our competitors may render vosaroxin or any future product candidates obsolete.

Our proprietary rights may not adequately protect vosaroxin, SNS-062 or future product candidates, if any.

Our commercial success will depend on our ability to obtain patents and maintain adequate protection for vosaroxin, SNS-062 and any future product candidates in Europe, the United States and other countries. We own, co-own or have rights to a significant number of issued U.S. and foreign patents and pending U.S. and foreign patent applications. We will be able to protect our proprietary rights from unauthorized use by third parties only to the extent that our proprietary technologies and future products are covered by valid and enforceable patents or are effectively maintained as trade secrets or are subject to marketing exclusivity administered by regulatory authorities.

We apply for patents covering both our technologies and product candidates, as we deem appropriate. However, we may fail to apply for patents on important technologies or product candidates in a timely fashion, or at all. Our existing patents and any future patents we obtain may not be sufficiently broad, valid, or enforceable to prevent others from practicing our technologies or from developing competing products and technologies. In addition, we generally do not exclusively control the patent prosecution of subject matter that we license to or from others. Accordingly, in such cases we are unable to exercise the same degree of control over this intellectual property as we would over our own. Moreover, the patent positions of biopharmaceutical companies are highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions for which important legal principles remain unresolved. As a result, the scope, validity and enforceability of patents can vary from country to country, and can change depending on changes in national and international law, and as such, cannot be predicted with certainty. In addition, we do not know whether:

 

we, our licensors or our collaboration partners were the first to make the inventions covered by each of our issued patents and pending patent applications;

 

we, our licensors or our collaboration partners were the first to file patent applications for these inventions;

 

others will independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies;

 

any of our, our licensors’ or our collaboration partners’ pending patent applications will result in issued patents;

 

any of our, our licensors’ or our collaboration partners’ patents will be valid or enforceable;

 

because of differences in patent laws of countries, any patent granted in one country or region will be granted in another, or, if so, have the same or a different scope;

 

any patents issued to us, our licensors or our collaboration partners will provide us with any competitive advantages, or will be challenged by third parties;

 

we will develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable; or

 

any patents or other proprietary rights of third parties will have an adverse effect on our business.

We also rely on trade secrets to protect some of our technology, especially where we do not believe patent protection is appropriate or obtainable. However, trade secrets are difficult to maintain. While we use reasonable efforts to protect our trade secrets, our or our collaboration partners’ employees, consultants, contractors or scientific and other advisors, or those of our licensors or collaborators, may unintentionally or willfully disclose our proprietary information to competitors. Enforcement of claims that a third party has illegally obtained and is using trade secrets is expensive, time consuming and uncertain. In addition, foreign courts are

27


 

sometimes less willing than U.S. courts to protect trade secrets. If our competitors independently develop equivalent knowledge, methods and know-how, we would not be able to assert our trade secret protection against them and our business could be harmed.

While we have and continue to seek additional patent protection for vosaroxin, SNS-062 and other product candidates, and methods of their manufacture and use, even if one or more of our product candidates are approved by the EMA, FDA or their equivalents in other territories, we may not be able to recover our development costs for these programs prior to the expiration of any patents that are granted.

The vosaroxin composition-of-matter was covered by U.S. Patent No. 5,817,669 B2 and its counterpart patents in foreign jurisdictions. These patents expired in 2015. We have been granted patents relating to vosaroxin compositions, uses of vosaroxin, and manufacture of vosaroxin, in the United States and other geographies. In addition to the granted US and European patents, we have been granted similar and related patents in certain other countries, and patent applications are pending in these and other countries, including major markets, throughout the world.  In addition, other patents have been granted in the United States and other countries claiming certain technology related to vosaroxin and other methods of use of vosaroxin.

We are seeking and have been granted patents relating to the SNS-062 composition of matter, and compositions, and uses and manufacture of vosaroxin, in the U.S., Europe and other geographies, including major markets, throughout the world.

While it is possible that patent term restoration and/or supplemental patent certificates would be available for some of these or other patents we own or control through licenses, we cannot guarantee that such additional protection will be obtained, and the expiration dates described here do not include such term restoration. However, patent expiration dates described here for U.S. patents may reflect patent term adjustments by the United States patent and Trademark Office or terminal disclaimers over related patents or patent applications.

We do not know when, if ever, vosaroxin, SNS-062 or other product candidates will be approved by the EMA, FDA or other regulatory authorities.  Even if one or more of our products are approved for commercial marketing in the future, we may not have sufficient time to commercialize our products to enable us to recover our development costs prior to the expiration of the U.S. and foreign patents covering our products. We do not know whether patent term extensions and data exclusivity periods will be available in the future for any or all of the patents we own or have licensed. Our obligation to pay royalties to Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd., the company from which we licensed vosaroxin, or Biogen, the company from which we licensed SNS-062, may extend beyond the patent expiration, which would further erode the profitability of our products. In addition, our potential obligation to pay RPI royalties on vosaroxin revenues pursuant to the Royalty Agreement would also further erode the profitability of this product.

Any future workforce and expense reductions may have an adverse impact on our internal programs, our ability to hire and retain key personnel and may be distracting to management.

We have, in the past, implemented a number of workforce reductions. Depending on our need for additional funding and expense control, we may be required to implement further workforce and expense reductions in the future. Further workforce and expense reductions could result in reduced progress on our internal programs. In addition, employees, whether or not directly affected by a reduction, may seek future employment with our business partners or competitors. Although our employees are required to sign a confidentiality agreement at the time of hire, the confidential nature of certain proprietary information may not be maintained in the course of any such future employment. Further, we believe that our future success will depend in large part upon our ability to attract and retain highly skilled personnel. We may have difficulty retaining and attracting such personnel as a result of a perceived risk of future workforce and expense reductions. In addition, the implementation of expense reduction programs may result in the diversion of efforts of our executive management team and other key employees, which could adversely affect our business.

We may be subject to damages resulting from claims that we or our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of our employees’ former employers.

Many of our employees were previously employed at biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. We may be subject to claims that we or our employees have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel.

A loss of key personnel or the work product of current or former personnel could hamper or prevent our ability to commercialize vosaroxin, SNS-062 and future product candidates, which could severely harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.

28


 

We currently have limited marketing staff and no sales or distribution organization. If we are unable to develop a sales and marketing and distribution capability on our own, by contracting with third parties or through collaborations with marketing partners, we will not be successful in commercializing our products.

We currently have no sales or distribution capabilities and a limited marketing staff. If we receive favorable feedback from our regulatory discussion with the EMA or FDA and are able to pursue and obtain marketing approval for our products in Europe or the U.S., we may establish our own sales and marketing organization with technical expertise and supporting distribution capabilities to commercialize our products in these territories, which will be expensive and time consuming. Any failure or delay in the development of our internal or subcontracted sales, marketing and distribution capabilities would adversely impact the commercialization of these products. We plan to collaborate with third parties that have direct sales forces and established distribution systems in certain territories as part of the commercialization of vosaroxin. To the extent that we enter into co-promotion or other licensing arrangements, our product revenue is likely to be lower than if we marketed or sold vosaroxin directly. In addition, any revenue we receive will depend upon the efforts of third parties, which may not be successful and are only partially within our control. If we are unable to enter into such arrangements on acceptable terms or at all, we may not be able to successfully commercialize vosaroxin. If we are not successful in commercializing vosaroxin, SNS-062 or our future product candidates, either on our own or through collaborations with one or more third parties, our future product revenue will suffer and we may incur significant additional losses.

We depend on various consultants and advisors for the success and continuation of our development efforts.

We work extensively with various consultants and advisors, who provide advice and/or services in various business and development functions, including clinical development, operations and strategy, regulatory matters, biostatistics, legal and finance. The potential success of our drug development programs depends, in part, on continued collaborations with certain of these consultants and advisors. Our consultants and advisors are not our employees and may have commitments and obligations to other entities that may limit their availability to us. We do not know if we will be able to maintain such relationships or that such consultants and advisors will not enter into other arrangements with competitors, any of which could have a detrimental impact on our development objectives and our business.

If conflicts of interest arise between our current or future licensees or collaboration partners, if any, and us, any of them may act in their self-interest, which may be adverse to our interests.

If a conflict of interest arises between us and one or more of our current or potential future licensees or collaboration partners, if any, they may act in their own self-interest or otherwise in a way that is not in the interest of our company or our stockholders. Biogen, Takeda, or potential future licensees or collaboration partners, if any, are conducting or may conduct product development efforts within the disease area that is the subject of a license or collaboration with our company. In current or potential future licenses or collaborations, if any, we have agreed or may agree not to conduct, independently or with any third party, any research that is competitive with the research conducted under our licenses or collaborations. Our licensees or collaboration partners, however, may develop, either alone or with others, products in related fields that are competitive with the product candidates that are the subject of these licenses or collaborations. Competing products, either developed by our licensees or collaboration partners or to which our licensees or collaboration partners have rights, may result in their withdrawal of support for a product candidate covered by the license or collaboration agreement.

If one or more of our current or potential future licensees or collaboration partners, if any, were to breach or terminate their license or collaboration agreements with us or otherwise fail to perform their obligations thereunder in a timely manner, the preclinical or clinical development or commercialization of the affected product candidates could be delayed or terminated. We do not know whether our licensees or collaboration partners will pursue alternative technologies or develop alternative product candidates, either on their own or in collaboration with others, including our competitors, as a means for developing treatments for the diseases targeted by licenses or collaboration agreements with our company.

Compliance with changing regulation of corporate governance and public disclosure may result in additional expenses.

Changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure may create uncertainty regarding compliance matters. New or changed laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations in many cases. As a result, their application in practice may evolve over time. We are committed to maintaining high standards of corporate governance and public disclosure. Complying with evolving interpretations of new or changed legal requirements may cause us to incur higher costs as we revise current practices, policies and procedures, and may divert management time and attention from potential revenue-generating activities to compliance matters. If our efforts to comply with new or changed laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to practice, our reputation may also be harmed. Further, our board members, chief executive officer and chief financial officer could face an increased risk of personal liability in connection with the performance of their duties. As a result, we may have difficulty attracting and retaining qualified board members and executive officers, which could harm our business.

29


 

Raising funds through lending arrangements or revenue participation agreements may restrict our operations or produce other adverse results.

Our loan and security agreement (“the Loan Agreement”), with Western Alliance Bank (Western Bank”) and Solar Capital Ltd (“Solar Capital”, and collectively with Western Bank, “the Lenders”), contains a variety of affirmative covenants, including, without limitation, certain information delivery requirements, obligations to maintain certain insurance and certain notice requirements. Additionally, the Company is bound by certain negative covenants setting forth actions that are not permitted to be taken during the term of the Loan Agreement without the Lenders’ consent, including, without limitation, incurring certain additional indebtedness, making certain asset dispositions, entering into certain mergers, acquisitions or other business combination transactions or incurring any non-permitted lien or other encumbrance on the Company’s assets. Upon the occurrence of an event of default under the Loan Agreement (subject to cure periods for certain events of default), all amounts owed by the Company thereunder would begin to bear interest at a rate that is 5.0% higher than the rate that would otherwise be applicable and may be declared immediately due and payable by the Collateral Agent. Events of default under the Loan Agreement include, among other things, the following: the occurrence of certain bankruptcy events; the failure to make payments under the Loan Agreement when due; the occurrence of a material impairment on the Collateral Agent’s security interest over the collateral, a material adverse change in the business, operations or condition (financial or otherwise) of the Company or material impairment of the prospect of repayment of the obligations under the Loan Agreement; the occurrence of a default under certain other agreements entered into by the Company; the rendering of certain types of judgments against the Company; the revocation of certain government approvals of the Company; any breach by the Company of any covenant (subject to cure periods for certain covenants) made in the Loan Agreement; and the failure of any representation or warranty made by the Company in connection with the Loan Agreement to be correct in all material respects when made.

The Collateral Agent, for the benefit of the Lenders, has a perfected security interest in substantially all of the Company’s property, rights and assets, except for intellectual property, to secure the payment of all amounts owed to the Lenders under the Loan Agreement. Upon marketing approval of vosaroxin, the Collateral Agent, for the benefit of the Lenders, will also have a perfected security interest in the Company’s intellectual property rights relating to vosaroxin.

In addition, following the purchase of the revenue participation right by RPI, we are required to pay RPI a specified percentage of any net sales of vosaroxin. If we fail to make timely payments due to RPI under the Royalty Agreement, RPI may require us to repurchase the revenue participation right. As collateral for these payments, we granted RPI a security interest in certain of our assets, including our intellectual property related to vosaroxin, as detailed above.  

We are exposed to risks related to foreign currency exchange rates and European sovereign debt.

Some of our costs and expenses are denominated in foreign currencies. Most of our foreign expenses are associated with activities related to the VALOR trial which occurred outside of the United States, and in particular in Western Europe. When the U.S. dollar weakens against the Euro or British pound, the U.S. dollar value of the foreign currency denominated expense increases, and when the U.S. dollar strengthens against the Euro or British pound, the U.S. dollar value of the foreign currency denominated expense decreases. Consequently, changes in exchange rates, and in particular a weakening of the U.S. dollar, may adversely affect our results of operations. We have and may continue to purchase certain European currencies or highly-rated investments denominated in such currencies to manage the risk of future movements in foreign exchange rates that would affect such payables, in accordance with our investment policy. However, there is no guarantee that the related gains and losses will substantially offset each other, and we may be subject to significant exchange gains or losses as currencies fluctuate from quarter to quarter.

In addition, the recent sovereign debt crisis concerning certain European countries and related European financial restructuring efforts has and may continue to cause the value of the Euro to deteriorate. Such deterioration could adversely impact any investments we hold that are denominated in Euros. Rating agency downgrades on European sovereign debt and any potential default of European government issuers further contribute to this uncertainty. Should governments default on their obligations, we may experience loss of principal on any investments in European sovereign debt.

Our facilities are located near known earthquake fault zones, and the occurrence of an earthquake or other catastrophic disaster, or interruption by man-made problems such as network security breaches, viruses or terrorism, could cause damage to our facilities and equipment, which could require us to cease or curtail operations.

Our facilities are located in the San Francisco Bay Area near known earthquake fault zones and are vulnerable to significant damage from earthquakes. We are also vulnerable to damage from other types of disasters, including fires, floods, power loss, communications failures and similar events. Despite the implementation of network security measures, our networks also may be vulnerable to computer viruses, break-ins and similar disruptions.  We rely on information technology systems to operate our business and to communicate among our workforce and with third parties. If any disruption were to occur, whether caused by a natural disaster or by manmade problems, our ability to operate our business at our facilities may be seriously or completely impaired and our data could be lost or destroyed.

30


 

Risks Related to Our Industry

The regulatory approval process is expensive, time consuming and uncertain and may prevent us from obtaining approval for the commercialization of vosaroxin or other product candidates.

The research, testing, manufacturing, selling and marketing of product candidates are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory authorities in the United States and other countries, which regulations differ from country to country. Neither we nor our present or potential future collaboration or licensing partners, if any, are permitted to market our product candidates in Europe or the United States until we receive approval of an MAA or NDA for these respective territories, or in any other country without the equivalent marketing approval from such country. We have not received marketing approval for vosaroxin or SNS-062 in any jurisdiction. In addition, failure to comply with EMA, FDA and other applicable U.S. and foreign regulatory requirements may subject us to administrative or judicially imposed sanctions, including warning letters, civil and criminal penalties, injunctions, product seizure or detention, product recalls, total or partial suspension of production, and refusal to approve pending MAAs, NDAs, supplements to approved MAAs, NDAs or their equivalents in other territories.

Regulatory approval of an MAA or NDA or their equivalent in other territories is not guaranteed, and the approval process is expensive, uncertain and may take several years. Furthermore, the development process for oncology products may take longer than in other therapeutic areas. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the drug approval process. Despite the time and expense exerted, failure can occur at any stage, and we could encounter problems that cause us to abandon clinical trials or to repeat or perform additional preclinical studies and clinical trials. The number of preclinical studies and clinical trials that will be required for marketing approval varies depending on the drug candidate, the disease or condition that the drug candidate is designed to address, and the regulations applicable to any particular drug candidate. In particular, the VALOR trial failed to meet its primary endpoint, and in July 2015, the FDA recommended that we provide additional clinical evidence before any regulatory filing for vosaroxin for the treatment of AML in the United States. Similarly, following interactions with the EMA, and the withdrawal of our MAA for relapsed and refractory AML, we expect that additional clinical evidence will be required for regulatory approval in Europe.

The EMA, FDA or other foreign regulatory authority can delay, limit or deny approval of a drug candidate for many reasons, including:

 

the drug candidate may not be deemed safe or effective;

 

regulatory officials may not find the data from preclinical studies and clinical trials sufficient;

 

the EMA, FDA or other foreign regulatory authority might not approve our or our third-party manufacturers’ processes or facilities; or

 

the EMA, FDA or other foreign regulatory authority may change its approval policies or adopt new regulations.

We may be subject to costly claims related to our clinical trials and may not be able to obtain adequate insurance.

Because we conduct clinical trials in humans, we face the risk that the use of vosaroxin, SNS-062 or future product candidates, if any, will result in adverse side effects. We cannot predict the possible harms or side effects that may result from our clinical trials. Although we have clinical trial liability insurance, our insurance may be insufficient to cover any such events. We do not know whether we will be able to continue to obtain clinical trial coverage on acceptable terms, or at all. We may not have sufficient resources to pay for any liabilities resulting from a claim excluded from, or beyond the limit of, our insurance coverage. There is also a risk that third parties that we have agreed to indemnify could incur liability. Any litigation arising from our clinical trials, even if we were ultimately successful, would consume substantial amounts of our financial and managerial resources and may create adverse publicity.

Even if we receive regulatory approval to sell vosaroxin or other product candidates, the market may not be receptive.

Even if vosaroxin obtains regulatory approval, it may not gain market acceptance among physicians, patients, healthcare payors and/or the medical community. We believe that the degree of market acceptance will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

timing of market introduction of competitive products;

 

efficacy of our product;

 

prevalence and severity of any side effects;

 

potential advantages or disadvantages over alternative treatments;

 

strength of marketing and distribution support;

31


 

 

price of vosaroxin, both in absolute terms and relative to alternative treatments; and

 

availability of reimbursement from health maintenance organizations and other third-party payors.

For example, the potential toxicity of single and repeated doses of vosaroxin has been explored in a number of animal studies that suggest the dose-limiting toxicities in humans receiving vosaroxin may be similar to some of those observed with approved cytotoxic agents, including reversible toxicity to bone marrow cells, the gastrointestinal system and other systems with rapidly dividing cells. In our Phase 1, Phase 2 and VALOR clinical trials of vosaroxin, we have witnessed the following side effects, irrespective of causality, ranging from mild to more severe: lowered white blood cell count that may lead to a serious or possibly life-threatening infection, hair loss, mouth sores, fatigue, nausea with or without vomiting, lowered platelet count, which may lead to an increase in bruising or bleeding, lowered red blood cell count (anemia), weakness, tiredness, shortness of breath, diarrhea and intestinal blockage.

If vosaroxin or other product candidates fail to achieve market acceptance, due to unacceptable side effects or any other reasons, we may not be able to generate significant revenue or to achieve or sustain profitability.

Even if we receive regulatory approval for vosaroxin or any other future product candidate, we will be subject to ongoing EMA, FDA and other regulatory obligations and continued regulatory review, which may result in significant additional expense and limit our ability to commercialize vosaroxin or any other future product candidate.

Any regulatory approvals that we or our potential future collaboration partners receive for vosaroxin or our future product candidates, if any, may also be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the product may be marketed or contain requirements for potentially costly post-marketing trials. In addition, even if approved, the manufacturing, labeling, packaging, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising, promotion and recordkeeping for any product will be subject to extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements. The subsequent discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, may result in restrictions on the marketing of the product, and could include withdrawal of the product from the market.

The FDA and other agencies, including the Department of Justice (“DOJ”), closely regulate and monitor the post-approval marketing and promotion of products to ensure that they are marketed and distributed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling. The FDA and DOJ impose stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label use and if we do not market our products for their approved indications, we may be subject to enforcement action for off-label marketing. Violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and other statutes, including the False Claims Act, relating to the promotion and advertising of prescription drugs may lead to investigations and enforcement actions alleging violations of federal and state health care fraud and abuse laws and state consumer protection laws.

Regulatory policies may change and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent or delay regulatory approval of our product candidates. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action, either in Europe, the United States or other territories. If we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we might not be permitted to market vosaroxin or our future products and we may not achieve or sustain profitability. Other penalties for failing to comply with regulatory requirements include restrictions on such products, manufacturers or manufacturing processes; restrictions on the labeling or marketing of a product; restrictions on distribution or use of a product;  requirements to conduct post-marketing studies or clinical trials; warning letters or untitled letters; withdrawal of the products from the market; refusal to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications that we submit; recall of products;  damage to relationships with any potential collaborators; unfavorable press coverage and damage to our reputation; fines, restitution or disgorgement of profits or revenues; suspension or withdrawal of marketing approvals; refusal to permit the import or export of our products; product seizure; injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties; and litigation involving patients using our products. Additionally, failure to comply with the European Union’s requirements regarding the protection of personal information also can lead to significant penalties and sanctions.

32


 

The coverage and reimbursement status of newly approved drugs is uncertain and may be impacted by current and future legislation, and failure to obtain adequate coverage and reimbursement could limit our ability to market our product candidates and decrease our ability to generate revenue.*

There is significant uncertainty related to the third party coverage and reimbursement of newly approved drugs both nationally and internationally. The commercial success of vosaroxin and our future products, if any, in both domestic and international markets depends on whether third-party coverage and reimbursement is available for the ordering of our future products by the medical profession for use by their patients. Medicare, Medicaid, health maintenance organizations and other third-party payors are increasingly attempting to manage healthcare costs by limiting both coverage and the level of reimbursement of new drugs and, as a result, they may not cover or provide adequate payment for our future products. These payors may not view our future products as cost-effective, and reimbursement may not be available to consumers or may not be sufficient to allow our future products to be marketed on a competitive basis.

Likewise, in the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative or regulatory efforts to control or reduce healthcare costs or reform government healthcare programs that could result in lower prices or rejection of our future products. Changes in coverage and reimbursement policies or healthcare cost containment initiatives that may limit or restrict reimbursement for our future products may reduce any future product revenue.

For example, the ACA, signed into law in 2010, substantially changed healthcare financing and delivery by both governmental and private insurers, and significantly impacted the pharmaceutical industry. The ACA, among other things, established an annual, nondeductible fee on any entity that manufactures or imports certain specified branded prescription drugs and biologic agents, increased the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by most manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, extended the Medicaid Drug Rebate program to utilization of prescriptions of individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations, and provided incentives to programs that increase the federal government’s comparative effectiveness research.

There have been efforts to repeal the ACA and elements thereof, and we expect that other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, more rigorous coverage criteria, new payment methodologies and additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any future approved product. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our products.

Our relationships with healthcare providers, clinical investigators, and third party payors will be subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, which, in the event of a violation, could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings.

Healthcare providers, clinical investigators, and third party payors will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our current future arrangements with healthcare providers, clinical investigators and third party payors may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we market, sell and distribute any products for which we obtain marketing approval. Restrictions under applicable state, federal and foreign healthcare laws and regulations include the following:

 

The federal healthcare program anti-kickback statute prohibits, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting or receiving remuneration to induce or in return for either the referral of an individual, or the purchasing, leasing, ordering or arranging for the purchase, lease or order of any healthcare item, good, facility or service reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid or other federal healthcare programs;

 

Federal false claims laws, including the civil False Claims Act, and civil monetary penalties laws, prohibit any person or entity from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment to the federal government, or knowingly making, or causing to be made, a false statement to have a false claim paid;

 

HIPAA imposes criminal and civil liability prohibits, among other actions, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors, knowingly and willfully embezzling or stealing from a healthcare benefit program, willfully obstructing a criminal investigation of a healthcare offense, and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services;

33


 

 

HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act and its implementing regulations, among other things, makes HIPAA’s security standards directly applicable to business associates, independent contractors or agents of covered entities that receive or obtain protected health information in connection with providing a service on behalf of a covered entity; created four new tiers of civil monetary penalties; amended HIPAA to make civil and criminal penalties directly applicable to business associates; and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions to enforce the federal HIPAA laws;

 

the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologicals and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) to annually report to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, information related to certain payments or other transfers of value provided to physicians and teaching hospitals, or to entities or individuals at the request of, or designated on behalf of, the physicians and teaching hospitals and to report annually certain ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members; and

 

analogous local, state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, transparency statutes, and privacy and security laws. Such laws may be broader than the federal law, including that they may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by third party payors, including private insurers. There also are an increasing number of state laws that require manufacturers to file reports with states regarding pricing and marketing information, such as tracking and reporting of gifts, compensation, other remuneration and items of value provided to health care professionals and health care entities, or marketing expenditures; require pharmaceutical companies to, among other things, establish and implement commercial compliance programs or codes of conducts; and/or require a pharmaceutical company’s sales representatives to be registered or licensed by the state or local governmental entity. State and foreign laws also govern the privacy and security of health information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the health regulatory laws described above or any other laws that apply to us, we may be subject to a wide range of sanctions and penalties, including potentially significant criminal, and civil and/or administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, individual imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, integrity obligations contractual damages, reputational harm, administrative burdens, diminished profits and future earnings, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. We are unable to predict whether we would be subject to actions under these laws or the impact of such actions. However, the cost of defending any such claims, as well as any sanctions imposed, could adversely affect our financial performance and disrupt our business operations.

Failure to obtain regulatory approval in foreign jurisdictions will prevent us from marketing vosaroxin or other product candidates abroad. *

We intend to market vosaroxin in international markets either directly or through a potential future collaboration partner, if any. In order to market vosaroxin in the European Union, Canada and many other foreign jurisdictions, we or a potential future collaboration partner must obtain separate regulatory approvals. Except for in the European Union, we have had, and potential future collaboration partners may have, limited interactions with foreign regulatory authorities, and the approval procedures vary among countries and can involve additional testing at significant cost. The time required to obtain approval may differ materially from country to country, including in the European Union. For example, in May 2017, we announced our intention to withdraw our MAA for vosaroxin in the European Union.  Any approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries, and approval by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other foreign countries or by the FDA. The foreign regulatory approval processes may include all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval. We or a potential future collaboration partner may not obtain foreign regulatory approvals on a timely basis, if at all. We or a potential future collaboration partner may not be able to file for regulatory approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize vosaroxin or any other future products in any market.

Foreign governments often impose strict price controls, which may adversely affect our future profitability.

If we or a potential future collaboration partner obtain approval in one or more foreign jurisdictions, we or the potential future collaboration partner will be subject to rules and regulations in those jurisdictions relating to vosaroxin. In some foreign countries, particularly in the European Union, prescription drug pricing is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a drug candidate. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we or a potential future collaboration partner may be required to conduct a clinical

34


 

trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of vosaroxin to other available therapies. If reimbursement of vosaroxin is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, we may be unable to achieve or sustain profitability.

We may incur significant costs complying with environmental laws and regulations, and failure to comply with these laws and regulations could expose us to significant liabilities.

We, through third-party contractors, use hazardous chemicals and radioactive and biological materials in our business and are subject to a variety of federal, state, regional and local laws and regulations governing the use, generation, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these materials. Although we believe our safety procedures for handling and disposing of these materials and waste products comply with these laws and regulations, we cannot eliminate the risk of accidental injury or contamination from the use, storage, handling or disposal of hazardous materials. In the event of contamination or injury, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could significantly exceed our insurance coverage, which is limited for pollution cleanup and contamination.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

The price of our common stock may continue to be volatile, and the value of an investment in our common stock may decline.

In the three months ended March 31, 2017, our common stock traded as low as $3.50 and as high as $4.45. Factors that could cause continued volatility in the market price of our common stock include, but are not limited to:

 

our ability to raise additional capital to carry through with our clinical development plans and current and future operations and the terms of any related financing arrangement;

 

results from, and any delays in or discontinuance of, ongoing and planned clinical trials for vosaroxin and SNS-062, including investigator-sponsored trials;

 

announcements of additional FDA requirements for a regulatory path for development programs or non-approval of development programs, such as the July 2015 request that we provide additional clinical evidence prior to any regulatory filing of vosaroxin in the United States.;

 

delays in filing regulatory documents with the EMA, FDA or other regulatory agencies, or delays in the review process by the EMA, FDA or other foreign regulatory agencies;

 

announcements relating to restructuring and other operational changes;

 

delays in the commercialization of vosaroxin, SNS-062 or our future products, if any;

 

our ability to complete a commercialization agreement for vosaroxin in Europe on satisfactory terms;

 

market conditions in the pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;

 

issuance of new or changed securities analysts’ reports or recommendations;

 

developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;

 

clinical and regulatory developments with respect to potential competitive products;

 

failure to maintain compliance with the covenants in the Loan Agreement;

 

introduction of new products by our competitors;

 

issues in manufacturing vosaroxin or SNS-062 drug substance or drug product, or future products, if any;

 

market acceptance of vosaroxin, SNS-062 or our future products, if any;

 

announcements relating to our arrangements with Biogen, Takeda or RPI;

 

actual and anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly operating results;

 

deviations in our operating results from the estimates of analysts;

 

third-party healthcare reimbursement policies;

 

EMA, FDA or other European, U.S. or foreign regulatory actions affecting us or our industry;

 

litigation or public concern about the safety of vosaroxin or future products, if any;

35


 

 

failure to develop or sustain an active and liquid trading market for our common stock;

 

sales of our common stock by our officers, directors or significant stockholders; and

 

additions or departures of key personnel

Provisions of our charter documents or Delaware law could delay or prevent an acquisition of our company, even if the acquisition would be beneficial to our stockholders, and could make it more difficult to change management.

Provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control that stockholders might otherwise consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. In addition, these provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempt by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult to replace or remove our board of directors. These provisions include:

 

a classified board of directors so that not all directors are elected at one time;

 

a prohibition on stockholder action through written consent;

 

limitations on our stockholders’ ability to call special meetings of stockholders;

 

an advance notice requirement for stockholder proposals and nominations; and

 

the authority of our board of directors to issue preferred stock with such terms as our board of directors may determine.

In addition, Delaware law prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder, generally a person who, together with its affiliates, owns or within the last three years has owned 15% of our voting stock, for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Accordingly, Delaware law may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company.

Provisions in our charter documents and provisions of Delaware law could limit the price that investors are willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.

We have never paid dividends on our capital stock and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future. In addition, under the terms of our Loan Agreement with the Lenders, we are precluded from paying cash dividends without the prior written consent of the Lenders. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be our stockholders’ sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

We are at risk of securities class action litigation.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities. This risk is especially relevant for us because biotechnology companies have experienced greater than average stock price volatility in recent years. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price or liquidity of our common stock. In the past, when the market price of a stock has been volatile, holders of that stock have sometimes instituted securities class action litigation against the issuer. If any of our stockholders were to bring such a lawsuit against us, we could incur substantial costs defending the lawsuit and the attention of our management would be diverted from the operation of our business.

Item 2.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

None.

Item 3.

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

None.

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

36


 

Item 5.

Other Information

None.

Item 6.

Exhibits

A list of exhibits filed with this report or incorporated herein by reference is found in the Exhibit Index immediately following the signature page of this report.

 

 

37


 

SIGNATURE

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.

 

 

 

SUNESIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

 

 

(Registrant)

 

 

 

Date: May 8, 2017

 

/s/ DANIEL N. SWISHER, JR

 

 

Daniel N. Swisher, Jr.

 

 

Chief Executive Officer, President, Interim

Chief Financial Officer and Corporate Secretary (as duly authorized officer, principal financial officer and principal accounting officer)

 

 

38


 

EXHIBIT INDEX

 

 

 

 

 

Incorporated By Reference

Exhibit

Number

 

Exhibit Description

 

Form

 

File No.

 

Exhibit

 

Filing Date

 

Filed

Here

with

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.1+

 

2017 Bonus Program

 

8-K

 

000-51531

 

10.1

 

March 27, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.2+

 

Amended and Restated Non-Employee Director Compensation Policy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31.1

 

Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Rule13a-14(a) or Rule 15d-14(a) of the Exchange Act

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31.2

 

Certification of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) or Rule 15d-14(a) of the Exchange Act

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32.1#

 

Certification of Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer pursuant to 13a-14(b) or 15d-14(b) of the Exchange Act