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EX-32.1 - CERTIFICATE PURSUANT TO SECTION 18 U.S.C. PURSUANT TO SECTION 906 OF THE SARBANE - Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc.pbsv_ex321.htm
EX-31.2 - CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO RULE 13A-14(A)/15D-14(A) CERTIFICATIONS SECTION 302 OF - Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc.pbsv_ex312.htm
EX-31.1 - CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO RULE 13A-14(A)/15D-14(A) CERTIFICATIONS SECTION 302 OF - Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc.pbsv_ex311.htm
EX-23.1 - CONSENTS OF EXPERTS AND COUNSEL - Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc.pbsv_ex231.htm
EX-21.1 - SUBSIDIARIES OF THE REGISTRANT - Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc.pbsv_ex211.htm
 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
☑ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2016
☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____________ to ______________
Commission File No. 000-50956
PHARMA-BIO SERV, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
 
 Delaware
 
 20-0653570
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
 
  (IRS  Employer  Identification No.)
 
Pharma-Bio Serv Building,
#6 Road 696
Dorado, Puerto Rico
 
00646
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(Zip Code)
 
787-278-2709
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐   No ☑
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐   No ☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑    No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ☑    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐   No ☑
The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price for the registrant’s common stock on April 29, 2016 (the last business day of the second quarter of the registrant’s current fiscal year), was $11,110,356.
The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of January 26, 2017 was 23,113,531.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement relative to the 2016 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III hereof.
 


 
 
PHARMA-BIO SERV, INC.
FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED OCTOBER 31, 2016
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 Page
PART I  
 
 
 
 
ITEM 1
BUSINESS
1
ITEM 1A
RISK FACTORS
5
ITEM 1B
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
11
ITEM 2
PROPERTIES
11
ITEM 3
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
11
ITEM 4
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
11
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
ITEM 5
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
12
ITEM 6
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
13
ITEM 7
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS 
13
ITEM 7A
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
19
ITEM 8
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA (See F-1)
19
ITEM 9
CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
19
ITEM 9A
CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
20
ITEM 9B
OTHER INFORMATION
20
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
ITEM 10
DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
21
ITEM 11
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
21
ITEM 12
SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
21
ITEM 13
CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
21
ITEM 14
PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES
21
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
ITEM 15
EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
22
SIGNATURES
25
 
 
 
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
F-1
 
 

 
 
PART I
ITEM 1.  BUSINESS.
 
GENERAL
Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc. is a Delaware corporation, organized in 2004 under the name Lawrence Consulting Group, Inc. In February 2006, our corporate name was changed to Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc ("Pharma-Bio" or the “Company”).
 
On January 25, 2006, pursuant to an agreement and plan of merger Pharma-Bio acquired Pharma-Bio Serv PR, Inc. (“Pharma-PR”).
 
Pharma-PR business was established as a sole proprietorship in 1993 and incorporated in 1997 to offer compliance consulting services to the pharmaceutical industry. The business operations provide services to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device and chemical manufacturing companies principally in Puerto Rico, the United States, Europe and Brazil.
 
Our executive offices are located at Pharma-Bio Serv Building, #6 Road 696, Dorado, Puerto Rico 00646.  Our telephone number is (787) 278-2709. The financial information about our reporting segments appear in Note K to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Our website is www.pharmabioserv.com. Information on our website or any other website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
References to “we,” “us,” “our” and similar words in this Annual Report on Form 10-K refer to Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
 
OVERVIEW
We are a compliance and technology transfer services consulting firm with a laboratory testing facility with headquarters in Puerto Rico, servicing the Puerto Rico, United States, Europe and Brazil markets. The compliance consulting service sector in those markets consists of local compliance and validation consulting firms, United States dedicated validation and compliance consulting firms, large publicly traded and private domestic and foreign engineering and consulting firms. We provide a broad range of compliance related consulting services. We also provide microbiological testing services and chemical testing services through our laboratory testing facility (“Lab”) in Puerto Rico. In addition, we provide technical training/seminars, which services are not currently significant to our operating results. We market our services to pharmaceutical, chemical, biotechnology, medical devices, cosmetic and food industries, and allied products companies in Puerto Rico, the United States, Europe and Brazil. Our consulting team includes experienced engineering and life science professionals, former quality assurance managers and directors, and professionals with bachelors, masters and doctorate degrees in health sciences and engineering.
 
We have a well-established and consistent relationships with the major pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device and chemical manufacturing companies in Puerto Rico and the United States, which provides us access to affiliated companies in other markets. We seek opportunities in markets that can yield profitable margins using our professional consulting force, and provide services such as those performed by our microbiological testing laboratory facility and our technical training division, Pharma Serv Academy.
 
Our Pharma Serv Academy division, through a network of leading industry professional experts in their field, which include resources of our own, provides technical seminars/training that incorporate the latest regulatory trends and standards as well as other related areas. Although these services are not currently significant to our operating results, our goals are to broaden the portfolio of services that we can provide to our customer base and target other potential customers in other industries.
 
We believe the most significant factors to achieving future business growth include our ability to: (i) continue to provide quality value-added compliance services to our clients; (ii) recruit and retain highly educated and experienced consultants; (iii) further expand our products and services to address the expanding needs of our clients; and (iv) expand our market presence in the United States, Europe, Brazil and other emerging pharmaceutical markets in order to respond to the international compliance needs of our clients and potential clients. Our business is affected to the extent the current economic downturn affects the decision of our clients and potential clients to establish operations or to continue or expand their existing operations.
 
1
 
 
Our revenue is derived from (i) time and materials contracts (representing approximately 86% of total revenue), where the clients are charged for the time, materials and expenses incurred on a particular project or service, (ii) fixed-fee contracts or from “not to exceed” contracts (approximately 1% of total revenue), which are generally short-term contracts, in which the value of the contract cannot exceed a stated amount, and (iii) laboratory testing (representing approximately 13% of total revenue) which generally is completed and certified within days of sample receipt. For time and materials contracts, our revenue is principally a function of the number of consultants and the number of hours billed per consultant. To the extent that our revenue is based on fixed-fee or “not to exceed” contracts, our ability to operate profitably is dependent upon our ability to estimate accurately the costs that we will incur on a project and to manage and monitor the project. If we underestimate our costs on any contract, we could sustain a loss on the contract or its profitability might be reduced.
 
The principal components for our consulting costs of services are resource compensation to our consulting team and expenses relating to the performance of the services. In order to ensure that our pricing is competitive yet minimize the impact on our margins, we manage increasing labor costs by (i) selecting consultants according to our cost for specific projects, (ii) negotiating, where applicable, rates with the consultant, (iii) subcontracting labor and (iv) negotiating and passing rate increases to our customers, as applicable. Although this strategy has been successful in the past, we cannot give any assurance that such strategy will continue to be successful. As for our laboratory testing operation, the major costs of services components are salaries and wages, occupancy and depreciation expenses, and consumable goods usage.
 
We have established quality systems for our employees which include:
 
● 
Training Programs - including a current Good Manufacturing Practices exam prior to recruitment and periodic refreshers;
● 
Recruitment Full Training Program - including employee manual, dress code, time sheets and good project management and control procedures, job descriptions, and firm operating and administration procedures;
● 
Safety Program - including Occupational Safety and Health Act (“OSHA”), Environmental Health and Safety; and
● 
Code of Ethics and Business Conduct - a code of ethics and business conduct is used and enforced as one of the most significant company controls on personal behavior.
In addition, we have implemented procedures to respond to client complaints and have in place customer satisfaction survey procedures. As part of our employee performance appraisal annual process, our clients receive an evaluation form for employee project performance feedback, including compliance with our code of ethics and business conduct.
BUSINESS STRATEGY AND OBJECTIVES
We are actively pursuing new markets as part of our growth strategy. We have a well-established and consistent relationship with the major pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device and chemical manufacturing companies in Puerto Rico and the United States which provides us access to affiliated companies in other markets. We seek opportunities in markets that can yield profitable margins using our professional consulting force and also provide new services such as those performed by our microbiological testing laboratory facility.
 
Our business strategy is based on a commitment to provide premium quality and professional consulting services and reliable customer service to our customer base. Our business strategy and objectives are as follow:
 
Continue growth in consulting services in each technical service, quality assurance, regulatory compliance, technology transfer, validation, engineering, laboratory testing and manufacturing departments by achieving greater market penetration from our marketing and sales efforts;
 
Continue to enhance our technical consulting services through internal growth and acquisitions that provide solutions to our customers’ needs;
 
Motivate our consulting and support staff by implementing a compensation program which includes both individual performance and overall company performance as elements of compensation;
 
Create a pleasant corporate culture and emphasize operational quality safety and timely service;
 
Continue to maintain our reputation as a trustworthy and highly ethical partner; and
 
Efficiently manage our operating and financial costs and expenses.
 
 
2
 
 
2006 U.S. Validation Compliance Service Business Acquisition
 
In January 2006, we acquired a validation compliance service business which served as the foundation to enter the United States market.
 
2007 Entrance to Ireland Market
 
In September 2007, through the formation of an Irish subsidiary, we entered into the Ireland market. We currently provide the same consulting services in Ireland as we provide in the Puerto Rico and United States markets.
 
2009 Laboratory Testing Facility
 
Our Lab located in Puerto Rico, with an investment of $1.5 million for microbiology, chemical and environmental testing, commenced operations in early fiscal 2009. The Lab is U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") registered, European Medicines Agency (“EMA”) inspected and ISO 9001 certified. The Lab incorporates the latest technology and test methodologies meeting pharmacopoeia industry standards and regulations. It offers testing and related services to our core industries already serviced as well as the cosmetic and food industries.
 
2012 Entrance to Spain Market
 
In January 2012, we initiated a consulting services operation to the Spanish market. Currently, these services are covered under a Spanish subsidiary. Consulting services provided in the Spanish market are similar to those covered in the other markets we serve.
 
2015 Entrance to Brazil Market
 
In April 2015, through the formation of a Brazilian subsidiary, we entered into the Brazilian market. The Company intends to provide the Brazilian market similar services as those covered in the other markets we serve.
 
2015 New Calibrations Services Division
 
During the year ended October 31, 2015, the Company started the development of a new Puerto Rico based Calibrations Services Division (“Metrologix”) that will develop and operate a central metrology/calibration laboratory and provide lab and field calibration, verification and qualification of equipment and installations, readiness audits, heating/ventilation and air conditioning ("HVAC") and clean room qualification and related services. The Company signed a three-year strategic collaboration agreement with a Spain-based company specializing in calibrations, validation, HVAC and clean room qualification services to assist the Company in the development process.
 
2016 Minority Controlled Company Certification
 
In line with the strategy to penetrate the United States market, on September 26, 2016, we obtained the renewal of the certification as a "minority-controlled company" as defined by the National Minority Supplier Development Council and Growth Initiative ("NMSDC"). The certification allows us to participate in corporate diversity programs available from existing and various potential customers in the United States and Puerto Rico. The certification is subject to renewal on September 26, 2017.
 
2016 US Department of Treasury Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) – License
 
In December 2016, the Company obtained a license from the United States Department of Treasury Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) which authorizes the Company to perform certain services and transactions with a Cuban state-run organization. The license is not transferable and expires on January 31, 2019.
 
 
3
 
 
TECHNICAL CONSULTING SERVICES
 
We have established a reputation as a premier technical consulting services firm to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device and chemical manufacturing industries in various markets. These services include regulatory compliance, validation, technology transfer, engineering, project management and process support. We have approximately 60 clients that are among the largest pharmaceutical, chemical manufacturing, medical device and biotechnology companies. We are actively participating in exhibitions, conferences, conventions and seminars as either exhibitors, sponsors or conference speakers.
 
MARKETING
 
We conduct our marketing activities in Puerto Rico, United States, Europe and other marketplaces. We actively utilize our project managers and leaders who are currently managing consulting service contracts at various client locations to also market consulting and laboratory testing services to their existing and past client relationships. Our senior management is also actively involved in the marketing process, especially in marketing to major accounts. Our senior management and staff also concentrate on developing new business opportunities and focus on the larger customer accounts (by number of consultants or dollar volume) and responding to prospective customers’ requests for proposals.
 
PRINCIPAL CUSTOMERS
We provide a substantial portion of our services to four customers, each of whom accounted for 10% or more of our revenues in either of the years ended October 31, 2016 and 2015. During the years ended October 31, 2016 and 2015, these customers accounted for, in the aggregate, 33.6% and 37.6% of total revenue, respectively. In spite of the fact that just a few customers represent a significant source of revenue, our functions are not a continuous process, accordingly, the client base for which our services are typically rendered, on a project-by-project basis, changes regularly. Therefore, in any given year a small number of customers could represent a significant source of our revenue for that year. The loss of, or significant reduction in the scope of work performed for any major customer or our inability to replace customers upon completion of contracts could adversely affect our revenue and impair our ability to operate profitably.
COMPETITION
We are engaged in a highly competitive and fragmented industry. Some of our competitors are, on an overall basis, larger than we are or are subsidiaries of larger companies, and therefore may possess greater resources than we do. Furthermore, because the technical professional aspects of our consulting business do not usually require large amounts of capital, there is relative ease of market entry for a new entrant possessing acceptable professional qualifications. Accordingly, we compete with regional, national, and international firms. Within the Puerto Rico, United States, Europe and Brazil markets, certain competitors, including local competitors, may possess greater resources than we do as well as better access to clients and potential clients.
 
Competition for validation and consulting services used to be primarily based on reputation, track record, experience, and quality of service. However, given the recent economic recession and our clients' strategies to reduce costs, price of service has become a major factor in sourcing our services. We believe we benefit from competitive advantages over other consulting service firms because of our historical market share within Puerto Rico (over 23 years), brand name, reputation and track record with many of the major pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device and chemical manufacturing companies, which have a presence in the markets we service and are pursuing, and the Lab services we provide to them.
 
The market of qualified and experienced consultants that are capable of providing technical consulting services is very competitive and consists primarily of our competitors as well as companies in the pharmaceutical, chemical, biotechnology and medical device industries who are our clients and potential clients. In seeking qualified personnel, we market our name recognition in the Puerto Rico market, our reputation with our clients, and salary and benefit packages.
 
RAW MATERIALS
We require the use of various raw materials, including culture media, DNA reagents, LAL reagents, chemical reagents, solutions, reference materials and biological indicators, in our testing laboratory facility.  We purchase these raw materials from various suppliers. At times, we concentrate orders among a few suppliers in order to strengthen our supplier relationships and receive quantity discounts. Raw materials are generally available from multiple suppliers at competitive prices, and amounts kept in stock are not significant.
 
4
 
 
ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS
 
Activities in our laboratory testing facility are regulated under Puerto Rico and U.S. federal laws designed to protect workers and the environment. Some of these laws include the OSHA and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. These laws apply to the use, handling and disposal of various biological and chemical substances used in our processes. We believe we are in material compliance with these laws and that continued compliance will not have a materially adverse effect on our business. No specific accounting for environmental compliance has been maintained or projected by us at this time.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
We have no proprietary software or products. We rely on non-disclosure agreements with our employees to protect the proprietary software and other proprietary information of our clients. Any unauthorized use or disclosure of this information could harm our business.
EMPLOYEES
We employ approximately 185 employees, all of whom are full time employees.  None of our employees are represented by a labor union, and we consider our employee relations to be good.
 
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The following table sets forth certain information with respect to our executive officers.
Name
 
Age
 
Position
Victor Sanchez
 
46
 
Chief Executive Officer, President and President of European Operations
Pedro J. Lasanta
 
57
 
Chief Financial Officer, Vice President - Finance and Administration and Secretary
 
Victor Sanchez has served as our Chief Executive Officer and President since January 1, 2015 and as the President of the European Operations of the Company since January 2011.  Prior to joining the Company, he served as Operations Manager in the LOCM and OSD divisions of Merck Sharp & Dohme (“MSD”), a pharmaceutical company, in Madrid, Spain from April 2010 to January 2011 and as Operations Manager of the LOCM division of Schering-Plough S.A., a pharmaceutical company, in Madrid, Spain, from September 2004 to April 2010.  He served as Quality Control Validations Manager for Schering-Plough Products, LLC, a pharmaceutical company (“Schering-Plough”), in Puerto Rico from December 2000 to August 2004 and as Quality Control Laboratory Supervisor of Schering-Plough from April 1996 to December 2000.  Mr. Sanchez holds a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry, summa cum laude, and a M.B.A. in Industrial Management, cum laude, from the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico. He holds a Post Graduate Diploma in Pharmaceutical Validation Technology from the Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland. Mr. Sanchez is a chemist licensed by the Puerto Rico State Department and a member of the American Chemical Society, the Parenteral Drug Association, the Regulatory Affairs Professional Society, and the International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineers.
Pedro J. Lasanta has served as our Chief Financial Officer and Vice President - Finance and Administration since November 2007, and our Secretary since December 1, 2014. From 2006 until October 2007, Mr. Lasanta was in private practice as an accountant, tax and business counselor. From 1999 until 2006, Mr. Lasanta was the Chief Financial Officer for Pearle Vision Center PR, Inc. In the past, Mr. Lasanta was also an audit manager for Ernst & Young, formerly Arthur Young & Company. He is a cum laude graduate in business administration (accounting) from the University of Puerto Rico.  Mr. Lasanta is a Certified Public Accountant. In 2012, he was awarded the Puerto Rico Manufacturers Association (North Region) Service Manager of the Year.  Mr. Lasanta has served as a Member of the Puerto Rico District Export Council for the U.S. Department of Commerce since January 2014.
ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, including, in particular, certain statements about our plans, strategies and prospects. Although we believe that our plans, intentions and expectations reflected in or suggested by such forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot assure you that such plans, intentions or expectations will be achieved. Important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from our forward-looking statements include those set forth in this Risk Factors section.
If any of the following risks, or other risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe to not be significant, develop into actual events, then our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or prospects could be materially adversely affected.
 
5
 
 
Risks That Relate to our Business
 
Because our business is concentrated in the lifescience and medical devices industries in Puerto Rico, the United States, Europe and Brazil, any changes in those industries or in those markets could impair our ability to generate revenue and realize a profit.
 
Since most of our business is performed in Puerto Rico, the United States, Europe and Brazil, for pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device and chemical manufacturing companies, our ability to generate revenue and realize a profit could be impaired by factors impacting those markets.  For example, changes in tax laws or regulatory, political or economic conditions, which discourage businesses from operating in the markets we serve, which affect the need for services such as those provided by us, could impair our ability to generate revenue and realize a profit.
 
Companies in the pharmaceutical and related industries for which we perform services are subject to economic pressures, which affect their global operations and which may influence the decision to reduce or increase the scope of their operations in the markets we serve. These companies consider a wide range of factors in making such a decision, and may be influenced by a need to consolidate operations, to reduce expenses, to increase their business in geographical regions where there are large customer bases, tax, regulatory and political considerations and many other factors. We cannot assure you that our customers and potential customers will not make extensive reductions or terminate their operations in the markets we serve entirely, which could significantly impair our ability to generate revenue and realize a profit.
 
Puerto Rico’s economy, including its governmental financial crisis, may affect the willingness of businesses to commence or expand operations in Puerto Rico, or may also consider closing operations located in Puerto Rico.
 
As a result of Puerto Rico’s governmental financial crisis, businesses may be reluctant to establish or expand their operations in Puerto Rico, or might consider closing operations currently in Puerto Rico. Further, since Puerto Rico’s economy is petroleum-based, the fluctuating price of oil, combined with Puerto Rico’s high level of debt, may make Puerto Rico a less attractive place to expand existing operations or commence new business activities. In the event that companies in the pharmaceutical and related industries decide not to commence new operations or not to expand their existing operations in Puerto Rico, or consider closing operations in Puerto Rico, the demand for our services could be negatively affected.
 
Puerto Rico government enacted ACT 154-2010 may adversely affect the willingness of our customers to do business in Puerto Rico and consequently adversely affect our business.
 
On October 22, 2010, Act No. 154 was enacted by the Puerto Rico government. The act primarily affects the industries we serve and consequently our customer base. Act 154-2010, as amended, extends the circumstances under which a non-resident alien individual or a non-resident corporation or partnership can be treated as doing business in Puerto Rico and is deriving income from sources within Puerto Rico for purposes of income tax. It also provides for the imposition of a temporary excise tax on some acquisitions by non-resident individuals, corporations or partnerships, of products totally or partially manufactured or produced in Puerto Rico and of related services to said products of affiliated entities with the buyer. It basically adopts a modified income sourcing rule and a temporary excise tax that will be enforced until December 31, 2021.
 
The impact of the Act, if any, over the industry and its willingness to do business in Puerto Rico continues to be uncertain.
 
Changes in tax benefits may affect the willingness of companies to continue or expand their operations in Puerto Rico.
 
Until 1996, the Internal Revenue Code provided certain tax benefits to pharmaceutical companies operating in Puerto Rico by enabling their Puerto Rico operations to operate free from federal income taxes. Partly as a result of the tax benefits, numerous pharmaceutical companies established facilities in Puerto Rico. In 1996, this tax benefit was eliminated, although companies that had facilities in Puerto Rico could continue to receive these benefits for ten years, at which time the benefits were set to expire. In order to promote business activities in Puerto Rico, in May 2008 the Puerto Rico government enacted a tax incentive law (“Act 73”). Act 73 provides tax exemption from various taxes, including income tax, and investment credits for activities similar to those of our customers and our Company. The change in the tax laws may affect favorably or unfavorably the willingness of pharmaceutical companies to continue or to expand their Puerto Rico operations. To the extent that pharmaceutical companies choose to develop and manufacture products outside of Puerto Rico, our ability to generate new business may be adversely impaired.
 
 
6
 
 
Our business and operating results may be adversely impacted if we are unable to maintain our certification as a minority-controlled company. 
 
On September 26, 2016, we obtained the renewal of the certification as a "minority-controlled company" as defined by the National Minority Supplier Development Council and Growth Initiative ("NMSDC"). The certification, which has been held by us since July 2008, allows us to participate in corporate diversity programs available from various potential customers in the United States and Puerto Rico. The certification is subject to renewal on September 26, 2017. Our business and operating results may be adversely impacted if we are unable to maintain our certification as a minority-controlled company. 
 
Because our business is dependent upon a small number of clients, the loss of a major client could impair our ability to operate profitably.
 
Our business has been dependent upon a small number of clients. During the years ended October 31, 2016 and 2015, a small number of clients accounted for a disproportionately large percentage of our revenue. In the years ended October 31, 2016 and 2015, four customers accounted for, in aggregate, approximately 33.6% and 37.6% of total revenue, respectively.
 
The loss of, or significant reduction in the scope of work performed for, or any significant change in the financial terms related to, any major customer, could impair our ability to operate profitably. We cannot assure that we will not sustain significant decreases in revenue from our major customers or that we will be able to replace any major customers or the resulting decline in revenue.
 
Customer procurement and sourcing practices intended to reduce costs could have an adverse effect on our margins and profitability.
 
In an effort to reduce their costs, many of our customers are establishing or extending the scope of their procurement departments to include consulting and project management services, such as ours. As a result, we have less interaction with the end user of our services (typically labs or production units) when bidding on a project, which we believe decreases the focus on the quality of service provided and increases the emphasis on cost of the service. This may cause us to lower the price of our bids, which would reduce the margins in a given project. Also, some customers have established vendor management/vendor neutral-programs with third-parties (some of whom are also our competitors). Because these vendor management programs may receive a percentage of our fees, without a corresponding increase in the fee itself, our margins may be adversely affected. In addition, where a vendor management program is a competitor for a particular service we provide, we may have difficulty securing that particular project, which would adversely impact revenue. Some of these vendor neutral programs are intended to limit our interaction with our direct end user, and our interaction is limited to the representative of the vendor neutral agency. This limitation impairs our ability to establish and maintain our relationships with our customers and recognition of the value added in the service.
 
Since our business is dependent upon the development and enhancement of patented pharmaceutical products or processes by our clients, the failure of our clients to obtain and maintain patents could impair our ability to operate profitably.
 
Companies in the pharmaceutical industry are highly dependent on their ability to obtain and maintain patents for their products or processes. The inability by our clients to obtain new patents and the expiration of active patents may reduce the need for our services and thereby impair our ability to operate profitably.
 
We may be unable to pass on increased labor costs to our clients.
 
The principal components of our cost of revenues are employee compensation (salaries, wages, taxes and benefits) and expenses relating to the performance of the services we provide. We face increasing labor costs which we seek to pass on to our customers through increases in our rates. To remain competitive, we may not be able to pass these increased costs on to our clients, and, to the extent that we are not able to pass these increased costs on to our clients, our operating margin may be reduced.
 
Consolidation in the pharmaceutical industry may have a harmful effect on our business.
 
In recent years, the pharmaceutical industry has undergone consolidation, and may in the future undergo further substantial consolidation which may reduce the number of our existing and potential customers.  The consolidation in the pharmaceutical industry may have a harmful effect on our business and or ability to maintain and replace customers.
 
 
7
 
 
Because the pharmaceutical industry is subject to government regulations, changes in government regulations relating to this industry may affect the need for our services.
 
Because government regulations affect all aspects of the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device and chemical manufacturing industries, including regulations relating to the testing and manufacturing of pharmaceutical products and the disposal of materials which are or may be considered toxic, any change in government regulations could have a profound effect upon not only these companies but companies, such as ours, that provide services to these industries. If we are not able to adapt and provide necessary services to meet the requirements of these companies in response to changes in government regulations, our ability to generate business may be impaired.
 
Our reputation and divisions may be impacted by regulatory standards applicable to our customer products.
 
We provide microbiological and chemical testing services to our customer products that are distributed worldwide. Any concerns regarding our customer products complying with regulatory standards could result in inquiries regarding our laboratory or testing services. As a result, we may be subject to litigation or regulatory audits requiring the investment of significant time and funds. In addition, the reputation of our Lab and technical services, as well as our technical expertise, might suffer. Furthermore, any such inquiries or any adverse impact of such inquiries may financially impact our Lab and other divisions, including our consulting division.
 
If we are unable to protect our clients’ intellectual property, our ability to generate business will be impaired.
 
Our services either require us to develop intellectual property for clients or provide our personnel with access to our clients’ intellectual property. Because of the highly competitive nature of the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device and chemical manufacturing industries and the sensitivity of our clients’ intellectual property rights, our ability to generate business would be impaired if we fail to protect those rights. Although all of our employees and contractors are required to sign non-disclosure agreements, any disclosure of a client’s intellectual property by an employee or contractor may subject us to litigation and may impair our ability to generate business either from the affected client or other potential clients. In addition, we are required to enter into confidentiality agreements and our failure to protect the confidential information of our clients may impair our business relationship.
 
We may be subject to liability if our services or solutions for our clients infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others.
 
It is possible that in performing services for our clients, we may inadvertently infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others. In such event, the owner of the intellectual property may commence litigation seeking damages and an injunction against both us and our client, and the client may bring a claim against us. Any infringement litigation would be costly. Even if we prevail, we will incur significant expenses and our reputation could be hurt, which would affect our ability to generate business and the terms on which we would be engaged, if at all.
 
We may be held liable for the actions of our employees or contractors when on assignment.
 
We may be exposed to liability for actions taken by our employees or contractors while on assignment, such as damages caused by their errors, misuse of client proprietary information or theft of client property. Due to the nature of our assignments, we cannot assure you that we will not be exposed to liability as a result of our employees or contractors being on assignment.  Furthermore, our reputation may be hurt and our ability to generate business may be affected.
 
To the extent that we perform services pursuant to fixed-price or incentive-based contracts, our cost of services may exceed our revenue on the contract.
 
Some of our revenue is derived from fixed-price contracts. Our costs of services may exceed revenue of these contracts if we do not accurately estimate the time and complexity of an engagement. Further, we are seeking contracts by which our compensation is based on specified performance objectives, such as the realization of cost savings, quality improvements or other performance objectives. Our failure to achieve these objectives would reduce our revenue and could impair our ability to operate profitably.
 
 
8
 
 
Our profit margin is largely a function of the rates we are able to charge and collect for our services and the utilization rate of our consultants. Accordingly, if we are not able to maintain our pricing for our services or an appropriate utilization rate for our consultants without corresponding cost reductions, our profit margin and profitability will suffer. The rates we are able to charge for our services are affected by a number of factors, including:
 
 
 
Our clients’ perception of our ability to add value through our services;
 
Our ability to complete projects on time;
 
Pricing policies of competitors;
 
Our ability to accurately estimate, attain and sustain engagement revenues, margins and cash flows over increasingly longer contract periods; and
 
General economic and political conditions.
 
Our utilization rates are also affected by a number of factors, including:
 
Our ability to shift employees and contractors from completed projects to new engagements; and
 
Our ability to manage attrition of our employees and contractors.
 
Because most of our contracts may be terminated on little or no advance notice, our failure to generate new business could impair our ability to operate profitably.
 
Most of our contracts can be terminated by our clients with little or no advance notice. Our clients typically retain us on a non-exclusive, engagement-by-engagement basis, and the client may terminate, cancel or delay any engagement or the project for which we are engaged, at any time and on no advance notice. As a result, the termination, cancellation, expiration or delay of contracts could have a significant impact on our ability to operate profitably.
 
Because of the competitive nature of the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device and chemical manufacturing consulting market, we may not be able to compete effectively if we cannot efficiently respond to changes in the structure of the market and developments in technology.
 
Because of recent consolidations in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device and chemical manufacturing consulting business, we are faced with an increasing number of larger companies that offer a wider range of services and have better access to capital than we have. We believe that larger and better-capitalized competitors have enhanced abilities to compete for both clients and skilled consultants. In addition, one or more of our competitors may develop and implement methodologies that result in superior productivity and price reductions without adversely affecting their profit margins. We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete effectively in an increasingly competitive market.
 
Because we are dependent upon our management and technical personnel, our ability to develop our business may be impaired if we are not able to engage skilled personnel.
 
Our future success will depend in part upon our ability to attract and retain qualified management and technical personnel. Competition for such personnel is intense and we compete for qualified personnel with numerous other employers, including consulting firms, some of which have greater resources than we have, as well as pharmaceutical companies, most of which have significantly greater financial and other resources than we do. We may experience increased costs in order to retain and attract skilled employees. Our failure to attract additional personnel or to retain the services of key personnel and independent contractors could have a material adverse effect on our ability to operate profitably.
 
Our cash could be adversely affected if the financial institutions in which we hold our cash fail.
 
The Company maintains domestic cash deposits in Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") insured banks and in money market obligation trusts registered under the US Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended. The domestic bank deposit balances may exceed the FDIC insurance limits. In the foreign markets we serve, we also maintain cash deposits in foreign banks, some of which are not insured or partially insured by the FDIC or other similar agency. These balances could be impacted if one or more of the financial institutions in which we deposit monies fails or is subject to other adverse conditions in the financial or credit markets. We can provide no assurance that access to our invested cash will not be impacted by adverse conditions in the financial and credit markets.
 
 
9
 
 
We may be harmed if we do not penetrate markets and grow our current business operations.
 
If we fail to further penetrate our core and existing geographic markets, or to successfully expand our business into new markets, the growth in sales of our services, along with our operating results, could be materially adversely impacted. A key element of our growth strategy may be to grow our business through acquisitions. Acquisitions involve many different risks, including (1) the ability to finance acquisitions, either with cash, debt, or equity issuances; (2) the ability to integrate acquisitions; (3) the ability to realize anticipated benefits of the acquisitions; (4) the potential to incur unexpected costs, expenses, or liabilities; and (5) the diversion of management’s attention and Company resources. Many of our competitors may also compete with us for acquisition candidates, which can increase the price of acquisitions and reduce the number of available acquisition candidates. We cannot assure you that efforts to increase market penetration in our core markets and existing geographic markets will be successful. Our failure to penetrate markets and grow our current business operations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
 
Risks Concerning our Securities
Because there is a limited market in our common stock, stockholders may have difficulty in selling our common stock and our common stock may be subject to significant price swings.
 
There is a very limited market for our common stock. Since trading commenced in December 2006, there has been limited volume and on some days there has been no trading in our common stock. Because of the limited market for our common stock, the purchase or sale of a relatively small number of shares may have an exaggerated effect on the market price for our common stock. We cannot assure stockholders that they will be able to sell common stock or, that if they are able to sell their shares, that they will be able to sell the shares in any significant quantity at the quoted price.
 
Our revenues, operating results and profitability will vary from quarter to quarter, which may result in increased volatility of our stock price.
 
Our quarterly revenues, operating results and profitability have varied in the past and are likely to vary significantly from quarter to quarter, making them difficult to predict. This may lead to volatility in our share price. The factors that are likely to cause these variations are:
 
Seasonality, including number of workdays and holiday and summer vacations;
 
The business decisions of clients regarding the use of our services;
 
Periodic differences between clients’ estimated and actual levels of business activity associated with ongoing engagements, including the delay, reduction in scope and cancellation of projects;
 
The stage of completion of existing projects and their termination;
 
Our ability to move employees quickly from completed projects to new engagements and our ability to replace completed contracts with new contracts with the same clients or other clients;
 
The introduction of new services by us or our competitors;
 
Changes in pricing policies by us or our competitors;
 
Our ability to manage costs, including personnel compensation, support-services and severance costs;
 
Acquisition and integration costs related to possible acquisitions of other businesses;
 
Changes in estimates, accruals and payments of variable compensation to our employees or contractors; and
 
Global economic and political conditions and related risks, including acts of terrorism.
 
 
10
 
 
The Company Stock Repurchase Program could affect the market price of our common stock and increase its volatility. 
 
On June 13, 2014, the Board of Directors of the Company approved the Company Stock Repurchase Program authorizing the Company to repurchase up to two million shares of its outstanding common stock.  The timing, manner, price and amount of any repurchases is at the discretion of the Company, subject to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and related rules.  The Company Stock Repurchase Program could affect the market price of our common stock and increase its volatility.
 
The issuance of securities, whether in connection with an acquisition or otherwise, may result in significant dilution to our stockholders.
 
If we are required to issue securities either as payment of all or a portion of the purchase price of an acquisition or in order to obtain financing for the acquisition or for other corporate purposes, such an issuance could result in dilution to our stockholders. The amount of such dilution will be dependent upon the terms on which we issue securities. The issuance of securities at a price which is less than the exercise price of outstanding warrants or the conversion price of securities could result in additional dilution if we are required to reduce the exercise price or conversion price of the then outstanding options or warrants or other convertible securities.
 
ITEM 1B.  UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
Not applicable.
ITEM 2.  PROPERTIES.
In July 2016, the Company renegotiated a lease agreement, effective as of January 1, 2016, with an affiliate of our Chairman of the Board, for our headquarters and laboratory testing facilities in Dorado, Puerto Rico. The renegotiated lease incorporates additional space for the laboratory testing facility expansion. The lease agreement is for a five-year term, with a renewal option of five years, and monthly rental payments of $30,316 for the term of the lease agreement and renewal option. The lease agreement also requires the payment of utilities, property taxes, insurance and expenses incurred by the affiliate in connection with the maintenance of common areas.
 
In December 2013, the Company entered into a lease agreement for the U.S. office facilities located in Plymouth, Pennsylvania. The lease was for a term of seven years, with monthly rental payments of $6,282 for the first three years, and $6,596, $6,794, $6,998, and $7,208, respectively, thereafter. In December 2016, the Company renegotiated and cancelled the remaining forty-seven months left of this lease agreement.
 
Also, the Company maintains office facilities in Los Angeles, California, Madrid, Spain, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. These facilities are under month-to-month leases with monthly payments of approximately $2,700, $2,500 and $1,500, respectively.
 
We believe that our present facilities are adequate to meet our needs and that, if we require additional space, it will be available on commercially reasonable terms.
 
ITEM 3.  LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.
From time to time, we may be a party to legal proceedings incidental to our business.  We do not believe that there are any proceedings threatened or pending against us, which, if determined adversely to us, would have a material effect on our financial position or results of operations and cash flows.
ITEM 4.  MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
11
 
 
PART II
ITEM 5.   MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
Our common stock has been quoted on the Over the Counter Bulletin Board under the trading symbol PBSV since December 4, 2006. The table below presents the closing high and low bid prices for our common stock for each quarter during the two most recent fiscal years. These prices reflect inter-dealer prices, without retail markup, markdown, or commission, and may not represent actual transactions.
Quarter Ending
 
 High Bid
 
 
 Low Bid
 
October 31, 2016
 $1.00 
 $0.55 
July 31, 2016
  1.02 
  0.76 
April 30, 2016
  0.92 
  0.65 
January 31, 2016
  1.05 
  0.83 
October 31, 2015
  1.05 
  0.87 
July 31, 2015
  1.25 
  0.91 
April 30, 2015
  1.30 
  1.08 
January 31, 2015
  1.40 
  0.83 
 
On January 26, 2017, the closing price of our common stock on the Over the Counter Bulletin Board was $0.91 per share and there were approximately 69 holders of record of our common stock.
 
Prior to the acquisition of Pharma-PR in 2006, Pharma-PR was taxed as an N Corporation under the Puerto Rico Internal Revenue Code, which is similar to that of an S Corporation under the Internal Revenue Code. As a result, all of the income from Pharma-PR was taxed to our then sole stockholder. Other than the distributions to our then sole stockholder which were made during the period that we were an N Corporation, we have not paid dividends on our common stock. We plan to retain future earnings, if any, for use in our business, including to finance growth of the Company both organically and through potential acquisitions. We do not anticipate paying dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Alternatively, we may use our capital, including our earnings, to repurchase our stock in the open market, as discussed elsewhere.
 
As of October 31, 2016 and 2015, the Company has not recognized deferred income taxes on $20.2 million and $19.2 million of undistributed earnings of its Puerto Rican subsidiaries, respectively, since such earnings are considered to be reinvested indefinitely. If the earnings were distributed in the form of dividends to the Company, the Company would be subject to Puerto Rico earnings distribution tax and United States federal income tax for the aggregate amount of approximately $4.6 million and $4.3 million at October 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
 
Equity Compensation Plan Information
The following table summarizes the equity compensation plans under which our securities may be issued as of October 31, 2016.
Plan Category
 
Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options  
 
 
Weighted-average exercise price per share of  outstanding options 
and  warrants    
 
 
 
Number of securities
remaining available for
future issuance under
equity compensation
plans
 
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders:
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
2005 Long-Term Incentive Plan
  815,000 
 $0.9106 
  - 
2014 Long-Term Incentive Plan
  430,000 
 $0.8860 
  1,870,000 
           Total
  1,245,000 
    
  1,870,000 
 
The 2005 Long-Term Incentive Plan was approved by stockholders in April 2006, and amended by stockholder approval in April 2007. No further stock options may be issued under this equity compensation plan since its term ended on October 2015.
The 2014 Long-Term Incentive Plan was approved by stockholders in April 2014.
 
12
 
 
Stock repurchase program
 
 The following table provides information about purchases by the Company of its shares of common stock during the three month period ended October 31, 2016:
 
Period
 
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased (1)
 
 
  Average Price Paid per Share
 
 
Total
Number of Shares
Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or Programs
 
 
Maximum
Number of Shares
that May Yet Be
Purchased Under the Plans or
Programs (1)
 
August 1, 2016 through August 31, 2016
  1,850 
 $0.92 
  1,850 
  1,783,048 
September 1, 2016 through September 30, 2016
  - 
 $- 
  - 
  1,783,048 
October 1, 2016 through October 31, 2016
  - 
 $- 
  - 
  1,783,048 
Total
  1,850 
 $0.92 
  1,850 
    
 
(1)
On June 13, 2014, the Board of Directors of the Company approved the Company Stock Repurchase Program authorizing the Company to repurchase up to two million shares of its outstanding common stock. The timing, manner, price and amount of any repurchases will be at the discretion of the Company, subject to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and related rules. The Company Stock Repurchase Program does not oblige the Company to repurchase any shares and it may be modified, suspended or terminated at any time and for any reason. No shares will be repurchased directly from directors or officers of the Company.
 
ITEM 6.  SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.
Not Applicable.
ITEM 7.   MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
The following discussion of our results of operations and financial condition should be read in conjunction with Part I, including matters set forth in the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and our Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Overview
 
We are a compliance and technology transfer services consulting firm with a laboratory testing facility with headquarters in Puerto Rico, servicing the Puerto Rico, United States, Europe and Brazil markets. The compliance consulting service sector in those markets consists of local compliance and validation consulting firms, United States dedicated validation and compliance consulting firms and large publicly traded and private domestic and foreign engineering and consulting firms. We provide a broad range of compliance related consulting services. We also provide microbiological testing services and chemical testing services through our laboratory testing facility (“Lab”) in Puerto Rico. We also provide technical training/seminars, which services are not currently significant to our operating results. We market our services to pharmaceutical, chemical, biotechnology, medical devices, cosmetics and food industries, and allied products companies in Puerto Rico, the United States, Europe and Brazil. Our consulting team includes experienced engineering and life science professionals, former quality assurance managers and directors, and professionals with bachelors, masters and doctorate degrees in health sciences and engineering.
 
We actively operate in Puerto Rico, the United States, Ireland, Spain and Brazil and pursue to further expand these markets by strengthening our business development infrastructure and by constantly realigning our business strategies as new opportunities and challenges arise.
 
We market our services with an active presence in industry trade shows, professional conventions, industry publications and company provided seminars to the industry. Our senior management is also actively involved in the marketing process, especially in marketing to major accounts. Our senior management and staff also concentrate on developing new business opportunities and focus on the larger customer accounts (by number of consultants or dollar volume) and responding to prospective customers’ requests for proposals.
 
 
13
 
 
While our core business is FDA and international agencies regulatory compliance related services, we feel that our clients are in need of other services that we can provide and allow us to present the company as a global solution provider with a portfolio of integrated services that will bring value added solutions to our customers. Accordingly, our portfolio of services includes a laboratory testing facility and a training center that provides seminars/training to the industry.
 
The Lab incorporates the latest technology and test methodologies meeting pharmacopoeia industry standards and regulations. It currently offers services to our core industries already serviced as well as the cosmetic and food industries.
 
We also provide technical seminars/training that incorporate the latest regulatory trends and standards as well as other related areas. A network of leading industry professional experts in their field, which include resources of our own, provide these seminars/training to the industry through our “Pharma Serv Academy” division. These services are provided in the markets we currently serve, as well as others, and position our Company as a key leader in the industry.
 
During the year ended October 31, 2015, the Company started the development of a new Puerto Rico based Calibrations Services Division that will develop and operate a central metrology/calibration laboratory and provide lab and field calibration, verification and qualification of equipment and installations, readiness audits, heating/ventilation and air conditioning ("HVAC") and clean room qualification and related services. The Company signed a three-year strategic collaboration agreement with a Spain-based company specializing in calibrations, validation, HVAC and clean room qualification services to assist the Company in the development process. The collaboration agreement terminates October 2018.
 
In April 2015, we registered in Brazil our wholly owned subsidiary, Pharma-Brazil, with the intention to provide consulting services to this market.
 
In December 2014, the Company entered into an agreement with a firm to provide (i) mergers and acquisition and (ii) business development services to the Company. These services are aimed to improve and assist the expansion of our market reach and customer base, primarily to the United States consulting business.
 
In line with the strategy to further penetrate the United States and Puerto Rico markets, we submit annually for renewal the certification as a "minority-controlled company" as defined by the National Minority Supplier Development Council and Growth Initiative ("NMSDC"). This certification, which has been held by us since July 2008, allows us to participate in corporate diversity programs available from various potential customers in the United States and Puerto Rico.
 
In June 2011, Pharma-Bio, Pharma-PR and Pharma-Serv obtained a Grant of Industrial Tax Exemption pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in Act No. 73 of May 28, 2008 (“the Grant”) issued by the Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company (“PRIDCO”). The Grant provides relief on various Puerto Rico taxes, including income tax, with certain limitations for most of the activities carried on within Puerto Rico, including those that are for services to parties located outside of Puerto Rico.
 
In December 2016, the Company obtained a license from the OFAC which authorizes the Company to perform certain services and transactions with a Cuban state-run organization. The license is not transferable and expires on January 31, 2019.
 
The following table sets forth information as to our revenue for the years ended October 31, 2016 and 2015, by geographic regions (dollars in thousands).
 
 
 
Year ended October 31,                    
 
Revenues by Region
 
2016    
 
 
 2015      
 
Puerto Rico
 $17,107 
  87.6%
 $19,617 
  83.9%
United States
  1,448 
  7.4%
  2,685 
  11.5%
Europe
  816 
  4.2%
  1,082 
  4.6%
Other
  165 
  0.8%
  - 
  -%
 
 $19,536 
  100.0%
 $23,384 
  100.0%
 
 
14
 
 
For the year ended October 31, 2016, revenues for the Company were $19.5 million, a decrease of $3.8 million, or 16%, when compared to last year. Major factors contributing to this decline are a $2.9 million decrease in the Puerto Rico consulting market, of which $1.3 million is attributable to projects in Latin America which were managed from Puerto Rico, plus $1.2 million and $0.3 million decrease in the United States and Europe consulting markets, respectively, partially offset by a gain in the Puerto Rico Lab and project revenue from the Brazil consulting market of approximately $0.4 million and $0.2 million, respectively. Other Company divisions sustained minor revenue gains/losses or remained constant, when compared to last year. When compared to last year, the Company’s gross profit decreased by 2.4%. The Company’s net decrease in gross profit is mainly due to a decrease of 2.1% attributable to the consulting business, mostly as a result of project closings which yielded more favorable than average gross margin, and a decline of 0.3% attributable to the Puerto Rico Lab, due to non-recurring low-margin testing and development projects. Per the Company’s planned infrastructure investments for fiscal year 2016, the Company made investments of $0.3 million related to new business development positions for targeted markets. Also, as of the end of the year we refocused our strategy on how to serve the US market, we maintained our sales force but closed our Pennsylvania leased office facilities effective December 31, 2016. Accordingly, we incurred an early lease termination fee of approximately $80,000, but moving forward we will save a total of approximately $325,000 on minimum lease payments. These factors resulted in our year ended October 31, 2016 net loss being approximately $0.3 million, a decrease of $1.9 million, when compared with net income for last year. (See “Results of Operations” below.)
 
We are regularly reviewing our business strategies to better grow our business. As such, the Company’s management understands that planned infrastructure investments on human capital, new markets, and Lab facilities and equipment made during fiscal year 2016 will provide a reasonable opportunity for sustainable growth to the Company in future years. For the fiscal year ending October 31, 2016, the Company revised its investment plans to approximately (i) $0.3 million on new business development positions on consulting targeted new markets, and (ii) $2.0 million for the expansion of our Puerto Rico Lab facilities, openings of a Lab facility in Spain and the Calibrations division facility in Puerto Rico. For these facilities in Spain and Puerto Rico, during the year ended October 31, 2016, the Company incurred $0.2 million and $1.3 million, respectively, of which approximately $1.1 million at October 31, 2016 was under construction in progress. The Company’s working capital was used to fund these investments.
 
The Puerto Rico government financial crisis, the impact on the industry, if any, of the possible cancellation of the U.S. health care reform (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) and Puerto Rico Act 154-2010 which imposes temporary excise taxes to the industry we serve, remain as industry uncertainties that might adversely affect our future performance. We believe that our future profitability and liquidity will be highly dependent on the effect the local economy and global economy, changes in tax laws, and worldwide lifescience manufacturing industry consolidations will have on our operations, and our ability to seek service opportunities and adapt to the industry trends.
 
Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our statements of operations for the years ended October 31, 2016 and 2015, (dollars in thousands) and as a percentage of revenue:
 
 
Year ended October 31,                
 
 
 
2016      
 
 
 2015    
 
Revenues 
 $19,536 
  100.0%
 $23,384 
  100.0%
Cost of services 
  13,753 
  70.4%
  15,900 
  68.0%
Gross profit 
  5,783 
  29.6%
  7,484 
  32.0%
Selling, general and administrative expenses 
  5,875 
  30.0%
  5,703 
  24.4%
Other-than-temporary impairment on available-for-sale securities
  (55)
  -0.3%
  - 
  0.0%
Other income (expense), net
  (57)
  -0.3%
  12 
  0.1%
Income (loss) before income taxes
  (204)
  -1.0%
  1,793 
  7.7%
Income tax expense 
  53 
  0.3%
  168 
  0.7%
Net income (loss)
  (257)
  -1.3%
  1,625 
  7.0%
 
Revenues. Revenues for the year ended October 31, 2016 were $19.5 million, a decrease of approximately $3.8 million, or 16%, when compared to last year. The revenue decrease is mainly attributable to a decline of $2.9 million in the Puerto Rico consulting market, of which $1.3 million is attributable to projects in Latin America which were managed from Puerto Rico, plus $1.2 million and $0.3 million decrease in the United States and Europe consulting markets, respectively, partially offset by a gain in the Puerto Rico Lab and project revenue from the Brazil consulting market of approximately $0.4 million and $0.2 million, respectively. Other Company divisions sustained minor revenue gains/losses or remained constant, when compared to last year.
 
A significant portion of the revenues for the European market is mostly attributable to one customer located in Ireland. Most of the European revenue decline is attributable to the loss of project headcount within this Ireland customer.
 
 
15
 
 
Cost of Services; gross profit. The overall gross profit for the year ended in October 31, 2016 reflected a gross profit net decrease of 2.4 percentage points, when compared to last year.
 
The Company’s net decrease in gross profit is mainly due to a decrease of 2.1 percentage points attributable to the consulting business, mostly as a result of project closings which yielded in the past more favorable than average gross margin, and a decline of 0.3 percentage points attributable to the Puerto Rico Lab, due to non-recurring low-margin testing and development projects.
 
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended in October 31, 2016 were approximately $5.9 million, a net increase in expenses of approximately $0.2 million as compared to last year. The increase is attributable to $0.3 million incurred for the planned business development positions, partially offset by savings on various expenses.
 
Other-than-temporary impairment on available-for-sale securities. During the year ended October 31, 2016, the Company determined that an other-than-temporary impairment of $55,000 occurred for an-available-for-sale security. Accordingly, the credit loss of $55,000 was recognized on earnings. (See Note B to the Consolidated Financial Statements included herewith.)
 
Other Income (Expense), net. In December 2016, the Company decided to cancel the lease for its office facilities in Pennsylvania. The early lease cancellation fee of approximately $80,000 was recorded in the year ended October 31, 2016 as a component of non-operating other expense.
 
Income Taxes Expense. The reduction in income tax expense is a function of the combined non-Puerto Rico subsidiaries losses, for which the resulting deferred tax assets were reserved, and the tax attained by Puerto Rico subsidiaries after considering the effect of the Puerto Rico Act 73 Tax Grant.
 
Net Income (Loss). For the year ended October 31, 2016, we incurred a net loss of approximately $0.3 million, a decrease in earnings of $1.9 million when compared to the same period last year. The variance is mainly attributable to the decline in revenue, continued investment on business development and operational support expenses, recorded other-than-temporary impairment on available-for-sale securities, the recording of the early lease cancellation fee for our Pennsylvania office facilities, and the effect of the effective income tax rates (including Puerto Rico favorable tax grants) over income before tax.
 
For the year ended October 31, 2016, loss per common share for both basic and diluted was $0.011, a common share basic and diluted decrease of $0.081 and $0.080 when compared to last year, respectively. The variance is mainly attributable to the decrease in net earnings when compared to the same period last year.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Liquidity is a measure of our ability to meet potential cash requirements, including planned capital expenditures. As of October 31, 2016, the Company had approximately $19.5 million in working capital.
 
On June 13, 2014, the Board of Directors of the Company authorized the Company to repurchase up to two million shares of its common stock (the "Company Stock Repurchase Program"). During the year ended October 31, 2016 and 2015, the Company repurchased 51,428 and 149,974 shares of its common stock, respectively.
 
Our primary cash needs consist of the payment of compensation to our consulting team, overhead expenses, and statutory taxes. Additionally, we may use cash for the repurchase of our common stock under the Company Stock Repurchase Program, capital expenditures and business development expenses (as described above).  Management believes that based on the current level of working capital, operations and cash flows from operations, and the collectability of high quality customer receivables will be sufficient to fund anticipated expenses and satisfy other possible long-term contractual commitments for the next twelve months.
 
To the extent that we pursue possible opportunities to expand our operations, either by acquisition or by the establishment of operations in a new locale, we will incur additional overhead, and there may be a delay between the period we commence operations and our generation of net cash flow from operations.
 
While uncertainties relating to the current local and global economic condition, competition, the industries and geographical regions served by us and other regulatory matters exist within the consulting services industry, as described above, management is not aware of any trends or events likely to have a material adverse effect on liquidity or its financial statements.
 
 
16
 
 
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
We were not involved in any significant off-balance sheet arrangements during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2016.
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) in the United States. We believe the following are the critical accounting policies that impact the consolidated financial statements, some of which are based on management’s best estimates available at the time of preparation. Actual experience may differ from these estimates.
 
Consolidation - The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of all of our wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. 
 
Use of Estimates - The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
 
Fair Value of Financial Instruments - Accounting standards have established a fair value hierarchy that requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. A financial instrument’s categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Accounting standards have established three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
 
Level 1:
Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities.
 
 
Level 2:
Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets), or model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs are observable or can be derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
 
 
Level 3:
Prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (supported by little or no market activity).
 
Marketable securities available-for-sale consist of U.S. Treasury securities and an obligation from the Puerto Rico Government Development Bank valued using quoted market prices in active markets. Accordingly, these securities are categorized in Level 1.
 
The carrying value of the Company's financial instruments (excluding marketable securities and obligations under capital leases), cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, are considered reasonable estimates of fair value due to their liquidity or short-term nature. Management believes, based on current rates, that the fair value of its obligations under capital leases approximates the carrying amount.
 
Revenue Recognition - Revenue is primarily derived from: (1) time and materials contracts (representing approximately 86% of total revenues), which is recognized by applying the proportional performance model, whereby revenue is recognized as performance occurs, (2) short-term fixed-fee contracts or "not to exceed" contracts (representing approximately 1% of total revenues), which revenue is recognized similarly, except that certain milestones also have to be reached before revenue is recognized, and (3) laboratory testing revenue (representing approximately 13% of total revenues) which is mainly recognized as the testing is completed and certified (normally within days of sample receipt from customer). If we determine that a contract will result in a loss, we recognize the estimated loss in the period in which such determination is made.
 
Cash Equivalents - For purposes of the consolidated statements of cash flows, cash equivalents include investments in a money market obligations trust that is registered under the U.S. Investment Company Act of 1940 and liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less.
 
 
17
 
 
Marketable Securities - We consider our marketable security investment portfolio and marketable equity investments available-for-sale and, accordingly, these investments are recorded at fair value with unrealized gains and losses generally recorded in other comprehensive income; whereas realized gains and losses are included in earnings and determined based on the specific identification method.
 
We review our available-for-sale securities for other-than-temporary declines in fair value below their cost basis on a quarterly basis and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the cost basis of an asset may not be materially recoverable. This evaluation is based on a number of factors including, the length of time and extent to which the fair value has been less than our cost basis and adverse conditions specifically related to the security including any changes to the rating of the security by a rating agency.
 
Accounts Receivable - Accounts receivable are recorded at their estimated realizable value. Accounts are deemed past due when payment has not been received within the stated time period. Our policy is to review individual past due amounts periodically and write off amounts for which all collection efforts are deemed to have been exhausted. Due to the nature of our customers, bad debts are mainly accounted for using the direct write-off method whereby an expense is recognized only when a specific account is determined to be uncollectible. The effect of using this method approximates that of the allowance method.
 
Income Taxes - We follow an asset and liability approach method of accounting for income taxes. This method measures deferred income taxes by applying enacted statutory rates in effect at the balance sheet date to the differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts on the financial statements. The resulting deferred tax assets or liabilities are adjusted to reflect changes in tax laws as they occur. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will not be realized.
 
The Company follows guidance from the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) related to Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes, which includes a two-step approach to recognizing, de-recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. As of October 31, 2016, the Company had no significant uncertain tax positions that would be reduced as a result of a lapse of the applicable statute of limitations.
 
Property and equipment - Owned property and equipment, and leasehold improvements are stated at cost. Vehicles under capital leases are stated at the lower of fair market value or net present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the leases.
 
Depreciation and amortization of owned assets are provided for, when placed in service, in amounts sufficient to relate the cost of depreciable assets to operations over their estimated service lives, using straight-line basis. Assets under capital leases and leasehold improvements are amortized, over the shorter of the estimated useful lives of the assets or lease term. Major renewals and betterments that extend the life of the assets are capitalized, while expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed when incurred.
 
We evaluate for impairment our long-lived assets to be held and used, and long-lived assets to be disposed of, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Based on management estimates, no impairment of the operating properties was present.
 
Stock-based Compensation - Stock-based compensation expense is recognized in the consolidated financial statements based on the fair value of the awards granted. Stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period, which generally represents the vesting period, and includes an estimate of awards that will be forfeited. We calculate the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model at grant date, while for restricted stock units the fair market value of the units is determined by Company’s share market value at grant date. Excess tax benefits related to stock-based compensation are reflected as cash flows from financing activities rather than cash flows from operating activities. We have not recognized such cash flow from financing activities since there has been no tax benefit related to the stock-based compensation.
 
Income Per Share of Common Stock - Basic income per share of common stock is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding. Diluted income per share includes the dilution of common stock equivalents. The diluted weighted average shares of common stock outstanding were calculated using the treasury stock method for the respective periods.
 
 
18
 
 
Foreign Operations - The functional currency of our foreign subsidiaries are their respective local currencies. The assets and liabilities of our foreign subsidiary are translated into U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Income and expense items are translated at the average exchange rates prevailing during the period. The cumulative translation effect for subsidiaries using a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar is included as a cumulative translation adjustment in stockholders’ equity and as a component of comprehensive income.
 
Our intercompany accounts are typically denominated in the functional currency of the foreign subsidiary. Gains and losses resulting from the remeasurement of intercompany receivables that we consider to be of a long-term investment nature are recorded as a cumulative translation adjustment in stockholders’ equity and as a component of comprehensive income, while gains and losses resulting from the remeasurement of intercompany receivables from those international subsidiaries for which we anticipate settlement in the foreseeable future are recorded in the consolidated statements of operations. The net gains and losses recorded in the consolidated statements of income were not significant for the periods presented.
 
New Accounting Standards
In May 2014, a new accounting standard was issued that amends the guidance for the recognition of revenue from contracts with customers to transfer goods and services. This new standard will be effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within the reporting period, reporting is required to be adopted prospectively and early adoption is not permitted. We are currently evaluating the provisions of this new standard and have not yet determined what impact it will have on our financial statements, if any.
 
Forward-Looking Statements
 
Our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects, and the prevailing market price and performance of our common stock, may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including the matters discussed below. Certain statements and information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as other written or oral statements made from time to time by us or by our authorized executive officers on our behalf, constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Federal Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements include all statements other than those made solely with respect to historical fact and identified by words such as “believes”, “anticipates”, “expects”, “intends” and similar expressions, but such words are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements.  We intend for our forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, and we set forth this statement and these risk factors in order to comply with such safe harbor provisions. You should note that our forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or when made and we undertake no duty or obligation to update or revise our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. Although we believe that the expectations, plans, intentions and projections reflected in our forward-looking statements are reasonable, such statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. The risks, uncertainties and other factors that our stockholders and prospective investors should consider are discussed in Item 1A Risk Factors above.
 
ITEM 7A.   QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.
Not applicable.
ITEM 8.  FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.
Our Consolidated Financial Statements, together with the report of our independent registered public accounting firm are included herein immediately following the signature page of this report. See Index to Consolidated Financial Statements on page F-1.
ITEM 9.  CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE.
None.
 
19
 
 
ITEM 9A.  CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES.
 
Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate “internal control over financial reporting,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act, for the Company. This rule defines internal control over financial reporting as a process designed by, or under the supervision of, a company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Our internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that:
● 
pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company;
● 
provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the Company; and
● 
provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, our internal control systems and procedures may not prevent or detect misstatements. An internal control system, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, have been detected. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risks that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies and procedures may deteriorate.
We, under the supervision of and with the participation of our management, including the principal executive officer and principal financial officer, assessed the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of October 31, 2016, based on criteria for effective internal control over financial reporting described in “Internal Control — Integrated Framework” issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on this assessment, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that the Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of October 31, 2016.
Disclosure Controls and Procedures.
We carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) as of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report. Based upon that evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Based on an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, there has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting during our last fiscal quarter identified in connection with that evaluation that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
ITEM 9B.  OTHER INFORMATION.
None.
 
20
 
 
PART III
ITEM 10.  DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE.
The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement for our Annual Meeting of Stockholders for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2016, which will be filed with Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K, or, alternatively, by amendment to this Form 10-K under cover of Form 10-K/A no later than the end of such 120 day period.
Information with respect to our executive officers is included in Part I.
ITEM 11.  EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION.
The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement for our Annual Meeting of Stockholders for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2016, which will be filed with Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K, or, alternatively, by amendment to this Form 10-K under cover of Form 10-K/A no later than the end of such 120 day period.
ITEM 12.  SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND   RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS.
The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement for our Annual Meeting of Stockholders for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2016, which will be filed with Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K, or, alternatively, by amendment to this Form 10-K under cover of Form 10-K/A no later than the end of such 120 day period.
ITEM 13.  CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE.
The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement for our Annual Meeting of Stockholders for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2016, which will be filed with Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K, or, alternatively, by amendment to this Form 10-K under cover of Form 10-K/A no later than the end of such 120 day period.
ITEM 14.  PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES.
The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement for our Annual Meeting of Stockholders for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2016, which will be filed with Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K, or, alternatively, by amendment to this Form 10-K under cover of Form 10-K/A no later than the end of such 120 day period.
21
 
 
PART IV
ITEM 15.  EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES.
The following documents are filed as a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K:
1.
All Financial Statements:  Consolidated Financial Statements are included herein immediately following the signature page of this report. See Index to Consolidated Financial Statements on page F-1.
2.
Financial Statement Schedules:  None.
3.
Exhibits:  The following exhibits are filed herewith or are incorporated by reference to exhibits previously filed with the Commission, as indicated in the description of each.
 
 
 
Incorporated By Reference
Exhibit Number
Exhibit Description
Form
File Number
Exhibit
Filing Date
3.1
Restated Certificate of Incorporation
8-K
000-50956 
99.1
5/1/2006
3.2
Certificate of Amendment to the Certificate of Incorporation
8-K
000-50956
3.1
4/12/13
3.3
By-laws
10-SB12G
000-50956 
3.2
9/24/2004
3.4
Amendment No. 1 to the By-laws
8-K
000-50956 
3.1
6/6/2008
3.5
Amendment No. 2 to the By-laws
8-K
000-50956
3.2
4/12/13
10.1
 
Consulting Agreement, dated January 7, 2013, by and between Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc. and Elizabeth Plaza.
8-K
 
000-50956
 
10.1
 
1/11/2013
 
10.2
 
Approval of Compensation Committee, dated July 17, 2013, to increase the hours of service pursuant to the Consulting Agreement between the Company and Elizabeth Plaza (a description of such approval was included in the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on July 23, 2013, and incorporated herein by reference).
8-K
 
000-50956
 
-
 
7/23/13
 
10.3
 
Consulting Agreement, effective January 1, 2014, between Pharma-Bio Serv Inc., Strategic Consultants International, LLC and Elizabeth Plaza.
8-K
 
000-50956
 
10.1
 
12/31/13
 
10.4
Consulting Agreement, effective January 1, 2015, between Pharma-Bio Serv Inc., Strategic Consultants International, LLC and Elizabeth Plaza.
8-K
000-50956
10.1
1/5/2015
10.5
Consulting Agreement, effective January 1, 2016, between Pharma-Bio Serv Inc., Strategic Consultants International, LLC and Elizabeth Plaza.
8-K
000-50956
10.1
1/5/2016
10.6
Employment Agreement, effective January 1, 2015, between Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc. and Victor Sanchez 
8-K
000-50956 
10.2
1/5/2015
10.7
Employment Agreement dated November 5, 2007 between the Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc. and Pedro Lasanta
10-K
000-50956
10.8
1/29/2009
 
 
22
 
 
10.8
Amendment to Employment Agreement dated December 17, 2008 between the Registrant and Pedro Lasanta
8-K
000-50956
99.1
12/23/2008
10.9
Amendment to Employment Agreement, dated March 11, 2009, by and between the Company and Pedro Lasanta
8-K
000-50956
10.3
3/17/2009
10.10
Employment Agreement Amendment, effective as of January 1, 2010, by and between the Company and Pedro Lasanta. 
8-K
000-50956
10.2
1/07/2010
10.11
Employment Agreement Amendment, dated January 31, 2012, by and between the Company and Pedro J. Lasanta
8-K
000-50956
10.1
2/2/2012
10.12
 
Employment Agreement Amendment, dated December 31, 2012, by and between the Company and Pedro J. Lasanta
8-K
 
000-50956
 
10.1
 
1/7/2013
 
10.13
Employment Agreement Amendment between Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc. and Pedro Lasanta, effective January 1, 2014.
8-K
000-50956 
10.1
2/21/2014
10.14
Employment Agreement, dated as of December 31, 2009, by and between Pharma-Bio Serv PR, Inc. and Nélida Plaza. 
8-K
000-50956
10.3
1/07/2010
10.15
 
Employment Agreement Amendment, dated January 7, 2013, by and among Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc., Pharma-Bio Serv PR, Inc. and Nélida Plaza
8-K
 
000-50956
 
10.2
 
1/11/2013
 
10.16
 
Employment Agreement Amendment, dated January 7, 2013, by and among the Company, Pharma-Bio Serv PR, Inc. and Nelida Plaza
8-K
 
000-50956
 
10.2
 
1/11/13
 
10.17
Employment Agreement Amendment among Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc., Pharma-Bio Serv PR, Inc. and Nélida Plaza, effective January 1, 2014.
8-K
000-50956 
10.1
2/21/2014
10.18
2005 Long-Term Incentive Plan, as amended
DEF 14A
000-50956 
Appendix C
3/26/2007
10.19
Amendment to 2005 Long-Term Incentive Plan
10-Q
000-50956
10.4
3/17/2014
10.20
Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc. 2014 Long-Term Incentive Plan
8-K
000-50956 
10.1
5/2/2014
14.1
 
Code of business conduct and ethics for senior management
10-KSB
 
000-50956 
 
14.1
 
2/2/2007
 
List of Subsidiaries 
 
 
 
 
23.1*
Consent of Horwath Vélez & Co, PSC
 
 
 
 
 
 
23
 
 
 
Certification of chief executive officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
 
 
 
 
 
Certification of chief financial officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 
 
 
 
 
32.1**
 
Certification of chief executive officer and chief financial officer pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 
 
 
 
 
101.INS*
XBRL Instance Document 
 
 
 
 
101.SCH*
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema 
 
 
 
 
101.CAL*
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase
 
 
 
 
101.DEF*
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase 
 
 
 
 
101.LAB*
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase 
 
 
 
 
101.PRE*
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase 
 
 
 
 
———————
*   Filed herewith
**  Furnished herewith
 
Exhibits 10.1 through 10.20 are management contracts or compensatory plans, contracts or arrangements.
                                                     
24
 
 
SIGNATURES
 
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
 
 
 
 
PHARMA-BIO SERV, INC.
 
 
Dated : January 30, 2017
By:  /s/ Victor Sanchez
 
Name: Victor Sanchez
 
Title:  Chief Executive Officer and
President Europe Operations
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
 
Signature
 
Title
 
Date
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Victor Sanchez
 
Chief Executive Officer and President Europe Operations
 
January 30, 2017
Victor Sanchez
 
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Pedro J. Lasanta
 
Chief Financial Officer, Vice President Finance and Administration and Secretary
 
January 30, 2017
Pedro J. Lasanta
 
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Elizabeth Plaza
 
Chairman
 
January 30, 2017
Elizabeth Plaza
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Kirk Michel
 
Director
 
January 30, 2017
Kirk Michel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Howard Spindel
 
Director
 
January 30, 2017
Howard Spindel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Dov Perlysky
 
Director
 
January 30, 2017
Dov Perlysky
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Irving Wiesen
 
Director
 
January 30, 2017
Irving Wiesen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25
 
 
PHARMA-BIO SERV, INC.
 
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
F-2
 
 
 
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of October 31, 2016 and 2015
 
F-3
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Years Ended October 31, 2016 and 2015
 
F-4
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the Years Ended October 31, 2016 and 2015
 
F-5
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity for the Years Ended October 31, 2016 and 2015
 
F-6
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended October 31, 2016 and 2015
 
F-7
 
 
 
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
 
F-8

                                                           
F-1
 
 
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
 
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of
Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc.
Dorado, Puerto Rico
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc. (the “Company”) as of October 31, 2016 and 2015, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), changes in stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for the years then ended.  Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc.’s management is responsible for these financial statements. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. Our audit included consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc. as of October 31, 2016 and 2015, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for the years then ended in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
 
/S/ HORWATH VÉLEZ & CO, PSC
San Juan, Puerto Rico
 
January 30, 2017
Puerto Rico Society of Certified Public Accountants
Stamp number E245291 was
affixed to the original of this report
 

F-2
 
 
PHARMA-BIO SERV, INC.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
October 31, 2016 and 2015
 
 
 
October 31,
 
 
 
2016  
 
 
 2015  
 
ASSETS
 
 
 
 
 
 
Current assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 $13,773,582 
 $14,893,387 
Marketable securities
  20,283 
  33,429 
Accounts receivable
  6,853,123 
  7,447,984 
Other
  981,105 
  891,905 
Total current assets
  21,628,093 
  23,266,705 
 
    
    
Property and equipment
  2,334,029 
  853,945 
Other assets
  35,579 
  18,256 
Total assets
 $23,997,701 
 $24,138,906 
 
    
    
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
    
    
 
    
    
Current liabilities
    
    
Current portion-obligations under capital leases
 $22,950 
 $22,784 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses
  2,090,818 
  2,061,889 
Income taxes payable
  44,770 
  39,177 
Total current liabilities
  2,158,538 
  2,123,850 
 
    
    
Obligations under capital leases
  29,002 
  51,952 
Total liabilities
  2,187,540 
  2,175,802 
 
    
    
Commitments and contingencies
    
    
 
    
    
Stockholders' equity
    
    
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; authorized 10,000,000 shares; none issued or outstanding
  - 
  - 
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; authorized 50,000,000 shares; 23,226,268 and 23,185,975 shares issued, and 23,009,316 and 23,020,451 shares outstanding at October 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively
  2,323 
  2,319 
Additional paid-in capital
  1,231,439 
  1,142,555 
Retained earnings
  20,975,050 
  21,231,629 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
  (165,915)
  (226,580)
 
  22,042,897 
  22,149,923 
Treasury stock, at cost; 216,952 and 165,524 common shares held at October 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively
  (232,736)
  (186,819)
Total stockholders' equity
  21,810,161 
  21,963,104 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
 $23,997,701 
 $24,138,906 
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
 
 
F-3
 
 
PHARMA-BIO SERV, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Operations
For the Years Ended October 31, 2016 and 2015
 
 
 
Years ended October 31,
 
 
 
2016  
 
 
 2015  
 
REVENUES
 $19,536,715 
 $23,384,861 
 
    
    
COST OF SERVICES
  13,753,483 
  15,900,406 
 
    
    
GROSS PROFIT
  5,783,232 
  7,484,455 
 
    
    
SELLING, GENERAL AND
    
    
ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES
  5,874,991 
  5,703,111 
 
    
    
INCOME (LOSS) FROM OPERATIONS
  (91,759)
  1,781,344 
 
    
    
OTHER-THAN-TEMPORARY IMPAIRMENT ON AVAILABLE-FOR-SALE SECURITIES
  (55,000)
  - 
 
    
    
OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE), NET
  (56,982)
  11,464 
 
    
    
INCOME (LOSS) BEFORE INCOME TAXES
  (203,741)
  1,792,808 
 
    
    
INCOME TAXES
  52,834 
  167,982 
 
    
    
NET INCOME (LOSS)
 $(256,575)
 $1,624,826 
 
    
    
 
    
    
BASIC EARNINGS (LOSSES) PER COMMON SHARE
 $(0.011)
 $0.070 
 
    
    
DILUTED EARNINGS (LOSSES) PER COMMON SHARE
 $(0.011)
 $0.069 
 
    
    
WEIGHTED AVERAGE NUMBER OF COMMON
    
    
SHARES OUTSTANDING – BASIC
  23,015,522 
  23,069,817 
 
    
    
WEIGHTED AVERAGE NUMBER OF COMMON
    
    
SHARES OUTSTANDING – DILUTED
  23,185,951 
  23,400,086 
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
 
F-4
 
 
PHARMA-BIO SERV, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)
For the Years Ended October 31, 2016 and 2015
 
 
 
 
Years ended October 31,
 
 
 
2016  
 
 
 2015  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NET INCOME (LOSS)
 $(256,575)
 $1,624,826 
 
    
    
OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS), NET OF RECLASSIFICATION ADJUSTMENTS AND TAXES:
    
    
 
    
    
Foreign currency translation gain (loss)
  18,811 
  (56,424)
Available-for-sale securities:
    
    
Net unrealized loss
  (13,146)
  (34,448)
Other-than-temporary impairment included in net income
  55,000 
  - 
 
    
    
TOTAL OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
  60,665 
  (90,872)
 
    
    
COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
 $(195,910)
 $1,533,954 
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
 
 
F-5
 
 
PHARMA-BIO SERV, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders' Equity
For the Years Ended October 31, 2016 and 2015
 
 
 
Common Stock
 
 
Preferred Stock
 
 
Additional
Paid-In 
 
 
Retained
 
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income
 
 
Treasury
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Shares 
 
 
  Amount 
 
 
  Shares 
 
 
  Amount 
 
 
  Capital 
 
 
  Earnings 
 
 
  (Loss) 
 
 
  Stock 
 
 
  Total 
 
BALANCE AT OCTOBER 31, 2014
  23,049,462 
 $2,305 
  - 
 $- 
 $1,055,436 
 $19,606,817 
 $(135,708)
 $(18,089)
 $20,510,761 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  87,119 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  87,119 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
ISSUANCE OF COMMON STOCK PURSUANT TO THE CASHLESS EXERCISE OF STOCK OPTIONS
  120,066 
  12 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (12)
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
ISSUANCE OF COMMON STOCK PURSUANT TO RESTRICTED STOCK AGREEMENTS WITH EMPLOYEES
  16,447 
  2 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (2)
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
PURCHASE OF TREASURY STOCK (149,974 SHARES)
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (168,730)
  (168,730)
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
NET INCOME
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  1,624,826 
  - 
  - 
  1,624,826 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
OTHER COMPREHENSIVE LOSS,
NET OF TAX
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (90,872)
  - 
  (90,872)
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
BALANCE AT OCTOBER 31, 2015
  23,185,975 
  2,319 
  - 
  - 
  1,142,555 
  21,231,629 
  (226,580)
  (186,819)
  21,963,104 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  88,884 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  88,884 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
ISSUANCE OF COMMON STOCK PURSUANT TO THE CASHLESS EXERCISE OF STOCK OPTIONS
  23,846 
  2 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (2)
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
ISSUANCE OF COMMON STOCK PURSUANT TO RESTRICTED STOCK AGREEMENTS WITH EMPLOYEES
  16,447 
  2 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (2)
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
PURCHASE OF TREASURY STOCK (51,428 SHARES)
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (45,917)
  (45,917)
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
NET LOSS
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (256,575)
  - 
  - 
  (256,575)
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME, NET OF TAX
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  60,665 
  - 
  60,665 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
BALANCE AT OCTOBER 31, 2016
  23,226,268 
 $2,323 
  - 
 $- 
 $1,231,439 
 $20,975,050 
 $(165,915)
 $(232,736)
 $21,810,161 
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
 
F-6
 
 
PHARMA-BIO SERV, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
For the Years Ended October 31, 2016 and 2015
 
 
 
Years ended October 31,
 
 
 
2016  
 
 
 2015  
 
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
 $(256,575)
 $1,624,826 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
    
    
Gain on disposition of property and equipment
  (13,635)
  - 
Stock-based compensation
  88,884 
  87,119 
Depreciation and amortization
  312,558 
  357,460 
Other-than-temporary impairment on available-for-sale securities
  55,000 
  - 
(Increase) decrease in accounts receivable
  647,282 
  (1,067,445)
Increase in other assets
  (107,967)
  (115,861)
Decrease in liabilities
  (15,894)
  (513,492)
NET CASH PROVIDED BY OPERATING ACTIVITIES
  709,653 
  372,607 
 
    
    
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
    
    
Acquisition of property and equipment
  (1,808,632)
  (342,364)
Proceeds from disposition of property and equipment
  29,625 
  - 
NET CASH USED IN INVESTING ACTIVITIES
  (1,779,007)
  (342,364)
 
    
    
CASH FLOW FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
    
    
Repurchase of common stock
  (45,917)
  (168,730)
Payments on obligations under capital lease
  (22,784)
  (21,994)
NET CASH USED IN FINANCING ACTIVITIES
  (68,701)
  (190,724)
 
    
    
EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE CHANGES ON CASH
  18,250 
  (34,202)
 
    
    
NET DECREASE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
  (1,119,805)
  (194,683)
 
    
    
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS - BEGINNING OF YEAR
  14,893,387 
  15,088,070 
 
    
    
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS – END OF YEAR
 $13,773,582 
 $14,893,387 
 
    
    
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF
    
    
CASH FLOW INFORMATION:
    
    
Cash paid during the period for:
    
    
Income taxes
 $39,075 
 $151,932 
Interest
 $3,430 
 $4,856 
 
    
    
SUPPLEMENTARY SCHEDULES OF NON-CASH
INVESTING AND FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
    
    
Property and equipment with accumulated depreciation of $167,061 and $770,267 disposed
during the years ended October 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
 $183,051 
 $770,267 
Income tax withheld by clients to be used as a credit in the Company’s income tax returns
 $46,124 
 $35,586 
Conversion of cashless exercise of options to shares of common stock
 $4 
 $14 
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
 
F-7
 
 
PHARMA-BIO SERV, INC.
Notes To Consolidated Financial Statements
For the Years Ended October 31, 2016 and 2015
NOTE A - ORGANIZATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
ORGANIZATION
Pharma-Bio Serv, Inc. (“Pharma-Bio”) is a Delaware corporation organized on January 14, 2004. Pharma-Bio is the parent company of Pharma-Bio Serv PR, Inc. (“Pharma-PR”), Pharma Serv, Inc. (“Pharma-Serv”), Scienza Labs, Inc., the three of them Puerto Rico corporations, Pharma-Bio Serv US, Inc. (“Pharma-US”), a Delaware corporation, Pharma-Bio Serv Validation & Compliance Limited (“Pharma-IR”), an Irish corporation, Pharma-Bio Serv SL (“Pharma-Spain”), a Spanish limited liability company, and Pharma-Bio Serv Brasil Servicos de Consultoria Ltda. (“Pharma-Brazil”), a Brazilian limited liability company. Pharma-Bio, Pharma-PR, Pharma-Serv, Pharma-US, Pharma-IR, Pharma-Spain and Pharma-Brazil are collectively referred to as the “Company.” The Company operates in Puerto Rico, the United States, Ireland, Spain and Brazil under the name of Pharma-Bio Serv and is engaged in providing technical compliance consulting service, and microbiological and chemical laboratory testing.
Scienza Labs is a wholly owned subsidiary, which was organized in Puerto Rico in April 2016. As of October 31, 2016, this subsidiary was in development stage and has not incurred significant revenues or expenses.
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and all of its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. 
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Accounting standards have established a fair value hierarchy that requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. A financial instrument’s categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Accounting standards have established three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1:
Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities.
 
 
Level 2:
Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets), or model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs are observable or can be derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
 
 
Level 3:
Prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (supported by little or no market activity).
 
Marketable securities available-for-sale consist of U.S. Treasury securities and an obligation from the Puerto Rico Government Development Bank valued using quoted market prices in active markets. Accordingly, these securities are categorized in Level 1.
 
The carrying value of the Company's financial instruments (excluding marketable securities and obligations under capital leases): cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, are considered reasonable estimates of fair value due to their liquidity or short-term nature. Management believes, based on current rates, that the fair value of its obligations under capital leases approximates the carrying amount.
 
F-8
 
 
Revenue Recognition
 
Revenue is primarily derived from: (1) time and materials contracts (representing approximately 86% of total revenues), which is recognized by applying the proportional performance model, whereby revenue is recognized as performance occurs, (2) short-term fixed-fee contracts or "not to exceed" contracts (representing approximately 1% of total revenues), which revenue is recognized similarly, except that certain milestones also have to be reached before revenue is recognized, and (3) laboratory testing revenue (representing approximately 13% of total revenues), which is mainly recognized as the testing is completed and certified (normally within days of sample receipt from customer). If the Company determines that a contract will result in a loss, the Company recognizes the estimated loss in the period in which such determination is made.
Cash Equivalents
For purposes of the consolidated statements of cash flows, cash equivalents include investments in money market obligation’s trusts that are registered under the U.S. Investment Company Act of 1940 and liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less.
Marketable Securities
We consider our marketable security investment portfolio and marketable equity investments as available-for-sale and, accordingly, these investments are recorded at fair value with unrealized gains and losses generally recorded in other comprehensive income; whereas realized gains and losses are included in earnings and determined based on the specific identification method.
We review our available-for-sale securities for other-than-temporary declines in fair value below their cost basis on a quarterly basis and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the cost basis of an asset may not be recoverable. This evaluation is based on a number of factors including, the length of time and extent to which the fair value has been less than our cost basis and adverse conditions specifically related to the security including any changes to the rating of the security by a rating agency.
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable are recorded at their estimated realizable value. Accounts are deemed past due when payment has not been received within the stated time period. The Company's policy is to review individual past due amounts periodically and write off amounts for which all collection efforts are deemed to have been exhausted. Due to the nature of the Company’s customers, bad debts are mainly accounted for using the direct write-off method whereby an expense is recognized only when a specific account is determined to be uncollectible. The effect of using this method approximates that of the allowance method.
Income Taxes
The Company follows an asset and liability approach method of accounting for income taxes. This method measures deferred income taxes by applying enacted statutory rates in effect at the balance sheet date to the differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts on the financial statements. The resulting deferred tax assets or liabilities are adjusted to reflect changes in tax laws as they occur. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will not be realized.
The Company follows guidance from the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) related to Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes, which includes a two-step approach to recognizing, de-recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. As of October 31, 2016, the Company had no significant uncertain tax positions that would be reduced as a result of a lapse of the applicable statute of limitations.
Property and Equipment
Owned property and equipment, and leasehold improvements are stated at cost. Vehicles under capital leases are stated at the lower of fair market value or net present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the leases. Depreciation and amortization of owned assets are provided for, when placed in service, in amount sufficient to relate the cost of depreciable assets to operations over their estimated service lives, using straight-line basis. Assets under capital leases and leasehold improvements are amortized, over the shorter of the estimated useful lives of the assets or initial lease term. Major renewals and betterments that extend the life of the assets are capitalized, while expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed when incurred.
The Company evaluates for impairment its long-lived assets to be held and used, and long-lived assets to be disposed of, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Based on management estimates, no impairment of the operating properties was present.
 
F-9
 
 
Stock-based Compensation
 
Stock-based compensation expense is recognized in the consolidated financial statements based on the fair value of the awards granted. Stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period, which generally represents the vesting period, and includes an estimate of awards that will be forfeited. The Company calculates the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model at grant date, while for restricted stock units the fair market value of the units is determined by Company’s share market value at grant date. Excess tax benefits related to stock-based compensation are reflected as cash flows from financing activities rather than cash flows from operating activities. However, the Company has not recognized such cash flow from financing activities since there has been no tax benefit related to the stock-based compensation.
Income Per Share of Common Stock
Basic income per share of common stock is calculated dividing net income by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding. Diluted income per share includes the dilution of common stock equivalents.
The diluted weighted average shares of common stock outstanding were calculated using the treasury stock method for the respective periods.
Foreign Operations
The functional currency of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries are their respective local currencies. The assets and liabilities of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Income and expense items are translated at the average exchange rates prevailing during the period. The cumulative translation effect for subsidiaries using a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar is included as a cumulative translation adjustment in stockholders’ equity and as a component of comprehensive income.
The Company’s intercompany accounts are typically denominated in the functional currency of the foreign subsidiary. Gains and losses resulting from the remeasurement of intercompany receivables that the Company considers to be of a long-term investment nature are recorded as a cumulative translation adjustment in stockholders’ equity and as a component of comprehensive income, while gains and losses resulting from the remeasurement of intercompany receivables from those international subsidiaries for which the Company anticipates settlement in the foreseeable future are recorded in the consolidated statements of operations. The net gains and losses recorded in the consolidated statements of income were not significant for the periods presented.
Subsequent Events
The Company has evaluated subsequent events to the date of the audit report. The Company has determined that there are no events occurring in this period that required disclosure or adjustment, except as disclosed in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Reclassifications
Certain reclassifications have been made to the October 31, 2015 consolidated financial statements to conform them to the October 31, 2016 consolidated financial statements presentation. Such reclassifications do not have effect on net income as previously reported.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, a new accounting standard was issued that amends the guidance for the recognition of revenue from contracts with customers to transfer goods and services. This new standard will be effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within the reporting period, reporting is required to be adopted prospectively and early adoption is not permitted. We are currently evaluating the provisions of this new standard and have not yet determined what impact it will have on our financial statements, if any.
 
F-10
 
 
NOTE B – MARKETABLE SECURITIES AVAILABLE FOR SALE
 
The amortized cost, gross unrealized gains, gross unrealized losses and estimated fair values of available-for-sale securities by type of security were as follows as of October 31, 2016 and 2015:
Type of security as of October 31, 2016
 
Amortized Cost
 
 
Gross
Unrealized Gains
 
 
Gross
Unrealized Losses
 
 
Estimated
Fair Value
 
U.S. Treasury securities
 $4,500,000 
 $ 
 $ 
 $4,500,000 
Other government-related debt securities:
    
    
    
    
Puerto Rico Commonwealth Government Development Bond
  40,000 
   
  (19,717)
  20,283 
Total interest-bearing and available-for-sale securities
 $4,540,000 
 $ 
 $(19,717)
 $4,520,283 
 
Type of security as of October 31, 2015
 
Amortized Cost
 
 
Gross
Unrealized Gains
 
 
Gross
Unrealized Losses
 
 
Estimated
Fair Value
 
U.S. Treasury securities
 $4,500,000 
 $ 
 $ 
 $4,500,000 
Other government-related debt securities:
    
    
    
    
Puerto Rico Commonwealth Government Development Bond
  95,000 
   
  (61,571)
  33,429 
Total interest-bearing and available-for-sale securities
 $4,595,000 
 $ 
 $(61,571)
 $4,533,429 
 
At October 31, 2016 and 2015, the above marketable securities includes a $95,000 5.4% Puerto Rico Commonwealth Government Development Bank Bond, purchased at par and maturing in August 2019. During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2016, the Company determined that an other-than-temporary impairment of $55,000 occurred for this bond. Accordingly, the credit loss of $55,000 was recognized on earnings.
The fair values of available-for-sale securities by classification in the Consolidated Balance Sheets were as follows as of October 31, 2016 and 2015:
Classification in the Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
2016
 
 
2015
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 $4,500,000 
 $4,500,000 
Marketable securities
  20,283 
  33,429 
Total available-for-sale securities
 $4,520,283 
 $4,533,429 
 
Cash and cash equivalents in the table above exclude cash in banks of approximately $9.3 million and $10.4 million as of October 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
The primary objectives of the Company’s investment portfolio are liquidity and safety of principal. Investments are made with the objective of achieving the highest rate of return consistent with these two objectives. Our investment policy limits investments to certain types of debt and money market instruments issued by institutions primarily with investment grade credit ratings and places restrictions on maturities and concentration by type and issuer.
 
F-11
 
 
NOTE C - PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT
The balance of property and equipment at October 31, 2016 and 2015 consisted of the following:
 
 
 
 
 
October 31,
 
 
 
Useful life (years)
 
 
2016  
 
 
 2015
 
Vehicles
  5 
 $256,677 
 $250,068 
Leasehold improvements
  5-8 
  674,625 
  647,713 
Computers
  3 
  314,380 
  274,063 
Equipment
  3-7 
  1,858,295 
  1,196,953 
Furniture and fixtures
  10 
  82,240 
  82,256 
Projects in process
  - 
  1,084,511 
  194,094 
Total
    
  4,270,728 
  2,645,147 
Less: Accumulated depreciation and amortization   
    
  (1,936,699)
  (1,791,202)
Property and equipment, net   
    
 $2,334,029 
 $853,945 
 
NOTE D - INCOME TAXES
In June 2011, Pharma-Bio, Pharma-PR and Pharma-Serv obtained a Grant of Industrial Tax Exemption pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in Act No. 73 of May 28, 2008 (“the Grant”) issued by the Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company (“PRIDCO”). The Grant was effective as of November 1, 2009 and covers a fifteen-year period. The Grant provides relief on various Puerto Rico taxes, including income tax, with certain limitations, for most of the activities carried on within Puerto Rico, including those that are for services to parties located outside of Puerto Rico. Industrial Development Income (“IDI”) covered under the Grant are subject to a fixed income tax rate of 4%. In addition, IDI earnings distributions accumulated since November 1, 2009 are totally exempt from Puerto Rico earnings distribution tax.
For the years ended October 31, 2016 and 2015, the favorable consolidated net income aggregate dollar and weighted average earnings per share-basic effects of the Grant were approximately $344,000 and $852,000, and $0.015 and $0.037, respectively.
Puerto Rico operations not covered in the exempt activities of the Grant are subject to Puerto Rico income tax at a maximum tax rate of 39% as provided by the 1994 Puerto Rico Internal Revenue Code, as amended. The operations carried out in the United States by the Company’s subsidiary are taxed in the United States at a maximum regular federal income tax rate of 35%.
Distribution of earnings by the Puerto Rican subsidiaries to its parent are taxed at the federal level; however, the parent is able to receive a credit for the taxes paid by the subsidiary on its operations in Puerto Rico, to the extent of the federal taxes that result from those earnings. As a result, the income tax expense of the Company, under its present corporate structure, would normally be the Puerto Rico taxes on operations in Puerto Rico, federal and state taxes on operations in the United States, plus the earnings distribution tax in Puerto Rico from dividends paid to the Puerto Rican subsidiaries’ parent, and the parent’s federal income tax, if any, incurred upon the subsidiary’s earnings distribution.
The reconciliation between the United States federal statutory rate and our effective tax rate for the years ended October 31, 2016, and 2015 is as follows:
 
 
October 31,
 
 
 
2016    
 
 
2015      
 
United States federal statutory rate
  35.0%
  35.0%
Puerto Rico Act 73 Tax Grant effect, including net foreign earnings invested indefinitely, net
  (26.6)%
  (26.7)%
Other, including United States loss position for which the resulting deferred tax asset has been allowed, net
 (34.3)%
  1.1%
Effective tax rate
  (25.9)%
  9.4%
 
As of October 31, 2016 and 2015, the Company has not recognized deferred income taxes on $20.2 million and $19.2 million of undistributed earnings of its Puerto Rican subsidiaries, respectively, since such earnings are considered to be reinvested indefinitely. If the earnings were distributed in the form of dividends to the Company, the Company would be subject to Puerto Rico earnings distribution tax and United States federal income tax for the aggregate amount of approximately $4.6 million and $4.3 million at October 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
 
F-12
 
 
At October 31, 2016, Pharma-Spain, Pharma-IR, and Pharma-Bio/Pharma-US have unused operating losses of approximately $957,000, $1,077,000 and $1,126,000, respectively. These net operating losses are available to offset future taxable income until October 31, 2028, 2029, 2030 and 2031 for the aggregate amounts of $178,000, 332,000, $266,000 and $181,000, respectively for Pharma-Spain, indefinitely for Pharma-IR, and until October 31, 2035 and 2036 for the aggregate amounts of $292,000 and $834,000, respectively for Pharma-Bio/Pharma-US. After considering various timing differences for income tax purposes, these unused operating losses result in a potential deferred tax asset for Pharma-Spain, Pharma-IR and Pharma-Bio of approximately $191,000, $135,000 and $394,000, respectively. However, an allowance has been provided covering the total amount of such balance since it is uncertain whether the net operating losses can be used to offset future taxable income. Realization of future tax benefits related to a deferred tax asset is dependent on many factors, including the company’s ability to generate taxable income. Accordingly, the income tax benefit will be recognized when realization is determined to be more probable than not.
 
The Company files income tax returns in the United States (federal and various states jurisdictions), Puerto Rico, Ireland, Spain and Brazil. The 2012 (2011 for Puerto Rico) through 2015 tax years are open and may be subject to potential examination in one or more jurisdictions. Currently, the Company is currently not subject to a federal, state, Puerto Rico or foreign income tax examination.
NOTE E – COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Capitalized lease obligations - The Company leases vehicles under non-cancelable capital lease agreements with a cost of $118,790 for the years ended October 31, 2016 and 2015 (accumulated amortization of $73,740 and $49,982 as of October 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively). Amortization expense for vehicles under non-cancelable lease agreements amounted to $23,758 for each of the years ended October 31, 2016 and 2015.
The following is a schedule, by year, of future minimum lease payments under the capitalized leases together with the present value of the net minimum lease payments at October 31, 2016:
Twelve months ending October 31,
 
Amount    
 
2017 
 $24,961 
2018 
  18,697 
2019 
  11,232 
Total future minimum lease payments  
  54,890 
Less: Amount of imputed interest  
  ( 2,938)
Present value of future minimum lease payments  
  51,952 
Current portion of obligation under capital leases 
  (22,950)
Long-term portion  
 $29,002 
 
Operating facilities - The Company conducts its administrative operations in office facilities which are leased under five different rental agreements.
In July 2016, with effective date January 1st, 2016, the Company renegotiated a lease agreement with an affiliate of our Chairman of the Board, for the headquarters and laboratory testing facilities in Dorado, Puerto Rico. The renegotiated lease incorporates additional space for the laboratory testing facility expansion. The lease agreement is for a five-year term, with a renewal option of five years, and monthly rental payments of $30,316 for the term of the lease agreement and renewal option. The lease agreement also requires the payment of utilities, property taxes, insurance and expenses incurred by the affiliate in connection with the maintenance of common areas.
In December 2013, the Company entered into a lease agreement for the U.S. office facilities located in Plymouth, Pennsylvania. The lease was for a term of seven years, with monthly rental payments of $6,282 for the first three years, and $6,596, $6,794, $6,998, and $7,208, respectively, thereafter. In December 2016, after our year ended October 31, 2016, the Company renegotiated and cancelled the remaining forty-seven months left of this lease agreement by paying a cancellation fee of approximately $80,000. The cancellation fee was accrued and recorded as a component of non-operating expenses in other expenses for the year ended October 31, 2016. The cancelled minimum lease payments for this lease agreement amounted to approximately $325,000.
The Company maintains office facilities in Los Angeles, California, Madrid, Spain, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. These facilities are under month-to-month leases with monthly payments of approximately $2,700, $2,500, and $1,500 respectively.
The Company leases certain apartments as dwellings for employees. The leases are under short-term lease agreements and usually are cancelable upon 30-day notification.
 
F-13
 
 
Minimum future rental payments under non-cancelable operating leases having remaining terms in excess of one year as of October 31, 2016 are as follows:
 
 
 
Amount  
 
2017
 $376,678 
2018
  363,800 
2019
  363,800 
2020
  363,800 
2021
  60,633 
Total minimum lease payments
 $1,528,711 
 
Rent expense for the years ended October 31, 2016 and 2015 was approximately $483,000 and $687,000 respectively.
Contingencies - In the ordinary course of business, the Company may be a party to legal proceedings incidental to the business. These proceedings are not expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business or financial condition.
NOTE F – WARRANTS
On December 2014, the Company entered into an agreement with a firm for providing (i) business development and (ii) mergers and acquisition services to the Company. Pursuant to the agreement terms, the Company issued warrants for the purchase of 1,000,000 common shares at an exercise price of $1.80 per share. As of July 31, 2016, the underlying common shares of the warrants were fully vested. The warrants expire on December 1, 2019.
 
NOTE G – CAPITAL TRANSACTIONS
 
On June 13, 2014, the Board of Directors of the Company authorized the Company to repurchase up to two million shares of its outstanding common stock. The timing, manner, pric