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EX-32.2 - EXHIBIT 32.2 - Workday, Inc.wday-04302016xex322.htm
EX-32.1 - EXHIBIT 32.1 - Workday, Inc.wday-04302016xex321.htm
EX-31.2 - EXHIBIT 31.2 - Workday, Inc.wday-04302016xex312.htm
EX-31.1 - EXHIBIT 31.1 - Workday, Inc.wday-04302016xex311.htm
EX-10.11 - EXHIBIT 10.11 - Workday, Inc.wday-04302016xex1011.htm

 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
 
FORM 10-Q
 
 
 
(Mark One)
x
Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the quarterly period ended April 30, 2016
OR
¨
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Commission File Number: 001-35680
 
 
 
Workday, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
 
 
 
Delaware
 
20-2480422
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
6230 Stoneridge Mall Road
Pleasanton, California 94588
(Address of principal executive offices)
Telephone Number (925) 951-9000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code) 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days:    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x   No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
x
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
¨  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x
As of May 31, 2016, there were approximately 197 million shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.
 
 
 



Workday, Inc.
 
 
Page No.
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
Item 1A.
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
Item 5.
 
 
 
Item 6.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


2


PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Workday, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
 
April 30,
2016
 
January 31,
2016
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
404,604

 
$
300,087

Marketable securities
1,675,486

 
1,669,372

Accounts receivable, net
193,100

 
293,407

Deferred costs
21,534

 
21,817

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
77,407

 
77,625

Total current assets
2,372,131

 
2,362,308

Property and equipment, net
254,697

 
214,158

Deferred costs, noncurrent
29,272

 
30,074

Goodwill and acquisition-related intangible assets, net
64,887

 
65,816

Other assets
55,166

 
57,738

Total assets
$
2,776,153

 
$
2,730,094

Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
18,975

 
$
19,605

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
66,372

 
43,122

Accrued compensation
86,819

 
91,211

Unearned revenue
798,086

 
768,741

Total current liabilities
970,252

 
922,679

Convertible senior notes, net
514,075

 
507,476

Unearned revenue, noncurrent
127,970

 
130,988

Other liabilities
35,700

 
32,794

Total liabilities
1,647,997

 
1,593,937

Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Common stock
195

 
193

Additional paid-in capital
2,329,904

 
2,247,454

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
(9,032
)
 
799

Accumulated deficit
(1,192,911
)
 
(1,112,289
)
Total stockholders’ equity
1,128,156

 
1,136,157

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
2,776,153

 
$
2,730,094

See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.


3


Workday, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(in thousands, except per share data)
(unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended 
 April 30,
 
2016
 
2015
Revenues:
 
 
 
Subscription services
$
280,003

 
$
200,993

Professional services
65,427

 
49,964

Total revenues
345,430

 
250,957

Costs and expenses(1):
 
 
 
Costs of subscription services
49,200

 
31,782

Costs of professional services
59,427

 
46,132

Product development
141,778

 
99,335

Sales and marketing
127,491

 
94,895

General and administrative
41,183

 
32,217

Total costs and expenses
419,079

 
304,361

Operating loss
(73,649
)
 
(53,404
)
Other expense, net
(5,838
)
 
(7,236
)
Loss before provision for income taxes
(79,487
)
 
(60,640
)
Provision for income taxes
1,135

 
918

Net loss
$
(80,622
)
 
$
(61,558
)
Net loss per share, basic and diluted
$
(0.41
)
 
$
(0.33
)
Weighted-average shares used to compute net loss per share, basic and diluted
194,529

 
187,390


(1)      Costs and expenses include share-based compensation expenses as follows:
Costs of subscription services
$
4,397


$
2,048

Costs of professional services
5,293


3,454

Product development
32,968


20,811

Sales and marketing
19,002


8,365

General and administrative
16,575


12,596

See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.


4


Workday, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended 
 April 30,
 
2016
 
2015
Net loss
$
(80,622
)
 
$
(61,558
)
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax:
 
 
 
Net change in foreign currency translation adjustment
681

 
27

Net change in unrealized gains (losses) on available-for-sale investments
552

 
(145
)
Net change in market value of effective foreign currency forward exchange contracts
(11,064
)
 
(22
)
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax
(9,831
)
 
(140
)
Comprehensive loss
$
(90,453
)
 
$
(61,698
)
See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.


5


Workday, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended 
 April 30,
 
2016
 
2015
Cash flows from operating activities
 
 
 
Net loss
$
(80,622
)
 
$
(61,558
)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
26,124

 
18,569

Share-based compensation expenses
78,235

 
47,274

Amortization of deferred costs
5,873

 
4,625

Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs
6,599

 
6,250

Other
(318
)
 
737

Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of business combinations:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
101,047

 
59,717

Deferred costs
(4,788
)
 
(3,501
)
Prepaid expenses and other assets
(776
)
 
(7,670
)
Accounts payable
(1,722
)
 
2,752

Accrued expense and other liabilities
5,545

 
4,325

Unearned revenue
26,269

 
20,679

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
161,466

 
92,199

Cash flows from investing activities
 
 
 
Purchases of marketable securities
(633,956
)
 
(385,575
)
Maturities of marketable securities
625,588

 
281,407

Sales of available-for-sale securities
200

 
10,000

Owned real estate investments
(18,986
)
 

Capital expenditures, excluding owned real estate investments
(34,478
)
 
(28,320
)
Purchases of cost method investments
(100
)
 

Other
388

 

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
(61,344
)
 
(122,488
)
Cash flows from financing activities
 
 
 
Proceeds from issuance of common stock from employee equity plans
3,381

 
3,564

Principal payments on capital lease obligations

 
(1,448
)
Other
376

 
417

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
3,757

 
2,533

Effect of exchange rate changes
638

 
48

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
104,517

 
(27,708
)
Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of period
300,087

 
298,192

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of period
$
404,604

 
$
270,484

Supplemental cash flow data
 
 
 
Cash paid for interest
$
4

 
$
33

Cash paid for taxes
581

 
616

Non-cash investing and financing activities:
 
 
 
Vesting of early exercise stock options
$
460

 
$
472

Property and equipment, accrued but not paid
21,507

 
9,298

Non-cash additions to property and equipment
521

 
1,860

See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

6


Workday, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
Note 1. Overview and Basis of Presentation
Company and Background
Workday provides financial management, human capital management, and analytics applications designed for the world's largest companies, educational institutions, and government agencies. We offer innovative and adaptable technology focused on the consumer Internet experience and cloud delivery model. Our applications are designed for global enterprises to manage complex and dynamic operating environments. We provide our customers highly adaptable, accessible and reliable applications to manage critical business functions that enable them to optimize their financial and human capital resources. We were originally incorporated in March 2005 in Nevada and in June 2012, we reincorporated in Delaware. As used in this report the terms "Workday," "registrant," "we," "us," and "our" mean Workday, Inc. and its subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (GAAP) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regarding interim financial reporting. The condensed consolidated financial statements include the results of Workday, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. In the opinion of our management, the information contained herein reflects all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of Workday’s results of operations, financial position and cash flows. All such adjustments are of a normal, recurring nature. The results of operations for the quarter ended April 30, 2016 shown in this report are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full year ending January 31, 2017. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended January 31, 2016, filed on March 22, 2016. There have been no changes to our significant accounting policies described in the annual report that have had a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes.
Certain prior period amounts reported in our condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation and to correct prior period errors. The reclassifications were immaterial and had no effect on previously reported operating results or financial position.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. These estimates include, but are not limited to, the determination of the relative selling prices for our services, certain assumptions used in the valuation of equity awards and the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed through business combinations. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences could be material to our condensed consolidated financial position and results of operations.
Segment Information
We operate in one operating segment, cloud applications. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, who is our chief executive officer, in deciding how to allocate resources and assessing performance. Our chief operating decision maker allocates resources and assesses performance based upon discrete financial information at the consolidated level. Since we operate in one operating segment, all required financial segment information can be found in the condensed consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
On May 28, 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09 regarding ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The standard provides principles for recognizing revenue for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers with the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance is effective for our fiscal year beginning February 1, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. We are evaluating the accounting, transition and disclosure requirements of the standard and cannot currently estimate the financial statement impact of adoption.

7


On January 5, 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01 regarding ASC Topic 825-10, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. The standard requires entities to carry all investments in equity securities at fair value through net income. The guidance is effective for our fiscal year beginning February 1, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. We are evaluating the accounting, transition and disclosure requirements of the standard and cannot currently estimate the financial statement impact of adoption.
On February 25, 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). These amendments require the recognition of lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet by lessees for those leases currently classified as operating leases under ASC 840 “Leases”. The guidance is effective for our fiscal year beginning February 1, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. We are evaluating the accounting, transition and disclosure requirements of the standard and cannot currently estimate the financial statement impact of adoption.
On March 30, 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which simplifies the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including accounting for income taxes, forfeitures, and classification in the statement of cash flows. The guidance is effective for our fiscal year beginning February 1, 2017. Early adoption is permitted. We are evaluating the accounting, transition and disclosure requirements of the standard and cannot currently estimate the financial statement impact of adoption.
Note 2. Marketable Securities
At April 30, 2016, marketable securities consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Unrealized
Gains
 
Unrealized
Losses
 
Aggregate
Fair Value
U.S. agency obligations
$
1,035,525

 
$
456

 
$
(81
)
 
$
1,035,900

U.S. treasury securities
301,469

 
198

 
(28
)
 
301,639

U.S. corporate securities
91,889

 
33

 
(19
)
 
91,903

Commercial paper
246,044

 

 

 
246,044

Money market funds
225,222

 

 

 
225,222

 
$
1,900,149

 
$
687

 
$
(128
)
 
$
1,900,708

Included in cash and cash equivalents
$
225,222

 
$

 
$

 
$
225,222

Included in marketable securities
$
1,674,927

 
$
687

 
$
(128
)
 
$
1,675,486

At January 31, 2016, marketable securities consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Unrealized
Gains
 
Unrealized
Losses
 
Aggregate
Fair Value
U.S. agency obligations
$
1,018,513

 
$
127

 
$
(405
)
 
$
1,018,235

U.S. treasury securities
338,736

 
70

 
(141
)
 
338,665

U.S. corporate securities
135,065

 
36

 
(18
)
 
135,083

Commercial paper
177,390

 

 
(1
)
 
177,389

Money market funds
148,961

 

 

 
148,961

 
$
1,818,665

 
$
233

 
$
(565
)
 
$
1,818,333

Included in cash and cash equivalents
$
148,961

 
$

 
$

 
$
148,961

Included in marketable securities
$
1,669,704

 
$
233

 
$
(565
)
 
$
1,669,372

We do not believe the unrealized losses represent other-than-temporary impairments based on our evaluation of available evidence, which includes our intent to hold these investments to maturity as of April 30, 2016. No marketable securities held as of April 30, 2016 have been in a continuous unrealized loss position for more than 12 months. We classify our marketable securities as available-for-sale at the time of purchase and reevaluate such classification as of each balance sheet date. We may sell these securities at any time for use in current operations or for other purposes, such as consideration for acquisitions, even if they have not yet reached maturity. As a result, we classify our investments, including securities with maturities beyond 12 months as current assets in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. Marketable securities on the condensed consolidated balance sheets consist of securities with original maturities at the time of purchase greater than three months and the remainder of the securities is reflected in cash and cash equivalents. During the three months ended April 30, 2016, we sold $0.2 million of our marketable securities and the realized gains from the sales are immaterial.

8


Note 3. Deferred Costs
Deferred costs consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
April 30,
2016
 
January 31,
2016
Current:
 
 
 
Deferred professional service costs
$
882

 
$
895

Deferred sales commissions
20,652

 
20,922

Total
$
21,534

 
$
21,817

Noncurrent:
 
 
 
Deferred professional service costs
$
146

 
$
360

Deferred sales commissions
29,126

 
29,714

Total
$
29,272

 
$
30,074

Note 4. Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
April 30,
2016
 
January 31,
2016
Land
$
3,504

 
$

Buildings
22,061

 
4,280

Computers, equipment and software
255,037

 
230,705

Computers, equipment and software acquired under capital leases
22,344

 
24,400

Furniture and fixtures
20,907

 
18,894

Leasehold improvements
99,937

 
86,282

 
423,790

 
364,561

Less accumulated depreciation and amortization
(169,093
)
 
(150,403
)
Property and equipment, net
$
254,697

 
$
214,158

During the first quarter of fiscal 2017 we purchased real property located in Pleasanton, California, which includes land together with an office building of approximately 58,000 square feet, at a cost of $15 million. Additionally, we started construction of our new customer briefing and development center ("development center") in Pleasanton, California, consisting of approximately 410,000 square feet of office space.
Depreciation expense totaled $22 million and $16 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Note 5. Goodwill and Acquisition-related Intangible Assets, Net
Developed technology from acquisitions is typically amortized over a useful life of three to four years. The future estimated amortization related to the acquired developed technology is $4 million for both fiscal 2017 and 2018. Goodwill amounts are not amortized, but rather tested for impairment at least annually during the last three months of the fiscal year.
Goodwill and acquisition-related intangible assets, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
April 30,
2016
 
January 31,
2016
Acquired developed technology
$
20,461

 
$
20,461

Customer relationship assets
338

 
338

 
20,799

 
20,799

Less accumulated amortization
(6,639
)
 
(5,308
)
Acquisition-related intangible assets, net
14,160

 
15,491

Goodwill
50,727

 
50,325

Goodwill and acquisition-related intangible assets, net
$
64,887

 
$
65,816


9


Note 6. Other Assets
Other assets consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
April 30,
2016
 
January 31,
2016
Cost method investments
$
28,842

 
$
28,742

Acquired land leasehold interest, net
9,754

 
9,781

Technology patents, net
2,789

 
3,020

Other
13,781

 
16,195

Total
$
55,166

 
$
57,738

Amortization expense related to the acquired land leasehold interest and technology patents was $0.3 million for each of the three month periods ended April 30, 2016 and 2015.
Note 7.    Fair Value Measurements
We measure our financial assets and liabilities at fair value at each reporting period using a fair value hierarchy that requires that we maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. A financial instrument’s classification within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Three levels of inputs may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1 — Observable inputs that reflect quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.
Level 2 — Include other inputs that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace.
Level 3 — Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity.
Financial Assets
We value our marketable securities using quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets when available. If we are unable to value our marketable securities using quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets, we value our investments using independent reports that utilize quoted market prices for comparable instruments. We validate, on a sample basis, the derived prices provided by the independent pricing vendors by comparing their assessment of the fair values of our investments against the fair values of the portfolio balances of another third-party professional’s pricing service. To date, all of our marketable securities can be valued using one of these two methodologies.
Based on our valuation of our marketable securities, we concluded that they are classified in either Level 1 or Level 2 and we have no financial assets or liabilities measured using Level 3 inputs. The following tables present information about our assets that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis using the above input categories (in thousands):
 
 
Fair Value Measurements as of
April 30, 2016
Description
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Total
U.S. agency obligations
 
$

 
$
1,035,900

 
$
1,035,900

U.S. treasury securities
 
301,639

 

 
301,639

U.S. corporate securities
 

 
91,903

 
91,903

Commercial paper
 

 
246,044

 
246,044

Money market funds
 
225,222

 

 
225,222

 
 
$
526,861

 
$
1,373,847

 
$
1,900,708

Included in cash and cash equivalents
 
 
 
 
 
$
225,222

Included in marketable securities
 
 
 
 
 
$
1,675,486


10


 
 
Fair Value Measurements as of
January 31, 2016
Description
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Total
U.S. agency obligations
 
$

 
$
1,018,235

 
$
1,018,235

U.S. treasury securities
 
338,665

 

 
338,665

U.S. corporate securities
 

 
135,083

 
135,083

Commercial paper
 

 
177,389

 
177,389

Money market funds
 
148,961

 

 
148,961

 
 
$
487,626

 
$
1,330,707

 
$
1,818,333

Included in cash and cash equivalents
 
 
 
 
 
$
148,961

Included in marketable securities
 
 
 
 
 
$
1,669,372

Financial Liabilities
The carrying amounts and estimated fair values of financial instruments not recorded at fair value are as follows (in thousands): 
 
 
April 30, 2016
 
January 31, 2016
 
 
Net Carrying Amount Before Unamortized Debt Issuance Costs
 
Estimated
Fair Value
 
Net Carrying Amount Before Unamortized Debt Issuance Costs
 
Estimated
Fair Value
0.75% Convertible senior notes
 
$
313,832

 
$
392,236

 
$
310,013

 
$
362,250

1.50% Convertible senior notes
 
206,184

 
291,875

 
203,923

 
264,063

The difference between the principal amount of the notes, $350 million for the 0.75% convertible senior notes and $250 million for the 1.50% convertible senior notes, and the net carrying amount before unamortized debt issuance costs represents the unamortized debt discount (see Note 8). The estimated fair value of the convertible senior notes, which we have classified as Level 2 financial instruments, was determined based on the quoted bid price of the convertible senior notes in an over-the-counter market on the last trading day of each respective period.
Based on the closing price of our common stock of $74.98 on April 29, 2016, the if-converted value of the 0.75% convertible senior notes and the if-converted value of the 1.50% convertible senior notes were less than their respective principal amounts.
Derivative Financial Instruments
We conduct business on a global basis in multiple foreign currencies, subjecting Workday to foreign currency risk. To mitigate this risk, we utilize hedging contracts as described below. We do not enter into any derivatives for trading or speculative purposes.
Our foreign currency contracts are classified within Level 2 because the valuation inputs are based on quoted prices and market observable data of similar instruments in active markets, such as currency spot and forward rates.
Cash Flow Hedges
We are exposed to foreign currency fluctuations resulting from customer contracts denominated in foreign currencies. We have a hedging program in which we enter into foreign currency forward contracts related to certain customer contracts. We designate these forward contracts as cash flow hedging instruments as the accounting criteria for such designation have been met. The effective portion of the gains or losses resulting from changes in the fair value of these hedges is recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) on the condensed consolidated balance sheets and will be subsequently reclassified to the related revenue line item in the condensed consolidated statements of operations in the same period that the underlying revenues are earned. The changes in value of these contracts resulting from changes in forward points on our forward contracts are excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and are recorded as incurred in Other expense, net in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
As of April 30, 2016 and January 31, 2016, we had 91 and 65 outstanding foreign currency forward contracts designated as cash flow hedges with total notional values of $178 million and $133 million, respectively. All contracts have maturities not greater than 15 months. The notional value represents the amount that will be bought or sold upon maturity of the forward contract.
During the three months ended April 30, 2016, all cash flow hedges were considered effective.

11


Foreign Currency Forward Contracts not Designated as Hedges
We also enter into foreign currency forward contracts to hedge a portion of our net outstanding monetary assets and liabilities. These forward contracts are not designated as hedging instruments under applicable accounting guidance, and therefore all changes in the fair value of the forward contracts are recorded in Other expense, net in our condensed consolidated statements of operations. These forward contracts are intended to offset the foreign currency gains or losses associated with the underlying monetary assets and liabilities.
As of April 30, 2016 and January 31, 2016, we had 22 and 21 outstanding forward contracts with total notional values of $26 million and $22 million, respectively. All contracts have maturities not greater than 15 months.
The fair values of outstanding derivative instruments were as follows (in thousands):
 
 
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets Location
 
April 30,
2016
 
January 31,
2016
Derivative Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency forward contracts designated as cash flow hedges
 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
 
$
1,224

 
$
4,695

Foreign currency forward contracts not designated as hedges
 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
 
70

 
605

Derivative Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency forward contracts designated as cash flow hedges
 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
 
$
7,668

 
$
98

Foreign currency forward contracts not designated as hedges
 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
 
372

 
56

Gains (losses) associated with foreign currency forward contracts designated as cash flow hedges were as follows (in thousands):
 
 
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and Statement of Operations Locations
 
April 30,
 
 
 
2016
 
2015
Gains (losses) recognized in OCI (effective portion) (1)
 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
 
$
(6,125
)
 
$
(22
)
Gains (losses) reclassified from OCI into income (effective portion)
 
Revenues
 
110

 

Gains (losses) recognized in income (amount excluded from effectiveness testing and ineffective portion)
 
Other expense, net
 
151

 
22

(1) 
Of the total effective portion of foreign currency forward contracts designated as cash flow hedges as of April 30, 2016, $0.4 million is expected to be reclassified out of Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) within the next 12 months.
Gains (losses) associated with foreign currency forward contracts not designated as cash flow hedges were as follows (in thousands):
 
 
Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations Location
 
April 30,
Derivative Type
 
 
2016
 
2015
Foreign currency forward contracts not designated as hedges
 
Other expense, net
 
$
(1,319
)
 
$
61

We are subject to master netting agreements with certain counterparties of the foreign exchange contracts, under which we are permitted to net settle transactions of the same currency with a single net amount payable by one party to the other. It is our policy to present the derivatives gross in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Our foreign currency forward contracts are not subject to any credit contingent features or collateral requirements and we do not believe we are subject to significant counterparty concentration risk given the short-term nature, volume, and size of the derivative contracts outstanding.

12


As of April 30, 2016, information related to these offsetting arrangements was as follows (in thousands):
 
 
Gross Amounts of Recognized Assets
 
Gross Amounts Offset in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Net Amounts of Assets Presented in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Gross Amounts Not Offset in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Net Assets Exposed
 
 
 
 
 
Financial Instruments
 
Cash Collateral Received
 
Derivative Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Counterparty A
 
$
34

 
$

 
$
34

 
$
(34
)
 
$

 
$

Counterparty B
 
554

 

 
554

 

 

 
554

Counterparty C
 
706

 

 
706

 
(706
)
 

 

Total
 
$
1,294

 
$

 
$
1,294

 
$
(740
)
 
$

 
$
554

 
 
Gross Amounts of Recognized Liabilities
 
Gross Amounts Offset in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Net Amounts of Liabilities Presented in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Gross Amounts Not Offset in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
Net Liabilities Exposed
 
 
 
 
 
Financial Instruments
 
Cash Collateral Pledged
 
Derivative Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Counterparty A
 
$
3,646

 
$

 
$
3,646

 
$
(34
)
 
$

 
$
3,612

Counterparty B
 

 

 

 

 

 

Counterparty C
 
4,394

 

 
4,394

 
(706
)
 

 
3,688

Total
 
$
8,040

 
$

 
$
8,040

 
$
(740
)
 
$

 
$
7,300

Note 8. Convertible Senior Notes, Net
Convertible Senior Notes
In June 2013, we issued 0.75% convertible senior notes due July 15, 2018 (2018 Notes) with a principal amount of $350 million. The 2018 Notes are unsecured, unsubordinated obligations, and interest is payable in cash in arrears at a fixed rate of 0.75% on January 15 and July 15 of each year. The 2018 Notes mature on July 15, 2018 unless repurchased or converted in accordance with their terms prior to such date. We cannot redeem the 2018 Notes prior to maturity.
Concurrently, we issued 1.50% convertible senior notes due July 15, 2020 (2020 Notes) with a principal amount of $250 million (together with the 2018 Notes, referred to as the Notes). The 2020 Notes are unsecured, unsubordinated obligations, and interest is payable in cash in arrears at a fixed rate of 1.50% on January 15 and July 15 of each year. The 2020 Notes mature on July 15, 2020 unless repurchased or converted in accordance with their terms prior to such date. We cannot redeem the 2020 Notes prior to maturity.
The terms of the Notes are governed by Indentures by and between us and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as Trustee (the Indentures). Upon conversion, holders of the Notes will receive cash, shares of Class A common stock or a combination of cash and shares of Class A common stock, at our election.
For the 2018 Notes, the initial conversion rate is 12.0075 shares of Class A common stock per $1,000 principal amount, which is equal to an initial conversion price of approximately $83.28 per share of Class A common stock, subject to adjustment. Prior to the close of business on March 14, 2018, the conversion is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions as described below. For the 2020 Notes, the initial conversion rate is 12.2340 shares of Class A common stock per $1,000 principal amount, which is equal to an initial conversion price of approximately $81.74 per share of Class A common stock, subject to adjustment. Prior to the close of business on March 13, 2020, the conversion is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, as described below.
Holders of the Notes who convert their Notes in connection with certain corporate events that constitute a make-whole fundamental change (as defined in the Indentures) are, under certain circumstances, entitled to an increase in the conversion rate. Additionally, in the event of a corporate event that constitutes a fundamental change (as defined in the Indentures), holders of the Notes may require us to repurchase all or a portion of their Notes at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes, plus any accrued and unpaid interest.

13


Holders of the Notes may convert all or a portion of their Notes prior to the close of business on March 14, 2018 for the 2018 Notes and March 13, 2020 for the 2020 Notes, in multiples of $1,000 principal amount, only under the following circumstances:
if the last reported sale price of Class A common stock for at least twenty trading days during a period of thirty consecutive trading days ending on the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter is greater than or equal to 130% of the conversion price of the respective Notes on each applicable trading day;
during the five business day period after any five consecutive trading day period in which the trading price per $1,000 principal amount of the respective Notes for each day of that five day consecutive trading day period was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price of Class A common stock and the conversion rate of the respective Notes on such trading day; or
upon the occurrence of specified corporate events, as noted in the Indentures.
In accounting for the issuance of the Notes, we separated each of the Notes into liability and equity components. The carrying amounts of the liability components were calculated by measuring the fair value of similar liabilities that do not have associated convertible features. The carrying amount of the equity components representing the conversion option were determined by deducting the fair value of the liability components from the par value of the respective Notes. These differences represent debt discounts that are amortized to interest expense over the respective terms of the Notes. The equity components are not remeasured as long as they continue to meet the conditions for equity classification.
We allocated the total issuance costs incurred to the Notes on a prorated basis using the aggregate principal balances. In accounting for the issuance costs related to the Notes, we allocated the total amount of issuance costs incurred to liability and equity components. Issuance costs attributable to the liability components are being amortized to interest expense over the respective terms of the Notes, and the issuance costs attributable to the equity components were netted against the respective equity components in Additional paid-in capital. For the 2018 Notes, we recorded liability issuance costs of $7 million and equity issuance costs of $2 million. Amortization expense for the liability issuance costs was $0.4 million for each of the three month periods ended April 30, 2016 and 2015. For the 2020 Notes, we recorded liability issuance costs of $5 million and equity issuance costs of $2 million. Amortization expense for the liability issuance costs was $0.2 million for each of the three month periods ended April 30, 2016 and 2015.
The Notes, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
April 30, 2016
 
January 31, 2016
 
2018 Notes
 
2020 Notes
 
2018 Notes
 
2020 Notes
Principal amounts:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Principal
$
350,000

 
$
250,000

 
$
350,000

 
$
250,000

    Unamortized debt discount(1)
(36,168
)
 
(43,816
)
 
(39,987
)
 
(46,077
)
Net carrying amount before unamortized debt issuance costs
313,832

 
206,184

 
310,013

 
203,923

    Unamortized debt issuance costs(1)
(3,106
)
 
(2,835
)
 
(3,458
)
 
(3,002
)
Net carrying amount
$
310,726

 
$
203,349

 
$
306,555

 
$
200,921

Carrying amount of the equity component(2)
$
74,892

 
$
66,007

 
$
74,892

 
$
66,007

(1) 
Included in the condensed consolidated balance sheets within Convertible senior notes, net and amortized over the remaining lives of the Notes on the straight-line basis as it approximates the effective interest rate method.
(2) 
Included in the condensed consolidated balance sheets within Additional paid-in capital, net of $2 million and $2 million for the 2018 Notes and 2020 Notes, respectively, in equity issuance costs.
As of April 30, 2016, the remaining life of the 2018 Notes and 2020 Notes is approximately 26 months and 50 months, respectively.

14


The effective interest rates of the liability components of the 2018 Notes and 2020 Notes are 5.75% and 6.25%, respectively. These interest rates were based on the interest rates of similar liabilities at the time of issuance that did not have associated convertible features. The following table sets forth total interest expense recognized related to the Notes (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2018
Notes
 
2020
Notes
 
2018
Notes
 
2020
Notes
Contractual interest expense
$
656

 
$
938

 
$
656

 
$
938

Interest cost related to amortization of debt issuance costs
352

 
167

 
352

 
168

Interest cost related to amortization of the debt discount
3,819

 
2,261

 
3,606

 
2,124

Notes Hedges
In connection with the issuance of the Notes, we entered into convertible note hedge transactions with respect to our Class A common stock (Purchased Options). The Purchased Options cover, subject to anti-dilution adjustments substantially identical to those in the Notes, approximately 7.3 million shares of our Class A common stock and are exercisable upon conversion of the Notes. The Purchased Options have initial exercise prices that correspond to the initial conversion prices of the 2018 Notes and 2020 Notes, respectively, subject to anti-dilution adjustments substantially similar to those in the Notes. The Purchased Options will expire in 2018 for the 2018 Notes and in 2020 for the 2020 Notes, if not earlier exercised. The Purchased Options are intended to offset potential economic dilution to our Class A common stock upon any conversion of the Notes. The Purchased Options are separate transactions and are not part of the terms of the Notes.
We paid an aggregate amount of $144 million for the Purchased Options, which is included in Additional paid-in capital in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Warrants
In connection with the issuance of the Notes, we also entered into warrant transactions to sell warrants (the Warrants) to acquire, subject to anti-dilution adjustments, up to approximately 4.2 million shares in July 2018 and 3.1 million shares in July 2020 of our Class A common stock at an exercise price of $107.96 per share. If the Warrants are not exercised on their exercise dates, they will expire. If the market value per share of our Class A common stock exceeds the applicable exercise price of the Warrants, the Warrants will have a dilutive effect on our earnings per share assuming that we are profitable. The Warrants are separate transactions, and are not part of the terms of the Notes or the Purchased Options.
We received aggregate proceeds of $93 million from the sale of the Warrants, which is recorded in Additional paid-in capital in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Note 9. Commitments and Contingencies
Facility-related Commitments
We have entered into non-cancelable operating lease agreements for certain of our offices and data centers in the U.S. and other countries with various expiration dates. Certain of our office leases are with an affiliate of our Chairman, David Duffield, who is also a significant stockholder (see Note 14). The operating lease agreements generally provide for rental payments on a graduated basis and for options to renew, which could increase future minimum lease payments if exercised. This includes payments for office and data center square footage, as well as data center power capacity for certain data centers. We generally recognize these expenses on a straight-line basis over the period in which we benefit from the lease and we have accrued for rent expense incurred but not paid. Total rent expense was $16 million and $10 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
In January 2014, we entered into a 95-year lease for a 6.9-acre parcel of vacant land in Pleasanton, California, under which we paid $2 million for base rent from commencement through December 31, 2020. Annual rent payments of $0.2 million plus increases based on increases in the consumer price index begin on January 1, 2021 and continue through the end of the lease. We started construction of our new development center, consisting of approximately 410,000 square feet of office space, on this property in the first quarter of fiscal 2017.
Legal Matters
We are a party to various legal proceedings and claims which arise in the ordinary course of business. In our opinion, as of April 30, 2016, there was not at least a reasonable possibility that we had incurred a material loss, or a material loss in excess of a recorded accrual, with respect to such loss contingencies.

15


Note 10. Common Stock and Stockholders’ Equity
Common Stock
As of April 30, 2016, there were 119 million shares of Class A common stock and 78 million shares of Class B common stock outstanding. The rights of the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock are identical, except with respect to voting and conversion. Each share of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote per share and each share of Class B common stock is entitled to ten votes per share. Each share of Class B common stock can be converted into a share of Class A common stock at any time at the option of the holder.
Employee Equity Plans
Our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan (EIP) serves as the successor to our 2005 Stock Plan (together with the EIP, the Stock Plans). Pursuant to the terms of the EIP, the share reserve increased by 10 million shares on March 31, 2016, and as of April 30, 2016, we had approximately 59 million shares of Class A common stock available for future grants.
We also have a 2012 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (ESPP). Under the ESPP, eligible employees are granted options to purchase shares at the lower of 85% of the fair market value of the stock at the time of grant or 85% of the fair market value at the time of exercise. Options to purchase shares are granted twice yearly on or about June 16 and December 16 and exercisable on or about the succeeding December 15 and June 15, respectively, of each year. Pursuant to the terms of the ESPP, the share reserve increased by 2 million shares on March 31, 2016. As of April 30, 2016, 7 million shares of Class A common stock were available for issuance under the ESPP.
Stock Options
The Stock Plans provide for the issuance of incentive and nonstatutory options to employees and non-employees. Prior to our initial public offering, we also issued nonstatutory options outside of the Stock Plans. Options issued under the Stock Plans generally are exercisable for periods not to exceed 10 years and generally vest over five years. A summary of information related to stock option activity during the three months ended April 30, 2016 is as follows (in millions, except share and per share data):
 
Outstanding
Stock
Options
 
Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
 
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Balance as of January 31, 2016
12,862,976

 
$
4.21

 
$
756

Stock option grants

 

 
 
Stock options exercised
(994,392
)
 
3.40

 
 
Stock options canceled
(25,332
)
 
7.50

 
 
Balance as of April 30, 2016
11,843,252

 
4.27

 
837

Vested and expected to vest as of April 30, 2016
11,788,308

 
$
4.25

 
$
834

Exercisable as of April 30, 2016
10,870,285

 
$
3.80

 
$
689

As of April 30, 2016, there was a total of $13 million in unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested stock options which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 1.1 years.
Common Stock Subject to Repurchase
The Stock Plans allow for the early exercise of stock options for certain individuals as determined by the board of directors. We have the right to purchase at the original exercise price any unvested (but issued) common shares during the repurchase period following termination of services of an employee. The consideration received for an exercise of an option is considered to be a deposit of the exercise price and the related dollar amount is recorded as a liability. The shares and liabilities are reclassified into equity as the awards vest. We had $2 million and $3 million recorded in liabilities related to early exercises of stock options as of April 30, 2016 and January 31, 2016, respectively.

16


Restricted Stock Units
The Stock Plans provide for the issuance of restricted stock units ("RSUs") to employees. RSUs generally vest over four years. A summary of information related to RSU activity during the three months ended April 30, 2016 is as follows: 
 
Number of  Shares
 
Weighted-Average
Grant Date Fair Value
Balance as of January 31, 2016
9,211,082

 
$
81.48

RSUs granted
4,920,218

 
73.95

RSUs vested
(1,301,257
)
 
83.32

RSUs forfeited
(158,446
)
 
83.44

Balance as of April 30, 2016
12,671,597

 
$
78.34

As of April 30, 2016, there was a total of $894 million in unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested RSUs, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 3.1 years.
Restricted Stock Awards
The Stock Plans provide for the issuance of restricted stock awards to employees. Restricted stock awards generally vest over five years. Under the EIP, 0.4 million restricted awards of Class B common stock are outstanding with weighted average grant date fair value of $13.02, all of which are subject to forfeiture as of April 30, 2016. During the three months ended April 30, 2016, less than 0.1 million shares of restricted stock awards vested with weighted average grant date fair value of $12.73.
As of April 30, 2016, there was a total of $5 million in unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested restricted stock awards, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 1.6 years.
Performance-based Restricted Stock Units
During the first quarter of fiscal 2017, 0.1 million shares of performance-based restricted stock units (PRSUs) were granted to the Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer and certain of Workday’s executive management. These PRSU awards include performance conditions and service conditions, and will generally vest over four years if the performance conditions are achieved for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2017.
As of April 30, 2016, there was a total of $9 million in unrecognized compensation cost related to all PRSUs, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 4.0 years.
Note 11. Other Expense, Net
Other expense, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
2016
 
2015
Interest income
$
2,214

 
$
955

Interest expense (1)
(8,031
)
 
(7,885
)
Other income (expense)
(21
)
 
(306
)
Other expense, net
$
(5,838
)
 
$
(7,236
)
(1) 
Interest expense includes the contractual interest expense related to the 2018 Notes and 2020 Notes and non-cash interest related to amortization of the debt discount and debt issuance costs (see Note 8).
Note 12. Income Taxes
We compute the year-to-date income tax provision by applying the estimated annual effective tax rate to the year-to-date pre-tax income or loss and adjust for discrete tax items in the period. We reported a tax provision of $1 million for each of the three month periods ended April 30, 2016 and 2015. The tax expense of $1 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016 was primarily attributable to state taxes and income tax expense in profitable foreign jurisdictions. The tax expense of $1 million for the three months ended April 30, 2015 was primarily related to income tax expense in profitable foreign jurisdictions and U.S. income tax expense on estimated taxable income before considering the realization of excess tax benefits from stock based compensation.

17


We are subject to income tax audits in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions. We record liabilities related to uncertain tax positions and believe that we have provided adequate reserves for income tax uncertainties in all open tax years. Due to our history of tax losses, all years remain open to tax audit.
We periodically evaluate the realizability of our net deferred tax assets based on all available evidence, both positive and negative. The realization of net deferred tax assets is dependent on our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income during periods prior to the expiration of tax attributes to fully utilize these assets. As of April 30, 2016, we intend to continue maintaining a full valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets except for certain jurisdictions.
Note 13. Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed by giving effect to all potential shares of common stock, including our outstanding stock options, outstanding warrants, common stock related to unvested early exercised stock options, common stock related to unvested restricted stock awards and convertible senior notes to the extent dilutive, and common stock issuable pursuant to the ESPP. Basic and diluted net loss per share was the same for each period presented, as the inclusion of all potential common shares outstanding would have been anti-dilutive.
The net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is allocated based on the contractual participation rights of the Class A common shares and Class B common shares as if the loss for the year had been distributed. As the liquidation and dividend rights are identical, the net loss attributable to common stockholders is allocated on a proportionate basis.
We consider shares issued upon the early exercise of options subject to repurchase and unvested restricted stock awards to be participating securities because holders of such shares have non-forfeitable dividend rights in the event of our declaration of a dividend for common shares. In future periods, to the extent we are profitable, we will subtract earnings allocated to these participating securities from net income to determine net income attributable to common stockholders.
The following table presents the calculation of basic and diluted net loss attributable to common stockholders per share (in thousands, except per share data):
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
Class A
 
Class B
 
Class A
 
Class B
Net loss per share, basic and diluted:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Numerator:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Allocation of distributed net loss
$
(48,713
)
 
$
(31,909
)
 
$
(35,024
)
 
$
(26,534
)
Denominator:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding
117,537

 
76,992

 
106,618

 
80,772

Basic and diluted net loss per share
$
(0.41
)
 
$
(0.41
)
 
$
(0.33
)
 
$
(0.33
)
The anti-dilutive securities excluded from the weighted-average shares used to calculate the diluted net loss per common share were as follows (in thousands):
 
As of April 30,
 
2016
 
2015
Outstanding common stock options
11,843

 
15,489

Shares subject to repurchase
492

 
1,028

Unvested restricted stock awards, units, and PRSUs
13,214

 
10,109

Shares related to the convertible senior notes
7,261

 
7,261

Shares subject to warrants related to the issuance of convertible senior notes
7,261

 
7,261

Shares issuable pursuant to the ESPP
314

 
237

 
40,385

 
41,385

Note 14. Related-Party Transactions
We currently lease certain office space from an affiliate of our Chairman, Mr. Duffield, adjacent to our corporate headquarters in Pleasanton, California under various lease agreements. The average term of the agreements is 10 years and the total rent due under the agreements is $8 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2017, and $90 million in total. Rent expense under these agreements was $2 million and $1 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

18


Note 15. Geographic Information
Revenue by geography is generally based on the address of the customer as defined in our master subscription agreement. The following tables set forth revenue by geographic area (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
2016
 
2015
United States
$
285,019

 
$
210,281

International
60,411

 
40,676

Total
$
345,430

 
$
250,957

No single country other than the United States had revenues greater than 10% of total revenues for the three months ended April 30, 2016 and 2015. No customer individually accounted for more than 10% of our accounts receivable, net as of April 30, 2016 or January 31, 2016.


19


SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This report contains forward-looking statements. All statements contained in this report other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, our business strategy and plans, and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect,” “seek,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in the “Risk Factors” section. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the future events and trends discussed in this report may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied by the forward-looking statements.
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activities, performance, or achievements. We are under no duty to update any of these forward-looking statements after the date of this report or to conform these statements to actual results or revised expectations.

20


ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this report. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this report, as well as in the section entitled “Risk Factors.”
Overview
Workday provides financial management, human capital management, and analytics applications designed for the world's largest companies, educational institutions, and government agencies. We offer innovative and adaptable technology focused on the consumer Internet experience and cloud delivery model. Our applications are designed for global enterprises to manage complex and dynamic operating environments. We provide our customers highly adaptable, accessible and reliable applications to manage critical business functions that enable them to optimize their financial and human capital resources.
We were founded in 2005 to deliver cloud applications to global enterprises. Our applications are designed around the way people work today – in an environment that is global, collaborative, fast-paced and mobile. Our cycle of frequent updates has facilitated rapid innovation and the introduction of new applications throughout our history. We began offering our Human Capital Management (HCM) application in 2006, and our Financial Management application in 2007. Since then we have continued to invest in innovation and have consistently introduced new services to our customers.
We offer Workday applications to our customers on an enterprise-wide subscription basis, typically with three-year terms and with subscription fees largely based on the size of the customer’s workforce. We generally recognize revenues from subscription fees ratably over the term of the contract. We currently derive a substantial majority of our subscription services revenues from subscriptions to our HCM application. We market our applications through our direct sales force.
We have achieved significant growth in a relatively short period of time. Our diverse customer base includes large, global companies and our direct sales force generally targets organizations with more than 1,000 workers. A substantial amount of our growth comes from new customers. Our current financial focus is on growing our revenues and expanding our customer base. While we are incurring losses today, we strive to invest in a disciplined manner across all of our functional areas to sustain continued near-term revenue growth and support our long-term initiatives. Our operating expenses have increased significantly in absolute dollars in recent periods, primarily due to the significant growth of our employee population. We had approximately 5,600 and approximately 4,100 employees as of April 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
We intend to continue investing for long-term growth. We have invested, and expect to continue to invest, heavily in our application development efforts to deliver additional compelling applications and to address customers’ evolving needs. In addition, we plan to continue to expand our ability to sell our applications globally, particularly in Europe and Asia, by investing in product development and customer support to address the business needs of local markets, increasing our sales and marketing organizations, acquiring, building and/or leasing additional office space, and expanding our ecosystem of services partners to support local deployments. We expect to make further significant investments in our data center infrastructure as we plan for future growth. We are also investing in personnel to service our growing customer base. These investments will increase our costs on an absolute basis in the near-term. Many of these investments will occur in advance of experiencing any direct benefit from them and will make it difficult to determine if we are allocating our resources efficiently. We expect our product development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses as a percentage of total revenues to decrease over time as we grow our revenues, and we anticipate that we will gain economies of scale by increasing our customer base without direct incremental development costs and by utilizing more of the capacity of our data centers.
Since inception, we have invested heavily in our professional services organization to help ensure that customers successfully deploy and adopt our applications. Additionally, we continue to expand our professional services partner ecosystem to further support our customers. We believe our investment in professional services, as well as partners building consulting practices around Workday, will drive additional customer subscriptions and continued growth in revenues. Due to our expanding partner ecosystem, we will not be investing in our professional services organization at the same rates as we have in the past, and we expect professional services revenues and the cost of professional services as a percentage of total revenues will continue to decline over time.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenues
We primarily derive our revenues from subscription services fees and professional services fees. Subscription services revenues primarily consist of fees that give our customers access to our cloud applications, which include related customer support. Professional services fees include deployment services, optimization services, and training.

21


Subscription services revenues accounted for 81% of our total revenues during the three months ended April 30, 2016 and represented 97% of our total unearned revenue as of April 30, 2016. Subscription services revenues are driven primarily by the number of customers, the number of workers at each customer, the number of applications subscribed to by each customer, and the price of our applications.
The mix of the applications to which a customer subscribes can affect our financial performance due to price differentials in our applications. Compared to our other offerings, our HCM application has been available for a longer period of time, is more established in the marketplace and has benefited from continued enhancements of the functionality over a longer period of time, all of which help us to improve our pricing for that application. However, new products or services offerings by competitors in the future could impact the mix and pricing of our offerings.
Subscription services fees are generally recognized ratably as revenues over the contract term beginning on the date the application is made available to the customer, which is generally within one week of contract signing. Our subscription contracts typically have a term of three years and are non-cancelable. We generally invoice our customers in advance, in annual installments. Amounts that have been invoiced are initially recorded as unearned revenue. Amounts that have not yet been invoiced represent backlog and are not reflected in our condensed consolidated financial statements.
The majority of our consulting engagements are billed on a time and materials basis, and revenues are typically recognized as the services are performed. We offer a number of training options intended to support our customers in configuring, using and administering our services. In some cases, we supplement our consulting teams by subcontracting resources from our service partners and deploying them on customer engagements. As Workday’s professional services organization and the Workday-related consulting practices of our partner firms continue to develop, we expect the partners to increasingly contract directly with our subscription customers. As a result of this trend, and the increase of our subscription services revenues, we expect professional services revenues as a percentage of total revenues to decline over time.
Costs and Expenses
Costs of subscription services revenues. Costs of subscription services revenues consist primarily of employee-related expenses related to hosting our applications and providing customer support, the costs of data center capacity, and depreciation of computer equipment and software.
Costs of professional services revenues. Costs of professional services revenues consist primarily of employee-related expenses associated with these services, the cost of subcontractors and travel.
Product development. Product development expenses consist primarily of employee-related costs. We continue to focus our product development efforts on adding new features and applications, increasing the functionality and enhancing the ease of use of our cloud applications.
Sales and marketing. Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of employee-related costs, sales commissions, marketing programs and travel. Marketing programs consist of advertising, events, corporate communications, brand building and product marketing activities. Commissions earned by our sales force that can be associated specifically with a non-cancelable subscription contract are generally deferred and amortized over the same period that revenues are recognized for the related non-cancelable contract.
General and administrative. General and administrative expenses consist of employee-related costs for finance and accounting, legal, human resources and management information systems personnel, legal costs, professional fees and other corporate expenses.
Results of Operations
Revenues
Our total revenues for the three months ended April 30, 2016 and 2015 were as follows: 
 
Three Months Ended April 30,
 
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
% Change
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
Subscription services
$
280,003

 
$
200,993

 
39%
Professional services
65,427

 
49,964

 
31%
Total revenues
$
345,430

 
$
250,957

 
38%

22


Total revenues were $345 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $251 million during the prior year period, an increase of $94 million, or 38%. Subscription services revenues were $280 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $201 million for the prior year period, an increase of $79 million, or 39%. The increase in subscription services revenues was due primarily to an increased number of customer contracts as compared to the prior year period. Professional services revenues were $65 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $50 million for the prior year period, an increase of $15 million, or 31%. The increase in professional services revenues was due primarily to the addition of new customers and a greater number of customers requesting deployment and integration services.
Operating Expenses
GAAP operating expenses were $419 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $304 million for the prior year period, an increase of $115 million, or 38%. The increases were primarily due to an increase of $83 million in employee-related costs driven by higher headcount and $7 million in depreciation and amortization expense.
We use the non-GAAP financial measure of non-GAAP operating expenses to understand and compare operating results across accounting periods, for internal budgeting and forecasting purposes, for short- and long-term operating plans, and to evaluate our financial performance and the ability of operations to generate cash. We believe that non-GAAP operating expenses reflect our ongoing business in a manner that allows for meaningful period-to-period comparisons and analysis of trends in our business, as they exclude expenses that are not reflective of ongoing operating results. We also believe that non-GAAP operating expenses provide useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results and future prospects in the same manner as management and in comparing financial results across accounting periods and to those of peer companies.
Non-GAAP operating expenses are calculated by excluding share-based compensation expenses, and certain other expenses, which consist of employer payroll tax-related items on employee stock transactions and amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets.
Non-GAAP operating expenses were $334 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $253 million for the prior year period, an increase of $81 million, or 32%. The increases were primarily due to an increase of $51 million in employee-related costs driven by higher headcount, and $6 million in depreciation and amortization expense.
Reconciliations of our GAAP to non-GAAP operating expenses were as follows:
 
Three Months Ended April 30, 2016
 
GAAP
Operating
Expenses
 
Share-Based
Compensation
Expenses (1)
 
Other
Operating
Expenses (2)
 
Non-GAAP
Operating
Expenses(3)
 
(in thousands)
Costs of subscription services
$
49,200

 
$
(4,397
)
 
$
(319
)
 
$
44,484

Costs of professional services
59,427

 
(5,293
)
 
(490
)
 
53,644

Product development
141,778

 
(32,968
)
 
(3,794
)
 
105,016

Sales and marketing
127,491

 
(19,002
)
 
(1,090
)
 
107,399

General and administrative
41,183

 
(16,575
)
 
(812
)
 
23,796

Total costs and expenses
$
419,079

 
$
(78,235
)
 
$
(6,505
)
 
$
334,339

 
 
Three Months Ended April 30, 2015
 
GAAP
Operating
Expenses
 
Share-Based
Compensation
Expenses (1)
 
Other
Operating
Expenses (2)
 
Non-GAAP
Operating
Expenses(3)
 
(in thousands)
Costs of subscription services
$
31,782

 
$
(2,048
)
 
$
(186
)
 
$
29,548

Costs of professional services
46,132

 
(3,454
)
 
(354
)
 
42,324

Product development
99,335

 
(20,811
)
 
(2,313
)
 
76,211

Sales and marketing
94,895

 
(8,365
)
 
(631
)
 
85,899

General and administrative
32,217

 
(12,596
)
 
(587
)
 
19,034

Total costs and expenses
$
304,361

 
$
(47,274
)
 
$
(4,071
)
 
$
253,016

(1) 
Share-based compensation expenses were $78 million and $47 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively. The increase in share-based compensation expenses was primarily due to grants of RSUs to existing and new employees during the twelve months ended April 30, 2016. During the three months periods ended April 30, 2016 and 2015, the realized excess tax benefits related to share-based compensation were immaterial.

23


(2) 
Other operating expenses include employer payroll tax-related items on employee stock transactions of $5 million and $4 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively. In addition, other operating expenses included amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets of $1 million and $0.3 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016 and 2015 respectively. Amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets is recorded as part of product development expenses.
(3) 
See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for further information.
Costs of Subscription Services
GAAP operating expenses in costs of subscription services were $49 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $32 million for the prior year period, an increase of $17 million or 53%. The increase was primarily due to increases of $7 million in employee-related costs driven by higher headcount, $4 million in service contracts expense to expand data center capacity, and $3 million in depreciation expense related to our data centers.
Non-GAAP operating expenses in costs of subscription services were $44 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $30 million for the prior year period, an increase of $14 million, or 47%. The increase was primarily due to increases of $5 million in employee-related costs driven by higher headcount, $4 million in service contracts expense to expand data center capacity, and $3 million in depreciation expense related to our data centers. See the table above for a reconciliation of GAAP to non-GAAP operating expenses.
We expect that GAAP and non-GAAP operating expenses in costs of subscription services will continue to increase in absolute dollars as we improve and expand our data center capacity and operations.
Costs of Professional Services
GAAP operating expenses in costs of professional services were $59 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $46 million for the prior year period, an increase of $13 million, or 28%. The increase was primarily due to additional costs of $12 million to staff our deployment and integration engagements.
Non-GAAP operating expenses in costs of professional services were $54 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $42 million for the prior year period, an increase of $12 million, or 29%. This increase was primarily due to additional costs of $10 million to staff our deployment and integration engagements. See the table above for a reconciliation of GAAP to non-GAAP operating expenses.
Due to the increase in demand for our professional services, we have increased both our internal professional service staff as well as third-party supplemental staff. Going forward, we expect GAAP and non-GAAP costs of professional services as a percentage of total revenues to continue to decline as we increasingly rely on third parties to deploy our applications and as the number of our customers continues to grow. For fiscal 2017, we anticipate GAAP and non-GAAP professional services margins to be lower than fiscal 2016 as we invest in building our partnership ecosystem in the education and government sectors, as well as internationally.
Product Development
GAAP operating expenses in product development were $142 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $99 million for the prior year period, an increase of $43 million, or 43%. The increase was primarily due to increases of $33 million in employee-related costs driven by higher headcount and $6 million in facility and IT-related expenses.
Non-GAAP operating expenses in product development were $105 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $76 million for the prior year period, an increase of $29 million, or 38%. The increase was primarily due to increases of $20 million in employee-related costs driven by higher headcount and $6 million in facility and IT-related expenses. See the table above for a reconciliation of GAAP to non-GAAP operating expenses.
We expect that GAAP and non-GAAP product development expenses will continue to increase in absolute dollars as we improve and extend our applications and develop new technologies.
Sales and Marketing
GAAP operating expenses in sales and marketing were $127 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016 compared to $95 million for the prior year period, an increase of $32 million, or 34%. The increase was primarily due to increases of $25 million in employee-related costs driven by higher headcount and higher commissionable sales volume, $3 million in facility and IT-related expenses and $2 million in advertising, marketing and event costs.

24


Non-GAAP operating expenses in sales and marketing were $107 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $86 million for the prior year period, an increase of $21 million, or 24%. The increase was primarily due to increases of $14 million in employee-related costs driven by higher headcount and higher commissionable sales volume, $3 million in facility and IT-related expenses and $2 million in advertising, marketing and event costs. See the table above for a reconciliation of GAAP to non-GAAP operating expenses.
We expect that GAAP and non-GAAP sales and marketing expenses will continue to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in the expansion of our domestic and international selling and marketing activities to build brand awareness and attract new customers.
General and Administrative
GAAP operating expenses in general and administrative were $41 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $32 million for the prior year period, an increase of $9 million, or 28%. The increase was primarily due to $8 million in additional employee-related costs driven by higher headcount.
Non-GAAP operating expenses in general and administrative were $24 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $19 million for the prior year period, an increase of $5 million, or 26%. The increase was primarily due to $3 million in employee-related costs driven by higher headcount and $2 million in higher professional fees. See the table above for a reconciliation of GAAP to non-GAAP operating expenses.
We expect GAAP and non-GAAP general and administrative expenses will continue to increase in absolute dollars as we further invest in our infrastructure and support our global expansion.
Operating Margins
GAAP operating margins remained constant at 21.3% for each of the three month periods ended April 30, 2016 and 2015, primarily due to higher revenues that were offset by higher share-based compensation and other operating expenses.
We use non-GAAP operating margins to understand and compare operating results across accounting periods, for internal budgeting and forecasting purposes, for short- and long-term operating plans, and to evaluate our financial performance and the ability of operations to generate cash. We believe that non-GAAP operating margins reflect our ongoing business in a manner that allows for meaningful period-to-period comparisons and analysis of trends in our business, as they exclude expenses that are not reflective of ongoing operating results. We also believe that non-GAAP operating margins provide useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results and future prospects in the same manner as management and in comparing financial results across accounting periods and to those of peer companies.
Non-GAAP operating margins are calculated using GAAP revenues and non-GAAP operating expenses. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for further information.
Non-GAAP operating margins improved from (0.8)% for the three months ended April 30, 2015 to 3.2% for the three months ended April 30, 2016. The improvements in our non-GAAP operating margins in the three months ended April 30, 2016 were primarily due to higher subscription services revenues, higher professional services revenues and improvements in operating leverage.
Reconciliations of our GAAP to non-GAAP operating margins were as follows:
 
Three Months Ended April 30, 2016
 
GAAP
Operating
Expenses
 
Share-Based
Compensation
Expenses
 
Other
Operating
Expenses
 
Non-GAAP
Operating
Expenses (1)
Operating margin
(21.3
)%
 
22.6
%
 
1.9
%
 
3.2
%
 
Three Months Ended April 30, 2015
 
GAAP
Operating
Expenses
 
Share-Based
Compensation
Expenses
 
Other
Operating
Expenses
 
Non-GAAP
Operating
Expenses (1)
Operating margin
(21.3
)%
 
18.9
%
 
1.6
%
 
(0.8
)%
(1) 
See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for further information.

25


Other Expense, Net
Other expense, net, decreased $1 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016 as compared to the prior year period. The contractual cash interest expense related to the 2018 and 2020 Notes was less than $2 million for each of the three month periods ended April 30, 2016 and 2015. The non-cash interest expense related to amortization of the debt discount and amortization of debt issuance costs with respect to the 2018 and 2020 Notes was $7 million and $6 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of April 30, 2016, our principal sources of liquidity were cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities totaling $2.1 billion, which were held for working capital purposes. Our cash equivalents and marketable securities are comprised primarily of U.S. agency obligations, U.S. treasury securities, U.S. corporate securities, commercial paper, and money market funds.
We have financed our operations primarily through sales of equity securities, customer payments, and issuance of debt. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our customer growth rate, subscription renewal activity, the timing of construction and acquisition of facilities in Pleasanton, California, the timing and extent of development efforts, the expansion of sales and marketing activities, the introduction of new and enhanced services offerings, the continuing market acceptance of our services, and acquisition activities. We may enter into arrangements to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, services and technologies or intellectual property rights in the future. We also may choose to seek additional equity or debt financing.
Our cash flows for the three months ended April 30, 2016 and 2015 were as follows:
 
Three Months Ended 
 April 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by (used in):
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
161,466

 
$
92,199

Investing activities
(61,344
)
 
(122,488
)
Financing activities
3,757

 
2,533

Effect of exchange rate changes
638

 
48

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
$
104,517

 
$
(27,708
)
Operating Activities
Cash provided by operating activities was $161 million and $92 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively. The improvement in cash flow provided by operating activities was primarily due to increased cash collections driven by growth in our customer sales contracts, partially offset by increases in our headcount and other operational expenses.
Investing Activities
Cash used in investing activities for the three months ended April 30, 2016 was $61 million, which was primarily the result of the timing of purchases and maturities of marketable securities, the purchase of an office building and land in Pleasanton, California for $15 million, capital expenditures for the development center of $4 million, and capital expenditures for data center and office space projects of $34 million.
We began construction of the development center, consisting of approximately 410,000 square feet of office space in Pleasanton, California during the first quarter of fiscal 2017. We expect capital expenditures related to owned real estate investments will be approximately $125 million for fiscal 2017. We expect capital expenditures, excluding owned real estate investments, will be approximately $185 million for fiscal 2017. We expect that these capital outlays will largely be used to expand the infrastructure of our data centers and to build out additional office space to support our growth.
Cash used in investing activities for the three months ended April 30, 2015 was $122 million, which was primarily the result of the timing of purchases and maturities of marketable securities and capital expenditures of $28 million.
Financing Activities
For the three months ended April 30, 2016, cash provided by financing activities was $4 million, which was primarily due to proceeds from the issuance of common stock from employee equity plans.

26


For the three months ended April 30, 2015, cash provided by financing activities was $3 million, which was primarily due to $4 million of proceeds from the issuance of common stock from employee equity plans, partially offset by $1 million in principal payments on our capital lease obligations.
Free Cash Flows
In evaluating our performance internally, we focus on long-term, sustainable growth in free cash flows. We define free cash flows, a non-GAAP financial measure, as net cash provided by (used in) operating activities minus capital expenditures (excluding owned real estate investments). See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for further information.
Free cash flows improved by $63 million to $127 million for the three months ended April 30, 2016, compared to $64 million for the prior year period. The improvement was primarily due to increased sales and the related cash collections, partially offset by increased capital expenditures (excluding owned real estate investments) and higher operating expenses, driven primarily by increased headcount.
Reconciliations of Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities to free cash flows were as follows:
 
Three Months Ended 
 April 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
$
161,466

 
$
92,199

Capital expenditures, excluding owned real estate investments
(34,478
)
 
(28,320
)
Free cash flows
$
126,988

 
$
63,879

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trailing Twelve Months Ended
April 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
$
327,904

 
$
172,505

Capital expenditures, excluding owned real estate investments
(139,825
)
 
(122,093
)
Free cash flows
$
188,079

 
$
50,412

Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Regulation S-K Item 10(e), “Use of non-GAAP financial measures in Commission filings,” defines and prescribes the conditions for use of non-GAAP financial information. Our measures of non-GAAP operating expenses, non-GAAP operating margin and free cash flows each meet the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure.
Non-GAAP Operating Expenses and non-GAAP Operating Margins
We define non-GAAP operating expenses as our total operating expenses excluding the following components, which we believe are not reflective of our ongoing operational expenses. Similarly, the same components are also excluded from the calculation of non-GAAP operating margins. In each case, for the reasons set forth below, management believes that excluding the component provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results and future prospects in the same manner as management, in comparing financial results across accounting periods and to those of peer companies and to better understand the long-term performance of our core business.
Share-Based Compensation Expenses. Although share-based compensation is an important aspect of the compensation of our employees and executives, management believes it is useful to exclude share-based compensation expenses in order to better understand the long-term performance of our core business and to facilitate comparison of our results to those of peer companies. For restricted stock unit awards, the amount of share-based compensation expenses is not reflective of the value ultimately received by the grant recipients. Moreover, determining the fair value of certain of the share-based instruments we utilize involves a high degree of judgment and estimation and the expense recorded may bear little resemblance to the actual value realized upon the vesting or future exercise of the related share-based awards. Unlike cash compensation, the value of stock options and shares offered under the ESPP, which are elements of our ongoing share-based compensation expenses, is determined using a complex formula that incorporates factors, such as market volatility and forfeiture rates, that are beyond our control.

27


Other Operating Expenses. Other operating expenses include employer payroll tax-related items on employee stock transactions and amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets. The amount of employer payroll tax-related items on employee stock transactions is dependent on our stock price and other factors that are beyond our control and do not correlate to the operation of the business. For business combinations, we generally allocate a portion of the purchase price to intangible assets. The amount of the allocation is based on estimates and assumptions made by management and is subject to amortization. The amount of purchase price allocated to intangible assets and the term of its related amortization can vary significantly and are unique to each acquisition and thus we do not believe it is reflective of our ongoing operations.
Free Cash Flows
We define free cash flows as net cash provided by (used in) operating activities minus capital expenditures (excluding owned real estate investments). Capital expenditures deducted from cash flows from operations do not include purchases of land and buildings, and construction costs of our new development center and of other owned buildings. We exclude these owned real estate investments as they are infrequent, non-recurring in nature and distinctly separate from our ongoing business operations. We use free cash flows as a measure of financial progress in our business, as it balances operating results, cash management and capital efficiency. We believe information regarding free cash flows provides investors and others with an important perspective on the cash available to make strategic acquisitions and investments, to fund ongoing operations and to fund other capital expenditures.
Limitations on the Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
A limitation of our non-GAAP financial measures of non-GAAP operating expenses, non-GAAP operating margin and free cash flows is that they do not have uniform definitions. Our definitions will likely differ from the definitions used by other companies, including peer companies, and therefore comparability may be limited. Thus, our non-GAAP financial measures of non-GAAP operating expenses, non-GAAP operating margin and free cash flows should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for, or in isolation from, measures prepared in accordance with GAAP. Additionally, in the case of share-based compensation, if we did not pay out a portion of compensation in the form of share-based compensation and related employer payroll tax-related items, the cash salary expense included in costs of revenues and operating expenses would be higher, which would affect our cash position. Further, the non-GAAP financial measure of non-GAAP operating expenses has certain limitations because it does not reflect all items of expense that affect our operations and are reflected in the GAAP financial measure of total operating expenses.
We compensate for these limitations by reconciling GAAP to non-GAAP financial measures and reviewing these measures in conjunction with GAAP financial information. We encourage investors and others to review our financial information in its entirety, not to rely on any single financial measure and to view our non-GAAP financial measures in conjunction with the most comparable GAAP financial measures.
See Results of Operations—Operating Expenses and Results of Operations—Operating Margins for reconciliations from the most directly comparable GAAP measures, GAAP operating expenses and GAAP operating margins, to the non-GAAP financial measures, non-GAAP operating expenses and non-GAAP operating margins, for the three months ended April 30, 2016 and 2015.
See Liquidity and Capital Resources—Free Cash Flows for a reconciliation from the most comparable GAAP measure, Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities, to the non-GAAP financial measure, free cash flow, for the three months ended April 30, 2016 and 2015.
Commitments
Our contractual commitments primarily consist of obligations under leases for office space and co-location facilities for data center capacity. As of April 30, 2016, the future non-cancelable minimum payments under operating leases were $250 million. During the remainder of the year ended January 31, 2017, we anticipate leasing additional office space near our headquarters and in various other locations around the world to support our growth. In addition, our existing lease agreements often provide us with an option to renew. We expect our future operating lease obligations will increase as we expand our operations.
In January 2014, we entered into a 95-year lease for a 6.9-acre parcel of land in Pleasanton, California, under which we paid $2 million for base rent from commencement through December 31, 2020. Annual rent payments of $0.2 million plus increases based on increases in the consumer price index begin on January 1, 2021 and continue through the end of the lease. We started construction of our new development center, consisting of approximately 410,000 square feet of office space, on this property in the first quarter of fiscal 2017. As noted in the Liquidity and Capital Resources section above, we expect capital expenditures related to owned real estate investments, which includes the development center, will be approximately $125 million for fiscal 2017.

28


We are not required to make principal payments under the Notes prior to maturity. If the Notes are not converted to Class A common stock prior to their maturity dates, we are required to repay $350 million in principal on July 15, 2018 and $250 million in principal on July 15, 2020. We are also required to make interest payments on a semi-annual basis at the interest rates described in Note 8 of the notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
We do not consider outstanding purchase orders to be purchase commitments as they represent authorizations to purchase rather than binding agreements.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Through April 30, 2016, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated organizations or financial partnerships, such as structured finance or special purpose entities that would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, costs and expenses, and related disclosures. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and assumptions. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
During the three months ended April 30, 2016, there were no significant changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates as described in financial statements contained in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended January 31, 2016 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on March 22, 2016.

29


ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
We transact business globally in multiple currencies. As a result, our results of operations and cash flows are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Our most significant currency exposures are the Euro, British Pound Sterling and Canadian Dollar. Due to the relative size of our international operations to date and the fact that the majority of our international contracts are currently in U.S. dollars, our foreign currency exposure has been fairly limited. We anticipate that our exposure to foreign currency fluctuations will increase over time, and, as a result, we have a hedging program focused on certain currencies. For fiscal 2017 and beyond, we expect the number of contracts denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollars to increase.
Interest Rate Sensitivity
We had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities totaling $2.1 billion as of April 30, 2016. Cash equivalents and marketable securities were invested primarily in U.S. agency obligations, U.S. treasury securities, corporate securities, commercial paper, and money market funds. The cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities are held for working capital purposes. Our investments are made for capital preservation purposes. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes.
Our cash equivalents and our portfolio of marketable securities are subject to market risk due to changes in interest rates. Fixed rate securities may have their market value adversely affected due to a rise in interest rates, while floating rate securities may produce less income than expected if interest rates fall. Due in part to these factors, our future investment income may fluctuate due to changes in interest rates or we may suffer losses in principal if we are forced to sell securities that decline in market value due to changes in interest rates. However, because we classify our marketable securities as “available for sale,” no gains or losses are recognized due to changes in interest rates unless such securities are sold prior to maturity or declines in fair value are determined to be other-than-temporary.
An immediate increase of 100-basis points in interest rates would have resulted in a $9 million market value reduction in our investment portfolio as of April 30, 2016. All of our investments earn less than 100-basis points and as a result, an immediate decrease of 100-basis points in interest rates would have increased the market value by $5 million as of April 30, 2016. This estimate is based on a sensitivity model that measures market value changes when changes in interest rates occur. Fluctuations in the value of our investment securities caused by a change in interest rates (gains or losses on the carrying value) are recorded in other comprehensive income, and are realized only if we sell the underlying securities.
Market Risk and Market Interest Risk
In June 2013, we issued $350 million of 2018 Notes and $250 million of 2020 Notes. Holders may convert the Notes prior to maturity upon the occurrence of certain circumstances. Upon conversion, holders of the 2018 Notes and 2020 Notes will receive cash, shares of Class A common stock or a combination of cash and shares of Class A common stock, at our election.
Concurrently with the issuance of the Notes, we entered into separate note hedge and warrant transactions. These separate transactions were completed to reduce the potential economic dilution from the conversion of the Notes.
Our Notes have fixed annual interest rates at 0.75% and 1.50% and, therefore, we do not have economic interest rate exposure on our Notes. However, the values of the Notes are exposed to interest rate risk. Generally, the fair market value of our fixed interest rate Notes will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. In addition, the fair values of the 2018 Notes and the 2020 Notes are affected by our stock price. The carrying values of our 2018 Notes and 2020 Notes were $311 million and $203 million, respectively, as of April 30, 2016. These represent the liability component of the principal balance of our Notes as of April 30, 2016. The total estimated fair values of the 2018 Notes and 2020 Notes at April 30, 2016 were $392 million and $292 million, respectively, and the fair value was determined based on the quoted bid price of the Notes in an over-the-counter market as of the last day of trading for the three months ended at April 30, 2016, which were 112.07 and 116.75, respectively. For further information, see Note 8 of the notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

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ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
(a) Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the Exchange Act), as of the end of the period covered by this report (Evaluation Date).
In designing and evaluating our disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any disclosure controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In addition, the design of disclosure controls and procedures must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints and that management is required to apply its judgment in evaluating the benefits of possible controls and procedures relative to their costs.
Based on management’s evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to, and are effective to, provide assurance at a reasonable level that the information we are required to disclose in reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in SEC and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.
(b) Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we conducted an evaluation of any changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that occurred during our most recently completed fiscal quarter. Based on that evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that there has not been any material change in our internal control over financial reporting during the quarter covered by this report that materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

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PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
In the ordinary course of business, we are involved in various legal proceedings and claims related to alleged infringement of third-party patents and other intellectual property rights, commercial, employment and other claims.
We have been, and may in the future be, put on notice and/or sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights, including patent infringement. We evaluate these claims and lawsuits with respect to their potential merits, our potential defenses and counterclaims, and the expected effect on us. Our technologies may be subject to injunction if they are found to infringe the rights of a third party. In addition, many of our subscription agreements require us to indemnify our customers for third-party intellectual property infringement claims, which could increase the cost to us of an adverse ruling on such a claim.
The outcome of any litigation, regardless of its merits, is inherently uncertain. Any intellectual property claims and other lawsuits, and the disposition of such claims and lawsuits, could be time-consuming and expensive to resolve, divert management attention from executing our business plan, lead to attempts on the part of other parties to seek similar claims and, in the case of intellectual property claims, require us to change our technology, change our business practices and/or pay monetary damages or enter into short- or long-term royalty or licensing agreements.
In general, the resolution of legal matters could prevent us from offering our services to others, could be material to our financial condition or cash flows, or both, or could otherwise adversely affect our operating results.
We make a provision for a liability relating to legal matters when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. These provisions are reviewed at least quarterly and adjusted to reflect the impacts of negotiations, settlements, rulings, advice of legal counsel and other information and events pertaining to a particular matter. In management’s opinion, resolution of these matters is not expected to have a material adverse impact on our condensed consolidated results of operations, cash flows or financial position. However, depending on the nature and timing of any such dispute, an unfavorable resolution of a matter could materially affect our future results of operations or cash flows, or both, of a particular quarter.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this report, including the condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this report, before making an investment decision. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that materially and adversely affect our business. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business operations, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. The market price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of these or any other risks, and you could lose part or all of your investment.
Risk Factors Related to Our Business
If our security measures are breached or unauthorized access to customer data is otherwise obtained, our applications may be perceived as not being secure, customers may reduce the use of or stop using our applications and we may incur significant liabilities.
Our applications involve the storage and transmission of our customers’ proprietary information, including personal or identifying information regarding their employees, customers and suppliers, as well as their finance and payroll data. As a result, unauthorized or excessive access or security breaches could result in the loss of information, litigation, indemnity obligations and other liabilities. While we have security measures in place designed to protect customer information and prevent data loss and other security breaches, if these measures are breached as a result of third-party action, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise, and someone obtains unauthorized access to our customers’ data, our reputation could be damaged, our business may suffer and we could incur significant liabilities. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not identified until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Any or all of these issues could negatively affect our ability to attract new customers, cause existing customers to elect to terminate or not renew their subscriptions, result in reputational damage, cause us to issue refunds or service credits to customers for prepaid and unused subscription services, or result in lawsuits, regulatory fines or other action or liabilities, which could adversely affect our operating results.
We depend on data centers and computing infrastructure operated by third parties and any disruption in these operations could adversely affect our business.
We host our applications and serve all of our customers from data centers located in Ashburn, Virginia; Atlanta, Georgia; Portland, Oregon; Dublin, Ireland; and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. While we control and have access to our servers and all of the components of our network that are located in our external data centers, we do not control the operation of these facilities. The owners of our data center facilities have no obligation to renew their agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If we are unable to renew these agreements on commercially reasonable terms, or if one of our data center operators is acquired, we may be required to transfer our servers and other infrastructure to new data center facilities, and we may incur significant costs and possible service interruption in connection with doing so.
In addition, we rely upon Amazon Web Services (AWS), which provides a distributed computing infrastructure platform for business operations, to operate certain aspects of our services, such as environments for development testing, training and sales demonstrations. Given this, along with the fact that we cannot easily switch our AWS operations to another cloud provider, any disruption of or interference with our use of AWS would impact our operations and our business could be adversely impacted.
Problems faced by our third-party data center operations, with the telecommunications network providers with whom we or they contract, or with the systems by which our telecommunications providers allocate capacity among their customers, including us, or problems faced by AWS, could adversely affect the experience of our customers. Our third-party data center operators could decide to close their facilities without adequate notice. In addition, any financial difficulties, such as bankruptcy, faced by our third-party data center operators or any of the service providers with whom we or they contract may have negative effects on our business, the nature and extent of which are difficult to predict. Additionally, if our data centers or AWS are unable to keep up with our needs for capacity, this could have an adverse effect on our business. Any changes in third-party service levels at our data centers or at AWS or any errors, defects, disruptions, or other performance problems with our applications could adversely affect our reputation and may damage our customers’ stored files or result in lengthy interruptions in our services. Interruptions in our services might adversely affect our reputation and operating results, cause us to issue refunds or service credits to customers for prepaid and unused subscription services, subject us to potential liabilities, result in contract terminations, or adversely affect our renewal rates.

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Furthermore, our financial management application is essential to Workday's and our customers’ financial projections, reporting and compliance programs, particularly customers who are public reporting companies. Any interruption in our service may affect the availability, accuracy or timeliness of such projections, reporting and programs and as a result could damage our reputation, cause our customers to terminate their use of our applications, require us to indemnify our customers against certain losses and prevent us from gaining additional business from current or future customers.
If we fail to manage our technical operations infrastructure, or experience service outages or delays in the deployment of our applications, we may be subject to liabilities and our reputation and operating results may be adversely affected.
We have experienced significant growth in the number of users, transactions and data that our operations infrastructure supports. We seek to maintain sufficient excess capacity in our operations infrastructure to meet the needs of all of our customers, and to ensure that our services and solutions are accessible within an acceptable load time. We also seek to maintain excess capacity to facilitate the rapid provision of new customer deployments and the expansion of existing customer deployments. In addition, we need to properly manage our technological operations infrastructure in order to support version control, changes in hardware and software parameters, updates, the evolution of our applications and to reduce infrastructure latency associated with dispersed geographic locations. However, the provision of new hosting infrastructure requires significant lead time. If we do not accurately predict our infrastructure requirements, our existing customers may experience service outages. If our operations infrastructure fails to scale, customers may experience delays as we seek to obtain additional capacity.
We have experienced, and may in the future experience, system disruptions, outages and other performance problems. These problems may be caused by a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, viruses, security attacks (internal and external), fraud, spikes in customer usage and denial of service issues. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of these performance problems within an acceptable period of time. Our customer agreements typically provide service level commitments on a monthly basis. If we are unable to meet the stated service level commitments or suffer extended periods of unavailability for our applications, we may be contractually obligated to issue refunds or service credits to customers for prepaid and unused subscription services, or we could face contract terminations. Any extended service outages could result in customer losses, and adversely affect our reputation, revenues and operating results.
Privacy concerns and laws or other domestic or foreign regulations may reduce the effectiveness of our applications and adversely affect our business.
Our customers can use our applications to collect, use and store personal or identifying information regarding their employees, customers and suppliers. National and local governments and agencies in the countries in which our customers operate have adopted, are considering adopting, or may adopt laws and regulations regarding the collection, use, storage, processing and disclosure of personal information obtained from consumers and individuals, which could impact our ability to offer our services in certain jurisdictions or our customers' ability to deploy our solutions globally. Privacy-related laws are particularly stringent in Europe. The costs of compliance with and other burdens imposed by privacy-related laws, regulations and standards may limit the use and adoption of our services, reduce overall demand for our services, lead to significant fines, penalties or liabilities for noncompliance, or slow the pace at which we close sales transactions, any of which could harm our business. Moreover, if Workday employees fail to adhere to adequate data protection practices around the usage of our customer’s personal data, it may damage our reputation and brand.
Additionally, we expect that existing laws, regulations and standards may be interpreted in new and differing manners in the future, and may be inconsistent among jurisdictions. For example, the European Court of Justice in October 2015 issued a ruling immediately invalidating the U.S.-EU Safe Harbor Framework, which facilitated personal data transfers to the U.S. in compliance with applicable European data protection laws. While we do not depend upon the U.S.-EU Safe Harbor Framework for transferring European personal data to the U.S., there is regulatory uncertainty surrounding how data transfers from the European Union to the U.S. will be authorized in the future and different European data protection regulators could apply differing standards for the transfer of personal data. Future laws, regulations, standards and other obligations, and changes in the interpretation of existing laws, regulations, standards and other obligations could result in increased regulation, cost of compliance and limitations on data collection, use, disclosure and transfer for Workday and our customers, which could decrease demand for our applications, require us to restrict our business operations, and impair our ability to maintain and grow our customer base and increase our revenue.
The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, privacy laws and regulations that are applicable to the businesses of our customers may adversely affect our customers’ ability and willingness to process, handle, store, use and transmit demographic and personal information of their employees, customers and suppliers, which could limit the use, effectiveness and adoption of our applications and reduce overall demand. Even the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may inhibit the adoption, effectiveness or use of our applications.

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In addition to government activity, privacy advocacy groups and the technology and other industries have established or may establish various new, additional or different self-regulatory standards that may place additional burdens on us. Our customers may expect us to meet voluntary certifications, such as ISO 27018 or other standards established by third parties, such as TRUSTe. If we are unable to maintain these certifications or meet these standards, it could reduce demand for our applications and adversely affect our business.
We have experienced rapid growth. If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of service and operational controls or adequately address competitive challenges.
We have experienced, and are continuing to experience, a period of rapid growth in our customers, headcount and operations. In particular, we grew from approximately 1,550 employees at the time of our initial public offering in October 2012 to approximately 5,600 employees as of April 30, 2016, and have also significantly increased the size of our customer base. We anticipate that we will significantly expand our operations and headcount in the near term, and will continue to expand our customer base. This growth has placed, and future growth will place, a significant strain on our management, general and administrative resources and operational infrastructure. Our success will depend in part on our ability to manage this growth effectively and to scale our operations. To manage the expected growth of our operations and personnel, we will need to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and our reporting systems and procedures. As we continue to grow, we also need to ensure that our policies and procedures evolve to reflect our current operations and are appropriately communicated to and observed by employees, and that we appropriately manage our corporate information assets, including confidential and proprietary information. Failure to effectively manage growth could result in difficulty or delays in deploying customers, declines in quality or customer satisfaction, increases in costs, difficulties in introducing new features or other operational difficulties, and any of these difficulties could adversely impact our business performance and results of operations.
We depend on our senior management team and the loss of one or more key employees could adversely affect our business.
Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our executive officers. We also rely on our leadership team in the areas of product development, marketing, sales, services and general and administrative functions, and on mission-critical individual contributors in product development. From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. We do not have employment agreements with our executive officers or other key personnel that require them to continue to work for us for any specified period and they could terminate their employment with us at any time. The loss of one or more of our executive officers or key employees and any failure to develop an appropriate succession plan for these persons could have a serious adverse effect on our business.
An inability to attract and retain highly skilled employees could adversely affect our business and our future growth prospects.
To execute our growth plan, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel, and our managers must be successful in hiring employees who are a good cultural fit and have the competencies to succeed at Workday. Competition for these personnel is intense, especially for engineers with high levels of experience in designing and developing software and Internet-related services, and for senior sales executives. From time to time, we have experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications, and may not be able to fill positions in desired geographic areas or at all.
Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have and some of these companies may offer greater compensation packages. Particularly in the San Francisco Bay Area, job candidates and existing employees carefully consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of our equity awards declines, or if the mix of equity and cash compensation that we offer is unattractive, it may adversely affect our ability to recruit and retain highly skilled employees. Job candidates may also be threatened with legal action by their existing employers if we hire them, which could have a chilling effect on hiring and result in a diversion of our time and resources. We must also continue to retain and motivate existing employees through our compensation practices, company culture and career development opportunities. If we fail to attract new personnel or to retain our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be adversely affected.
If we cannot maintain our corporate culture, we could lose the innovation, teamwork and passion that we believe contribute to our success, and our business may be harmed.
We believe that a critical component of our success has been our corporate culture, as reflected in our core values: employees, customer service, innovation, integrity and fun. We have invested substantial time and resources in building our team. As we continue to grow and develop the infrastructure associated with being a public company, we will need to maintain our corporate culture among a larger number of employees. Any failure to preserve our culture could negatively affect our future success, including our ability to retain and recruit personnel and to effectively focus on and pursue our corporate objectives.

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The markets in which we participate are intensely competitive, and if we do not compete effectively, our operating results could be adversely affected.
The markets for financial management and HCM applications are highly competitive, with relatively low barriers to entry for some applications or services. Our primary competitors are SAP and Oracle, well-established providers of financial management and HCM applications, which have long-standing relationships with many customers. Some customers may be hesitant to switch vendors or to adopt cloud applications such as ours, and prefer to maintain their existing relationships with competitors. SAP and Oracle are larger and have greater name recognition, much longer operating histories, larger marketing budgets and significantly greater resources than we do. These vendors, as well as other competitors, could offer financial management and HCM applications on a standalone basis at a low price or bundled as part of a larger product sale. In order to take advantage of customer demand for cloud applications, legacy vendors are expanding their cloud applications through acquisitions, strategic alliances and organic development. Legacy vendors may also seek to partner with other leading cloud providers, such as the alliance between Oracle and Salesforce.com. We also face competition from custom-built software vendors and from vendors of specific applications, some of which offer cloud-based solutions. These vendors include, without limitation: The Ultimate Software Group, Inc., Automatic Data Processing and Infor Global Solutions. We also face competition from cloud-based vendors including providers of applications for HCM and payroll services such as Ceridian and providers of financial management applications such as NetSuite, Inc. We may also face competition from a variety of vendors of cloud-based and on-premise software applications that address only a portion of one of our applications. In addition, other companies that provide cloud applications in different target markets may develop applications or acquire companies that operate in our target markets, and some potential customers may elect to develop their own internal applications. With the introduction of new technologies and market entrants, we expect this competition to intensify in the future.
Many of our competitors are able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of their products and services. Furthermore, our current or potential competitors may be acquired by third parties with greater available resources and the ability to initiate or withstand substantial price competition. In addition, many of our competitors have established marketing relationships, access to larger customer bases and major distribution agreements with consultants, system integrators and resellers. Our competitors may also establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties that may further enhance their product offerings or resources. If our competitors’ products, services or technologies become more accepted than our applications, if they are successful in bringing their products or services to market earlier than ours, or if their products or services are more technologically capable than ours, then our revenues could be adversely affected. In addition, some of our competitors may offer their products and services at a lower price. If we are unable to achieve our target pricing levels, our operating results would be negatively affected. Pricing pressures and increased competition could result in reduced sales, reduced margins, losses or a failure to maintain or improve our competitive market position, any of which could adversely affect our business.
If the market for enterprise cloud computing grows more slowly than in recent years, our business could be adversely affected.
Our success will depend to a substantial extent on the continued growth of cloud computing in general, and of financial management and HCM services in particular. Many enterprises have invested substantial personnel and financial resources to integrate traditional enterprise software into their businesses, and therefore may be reluctant or unwilling to migrate to cloud computing. It is difficult to predict customer adoption rates and demand for our applications, the future growth rate and size of the cloud computing market or the entry of competitive applications. The continued expansion of the cloud computing market depends on a number of factors, including the cost, performance, and perceived value associated with cloud computing, as well as the ability of cloud computing companies to address security and privacy concerns. Further, the cloud computing market is less developed in many jurisdictions outside of the United States. If we or other cloud computing providers experience security incidents, loss of customer data, disruptions in delivery or other problems, the market for cloud computing applications as a whole, including our applications, may be negatively affected. If there is a reduction in demand for cloud computing caused by a lack of customer acceptance, technological challenges, weakening economic conditions, security or privacy concerns, competing technologies and products, decreases in corporate spending or otherwise, it could result in decreased revenues or growth rates and our business could be adversely affected.

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If we are not able to provide successful enhancements, new features and modifications, our business could be adversely affected.
If we are unable to provide enhancements and new features for our existing applications or new applications that achieve market acceptance or that keep pace with rapid technological developments, our business could be adversely affected. For example, we are focused on enhancing the features and functionality of our applications to enhance their utility to larger customers with complex, dynamic and global operations. The success of enhancements, new features and applications depends on several factors, including the timely completion, introduction and market acceptance of the enhancements or new features or applications. Failure in this regard may significantly impair our revenue growth. In addition, because our applications are designed to operate on a variety of systems, we will need to continuously modify and enhance our applications to keep pace with changes in Internet-related hardware, iOS, Android and other mobile-related technologies and other software, communication, browser and database technologies. We may not be successful in either developing these modifications and enhancements or in bringing them to market in a timely fashion. We must also appropriately balance the product capability demands of our current customers with the capabilities required to address the broader market. Furthermore, uncertainties about the timing and nature of new network platforms or technologies, or modifications to existing platforms or technologies, could increase our product development expenses. Any failure of our applications to operate effectively with future network platforms and technologies could reduce the demand for our applications, result in customer dissatisfaction and adversely affect our business.
Our applications must integrate with a variety of third-party technologies, and if we are unable to ensure that our solutions interoperate with such technologies, demand for our applications and our operating results could be adversely affected.
Our applications must integrate with a variety of technologies and we must continuously modify and enhance our applications to adapt to changes in operating systems, hardware, software, communication, browser and database technologies. Any failure of our solutions to operate effectively with future technologies or our failure to respond to changes in a timely and effective manner could reduce the demand for our applications, result in customer dissatisfaction and harm our operating results and business.
If our applications fail to perform properly, our reputation could be adversely affected, our market share could decline and we could be subject to liability claims.
Our applications are inherently complex and may contain material defects or errors. Any defects in functionality or that cause interruptions in the availability of our applications could result in:
loss or delayed market acceptance and sales;
breach of warranty claims;
issuance of refunds or service credits to customers for prepaid and unused subscription services;
loss of customers;
diversion of development and customer service resources; and
injury to our reputation.
The costs incurred in correcting any material defects or errors might be substantial and could adversely affect our operating results.
Because of the large amount of data that we collect and process, it is possible that hardware failures or errors in our systems could result in data loss or corruption, or cause the information that we collect to be incomplete or contain inaccuracies that our customers regard as significant. Furthermore, the availability or performance of our applications could be adversely affected by a number of factors, including customers’ inability to access the Internet, the failure of our network or software systems, security breaches or variability in user traffic for our services. We may be required to issue credits or refunds for prepaid amounts related to unused services or otherwise be liable to our customers for damages they may incur resulting from certain of these events. For example, our customers access our applications through their Internet service providers. If a service provider fails to provide sufficient capacity to support our applications or otherwise experiences service outages, such failure could interrupt our customers’ access to our applications, which could adversely affect their perception of our applications’ reliability and our revenues. In addition to potential liability, if we experience interruptions in the availability of our applications, our reputation could be adversely affected and we could lose customers.
Our errors and omissions insurance may be inadequate or may not be available in the future on acceptable terms, or at all. In addition, our policy may not cover all claims made against us and defending a suit, regardless of its merit, could be costly and divert management’s attention.

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Catastrophic events may disrupt our business.
Our corporate headquarters are located in Pleasanton, California and we have data centers located in Ashburn, Virginia; Atlanta, Georgia; Portland, Oregon; Sacramento, California; Dublin, Ireland; and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We also rely on AWS’s distributed computing infrastructure platform. The west coast of the United States contains active earthquake zones and the southeast is subject to seasonal hurricanes. Additionally, we rely on our network and third-party infrastructure and enterprise applications, internal technology systems and our website for our development, marketing, operational support, hosted services and sales activities. In the event of a major earthquake, hurricane or catastrophic event such as fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, cyber-attack, war or terrorist attack, we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, delays in our application development, lengthy interruptions in our services, breaches of data security and loss of critical data, all of which could have an adverse effect on our operating results.
Because we sell applications to manage complex operating environments of large customers, we encounter long sales cycles, which could adversely affect our operating results in a given period.
Our ability to increase revenues and achieve and maintain profitability depends, in large part, on widespread acceptance of our applications by large businesses and other organizations. As we target our sales efforts at these customers, we face greater costs, longer sales cycles and less predictability in completing some of our sales. In the large enterprise market, the customer’s decision to use our applications may be an enterprise-wide decision and, therefore, these types of sales require us to provide greater levels of education regarding the use and benefits of our applications. In addition, our target customers may prefer to purchase applications that are critical to their business from one of our larger, more established competitors. Our typical sales cycles are six to twelve months, and we expect that this lengthy sales cycle may continue or increase as customers adopt our applications beyond HCM. Longer sales cycles could cause our operating and financial results to suffer in a given period.
Our customers’ deployment timeframes vary based on many factors including the number and type of applications being deployed, the complexity and scale of the customers’ businesses, the configuration requirements, the number of integrations with other systems and other factors, many of which are beyond our control.
The loss of one or more of our key customers, or a failure to renew our subscription agreements with one or more of our key customers, could negatively affect our ability to market our applications.
We rely on our reputation and recommendations from key customers in order to promote subscriptions to our applications. The loss of, or failure to renew by, any of our key customers could have a significant impact on our revenues, reputation and our ability to obtain new customers. In addition, acquisitions of our customers could lead to cancellation of our contracts with those customers or by the acquiring companies, thereby reducing the number of our existing and potential customers. Acquisitions of our partners could also result in a decrease in the number of our current and potential customers, as our partners may no longer facilitate the adoption of our applications.
Our business could be adversely affected if our customers are not satisfied with the deployment services provided by us or our partners.
Our business depends on our ability to satisfy our customers, both with respect to our application offerings and the professional services that are performed to help our customers use features and functions that address their business needs. Professional services may be performed by our own staff, by a third party, or by a combination of the two. Our strategy is to work with third parties to increase the breadth of capability and depth of capacity for delivery of these services to our customers, and third parties provide a majority of our deployment services. If customers are not satisfied with the quality of work performed by us or a third party or with the type of professional services or applications delivered, then we could incur additional costs to address the situation, the revenue recognition of the contract could be impacted, and the dissatisfaction with our services could damage our ability to expand the applications subscribed to by our customers. We must also align our product development and professional services operations in order to ensure that customers’ evolving needs are met. Negative publicity related to our customer relationships, regardless of its accuracy, may further damage our business by affecting our ability to compete for new business with current and prospective customers.
Any failure to offer high-quality technical support services may adversely affect our relationships with our customers and our financial results.
Once our applications are deployed, our customers depend on our support organization to resolve technical issues relating to our applications. We may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for support services. We also may be unable to modify the format of our support services to compete with changes in support services provided by our competitors. Increased customer demand for these services, without corresponding revenues, could increase costs and adversely affect our operating results. In addition, our sales process is highly dependent on our applications and business reputation and on positive recommendations from our existing customers. Any failure to maintain high-quality technical support, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality support, could adversely affect our reputation, our ability to sell our applications to existing and prospective customers, and our business, operating results and financial position.

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Sales to customers outside the United States or with international operations expose us to risks inherent in international sales and operations.
A key element of our growth strategy is to expand our international operations and develop a worldwide customer base. To date, we have not realized a substantial portion of our revenues from customers headquartered outside the United States. Operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention and will subject us to regulatory, economic and political risks that are different from those in the United States. Because of our limited experience with international operations, our international expansion efforts may not be successful in creating demand for our applications outside of the United States or in effectively selling subscriptions to our applications in all of the international markets we enter. In addition, we will face risks in doing business internationally that could adversely affect our business, including:
the need to localize and adapt our applications for specific countries, including translation into foreign languages, localization of contracts for different legal jurisdictions and associated expenses;
the need for a go-to-market strategy that aligns product management efforts and the development of supporting infrastructure;
stricter data privacy laws including requirements that customer data be stored and processed in a designated territory and obligations on us as a data processor;
difficulties in appropriately staffing and managing foreign operations and providing appropriate compensation for local markets;
difficulties in leveraging executive presence and company culture globally;
different pricing environments, longer sales cycles and longer accounts receivable payment cycles and collections issues;
new and different sources of competition;
potentially weaker protection for intellectual property and other legal rights than in the United States and practical difficulties in enforcing intellectual property and other rights;
laws, customs and business practices favoring local competitors;
compliance challenges related to the complexity of multiple, conflicting and changing governmental laws and regulations, including employment, tax, privacy and data protection laws and regulations;
increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;
restrictions on the transfer of funds;
ensuring compliance with anti-corruption laws including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;
the effects of currency fluctuations on our revenues and customer demand for our services;
adverse tax consequences and tax rulings; and
unstable economic and political conditions.
The majority of our international costs are denominated in local currencies. In addition, we anticipate that over time, an increasing portion of our international sales contracts may be denominated in local currencies. Therefore, fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies may impact our operating results when translated into U.S. dollars. We have a hedging program but we cannot assure that this hedging program will be effective and we will continue to have risk of exchange rate fluctuations.
We have acquired, and may in the future acquire, other companies, employee teams or technologies, which could divert our management’s attention, result in additional dilution to our stockholders and otherwise disrupt our operations and adversely affect our operating results.
We have acquired, and may in the future acquire, other companies, employee teams or technologies to complement or expand our applications, enhance our technical capabilities, obtain personnel or otherwise offer growth opportunities. The pursuit of acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated.
We have limited experience in acquisitions. We may not be able to integrate acquired personnel, operations and technologies successfully or effectively manage the combined operations following the acquisition. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from the acquisitions due to a number of factors, including:
inability to integrate or benefit from acquisitions in a profitable manner;
incurrence of acquisition-related costs or liabilities, some of which may be unanticipated;
difficulty integrating the intellectual property and operations of the acquired business;
difficulty integrating and retaining the personnel of the acquired business;
difficulties and additional expenses associated with supporting legacy products and hosting infrastructure of the acquired business;
difficulty terminating or converting the customers of the acquired business onto our applications and contract terms;
diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;

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adverse effects on our existing business relationships with business partners and customers as a result of the acquisition;
use of resources that are needed in other parts of our business; and
use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisition.
In addition, a significant portion of the purchase price of companies we acquire may be allocated to acquired goodwill and other intangible assets, which must be assessed for impairment at least annually. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our operating results based on this impairment assessment process, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our operating results. In addition, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, our operating results, business and financial position may suffer.
We have a history of cumulative losses and we do not expect to be profitable on a GAAP basis for the foreseeable future.
We have incurred significant losses in each period since our inception in 2005. These losses and our accumulated deficit reflect the substantial investments we made to acquire new customers and develop our applications. We expect our operating expenses to increase in the future due to anticipated increases in sales and marketing expenses, product development expenses, operations costs and general and administrative costs, and therefore we expect our losses on a GAAP basis to continue for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, to the extent we are successful in increasing our customer base, we will also incur increased losses in the acquisition period because costs associated with acquiring customers are generally incurred up front, while subscription services revenues are generally recognized ratably over the terms of the agreements, which are typically three years. You should not consider our recent growth in revenues as indicative of our future performance. We cannot assure you that we will achieve GAAP profitability in the future, nor that, if we do become profitable, we will sustain profitability.
We may not receive significant revenues from our current development efforts for several years, if at all.
Developing software applications is expensive and the investment in product development often involves a long return on investment cycle. We have made and expect to continue to make significant investments in development and related product opportunities. Accelerated product introductions and short product life cycles require high levels of expenditures that could adversely affect our operating results if not offset by revenue increases. We believe that we must continue to dedicate a significant amount of resources to our development efforts to maintain our competitive position. However, we may not receive significant revenues from these investments for several years, if at all.
If we experience significant fluctuations in our rate of anticipated growth and fail to balance our expenses with our revenue forecasts, our results could be harmed.
Our ability to forecast our future rate of growth is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties, including general economic and market conditions. We plan our expense levels and investment on estimates of future revenue and future anticipated rates of growth. We may not be able to adjust our spending quickly enough if our growth rates fall short of our expectations.
Moreover, we have encountered and will encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, such as the risks and uncertainties described herein. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties (which we use to plan our business) are incorrect or change due to changes in our markets, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations and our business could suffer.
We may not be able to sustain our revenue growth rates in the future.
You should not consider our historical revenue growth rates as indicative of our future performance. Our revenue growth rates have declined, and may decline in future periods, as the size of our customer base increases and as we achieve higher market penetration rates. Other factors may also contribute to declines in our growth rates, including slowing demand for our services, increasing competition, a decrease in the growth of our overall market, our failure to continue to capitalize on growth opportunities, and the maturation of our business, among others. As our growth rates decline, investors’ perceptions of our business and the trading price of our securities could be adversely affected.

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Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business.
Our quarterly results of operations, including the levels of our revenues, gross margin, operating margin, profitability, cash flow and unearned revenue, may vary significantly in the future and period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. Accordingly, the results of any one quarter should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Our quarterly financial results may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, and as a result, may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business. Fluctuation in quarterly results may negatively impact the value of our securities. Factors that may cause fluctuations in our quarterly financial results include, without limitation, those listed below:
our ability to attract new customers;
the addition or loss of large customers, including through acquisitions or consolidations;
the timing of operating expenses and recognition of revenues;
the amount and timing of operating expenses related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations and infrastructure;
network outages or security breaches;
general economic and market conditions;
customer renewal rates;
increases or decreases in the number of elements of our services or pricing changes upon any renewals of customer agreements;
changes in our pricing policies or those of our competitors;
the mix of applications sold during a period;
seasonal variations in sales of our applications, which have historically been highest in our fiscal fourth quarter;
the timing and success of new application and service introductions by us or our competitors;
changes in the competitive dynamics of our industry, including consolidation among competitors, customers or strategic partners;
changes in laws and regulations that impact our business; and
the timing of expenses related to acquisitions and potential future charges for impairment of goodwill.
Because we recognize subscription services revenues over the term of the contract, downturns or upturns in new sales will not be immediately reflected in our operating results and may be difficult to discern.
We generally recognize subscription services revenues from customers ratably over the terms of their contracts, which are typically three years. As a result, most of the subscription services revenues we report in each quarter are derived from the recognition of unearned revenue relating to subscriptions entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed subscription contracts in any single quarter will likely have a minor impact on our revenue results for that quarter. However, such a decline will negatively affect our revenues in future quarters. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in sales and market acceptance of our applications, and potential changes in our pricing policies or rate of renewals, may not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods. We may be unable to adjust our cost structure to reflect the changes in revenues. In addition, a significant majority of our costs are expensed as incurred, while revenues are recognized over the life of the customer agreement. As a result, increased growth in the number of our customers could result in our recognition of more costs than revenues in the earlier periods of the terms of our agreements. Our subscription model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenues through additional sales in any period, as subscription revenues from new customers generally are recognized over the applicable subscription term.
Our ability to predict the rate of customer subscription renewals or adoptions, and the impact these renewals and adoptions will have on our revenues or operating results, is limited.
As the markets for our applications mature, or as new competitors introduce new products or services that compete with ours, we may be unable to attract new customers at the same price or based on the same pricing model as we have used historically. Moreover, large customers, which are the focus of our sales efforts, may demand greater price concessions. As a result, in the future we may be required to reduce our prices, which could adversely affect our revenues, gross margin, profitability, financial position and cash flow.
In addition, our customers have no obligation to renew their subscriptions for our applications after the expiration of the initial subscription period. Our customers may renew for fewer elements of our applications or on different pricing terms. Our customers’ renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including their level of satisfaction with our pricing or our applications and their ability to continue their operations and spending levels. If our customers do not renew their subscriptions for our applications on similar pricing terms, our revenues may decline and our business could suffer. In addition, over time the average term of our contracts could change based on renewal rates or for other reasons.

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Our future success also depends in part on our ability to sell additional features or enhanced elements of our applications to our current customers. This may require increasingly costly sales efforts that are targeted at senior management. If these efforts are not successful, our business may suffer.
Failure to adequately expand our direct sales force will impede our growth.
We will need to continue to expand and optimize our sales infrastructure in order to grow our customer base and our business. We plan to continue to expand our direct sales force, both domestically and internationally. Identifying and recruiting qualified personnel and training them in the use of our software requires significant time, expense and attention. It can take significant time before our sales representatives are fully trained and productive. Our business may be adversely affected if our efforts to expand and train our direct sales force do not generate a corresponding increase in revenues. In particular, if we are unable to hire, develop and retain talented sales personnel or if new direct sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, we may not be able to realize the expected benefits of this investment or increase our revenues.
If we fail to develop widespread brand awareness cost-effectively, our business may suffer.
We believe that developing and maintaining widespread positive awareness of our brand is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our applications, attracting new customers and hiring and retaining employees. Brand promotion activities may not generate customer awareness or increase revenues, and even if they do, any increase in revenues may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, or incur substantial expenses, we may fail to attract or retain customers necessary to realize a sufficient return on our brand-building efforts, or to achieve the widespread brand awareness that is critical for broad customer adoption of our applications. In addition, if our brand is negatively impacted, it may be more difficult to hire and retain employees.
Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties.
In order to grow our business, we anticipate that we will continue to depend on relationships with third parties, such as deployment partners, and technology and content providers. Identifying partners, and negotiating and documenting relationships with them, requires significant time and resources. Our competitors may be effective in providing incentives to third parties to favor their products or services or to prevent or reduce subscriptions to our services. In addition, acquisitions of our partners by our competitors could result in a decrease in the number of our current and potential customers, as our partners may no longer facilitate the adoption of our applications by potential customers.
If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our relationships with third parties, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenues could be impaired and our operating results may suffer. Even if we are successful, we cannot assure you that these relationships will result in increased customer usage of our applications or increased revenues.
Adverse economic conditions may negatively impact our business.
Our business depends on the overall demand for enterprise software and on the economic health of our current and prospective customers. Any significant weakening of the economy in the United States or Europe and of the global economy, more limited availability of credit, a reduction in business confidence and activity, decreased government spending, and other difficulties may affect one or more of the sectors or countries in which we sell our applications. In addition, a strong dollar could reduce demand for our products in countries with relatively weaker currencies. These adverse conditions could result in reductions in sales of our applications, longer sales cycles, reductions in subscription duration and value, slower adoption of new technologies and increased price competition. Any of these events would likely have an adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial position.
Any failure to protect our intellectual property rights could impair our ability to protect our proprietary technology and our brand.
Our success and ability to compete depend in part upon our intellectual property. We rely on patent, copyright, trade secret and trademark laws, trade secret protection and confidentiality or license agreements with our employees, customers, partners and others to protect our intellectual property rights. However, the steps we take to protect our intellectual property rights may be inadequate.
We may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect our intellectual property rights. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming and distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights. Our failure to secure, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could seriously adversely affect our brand and our business.

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We may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights.
There is considerable patent and other intellectual property development activity in our industry. Our competitors, as well as a number of other entities and individuals, may own or claim to own intellectual property relating to our industry. From time to time, third parties may claim that we are infringing upon their intellectual property rights, and we may be found to be infringing upon such rights. In the future, they may claim that our applications and underlying technology infringe or violate their intellectual property rights, even if we are unaware of the intellectual property rights that others may claim cover some or all of our technology or services. Any claims or litigation could cause us to incur significant expenses and, if successfully asserted against us, could require that we pay substantial damages or ongoing royalty payments, prevent us from offering our services, or require that we comply with other unfavorable terms. We may also be obligated to indemnify our customers or business partners or pay substantial settlement costs, including royalty payments, in connection with any such claim or litigation and to obtain licenses, modify applications, or refund fees, which could be costly. Even if we were to prevail in such a dispute, any litigation regarding our intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations.
Some of our applications utilize open source software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more of these open source licenses could negatively affect our business.
Some of our applications include software covered by open source licenses, which may include, by way of example, GNU General Public License and the Apache License. The terms of various open source licenses have not been interpreted by United States courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to market our applications. By the terms of certain open source licenses, we could be required to release the source code of our proprietary software, and to make our proprietary software available under open source licenses, if we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner. In the event that portions of our proprietary software are determined to be impacted by an open source license, we could be required to publicly release the affected portions of our source code, re-engineer all or a portion of our technologies, or otherwise be limited in the licensing of our technologies, each of which could reduce or eliminate the value of our technologies and services. In addition to risks related to license requirements, usage of open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of the software. Many of the risks associated with usage of open source software cannot be eliminated, and could negatively affect our business.
We employ third-party licensed software for use in or with our applications, and the inability to maintain these licenses or errors in the software we license could result in increased costs, or reduced service levels, which would adversely affect our business.
Our applications incorporate certain third-party software obtained under licenses from other companies. We anticipate that we will continue to rely on such third-party software and development tools from third parties in the future. Although we believe that there are commercially reasonable alternatives to the third-party software we currently license, this may not always be the case, or it may be difficult or costly to replace. In addition, integration of the software used in our applications with new third-party software may require significant work and require substantial investment of our time and resources. To the extent that our applications depend upon the successful operation of third-party software in conjunction with our software, any undetected errors or defects in this third-party software could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our applications, delay new application introductions, result in a failure of our applications and injure our reputation. Our use of additional or alternative third-party software would require us to enter into license agreements with third parties.
Changes in laws and regulations related to the Internet or changes in the Internet infrastructure itself may diminish the demand for our applications, and could have a negative impact on our business.
Federal, state or foreign government bodies or agencies have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws or regulations relating to Internet usage. Changes in these laws or regulations could require us to modify our applications in order to comply with these laws or regulations. In addition, government agencies or private organizations may begin to impose taxes, fees or other charges for accessing the Internet or commerce conducted via the Internet. These laws or charges could limit the growth of Internet-related commerce or communications, or negatively impact demand for Internet-based applications such as ours.
In addition, businesses could be adversely affected due to delays in the development or adoption of new standards and protocols to handle increased demands of Internet activity, security, reliability, cost, ease of use, accessibility, and quality of service. Businesses have been adversely affected by “viruses,” “worms” and similar malicious programs and have experienced a variety of outages and other delays as a result of damage to Internet infrastructure. These issues could negatively impact demand for our cloud-based applications.

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We may discover weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting, which may adversely affect investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and consequently the market price of our securities.
As a public company, we are required to design and maintain proper and effective internal controls over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal controls. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the Sarbanes-Oxley Act) requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting and provide a management report on the internal controls over financial reporting, which must be attested to by our independent registered public accounting firm. If we have a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting, we may not detect errors on a timely basis and our financial statements may be materially misstated.
The process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404 is challenging and costly. In the future, we may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion. If we identify material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting, if we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, if we are unable to assert that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our securities could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources. In addition, because we use Workday's financial management application, any problems that we experience with financial reporting and compliance could be negatively perceived by prospective or current customers, and negatively impact demand for our applications.
The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention.
We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the Dodd-Frank Act), the listing requirements of the NYSE and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Compliance with these rules and regulations has increased and will continue to increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly, and increase demand on our systems and resources. In particular, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. In order to maintain and, if required, improve our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting to meet this standard, significant resources and management oversight may be required. As a result, management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business and operating results.
In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to practice, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be harmed.
We will not be able to utilize a portion of our net operating loss or research tax credit carryforwards, which could adversely affect our profitability.
As of April 30, 2016, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards due to prior period losses, which if not utilized will begin to expire in fiscal 2024 and 2017 for federal and state purposes, respectively. We also have federal research tax credit carryforwards, which if not utilized will begin to expire in 2025. These net operating loss and research tax credit carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to reduce future income tax liabilities, which could adversely affect our profitability. In addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, our ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards or other tax attributes, such as research tax credits, in any taxable year may be limited if we experience an “ownership change.” A Section 382 “ownership change” generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of our stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. It is possible that an ownership change, or any future ownership change, could have a material effect on the use of our net operating loss carryforwards or other tax attributes, which could adversely affect our profitability.

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Adverse tax laws or regulations could be enacted or existing laws could be applied to us or our customers, which could increase the costs of our services and adversely impact our business.
We operate and are subject to taxes in the United States and numerous foreign jurisdictions throughout the world. Changes to federal, state, local or international tax laws on income, sales, use, indirect or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances on multinational corporations are currently being considered by the United States and other countries where we do business. These contemplated legislative initiatives include, but not limited to, changes to transfer pricing policies and definitional changes to permanent establishment could be applied solely or disproportionately to services provided over the Internet. These contemplated tax initiatives, if finalized and adopted by countries, may ultimately impact our effective tax rate and could adversely affect our sales activity resulting in a negative impact on our operating results and cash flows.
In addition, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to us (possibly with retroactive effect), which could require us or our customers to pay additional tax amounts, as well as require us or our customers to pay fines or penalties and interest for past amounts. If we are unsuccessful in collecting such taxes from our customers, we could be held liable for such costs, thereby adversely impacting our operating results and cash flows. If our customers must pay additional fines or penalties, it could adversely affect demand for our services.
Our reported financial results may be adversely affected by changes in accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.
Generally accepted accounting principles in the United States are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the SEC, and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change.
We have broad discretion in the use of our cash balances and may not use them effectively.
We have broad discretion in the use of our cash balances and may not use them effectively. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could adversely affect our business and financial condition. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from these offerings in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value. Our investments may not yield a favorable return to our investors and may negatively impact the price of our securities.
Risks Related to Our Class A Common Stock
Our Chairman and CEO have control over key decision making as a result of their control of a majority of our voting stock.
As of April 30, 2016, our co-founder and Chairman David Duffield, together with his affiliates, held voting rights with respect to 65 million shares of Class B common stock and 1 million shares of Class A common stock. In addition, Mr. Duffield holds 0.1 million RSUs, which will be settled in an equivalent number of shares of Class A common stock. As of April 30, 2016, our co-founder and CEO Aneel Bhusri, together with his affiliates, held voting rights with respect to 7 million shares of Class B common stock. In addition, Mr. Bhusri holds exercisable options to acquire 3 million shares of Class B common stock, 1 million shares of Class B restricted stock and 0.3 million RSUs, which will be settled in an equivalent number of shares of Class A common stock. Further, Messrs. Duffield and Bhusri have entered into a voting agreement under which each has granted a voting proxy with respect to certain Class B common stock beneficially owned by him effective upon his death or incapacity as described in our registration statement on Form S-1 filed in connection with our initial public offering. Messrs. Duffield and Bhusri have each initially designated the other as their respective proxies. Accordingly, upon the death or incapacity of either Mr. Duffield or Mr. Bhusri, the other would individually continue to control the voting of shares subject to the voting proxy. Collectively, the shares described above represent a substantial majority of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. As a result, Messrs. Duffield and Bhusri have the ability to control the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, they have the ability to control the management and affairs of our company as a result of their positions as our Chairman and CEO, respectively, and their ability to control the election of our directors. As board members and officers, Messrs. Duffield and Bhusri owe a fiduciary duty to our stockholders and must act in good faith in a manner they reasonably believe to be in the best interests of our stockholders. As stockholders, even as controlling stockholders, they are entitled to vote their shares in their own interests, which may not always be in the interests of our stockholders generally.

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The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with our Chairman and CEO, and also with other executive officers, directors and affiliates; this will limit or preclude the ability of non-affiliates to influence corporate matters.
Our Class B common stock has ten votes per share and our Class A common stock, which is the stock that is publicly traded, has one vote per share. Stockholders who hold shares of Class B common stock, including our executive officers, directors and other affiliates, together hold a substantial majority of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock as of April 30, 2016. Because of the ten-to-one voting ratio between our Class B and Class A common stock, the holders of our Class B common stock collectively will continue to control a majority of the combined voting power of our common stock and therefore be able to control all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval until the conversion of all shares of all Class A and Class B shares to a single class of common stock on the date that is the first to occur of (i) October 11, 2032, (ii) such time as the shares of Class B common stock represent less than 9% of the outstanding Class A and Class B common stock, (iii) nine months following the death of both Mr. Duffield and Mr. Bhusri, or (iv) the date on which the holders of a majority of the shares of Class B common stock elect to convert all shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock into a single class of common stock. This concentrated control will limit or preclude the ability of non-affiliates to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future.
Future transfers by holders of Class B common stock will generally result in those shares converting to Class A common stock, subject to limited exceptions, such as certain transfers effected for estate planning purposes. The conversion of Class B common stock to Class A common stock will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of Class B common stock who retain their shares in the long term. If, for example, our Chairman and CEO retain a significant portion of their holdings of Class B common stock for an extended period of time, they could, in the future, continue to control a majority of the combined voting power of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock.
Our stock price has been volatile in the past and may be subject to volatility in the future.
The trading price of our Class A common stock has been volatile historically, and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors described below. These factors, as well as the volatility of our Class A common stock, could also impact the price of our convertible senior notes. The factors that may affect the trading price of our securities, some of which are beyond our control, include: 
overall performance of the equity markets;
fluctuations in the valuation of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us, such as high-growth or cloud companies, or in valuation metrics, such as our price to revenues ratio;
guidance as to our operating results that we provide to the public, differences between our guidance and market expectations, our failure to meet our guidance or changes in recommendations by securities analysts that follow our securities;
announcements of technological innovations, new applications or enhancements to services, acquisitions, strategic alliances or significant agreements by us or by our competitors;
disruptions in our services due to computer hardware, software or network problems;
announcements of customer additions and customer cancellations or delays in customer purchases;
recruitment or departure of key personnel;
the economy as a whole, market conditions in our industry, and the industries of our customers;
trading activity by directors, executive officers and significant stockholders, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell their shares;
the exercise of rights held by certain of our stockholders, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or our stockholders;
the size of our market float and significant option exercises;
any future issuances of securities;
sales and purchases of any Class A common stock issued upon conversion of our convertible senior notes or in connection with the convertible note hedge and warrant transactions related to such convertible senior notes;
our operating performance and the performance of other similar companies; and
the sale or availability for sale of a large number of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market.
Additionally, the stock markets have at times experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and may in the future affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations have, in some cases, been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. Further, the trading prices of publicly traded shares of companies in our industry have been particularly volatile and may be very volatile in the future.
In the past, some companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could harm our business.

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We have indebtedness in the form of convertible senior notes.
In June 2013, we completed an offering of $350 million of 0.75% convertible senior notes due July 15, 2018 (2018 Notes), and we concurrently issued an additional $250 million of 1.50% convertible senior notes due July 15, 2020 (2020 Notes).
As a result of these convertible notes offerings, we incurred $350 million principal amount of indebtedness, which we may be required to pay at maturity in 2018, and $250 million principal amount of indebtedness, which we may be required to pay at maturity in 2020, or upon the occurrence of a fundamental change (as defined in the applicable indenture). There can be no assurance that we will be able to repay this indebtedness when due, or that we will be able to refinance this indebtedness on acceptable terms or at all. In addition, this indebtedness could, among other things:
make it difficult for us to pay other obligations;
make it difficult to obtain favorable terms for any necessary future financing for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements or other purposes;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to service and repay the indebtedness, reducing the amount of cash flow available for other purposes; and
limit our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in our business.
Exercise of the warrants associated with our 2018 Notes or our 2020 Notes may affect the price of our Class A common stock.
In connection with our offering of the 2018 Notes, we sold warrants to acquire up to approximately 4.2 million shares of our Class A common stock at an initial strike price of $107.96, which become exercisable beginning on October 15, 2018. In connection with our offering of the 2020 Notes, we sold warrants to acquire up to approximately 3.1 million shares of our Class A common stock at an initial strike price of $107.96, which become exercisable beginning on October 15, 2020. The warrants may be settled in shares or in cash. The exercise of the warrants could have a dilutive effect if the market price per share of our Class A common stock exceeds the strike price of the warrants. The counterparties to the warrant transactions and note hedge transactions relating to the 2018 Notes and the 2020 Notes are likely to enter into or unwind various derivative instruments with respect to our Class A common stock or purchase or sell shares of our Class A common stock or other securities linked to or referencing our Class A common stock in secondary market transactions prior to the respective maturity of the 2018 Notes and the 2020 Notes. These activities could adversely affect the trading price of our Class A common stock.
Delaware law and provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws could make a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest difficult, thereby depressing the market price of our Class A common stock.
Our status as a Delaware corporation and the anti-takeover provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control by prohibiting us from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the person becomes an interested stockholder, even if a change of control would be beneficial to our existing stockholders. In addition, our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws contain provisions that may make the acquisition of our company more difficult, including the following:
any transaction that would result in a change in control of our company requires the approval of a majority of our outstanding Class B common stock voting as a separate class;
our dual class common stock structure, which provides our chairman and CEO with the ability to control the outcome of matters requiring stockholder approval, even if they own significantly less than a majority of the shares of our outstanding Class A and Class B common stock;
our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms and directors are only able to be removed from office for cause;
when the outstanding shares of our Class B common stock represent less than a majority of the combined voting power of common stock:
certain amendments to our restated certificate of incorporation or restated bylaws will require the approval of two-thirds of the combined vote of our then-outstanding shares of Class A and Class B common stock;
our stockholders will only be able to take action at a meeting of stockholders and not by written consent; and
vacancies on our board of directors will be able to be filled only by our board of directors and not by stockholders;
only our chairman of the board, chief executive officer, either co-president, or a majority of our board of directors are authorized to call a special meeting of stockholders;
certain litigation against us can only be brought in Delaware;
we will have two classes of common stock until the date that is the first to occur of (i) October 11, 2032, (ii) such time as the shares of Class B common stock represent less than 9% of the outstanding Class A and Class B common stock, (iii) nine months following the death of both Mr. Duffield and Mr. Bhusri, or (iv) the date on which the holders of a majority of the shares of Class B common stock elect to convert all shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock into a single class of common stock;

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our restated certificate of incorporation authorizes undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established, and shares of which may be issued, without the approval of the holders of Class A common stock; and
advance notice procedures apply for stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring matters before an annual meeting of stockholders.
These anti-takeover defenses could discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our company. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors of their choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions they desire, any of which, under certain c