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EX-31.1 - EX-31.1 - Aeglea BioTherapeutics, Inc.agle-ex311_23.htm
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EX-32.1 - EX-32.1 - Aeglea BioTherapeutics, Inc.agle-ex321_21.htm
EX-32.2 - EX-32.2 - Aeglea BioTherapeutics, Inc.agle-ex322_20.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

x

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2016

OR

o

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from      to      

Commission File Number: 001-37722

 

AEGLEA BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

Delaware

46-4312787

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

901 S. MoPac Expressway

Barton Oaks Plaza One

Suite 250

Austin, TX 78746

(Address of principal executive offices including zip code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (512) 942-2935

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes  o    No  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

o

  

Accelerated filer

 

o

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

x  (Do not check if a small reporting company)

  

Small reporting company

 

o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  o    No  x

As of May 19, 2016, the registrant had 13,411,772 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, outstanding.

 

 

 

 

 


AEGLEA BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.

QUATERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q

FOR THE QUARTER ENDED MARCH 31, 2016

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

Page No.

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

1

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Financial Statements (Unaudited)

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2016 and 2015

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2016 and 2015

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2016 and 2015

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

5

 

 

 

 

Item 2.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

16

 

 

 

 

Item 3.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

23

 

 

 

 

Item 4.

 

Controls and Procedures

23

 

 

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

24

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Legal Proceedings

24

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

24

 

 

 

 

Item 2.

 

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

54

 

 

 

 

Item 3.

 

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

54

 

 

 

 

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

54

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Other Information

54

 

 

 

 

Item 6.

 

Exhibits

55

 

 

 

 

 

 

Signatures

56

 

 

 


NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This quarterly report contains forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical fact are “forward-looking statements” for purposes of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. These forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy, market size, potential growth opportunities, clinical development activities, the timing and results of clinical trials and potential regulatory approval and commercialization of product candidates. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “potentially”, “estimate”, “continue”, “anticipate,” “predict,” “target,” “intend,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “project,” “plan,” “expect,” and similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this quarterly report. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment, and new risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this quarterly report may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. We undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this report to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations, except as required by law.

As used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the terms “Aeglea,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Aeglea BioTherapeutics, Inc. and, where appropriate, its consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context indicates otherwise.

 

 

 


PART I. – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.

Financial Statements

Aeglea BioTherapeutics, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(Unaudited)

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CURRENT ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

24,016

 

 

$

29,294

 

Marketable securities

 

 

4,970

 

 

 

3,768

 

Restricted cash

 

 

80

 

 

 

80

 

Accounts receivable - grant

 

 

1,618

 

 

 

1,697

 

Deferred offering costs

 

 

3,195

 

 

 

2,535

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

1,325

 

 

 

912

 

Total current assets

 

 

35,204

 

 

 

38,286

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

321

 

 

 

348

 

Other non-current assets

 

 

18

 

 

 

20

 

TOTAL ASSETS

 

$

35,543

 

 

$

38,654

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIABILITIES, CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK, AND STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT

 

CURRENT LIABILITIES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

509

 

 

$

176

 

Accrued and other current liabilities

 

 

3,311

 

 

 

2,347

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

3,820

 

 

 

2,523

 

Other non-current liabilities

 

 

22

 

 

 

27

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES

 

 

3,842

 

 

 

2,550

 

Commitments (Note 10 and 12)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Series A convertible preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 2,172,524 shares

   authorized as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015; 2,172,520 shares

   issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015

 

 

13,573

 

 

 

13,573

 

Series B convertible preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 5,008,210 shares

   authorized as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015; 4,999,976 shares

   issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015

 

 

44,738

 

 

 

44,738

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 25,000,000 authorized as of March 31,

   2016 and December 31, 2015; 757,336 shares issued and outstanding

   as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

1,513

 

 

 

1,373

 

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)

 

 

3

 

 

 

(1

)

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(28,126

)

 

 

(23,579

)

TOTAL STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT

 

 

(26,610

)

 

 

(22,207

)

TOTAL LIABILITIES, CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK, AND

   STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT

 

$

35,543

 

 

$

38,654

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

1


Aeglea BioTherapeutics, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations

(Unaudited)

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Revenues:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grant

 

$

859

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

3,596

 

 

$

1,622

 

General and administrative

 

 

1,830

 

 

 

847

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

5,426

 

 

 

2,469

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(4,567

)

 

 

(2,469

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other income (expense):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

 

26

 

 

 

1

 

Other expense, net

 

 

(6

)

 

 

 

Total other income (expense)

 

 

20

 

 

 

1

 

Net loss

 

$

(4,547

)

 

$

(2,468

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deemed dividend to convertible preferred stockholders

 

 

 

 

 

(228

)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

(4,547

)

 

$

(2,696

)

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

 

$

(7.10

)

 

$

(4.71

)

Weighted-average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted

 

 

640,699

 

 

 

573,172

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

2


Aeglea BioTherapeutics, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss

(Unaudited)

(in thousands)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Net loss

 

$

(4,547

)

 

$

(2,468

)

Other comprehensive income (loss):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized gain on marketable securities

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

Total comprehensive loss

 

$

(4,543

)

 

$

(2,468

)

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

3


Aeglea BioTherapeutics, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(Unaudited)

(In thousands)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(4,547

)

 

$

(2,468

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

29

 

 

 

17

 

Amortization of premium on marketable securities

 

 

8

 

 

 

 

Loss on disposal of property and equipment

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

Amortization of lease allowance liability

 

 

(6

)

 

 

(6

)

Stock-based compensation

 

 

140

 

 

 

38

 

Research and development services settled with convertible preferred stock

 

 

20

 

 

 

206

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable-grant

 

 

79

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other assets

 

 

(447

)

 

 

(180

)

Accounts payable

 

 

261

 

 

 

(18

)

Accrued and other liabilities

 

 

475

 

 

 

(74

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(3,988

)

 

 

(2,483

)

CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(2

)

 

 

(10

)

Purchases of marketable securities

 

 

(2,940

)

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from maturities of marketable securities

 

 

1,750

 

 

 

 

Increase in restricted cash

 

 

 

 

 

(10

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

(1,192

)

 

 

(20

)

CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of convertible preferred stock, net of issuance costs

 

 

 

 

 

43,678

 

Payment of deferred offering costs

 

 

(98

)

 

 

 

Net cash (used) provided by financing activities

 

 

(98

)

 

 

43,678

 

NET (DECREASE) INCREASE IN CASH

 

 

(5,278

)

 

 

41,175

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CASH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beginning of period

 

 

29,294

 

 

 

2,616

 

End of period

 

$

24,016

 

 

$

43,791

 

Supplemental Disclosure of Non-Cash Investing and Financing Information:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deemed dividend to Series A convertible preferred stockholders upon conversion

   from an LLC to corporation

 

$

 

 

$

228

 

Unpaid amounts related to purchase of property and equipment

 

$

 

 

$

64

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

 

4


Aeglea BioTherapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

 

 

1.  The Company and Basis of Presentation

Aeglea BioTherapeutics, Inc. (“Aeglea” or the “Company”) is a early-stage biotechnology company committed to developing enzyme-based therapeutics in the field of amino acid metabolism that it believes will transform the lives of patients with cancer and inborn errors of metabolism, a subset of rare genetic metabolic diseases. The Company was formed as a Limited Liability Company (LLC) in Delaware on December 16, 2013 under the name Aeglea BioTherapeutics Holdings, LLC (“Aeglea LLC”) and was converted from a Delaware LLC to a Delaware corporation (the “LLC Conversion”) on March 10, 2015.  The Company operates in one segment and has its principal offices in Austin, Texas.

Initial Public Offering

On April 6, 2016, the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-205001) relating to the initial public offering (“IPO”) of its common stock was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).  Pursuant to such Registration Statement, the Company sold an aggregate of 5,481,940 shares of its common stock, at a price to the public of $10.00 per share, including 481,940 shares of common stock issued upon the partial exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares. The Company received approximately $47.3 million in aggregate cash proceeds, net of underwriting discounts and commissions of $3.8 million and offering costs of $3.7 million incurred by the Company.

On April 12, 2016, immediately prior to the closing of the IPO, shares of outstanding convertible preferred stock were automatically converted into 7,172,496 shares of common stock with the related carrying value of $58.3 million reclassified to common stock and additional paid-in capital. The significant increase in common stock outstanding in April 2016 is expected to impact the year-over-year comparability of the Company’s net loss per share calculations. The IPO closed on April 12, 2016.

In connection with the IPO, the Company amended its Restated Certificate of Incorporation (the “Public Certificate”) to change the authorized capital stock to 510,000,000 shares of which 500,000,000 are designated as common stock and 10,000,000 shares are designated as preferred stock, all with a par value of $0.0001 per share.

Reverse Stock Split

The Company’s Board of Directors and stockholders approved a 1-for-10.5 reverse stock split of the Company’s common stock and preferred stock. The reverse stock split became effective on March 28, 2016 upon filing an amended Restated Certificate of Incorporation (the “Split Certificate”) and authorized 25,000,000 shares of common stock, 2,172,524 shares of Series A convertible preferred stock, and 5,008,210 shares of Series B convertible preferred stock, with par value $0.0001 per share for each class of stock. The Split Certificate remained in effect until closing of the IPO, at which time the company amended the Restated Certificate of Incorporation and filed the Public Certificate.

All share and per share amounts in the condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto have been retroactively adjusted for all periods presented to give effect to this reverse stock split, including reclassifying an amount equal to the reduction in par value of common stock to additional paid-in capital.

Liquidity

As of March 31, 2016, the Company had working capital of $31.4 million, an accumulated deficit of $28.1 million, and cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities of $29.0 million. Upon consummation of its IPO in April 2016, the Company received aggregate cash proceeds, net of underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses, of approximately $47.3 million. The Company has not generated any product revenues and has not achieved profitable operations. There is no assurance that profitable operations will ever be achieved, and, if achieved, could be sustained on a continuing basis. In addition, development activities, clinical and nonclinical testing, and commercialization of the Company’s products will require significant additional financing.

The Company believes that its existing cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities, in conjunction with the proceeds received in connection with its IPO, will be sufficient to enable the Company to continue as a going concern for a reasonable period of time beyond March 31, 2016. However, the Company will need to secure additional funding in the future, in order to carry out all of its planned research and development activities. If the Company is unable to obtain additional financing or generate license or product revenue, the lack of liquidity could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s future prospects.

5


Unaudited Interim Financial Information

The interim condensed consolidated financial statements included in this document are unaudited. The unaudited interim financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual financial statements and reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments of a normal and recurring nature that are necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s financial position as of March 31, 2016, and its results of operations and cash flows for the quarters ended March 31, 2016 and 2015. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2016 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2016 or for any other future annual or interim period. The December 31, 2015 balance sheet was derived from audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements included in the Company’s Prospectus dated April 6, 2016 filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) (the “Prospectus”).

 

 

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Such management estimates include those related to accruals of research and development related costs, fair values of preferred and common stock, stock-based compensation, and certain company income tax related items. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other market-specific and relevant assumptions that management believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ significantly from those estimates.

Risks and Uncertainties

The product candidates being developed by the Company require approvals from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) or foreign regulatory agencies prior to commercial sales. There can be no assurance that the Company’s product candidates will receive the necessary approvals. If the Company is denied regulatory approval of its product candidates, or if such approvals are delayed, it may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business, results of operations and its financial position.

The Company is subject to a number of risks similar to other life science companies, including, but not limited to, risks related to the successful discovery and development of product candidates, raising additional capital, development of competing drugs and therapies, protection of proprietary technology and market acceptance of the Company’s products. As a result of these and other factors and the related uncertainties, there can be no assurance of the Company’s future success.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents consist of money market funds and debt securities and are stated at fair value.

Marketable Securities

All investments have been classified as available-for-sale and are carried at estimated fair value as determined based upon quoted market prices or pricing models for similar securities. Management determines the appropriate classification of its investments in debt securities at the time of purchase and reevaluates such designation as of each balance sheet date. Unrealized gains and losses are excluded from earnings and are reported as a component of comprehensive loss. Realized gains and losses and declines in fair value judged to be other than temporary, if any, on available-for-sale securities are included in other income (expense). The cost of securities sold is based on the specific-identification method. There were no realized gains or losses on marketable securities for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015. Interest on marketable securities is included in interest income.

Restricted Cash

Restricted cash consists of a money market account held by a financial institution as collateral for the Company’s obligations under a corporate credit card agreement.

6


Concentration of Credit Risk

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to a concentration of credit risk consist of cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, and restricted cash. The Company’s investment policy limits investments to high credit quality securities issued by the U.S. government, U.S. government-sponsored agencies and highly rated banks, subject to certain concentration limits and restrictions on maturities. The Company’s cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, and restricted cash are held by financial institutions in the United States that management believes are of high credit quality. Amounts on deposit may at times exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits of cash and cash equivalents and its accounts are monitored by management to mitigate risk. The Company is exposed to credit risk in the event of default by the financial institutions holding its cash and cash equivalents and bond issuers to the extent recorded in the balance sheets.

Deferred Offering Costs

Deferred offering costs, which primarily consist of direct incremental legal, printing, and accounting fees relating to the Company’s IPO of its common stock, are capitalized. The deferred offering costs will be offset against the proceeds from the IPO and recorded in the quarter ending June 30, 2016.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Repairs and maintenance that do not extend the life or improve an asset are expensed as incurred. Upon retirement or sale, the cost of disposed assets and their related accumulated depreciation are removed from the balance sheet. Any gain or loss is credited or charged to operations.

The useful lives of the property and equipment are as follows:

 

Laboratory equipment

 

5 years

Furniture and office equipment

 

5 years

Computer equipment

 

3 years

Software

 

3 years

Leasehold improvements

 

Shorter of remaining lease term or estimated useful life

 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Long-lived assets are reviewed for indications of possible impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability is measured by comparison of the carrying amounts to the future undiscounted cash flows attributable to these assets. An impairment loss is recognized to the extent an asset group is not recoverable, and the carrying amount exceeds the projected discounted future cash flows arising from these assets. There were no impairments of long-lived assets for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015.

Accrued Research and Development Costs

The Company records the costs associated with research nonclinical studies, clinical trials, and manufacturing development as incurred. These costs are a significant component of the Company’s research and development expenses, as a substantial portion of the Company’s on-going research and development activities are conducted by third-party service providers, including contract research and manufacturing organizations.

7


The Company accrues for expenses resulting from obligations under agreements with contract research organizations (“CROs”), contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”), and other outside service providers for which payment flows do not match the periods over which materials or services are provided to the Company. Accruals are recorded based on estimates of services received and efforts expended pursuant to agreements established with CROs, CMOs, and other outside service providers. These estimates are typically based on contracted amounts applied to the proportion of work performed and determined through analysis with internal personnel and external service providers as to the progress or stage of completion of the services. The Company makes significant judgments and estimates in determining the accrual balance in each reporting period. In the event advance payments are made to a CRO, CMO, or outside service provider, the payments will be recorded as a prepaid asset which will be amortized as the contracted services are performed. As actual costs become known, the Company adjusts its accruals. Inputs, such as the services performed, the number of patients enrolled, or the study duration, may vary from the Company’s estimates, resulting in adjustments to research and development expense in future periods. Changes in these estimates that result in material changes to the Company’s accruals could materially affect the Company’s results of operations. The Company has not experienced any material deviations between accrued and actual research and development expenses.

Leases

The Company entered into a lease agreement for its office facilities. The lease is classified as an operating lease. The Company records rent expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease and, accordingly records the difference between cash rent payments and the recognition of rent expense as a deferred rent liability. Incentives granted under the Company’s facilities leases, including allowances to fund leasehold improvements, are deferred and are recognized as adjustments to rental expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Company uses fair value measurements to record fair value adjustments to certain financial and non-financial assets and liabilities and to determine fair value disclosures. The accounting standards define fair value, establish a framework for measuring fair value, and require disclosures about fair value measurements. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. When determining the fair value measurements for assets and liabilities required to be recorded at fair value, the principal or most advantageous market in which the Company would transact are considered along with assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, such as inherent risk, transfer restrictions, and risk of nonperformance.

The accounting standard for fair value establishes a fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, the first two of which are considered observable and the last unobservable, that requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. A financial instrument’s categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.

The three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value are as follows:

Level 1

Observable inputs, such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

Level 2

Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.

Level 3

Valuations based on unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology and including data about assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on the best information available under the circumstances.

Financial instruments carried at fair value include cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities. The carrying amount of accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate fair value due to their relatively short maturities.

Convertible Preferred Stock

The Company records the issuance of all convertible preferred stock net of offering costs on the dates of issuance, which represents the carrying value. The conversion feature of the convertible preferred stock is subject to certain anti-dilution provisions, which if triggered, would require the Company to seek shareholder approval to increase the number of shares of common stock authorized. In the event that the Company cannot deliver the conversion shares because it does

8


not have an adequate number of common stock authorized, the convertible preferred stock would be redeemable. Accordingly, the Company has classified the convertible preferred stock in temporary equity. The Company has not adjusted the carrying value of the convertible preferred stock to their redemption values, since it was uncertain whether or when a redemption event would occur. The convertible preferred stock outstanding was automatically converted into shares of common stock immediately prior to the completion of the IPO in April 2016 (see Note 1).

Revenue Recognition

The Company’s sole source of revenue is grant revenue related to a research grant for $19.8 million received from the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (“CPRIT”), covering a three year period from June 1, 2014 through May 31, 2017. Grant revenue is recognized when qualifying costs are incurred and there is reasonable assurance that the conditions of the award have been met for collection. Proceeds received prior to the costs being incurred are recognized as deferred revenue until the services are performed (see Note 6).

Research and Development Costs

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development costs include, but are not limited to, salaries, benefits, travel, share-based compensation, consulting costs, contract research service costs, laboratory supplies, contract manufacturing costs, and costs paid to other third parties that conduct research and development activities on the Company’s behalf. Amounts incurred in connection with license agreements are also included in research and development expense.

Certain research and development costs incurred were settled contractually by the Company issuing a variable number of the Company’s shares determined by dividing the fixed monetary amount of costs incurred by the issuance-date fair value of the issuable shares. The Company recorded research and development expense for these costs and accrued for the fixed monetary amount as an accrued liability as the services were rendered until the amount was settled. In June 2015, the remaining Company obligation to settle these costs with Company shares was converted to a cash-based payment through a contract amendment with the service provider.

Advance payments for goods or services to be rendered in the future for use in research and development activities are deferred and recorded as a prepaid asset. The deferred amounts are expensed as the related goods are delivered or the services are performed.

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company recognizes the cost of stock-based awards granted to employees based on the estimated grant-date fair values of the awards. The value of the portion of the award that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as expense ratably over the requisite service period. The Company recognizes the compensation costs for awards that vest over several years on a straight-line basis over the vesting period. The Company recognizes the cost of stock-based awards granted to nonemployees at their then-current fair values as services are performed, and are remeasured through the counterparty performance date.

Income Taxes

Effective January 1, 2015, the Company, for tax purposes, converted from a partnership to a corporation and continues to serve as a holding company for seven wholly-owned subsidiary corporations.   Beginning with the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company will file a consolidated corporate federal income tax return. The Company and its subsidiaries use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial statements and the tax bases of assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance is established against the deferred tax assets to reduce their carrying value to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized. The deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as noncurrent along with the related valuation allowance.  Due to a lack of earnings history, the net deferred tax assets have been fully offset by a valuation allowance.

The Company recognizes benefits of uncertain tax positions if it is more likely than not that such positions will be sustained upon examination based solely on the technical merits, as the largest amount of benefits that is more likely than not be realized upon the ultimate settlement. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties related to the unrecognized tax benefits as a component of income tax expense. To date, there have been no interest or penalties recognized in relation to the unrecognized tax benefits.

9


Comprehensive Loss

Comprehensive loss is the change in stockholders’ deficit from transactions and other events and circumstances other than those resulting from investments by stockholders and distributions to stockholders. The Company’s other comprehensive loss is currently comprised of changes in unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities.

Reclassification

Certain reclassifications have been made to prior period amounts to conform to current period presentation. These reclassifications did not have an impact on the Company’s results of operations or financial position as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements—Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40): Disclosure of Uncertainties About an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern, which provides guidance on the presentation of management’s plans, when conditions or events raise substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. The new standard is effective for fiscal years ending after December 15, 2016. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which establishes a comprehensive new lease accounting model. The new standard: (a) clarifies the definition of a lease; (b) requires a dual approach to lease classification similar to current lease classifications; and, (c) causes lessees to recognize leases on the balance sheet as a lease liability with a corresponding right-of-use asset for leases with a lease-term of more than twelve months. The new standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and requires modified retrospective application. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of ASU 2016-02 will have on its consolidated financial statements.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. The standard is intended to simplify several areas of accounting for share-based compensation arrangements, including the income tax impact, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, classification on the statement of cash flows and forfeitures. The standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the standard will have on its consolidated financial statements.

 

 

3.  Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities

The following tables summarize the estimated fair value of our cash equivalents and marketable securities and the gross unrealized gains and losses (in thousands):

 

 

 

March 31, 2016

 

 

 

Amortized

Cost

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Gains

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Losses

 

 

Estimated

Fair Value

 

Cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market funds

 

$

4,800

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

4,800

 

Reverse repurchase agreements

 

 

16,250

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16,250

 

Total cash equivalents

 

 

21,050

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21,050

 

Marketable securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US government and agency securities

 

 

4,967

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,970

 

Total marketable securities

 

$

4,967

 

 

$

3

 

 

$

 

 

$

4,970

 

10


 

 

 

December 31, 2015

 

 

 

Amortized

Cost

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Gains

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Losses

 

 

Estimated

Fair Value

 

Cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market funds

 

$

3,988

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

3,988

 

Reverse repurchase agreements

 

 

16,250

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16,250

 

Total cash equivalents

 

 

20,238

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20,238

 

Marketable securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US government and agency securities

 

 

3,769

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1

)

 

 

3,768

 

Total marketable securities

 

$

3,769

 

 

$

 

 

$

(1

)

 

$

3,768

 

 

All of the investments held as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 had maturities of less than one year.

As of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company held zero and five debt securities, respectively, that were in an unrealized loss position for less than one year. The aggregate fair value of debt securities in an unrealized loss position at December 31, 2015 was $2.5 million with no individual securities in a significant unrealized loss position. The Company evaluated its securities for other-than-temporary impairment and considered the decline in market value for the securities to be primarily attributable to current economic and market conditions. It is not more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the securities before recovery of the amortized cost basis, and the Company does not intend to do so prior to the recovery of the amortized cost basis. Based on this analysis, these marketable securities were not considered to be other-than-temporarily impaired as of December 31, 2015.

 

 

4.  Accrued and Other Current Liabilities

Accrued and other current liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Accrued compensation

 

$

349

 

 

$

571

 

Accrued contracted research and development costs

 

 

1,162

 

 

 

863

 

Accrued professional and consulting fees

 

 

1,750

 

 

 

863

 

Accrued other and other current liabilities

 

 

50

 

 

 

50

 

Total accrued and other current liabilities

 

$

3,311

 

 

$

2,347

 

 

 

5.  Convertible Preferred Stock

As discussed in Note 1, the reverse stock split became effective on March 28, 2016 and the Company closed its IPO on April 12, 2016. In connection with the IPO, all of the Company’s outstanding convertible preferred stock was converted into an aggregate total of 7,172,496 shares of common stock immediately prior to the closing of the IPO.

On March 10, 2015, the Company converted from a Delaware limited liability company into a Delaware corporation and changed the Company’s name from Aeglea BioTherapeutics Holdings, LLC to Aeglea BioTherapeutics, Inc. In connection with the LLC Conversion, all of the Company’s outstanding common shares and convertible preferred shares were converted into shares of common stock and convertible preferred stock. Upon the LLC Conversion, each then-outstanding Series A convertible preferred share was converted into one share of Series A convertible preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share. The Company determined that the LLC Conversion resulted in a deemed dividend from stockholders of common stock to stockholders of Series A convertible preferred stock of $0.11 per share of Series A convertible preferred stock. The Company recorded $228,000 as an increase in the carrying amount of the Series A convertible preferred stock and as a reduction of additional paid-in capital. Such dividend was determined by comparing the fair value of the Series A convertible preferred shares immediately prior to the conversion to the fair value of the Series A convertible preferred stock issued in the conversion.

Also on March 10, 2015, the Company issued 4,929,948 shares of Series B convertible preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, at an issuance price equal to $8.93 per share and received gross proceeds of $44.0 million. In connection with the financing, the Company incurred total issuance costs of $321,000.

 

11


 

6.  Grant Revenues

In June 2015, the Company entered into a Cancer Research Grant Contract (“Grant Contract”) with CPRIT, under which CPRIT awarded a grant not to exceed $19.8 million for use in developing cancer treatments by exploiting the metabolism of cancer cells. The Grant Contract covers a three year period from June 1, 2014 through May 31, 2017.

Upon commercialization of the product, the terms of the Grant Contract require the Company to pay tiered royalties in the low to mid-single digit percentages. Such royalties reduce to less than one percent after a mid-single-digit multiple of the grant funds have been paid to CPRIT in royalties.

The agreement included reimbursement for qualified expenditures incurred and recognized in 2014. Upon execution of the Grant Contract, grant revenue was recognized for the accumulated qualified expenditures paid and recognized in the period from June 1, 2014 through June 30, 2015. For the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, the Company recognized $859,000 and $0 in grant revenues, respectively, for qualified expenditures under the grant. As of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company had an outstanding grant receivable of $1.6 million and $1.7 million, respectively, for the grant expenditures that were paid but had not been reimbursed.

 

 

7.  Stock-Based Compensation

During the three months ended March 31, 2016, the Company issued an aggregate of 84,417 options to purchase common stock under its 2015 Equity Incentive Plan for an aggregate fair value of $332,000.

Total stock-based compensation recognized for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 was as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Research and development

 

$

54

 

 

$

14

 

General and administrative

 

 

86

 

 

 

24

 

Total stock-based compensation expense

 

$

140

 

 

$

38

 

 

The fair value of the stock options issued was estimated at the date of grant using a Black-Scholes option-pricing model with the following weighted-average assumptions:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31, 2016

 

Expected term

 

 

5.94

 

Expected volatility

 

 

87

%

Risk-free interest

 

 

1.26

%

Dividend yield

 

 

0

%

 

 

8.  Fair Value Measurements

The Company measures and reports certain financial instruments as assets and liabilities at fair value on a recurring basis. The following tables sets forth the fair value of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities at fair value on a recurring basis based on the three-tier fair value hierarchy (in thousands):

 

 

 

March 31, 2016

 

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

 

Total

 

Financial Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market funds

 

$

4,800

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

4,800

 

Reverse repurchase agreements

 

 

 

 

 

16,250

 

 

 

 

 

 

16,250

 

US government and agency securities

 

 

 

 

 

4,970

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,970

 

Total financial assets

 

$

4,800

 

 

$

21,220

 

 

$

 

 

$

26,020

 

12


 

 

 

December 31, 2015

 

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

 

Total

 

Financial Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market funds

 

$

3,988

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

3,988

 

Reverse repurchase agreements

 

 

 

 

 

16,250

 

 

 

 

 

 

16,250

 

US government and agency securities

 

 

 

 

 

3,768

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,768

 

Total financial assets

 

$

3,988

 

 

$

20,018

 

 

$

 

 

$

24,006

 

 

The Company measures the fair value of money market funds on quoted prices in active markets for identical asset or liabilities. The Level 2 assets include reverse repurchase agreements and U.S. government and agency securities and are valued based on quoted prices for similar assets in active markets and inputs other than quoted prices that are derived from observable market data.

The Company evaluates transfers between levels at the end of each reporting period. There were no transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 during the periods presented.

 

 

9.  Net Loss Per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders

The Company computes net loss attributable per common stockholder using the two-class method required for participating securities. The Company considers convertible preferred stock to be participating securities. In the event that the Company paid out distributions, holders of convertible preferred stock would participate in the distribution.

The two-class method is an earnings (loss) allocation method under which earnings (loss) per share is calculated for common stock and participating security considering a participating security’s rights to undistributed earnings (loss) as if all such earnings (loss) had been distributed during the period. The convertible preferred stock do not have an obligation to fund losses and are therefore excluded from the calculation of basic net loss per share. Starting in the first quarter of 2015 in connection with the LLC Conversion, the Company’s Series A and B convertible preferred stock are entitled to receive noncumulative dividends and in preference to any dividends on shares of the Company’s common stock.

Basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing net loss attributable to common stock by the weighted-average number of common stock outstanding during the period. For net loss per share attributable to common stockholders for the three months ended March 31, 2015, the effect of the LLC Conversion is presented prospectively from January 1, 2015 as none of the losses for the three months ended March 31, 2015 were allocated to the members of Aeglea LLC. For periods in which the Company generated a net loss, the Company does not include the potential impact of dilutive securities in diluted net loss per share, as the impact of these items is anti-dilutive. Additionally, the convertible preferred stock dividend is included in the loss attributable to common stockholders.

The following weighted-average equity instruments were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share because their effect would have been anti-dilutive for the periods presented:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Series A convertible preferred stock

 

 

2,172,520

 

 

 

2,172,520

 

Series B convertible preferred stock

 

 

4,999,976

 

 

 

1,205,098

 

Unvested restricted common stock

 

 

116,635

 

 

 

179,582

 

Options to purchase common stock

 

 

588,832

 

 

 

76,265

 

 

 

10.  Research and License Agreements

University Research Agreement

In December 2013, the Company entered into a research agreement with the University of Texas at Austin (the “University”). Under the terms of this research agreement, the Company will engage the University to perform certain nonclinical research activities related to the systemic depletion of amino acids for cancer therapy and enzyme replacement for the treatment of patients having inborn metabolic defects.

13


Under the research agreement, the Company was required to pay the University an annual amount not to exceed $386,000 during the one year term of the agreement from the effective date. The term and maximum expenditure limitation were subsequently extended and increased through amendments in September 2014, January 2015, August 2015, and January 2016 for a combined $1.0 million under the agreement, including the amendment in January 2016 increasing the maximum expenditure limitation by $82,000 for equipment that will be purchased by the University on behalf of the Company. The agreement expires on August 31, 2016. For the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, the Company paid $457,000 and $188,000, respectively, to the University under the research agreement.

License Agreements

In December 2013, the Company entered into two license agreements with the University. Under the terms of each license agreement, the University granted the Company an exclusive worldwide license to develop, manufacture, and commercialize therapeutics related to the University’s engineered cysteine/cystine degrading enzymes and engineered methionine degrading enzymes for use in the treatment of human diseases.

Under each license agreement, the Company paid the University an up-front fee of $10,000 in 2013 and will pay annual license fees increasing from $5,000 in 2016 to $25,000 in 2018 and thereafter. The Company may be required to make future payments of up to $6.4 million contingent upon attainment of various development and regulatory approval milestones for the licensed product in any country. The milestone payments are payable in various amounts upon the start of different phases of clinical trials, application for, and receipt of regulatory approval, with $5.0 million payable upon the receipt of regulatory approval and a $500,000 payment payable on final regulatory approval of a second indication. Additionally, upon commercial sales of the product, the Company will be required to pay to the University a single-digit royalty on net sales of the licensed products in any country or region, if such product sales are ever achieved.

 

 

11.  Related Party Transactions

The spouse of the Company’s Chief Executive Officer provides consulting services to the Company. For the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, the Company paid $129,000 and $93,000, respectively, to the spouse in consulting fees, which were recorded in Research and Development expenses. As of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company had an outstanding liability to the related party of $147,000, and $129,000, respectively.

One of the founders, a non-employee member of the Company’s Board of Directors, entered into a consulting agreement with the Company in 2014 under which the founder would receive $50,000 per year for a fixed number of hours of consulting and advisory services and receive 57,142 Common B shares (converted into 43,290 restricted stock awards and 13,852 stock options upon the LLC Conversion) with the vesting contingent on time and performance milestones being achieved. For the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, the Company paid $13,000 and $13,000, respectively, to the Founder under the consulting agreement. As of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company had no outstanding liability to the related party.

 

 

12.  Commitments and Contingencies

The Company’s lease agreement for office space commenced in January 2015 and expires three years after the commencement date.

Under the terms of the office lease agreement, the Company provided the lessor with a $54,000 security deposit. The lessor shall be entitled to retain all or any part of the security deposit for payment in the event of any uncured default by the Company under the terms of the lease. Provided that the Company is not in default under the lease beyond any applicable cure period, the security deposit requirement shall be reduced by $18,000 each year and returned to the Company.

For the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, the Company incurred $35,000 and $35,000, respectively, in rent expense under noncancellable operating leases.

14


Indemnification

The Company indemnifies each of its officers and directors for certain events or occurrences, subject to certain limits, while the officer or director is or was serving at the Company’s request in such capacity, as permitted under Delaware law and in accordance with its certificate of incorporation and subsidiaries’ certificates of incorporation and bylaws. The term of the indemnification period lasts as long as an officer or a director may be subject to any proceeding arising out of acts or omissions of such officer or director in such capacity. The maximum amount of potential future indemnification is unlimited; however, the Company currently holds director and officer liability insurance. This insurance allows the transfer of risk associated with the Company’s exposure and may enable it to recover a portion of any future amounts paid. The Company believes that the fair value of these indemnification obligations is minimal. Accordingly, it has not recognized any liabilities relating to these obligations for any period presented.

 

 

13.  Subsequent Events

For its interim financial statements as of March 31, 2016 and for the three months then ended, the Company evaluated subsequent events through the date of issuance.

Initial Public Offering

On April 12, 2016, the Company closed its IPO of 5,481,940 shares of its common stock for aggregate net proceeds of approximately $47.3 million, as described in Note 1.

2016 Equity Incentive Plan

On the day preceding the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, April 5, 2016, the 2016 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2016 Plan”) became effective and serves as the successor to the 2015 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2015 Plan”).  The 2016 Plan authorizes for the award of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, restricted stock units, performance awards, and stock bonuses.  The number of shares of common stock reserved for issuance under the 2016 Plan is equal to the sum of (1) 1,100,000 shares plus (2) the sum of the number of shares of common stock reserved but not issued under the 2015 Plan and the number of shares of common stock subject to outstanding awards under the 2015 Plan, that expire, terminate or are otherwise surrendered, cancelled, forfeited or repurchased by the Company at their original issuance price plus (3) an annual increase, to be added on the first day of each fiscal year, beginning with January 1, 2017 and continuing through 2023, equal to the lesser of (i) 4% of the outstanding shares of common stock as of the immediately preceding December 31 or (ii) an amount determined by the Company’s board of directors. The Company will grant no further stock option or other awards under the 2015 Plan.

2016 Employee Stock Purchase Plan

The 2016 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “2016 ESPP”) became effective upon completion of the initial public offering and reserved 165,000 shares of common stock for issuance.  The purchase price for shares of common stock purchased under the 2016 ESPP will be 85% of the lesser of the fair market value of common stock on (i) the first trading day of the applicable offering period and (ii) the last trading day of the each purchase period in the applicable offering period.  No participant will have the right to purchase shares in an amount, when aggregated with purchase rights under all employee stock purchase plans that are also in effect in the same year(s) that has a fair market value of more than $50,000.  In addition, no participant will be permitted to purchase more than 2,000 shares during any one purchase period or a lesser amount determined by the board of directors. The 2016 ESPP will terminate ten years from the first purchase date under the plan, unless terminated earlier by the board of directors.

 

 

15


Item 2.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report as well as the audited consolidated financial statements and notes and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, included in our Prospectus dated April 6, 2016 filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4), which we refer to as the “Prospectus”. This discussion and other parts of this Quarterly Report contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, such as statements of our plans, objectives, expectations and intentions. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the section of this report entitled “Risk Factors.”

Overview

We are a biotechnology company committed to developing enzyme-based therapeutics in the field of amino acid metabolism that we believe will transform the lives of patients with inborn errors of metabolism and cancer. Our engineered human enzymes are designed to reduce the level of specific amino acids in the blood. In inborn errors of metabolism, or IEM, a subset of rare genetic metabolic diseases, we are seeking to reduce the toxic levels of amino acids in patients. In oncology, we are seeking to reduce amino acid blood levels below the normal range where we believe we will be able to exploit the dependence of certain cancers on specific amino acids.

Our lead product candidate, AEB1102, is engineered to degrade the amino acid arginine and is being developed to treat two extremes of arginine metabolism, including arginine excess in patients with Arginase I deficiency, an IEM, as well as some cancers which have shown to have a metabolic dependence on arginine. AEB1102 has demonstrated the ability to reduce blood arginine levels in nonclinical and clinical studies supporting its use as a potential treatment of both Arginase I deficiency and those cancers predicted to be dependent on arginine for survival.

Since inception, we have devoted substantially all of our efforts and resources to identifying and developing product candidates, conducting nonclinical studies, initiating and conducting clinical trials, recruiting personnel and raising capital. To date, we have financed our operations primarily through private placements of our preferred stock, the initial public offering, or IPO, of our common stock, completed on April 12, 2016, and collection of a research grant. We have no recorded revenue from product sales and all of our revenue to date has been grant revenue. Since our inception, and through March 31, 2016, we have raised an aggregate of $54.7 million to fund our operations through sale and issuance of convertible preferred and common equity securities and collected of $5.3 million in grant proceeds.

As of March 31, 2016, we had cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities of $29.0 million. In April 2016, we completed our IPO and sold 5,481,940 shares of common stock for aggregate proceeds of approximately $47.3 million net of underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses.

We have incurred net losses in each year since inception. Our net losses were $4.5 million and $2.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, and have resulted from costs incurred in connection with our research and development programs and from general and administrative expenses associated with our operations. As of March 31, 2016, we had an accumulated deficit of $28.1 million. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses over the next several years. Our net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and from year to year. We anticipate that our expenses will increase significantly as we continue our clinical and diagnostic development activities for our lead product candidate, AEB1102; concurrently develop our pipeline product candidates; expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio; and hire additional personnel. In addition, we expect to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company.

Recent Developments

On April 12, 2016, we closed an IPO of our common stock, which resulted in the sale of 5,481,940 shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $10.00 per share, before underwriting discounts and commissions, including 481,940 shares of common stock issued upon the partial exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares. We received net proceeds from the IPO of approximately $47.3 million after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions, and offering expenses.

16


In March 2016, our investigational new drug application (IND) for AEB1102 for the treatment of patients with hematological malignancies was declared effective by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In the first half of 2016, we intend to initiate a Phase 1 dose escalation study in patients with relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) to assess the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of AEB1102. In April 2016, our clinical trial application (CTA) for AEB1102 for the treatment of patients with hematological malignancies was declared effective by Health Canada, which will enable us to use clinical sites in Canada for this trial.

In January 2016, our IND application for AEB1102 for the treatment of Arginase I deficiency, a urea cycle disorder that results in elevated levels of the amino acid arginine was declared effective by the FDA. In the first half of 2016, we intend to initiate a Phase 1 dose escalation study designed to assess the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of AEB1102 in patients with this IEM.

Components of Operating Results

Revenue

To date, we have recognized revenue solely from a research grant from the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, or CPRIT, and have not generated any revenue from the sale of any of our product candidates. Our ability to generate product revenues, which we do not expect will occur for several years, if ever, will depend heavily on the successful development, regulatory approval and eventual commercialization of our product candidates.

In June 2015, we entered into a grant agreement with CPRIT for $19.8 million covering a three year period from June 1, 2014 through May 31, 2017. The grant allows us to receive funds in advance of costs and allowable expenses being incurred. We record the revenue as qualifying costs are incurred and there is reasonable assurance that the conditions of the award have been met for collection. Proceeds received prior to the costs being incurred are recognized as deferred revenue until the services are performed.

On a quarterly basis, we are required to submit a financial reporting package outlining the nature and extent of reimbursable costs paid and requesting reimbursement under the grant. At the end of each period, expenses paid prior to reimbursement result in the recognition of a grant receivable.

Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for the discovery and development of our product candidates, most notably, our lead product candidate AEB1102. Since we currently do not have internal laboratory or manufacturing capabilities, we contract with external providers for nonclinical studies, clinical trials and manufacturing services. Our research and development costs include:

 

§

costs from acquiring clinical trial materials and services performed for contracted services with our strategic manufacturing partner;

 

§

fees paid to clinical trial sites, clinical research organizations, contract research organizations, contract manufacturing organizations, nonclinical research companies, and academic institutions;

 

§

employee and consultant-related expenses incurred, which include salaries, benefits, travel and share-based compensation; and

 

§

expenses incurred under license agreements with third parties.

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Advance payments for goods or services to be rendered in the future for use in research and development activities are deferred and capitalized. The capitalized amounts are expensed as the related goods are delivered or the services are performed.

Research and development costs have historically represented the largest component of our total operating expenses. We plan to increase our research and development expenses for the foreseeable future as we continue the development of our product candidates.

17


Our expenditures on current and future nonclinical and clinical development programs are subject to numerous uncertainties in timing and cost to completion. The duration, costs, and timing of clinical trials and development of our product candidates will depend on a variety of factors, including:

 

§

the scope, rate of progress, and expenses of our ongoing research activities as well as any additional clinical trials and other research and development activities;

 

§

future clinical trial results;

 

§

uncertainties in clinical trial enrollment rates or drop-out or discontinuation rates of patients;

 

§

potential safety monitoring or other studies requested by regulatory agencies;

 

§

significant and changing government regulation; and

 

§

the timing and receipt of regulatory approvals, if any.

The process of conducting the necessary clinical research to obtain FDA and other regulatory approval is costly and time consuming and the successful development of our product candidates is highly uncertain. The risks and uncertainties associated with our research and development projects are discussed more fully in Part II, Item 1A of this Quarterly Report titled “Risk Factors.” As a result of these risks and uncertainties, we are unable to determine with any degree of certainty the duration and completion costs of our research and development projects, or if, when, or to what extent we will generate revenues from the commercialization and sale of any of our product candidates that obtain regulatory approval. We may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for any of our product candidates.

General and administrative expenses

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other related costs, including stock-based compensation, for personnel in executive, finance, accounting, and human resources functions. Other significant costs include legal fees relating corporate matters and fees for accounting and consulting services.

We expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future to support our continued research and development activities, potential commercialization of our product candidates and the increased costs of operating as a public company. These increases will likely include increased costs related to the hiring of additional personnel and fees to outside consultants, lawyers and accountants, among other expenses. Additionally, we expect to incur increased costs associated with being a public company, including expenses related to services associated with maintaining compliance with NASDAQ listing rules and SEC requirements, insurance and investor relations costs.

Interest income

Interest income consists of interest earned on our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities.

Income taxes

Since inception in December 2013, through March 10, 2015, we were a Delaware LLC and elected to file as a partnership for federal and state income tax purposes through the year ended December 31, 2014. On March 10, 2015, we converted from a Delaware LLC to a Delaware corporation, and will file a corporate income tax return for the year ended December 31, 2015. For tax purposes, we elected to be treated as a corporation under Subchapter C of Chapter 1 of the United States Internal Revenue Code, effective January 1, 2015. We therefore, were subject to federal and state tax expense beginning January 1, 2015.

We serve as a holding company for our seven wholly-owned subsidiary corporations.  For the year ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, we and our seven wholly-owned subsidiaries will file a consolidated corporate federal income tax return. We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial statements and the tax bases of assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance is established against the deferred tax assets to reduce their carrying value to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized. The deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as noncurrent along with the related valuation allowance. Due to our lack of earnings history, the net deferred tax assets have been fully offset by a valuation allowance.

18


We recognize benefits of uncertain tax positions if it is more likely than not that such positions will be sustained upon examination based solely on the technical merits, as the largest amount of benefits that is more likely than not to be realized upon the ultimate settlement. Our policy is to recognize interest and penalties related to the unrecognized tax benefits as a component of income tax expense. To date, there have been no interest or penalties recognized in relation to the unrecognized tax benefits.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). The preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, costs and expenses, and related disclosures. These estimates form the basis for judgments we make about the carrying values of our assets and liabilities, which are not readily apparent from other sources. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and assumptions. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

Our critical accounting policies are those policies which require the most significant judgments and estimates in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. We believe that the assumptions and estimates associated that our most critical accounting policies are those relating to accrued research and development costs and stock-based compensation.

There have been no significant changes in our critical accounting policies and estimates as compared to the critical accounting policies and estimates disclosed in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Operations included in our Prospectus dated April 6, 2016 filed with the SEC, except for the determination of the fair value of our common stock, which was used in estimating the fair value of stock-based awards at grant date. Prior to IPO, our stock was not publicly traded, therefore we estimated the fair value of our common stock as discussed in the Prospectus. Following our IPO, we established a policy, using the closing sale price per share of our common stock as quoted on the NASDAQ Global Market on the date of grant for purposes of determining the exercise price per share of our share-based awards to purchase common stock.

Results of Operations

Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2016 and 2015

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, together with the changes in those items in dollars and as a percentage:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

Dollar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

Change

 

 

% Change

 

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grant

 

$

859

 

 

$

 

 

$

859

 

 

*

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

3,596

 

 

$

1,622

 

 

$

1,974

 

 

 

122

%

General and administrative

 

 

1,830

 

 

 

847

 

 

 

983

 

 

 

116

%

Total operating expenses

 

 

5,426

 

 

 

2,469

 

 

 

2,957

 

 

 

120

%

Loss from operations

 

 

(4,567

)

 

 

(2,469

)

 

 

(2,098

)

 

 

85

%

Interest income

 

 

26

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

25

 

 

*

 

Other expense, net

 

 

(6

)

 

 

 

 

 

(6

)

 

*

 

Net loss

 

$

(4,547

)

 

$

(2,468

)

 

$

(2,079

)

 

 

84

%

 

*

Percentage not meaningful

Grant Revenues.  We recorded grant revenue of $859,000 and $0 for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. The CPRIT grant agreement was executed in June 2015 and was not in effect during the three months ended March 31, 2015.

19


Research and Development Expenses.  Research and development expenses increased by $2.0 million to $3.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016 from $1.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2015, an increase of 122%. Included in the research and development expenses are costs directly associated with our lead product candidate AEB1102, which increased to $2.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016 from $0.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2015. The increase in research and development expenses was primarily due to:

 

§

Higher nonclinical expenses, which increased by $0.9 million as a result of increased toxicology study costs in preparation for multi-dose clinical trials related to AEB1102 and additional research with the University of Texas at Austin;

 

§

Higher personnel-related expenses, which increased by $0.5 million as a result of increased headcount to expand our internal regulatory and development capabilities and for the initiation of clinical trials for AEB1102 in patients with advanced solid tumors;

 

§

Higher clinical development expenses, which increased by $0.6 million primarily as a result of initiating our Phase 1 dose escalation trial in patients with advanced solid tumors for AEB1102 in the second half of 2015 and preparing for our Phase 1 clinical trials for patients with hematological malignancies and Arginase I deficiency in the first quarter of 2016;

General and Administrative Expenses.    General and administrative expenses increased by $1.0 million to $1.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016 from $0.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2015, an increase of 116%. The increase in general and administrative expenses was primarily due to an increase of $0.3 million in employee compensation, recruiting, and travel expenses and $0.7 million in professional services, audit and legal fees associated with preparing to be a public company and the development of administrative functions.

Interest Income.    Interest income consists of interest earned on our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities. The increase in interest income to $26,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2016 from $1,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2015 was primarily due to funds invested from closing the Series B convertible preferred stock financing in March 2015 and purchased cash equivalents and marketable securities in September 2015.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Sources of liquidity

We are an early stage biotechnology company with a limited operating history, and due to our significant research and development expenditures, we have generated operating losses since our inception and have not generated any revenue from the sale of any products. Since our inception and through March 31, 2016, we have funded our operations by raising an aggregate of $54.7 million of gross proceeds from the sale and issuance of convertible preferred and common equity securities and collected $5.3 million in grant proceeds. Additionally, we entered into an agreement with our strategic manufacturing partner in 2013 to provide convertible preferred shares in exchange for services performed, with the obligation fully satisfied in June 2015.

In April 2016, we completed an IPO and sold 5,481,940 shares of common stock for aggregate proceeds of $47.3 million net of underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses. Since we completed our IPO in April 2016, such proceeds are not reflected in our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities as of March 31, 2016.

In June 2015, we entered into a Cancer Research Grant Contract with CPRIT, or the Grant Contract, under which we expect to generate up to $19.8 million in grant funding to fund our development of AEB1102. Through March 31, 2016, we have collected $5.3 million in grant proceeds with $14.5 million available for future collection under the grant contract.  As of March 31, 2016, we have a grant receivable outstanding of $1.6 million.

Our primary use of cash is to fund the development of our lead product candidate, AEB1102. This includes both the research and development costs and the general and administrative expenses required to support those operations. Since we are an early stage company, we have incurred significant operating losses since our inception and we anticipate such losses, in absolute dollar terms, to increase as we continue our clinical trials in AEB1102 and expand our development efforts in our pipeline of nonclinical candidates.

As of March 31, 2016, we had available cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities of $29.0 million. We believe that we have sufficient resources to fund our operations through March 31, 2018 with our existing cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities in conjunction with the proceeds received from our IPO.

20


Future funding requirements and operational plan

Our operational plan for the current and upcoming fiscal years ending December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2017, respectively, is to commence and continue clinical trials for our lead product candidate AEB1102 in three separate indications, solid tumor, hematological malignancy, and Arginase I deficiency, and to expand development for at least one additional product candidate. As such, we plan to increase our research and development expenditures for the foreseeable future with nonclinical studies, clinical trials, manufacturing and an integrated biomarker strategy. We expect our principal expenditures during this time period to include expenses for the following:

 

§

funding the continuing development of AEB1102;

 

§

funding the advancement of additional product candidates; and

 

§

funding working capital, including general operating expenses.

We anticipate that we will continue to generate losses into the foreseeable future as we develop our lead product candidates, seek regulatory approval of those candidates and begin to commercialize any approved products. Until such time as we can generate substantial product revenue, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity or debt financings, research grants, collaborations, or other sources. We currently have no debt or debt facility or additional committed capital. To the extent that we raise additional equity, the ownership interest of our shareholders will be diluted.

Due to our significant research and development expenditures, we have generated substantial losses in each period since inception. We have incurred an accumulated deficit of $28.1 million through March 31, 2016. We expect to incur substantial losses in the future as we expand our research and development capabilities. Based on those plans, we expect that the net proceeds from the IPO, together with our existing cash, cash equivalent, and marketable securities will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 24 months. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be incorrect, however, and we could use our capital resources sooner than we expect.

Cash flows

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

$

(3,988

)

 

$

(2,483

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

(1,192

)

 

 

(20

)

Net cash (used) provided by financing activities

 

 

(98

)

 

 

43,678

 

Net (decrease) increase in cash

 

$

(5,278

)

 

$

41,175

 

 

Cash used in operating activities

Cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2016 was $4.0 million and reflected a net loss of $4.5 million.  Our net loss was offset in part by non-cash expenses of $0.1 million for stock-based compensation. The change in operating assets and liabilities was primarily due to an increase in accounts payables of $0.3 million and accrued and other liabilities of $0.5 million driven by an increase in accrued research and development costs, offset by a $0.4 million increase in prepaid expenses and other assets driven by an increase in sponsored research and prepaid research and development costs.

Cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2015 was $2.5 million and reflected a net loss of $2.5 million. Included in the change in operating cash were offsetting changes from non-cash expenses of $0.2 million for services performed by our strategic manufacturing partner for previously issued convertible preferred stock and an increase of $0.2 million in prepaid expenses and other assets driven by an increase in sponsored research and deferred offering costs.

Cash used in investing activities

Cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2016 was $1.2 million and consisted of $3.0 million in purchases of marketable securities offset by $1.8 million in maturities of marketable securities.

21


Cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2015 was $20,000 and consisted of $10,000 in purchases of property and equipment and a $10,000 increase in restricted cash.

Cash provided by financing activities

Cash used in financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2016 was $0.1 million from offering cost payments related to our IPO of our common stock.

Cash provided by financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2015 was $43.7 million resulting from the $44.0 million closing of the Series B financing in March 2015, offset by $0.3 million in Series B issuance costs.

Contractual Obligations

In November 2014, we entered into an operating lease agreement to occupy office space in Austin, TX.  The lease commenced in January 2015 and will continue through December 2017.  The total of the estimated rent payments over the term of the lease are approximately $419,000.

In January 2016, we amended our research agreement with the University of Texas at Austin to increase the maximum limitation of funding by $82,000 for additional purchases with no increase in the term of the agreement.  The effective agreement as of March 31, 2016 expires on August 31, 2016 with no remaining payment obligations.

Contingent contractual obligations

The terms of the CPRIT Grant Contract require that we pay tiered royalties in the low- to mid-single digit percentages on revenues from sales and license or products or services that are based upon, utilize, are developed from or materially incorporate the intellectual property resulting from the grant-funded activities for AEB1102.  Such royalties reduce to less than one percent after a mid-single digit multiple of the grant funds have been repaid to CPRIT in royalties. Such royalties are payable for so long as we have marketing exclusivity or patents covering the applicable product or service (or twelve years from commercial sale of product or service in certain countries if there is no such exclusivity or patent protection).

On December 24, 2013, two of our wholly owned subsidiaries, AECase, Inc. (AECase) and AEMase, Inc. (AEMase) entered into license agreements with the University of Texas at Austin (the University) under which the University has granted to AECase and AEMase exclusive, worldwide, sublicenseable licenses. The University granted the AECase license under a patent application relating to the right to use technology related to our AEB3103 product candidate. The University granted the AEMase license under a patent relating to the right to use technology related to our AEB2109 product candidate.

The licenses have substantially identical terms. With respect to each product candidate covered by a license with the University, AECase or AEMase could be required to pay the University up to $6.4 million milestone payments based on the achievement of certain development milestones, including clinical trials and regulatory approvals, the majority of which are due upon the achievement of later development milestones, including a $5.0 million payment due on regulatory approval of a product and a $500,000 payment payable on final regulatory approval of a product for a second indication. AECase and AEMase are also required to pay an annual license fee, ranging from $5,000 to $25,000. In addition, AECase and AEMase will pay the University a low single digit royalty on worldwide-net sales of products covered under each license agreement, together with a revenue share on non-royalty consideration received from sublicensees. The rate of the revenue share depends on the date the sublicense agreement is signed. The rate is 30% for agreements signed in 2014, 25% for agreements signed in 2015, 20% for agreements signed in 2016, 15% for agreements signed in 2017 and 6.5% for agreements signed in 2018 and thereafter. The University may terminate the agreement for breach by AECase or AEMase that is not cured within 30 or 60 days of notice (depending on the type of breach) and three or more financial breaches in any nine month period which, even if cured, were not cured within 30 days of notice, or if AECase or AEMase or any of their respective affiliates or sublicensees participates in any proceeding to challenge the licensed patent rights (unless, with respect to sublicensees, AECase or AEMase terminates the applicable sublicense).

Off Balance Sheet Arrangements

We do not have any off balance sheet arrangements, as defined by applicable SEC regulations.

22


Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements—Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40): Disclosure of uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to continue as a Going Concern, which provides guidance on the presentation of management’s plans, when conditions or events raise substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. The new standard is effective for fiscal years ending after December 15, 2016. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which establishes a comprehensive new lease accounting model. The new standard: (a) clarifies the definition of a lease; (b) requires a dual approach to lease classification similar to current lease classifications; and, (c) causes lessees to recognize leases on the balance sheet as a lease liability with a corresponding right-of-use asset for leases with a lease-term of more than twelve months. The new standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and requires modified retrospective application. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of ASU 2016-02 will have on our consolidated financial statements.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. The standard is intended to simplify several areas of accounting for share-based compensation arrangements, including the income tax impact, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, classification on the statement of cash flows and forfeitures. The standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact that the standard will have on our consolidated financial statements.

 

 

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business.  These risks primarily include interest rate sensitivities.

As of March 31, 2016, we held $29.0 million in cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities, all of which was denominated in U.S. dollar assets, and consisting primarily of investments in reverse repurchase agreements and U.S government and agency securities.

Our primary exposure to market risk is interest rate sensitivity, which is affected by changes in the general level of U.S. interest rates, particularly because our investments are in short-term marketable securities. Our marketable securities are subject to interest rate risk and could fall in value if market interest rates increase. Due to the short-term duration of our investment portfolio and the low risk profile of our investments, an immediate 10% change in interest rates would not have a material effect on the fair market value of our investment portfolio. We have the ability to hold our marketable securities until maturity, and therefore we would not expect our operating results or cash flows to be affected to any significant degree by the effect of a change in market interest rates on our investments.

 

 

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures.

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Our management, with the participation of our principal executive officer and our principal financial officer, evaluated, as of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures. Based on that evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2016, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures as of such date are effective at the reasonable assurance level. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act are recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives and our management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures.

23


Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There have been no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during our first fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2016 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

 

 

PART II. – OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

From time to time, we may become involved in legal proceedings relating to claims arising from the ordinary course of business. Our management believes that there are currently no claims or actions pending against us, the ultimate disposition of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

 

 

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” before investing in our common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that affect us. If any of the following risks occur, our business, operating results and prospects could be materially harmed. In that event, the price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Our limited operating history may make it difficult for you to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.

We are an early-stage biotechnology company. We began operations as a limited liability company in December 2013 and converted to a Delaware corporation in March 2015. Our operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, acquiring and developing our technology, identifying potential product candidates, undertaking nonclinical studies, and preparing for and commencing clinical trials of our most advanced product candidate, AEB1102.

We have not yet demonstrated our ability to successfully complete any clinical trials, including large-scale, pivotal clinical trials, obtain marketing approvals, manufacture a commercial scale product or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. Products, on average, take ten to 15 years to be developed from the time they are discovered to the time they are approved and available for treating patients. Although we have recruited a team that has experience with clinical trials, as a company we have no experience in conducting clinical trials. In part because of this lack of experience, we cannot be certain that planned clinical trials will begin or be completed on time, if at all. Consequently, any predictions you make about our future success or viability based on our short operating history to date may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history or an established track record in commercializing products or conducting clinical trials.

In addition, as a new business, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known and unknown factors. We will need to transition from a company with a research focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities. We may not be successful in such a transition.

We have no source of product revenue and we have incurred significant losses since inception. We expect to incur losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

We are an early-stage biotechnology company with a limited operating history. We have no approved products and have only recently begun clinical development of AEB1102. Our ability to generate revenue and become profitable depends upon our ability to successfully complete the development of any of our product candidates, including AEB1102, for any of our target indications and to obtain necessary regulatory approvals. To date, we have recognized revenue solely from a government grant and have not generated any product revenue. Even if we receive regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, we do not know when these product candidates will generate revenue for us, if at all.

24


In addition, since inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. Our net loss was $4.5 million and $2.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. As of March 31, 2016, we had an accumulated deficit of $28.1 million. We have financed our operations primarily through private placements of our preferred stock, the initial public offering, or IPO, of our common stock, closed on April 12, 2016, and collection of a research grant. We have devoted substantially all of our efforts to research and development. We have only very recently initiated clinical development for AEB1102 for oncology and have not initiated clinical development of our other product candidates and expect that it will be many years, if ever, before we have a product candidate ready for commercialization. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future, and the net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially if and as we:

 

§

continue our research, nonclinical and clinical development of our product candidates;

 

§

seek to identify additional product candidates;

 

§

conduct additional nonclinical studies and initiate clinical trials for our product candidates;

 

§

seek marketing approvals for any of our product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials, including pivotal trials;

 

§

ultimately establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any product candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval;

 

§

maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;

 

§

hire additional executive, clinical, quality control and scientific personnel;

 

§

add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our product development; and

 

§

acquire or in-license other product candidates and technologies.

We are unable to predict the timing or amount of increased expenses, or when, or if, we will be able to achieve or maintain profitability because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with product development. In addition, our expenses could increase significantly beyond expectations if we are required by the FDA, EMA, MHRA or other relevant regulatory authorities to perform studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate. Even if AEB1102, or any of our other product candidates, is approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with the commercial launch of any product candidate.

To become and remain profitable, we must develop and eventually commercialize a product candidate or product candidates with significant market potential. This will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including completing nonclinical testing, initiating and completing clinical trials of one or more of our product candidates, obtaining marketing approval for these product candidates, manufacturing, marketing and selling those product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval and satisfying any post-marketing requirements. We may never succeed in these activities and, even if we do, we may never generate revenues that are significant or large enough to achieve profitability. We are currently only in the nonclinical development stages for most of our product candidates, and have only very recently initiated clinical development for AEB1102. If we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of the company and could impair our ability to raise capital, maintain or expand our research and development efforts, expand our business or continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company would also cause you to lose part or even all of your investment.

We may not be successful in advancing the clinical development of our product candidates, including AEB1102.

In order to execute on our strategy of advancing the clinical development of our product candidates, we have designed our Phase 1 and Phase 2 trials of AEB1102 in the United States and Europe, respectively, for the treatment of Arginase I deficiency and our ongoing Phase 1 trial in the United States for the treatment of patients with solid tumors. We have designed our planned Phase 1 trial of AEB1102 for the treatment of hematological malignancies and the expansion portion of our planned Phase 1 trial of AEB1102 for the treatment of tumors predicted to be dependent on arginine based on our biomarker studies in archival tumor samples and in patient-derived xenograft efficacy studies, or studies involving the growth of tissue or cells from one species in a different species. If our product candidate fails to work as we expect, our ability to assess the therapeutic effect, seek regulatory approval or otherwise begin or further clinical development, could be compromised. This may result in longer development times, larger trials and a greater likelihood of not obtaining regulatory approval.

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In addition, as we pursue oncology-related applications of our product candidates, because the natural history of different tumor types is variable, we will need to study our product candidates, including AEB1102, in clinical trials specific for a given tumor type and this may result in increased time and cost. Even if our product candidate demonstrates efficacy in a particular tumor type, we cannot guarantee that any product candidate, including AEB1102, will behave similarly in all tumor types, and we will be required to obtain separate regulatory approvals for each tumor type we intend a product candidate to treat. If any of our planned clinical trials are unsuccessful, our business will suffer.

We or third parties may not be successful in developing companion diagnostic assays for our product candidates.

In developing a product candidate, we expect that if we use a biomarker-based test to identify and only enroll patients in clinical trials with tumors that express the biomarker, the FDA will require the development and regulatory approval of a companion diagnostic assay as a condition to approval of the product candidate. We do not have experience or capabilities in developing or commercializing these companion diagnostics and plan to rely in large part on third parties to perform these functions. Companion diagnostic assays are subject to regulation by the FDA as medical devices and require separate regulatory approval prior to the use of such diagnostic assays with a therapeutic product candidate. If we, or any third parties that we engage to assist us, are unable to successfully develop companion diagnostic assays for use with our product candidates, or experience delays in development, we may be unable to identify patients with the specific profile targeted by our product candidates for enrollment in our clinical trials. Accordingly, further investment may be required to further develop or obtain the required regulatory approval for the relevant companion diagnostic assay, which would delay or substantially impact our ability to conduct further clinical trials or obtain regulatory approval. In addition, if a companion diagnostic is necessary for any of our product candidates, the delay or failure to obtain regulatory approval of the companion diagnostic would delay or prevent the approval of the therapeutic product candidate. EMA, MHRA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may also require the development and regulatory approval of a companion diagnostic assay as a condition to approval of the product candidate.

We will need substantial additional funding. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we would be compelled to delay, reduce or eliminate our product development programs or commercialization efforts.

We expect our expenses to increase in parallel with our ongoing activities, particularly as we continue our discovery and nonclinical development to identify new clinical candidates and initiate and continue clinical trials of, and seek marketing approval for, our product candidates. In addition, if we obtain marketing approval for any of our product candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution. Furthermore, we expect to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on attractive terms, we would be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our discovery and nonclinical development programs or any future clinical development or commercialization efforts.

Based upon our planned use of the net proceeds, we estimate such funds will be sufficient for us to fund the planned Phase 1 trial in the United States, the planned Phase 2 trial in Europe for the treatment of patients with Arginase I deficiency, and to continue to fund our Phase 1 trial for AEB1102 for the treatment of patients with solid tumors and initiate two other planned Phase 1 trials for AEB1102 for the treatment of cancer patients in the United States. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:

 

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the costs associated with the scope, progress and results of compound discovery, nonclinical development, laboratory testing and clinical trials for our product candidates;

 

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the costs related to the extent to which we enter into partnerships or other arrangements with third parties in order to further develop our product candidates;

 

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the costs and fees associated with the discovery, acquisition or in-license of product candidates or technologies;

 

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our ability to establish collaborations on favorable terms, if at all;

 

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the costs of future commercialization activities, if any, including product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution, for any of our product candidates for which we receive marketing approval;

 

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revenue, if any, received from commercial sales of our product candidates, should any of our product candidates receive marketing approval; and

 

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the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending intellectual property-related claims.

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Our product candidates, if approved, may not achieve commercial success. Our commercial revenues, if any, will be derived from sales of product candidates that we do not expect to be commercially available for many years, if at all. Accordingly, we will continue to rely on additional financing to achieve our business objectives, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.

Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity or equity-linked offerings, debt financings, grants from research organizations and license and collaboration agreements. We do not have any committed external source of funds. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may rank senior to our common stock and include liquidation or other preferences, covenants or other terms that adversely affect your rights as a common stockholder. Debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends.

If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us and/or that may reduce the value of our common stock.

We depend heavily on the success of our most advanced product candidate, AEB1102. All of our product candidates, other than AEB1102, are still in nonclinical development or nonclinical testing, and for AEB1102, the very early stages of clinical development. Future clinical trials of our product candidates may not be successful. If we are unable to commercialize our product candidates or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.

We have invested a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources in the nonclinical development and testing of our most advanced product candidate, AEB1102, for the treatment of patients with Arginase I deficiency and cancer patients with solid tumors and hematological malignancies that are dependent on arginine. Our ability to generate product revenues, which we do not expect will occur for many years, if ever, will depend heavily on the successful development and eventual commercialization of AEB1102. The success of AEB1102 and our other product candidates will depend on many factors, including the following:

 

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successful enrollment of patients in, and the completion of, our planned clinical trials;

 

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receiving marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;

 

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establishing commercial manufacturing capabilities or making arrangements with third-party manufacturers;

 

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obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and non-patent exclusivity for our product candidates and their components;

 

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enforcing and defending intellectual property rights and claims;

 

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achieving desirable therapeutic properties for our product candidates’ intended indications;

 

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launching commercial sales of our product candidates, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with third parties;

 

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acceptance of our product candidates, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;

 

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effectively competing with other therapies; and

 

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maintaining an acceptable safety profile of our product candidates through clinical trials and following regulatory approval.

If we do not achieve one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully commercialize our product candidates, which would materially harm our business.

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Clinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome. We may experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of any of our product candidates.

We have only recently initiated clinical trials of our lead product candidate AEB1102, and the risk of failure for all of our product candidates is high. Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of any product candidate, we must complete nonclinical development and then conduct extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidates in humans for the respective target indications. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process, and we have yet to commence any clinical trial for any of our product candidates, other than AEB1102 for the treatment of patients with solid tumors. Further, the results of nonclinical studies and future early clinical trials of our product candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials that will likely differ in design and size from early-stage clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. For example, for AEB1102 for the treatment of patients with solid tumors, we have only recently treated our first patients, and while we have observed a temporary reduction in blood arginine, this data may not necessarily be predictive of the final results of all patients intended to be enrolled in this Phase 1 trial or in future trials. Moreover, nonclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in nonclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval of their products. It is impossible to predict when or if any of our product candidates will prove effective or safe in humans or will receive regulatory approval.

We may experience delays in our planned clinical trials and we do not know whether planned clinical trials will begin or enroll subjects on time, whether they will need to be redesigned or whether they will be able to be completed on schedule, if at all. There can be no assurance that the FDA, EMA, MHRA or any similar foreign regulatory agency will allow us to begin clinical trials or that they will not put any of the trials for any of our product candidates that enter clinical development on clinical hold in the future. We may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize our product candidates. Clinical trials may be delayed, suspended or prematurely terminated because costs are greater than we anticipate or for a variety of reasons, such as:

 

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delay or failure in reaching agreement with the FDA, EMA, MHRA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority on a trial design that we are able to execute;

 

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delay or failure in obtaining authorization to commence a trial or inability to comply with conditions imposed by a regulatory authority regarding the scope or design of a clinical trial;

 

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delays in reaching, or failure to reach, agreement on acceptable clinical trial contracts or clinical trial protocols with planned trial sites;

 

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inability, delay, or failure in identifying and maintaining a sufficient number of trial sites, many of which may already be engaged in other clinical programs;

 

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delay or failure in recruiting and enrolling suitable subjects to participate in one or more clinical trials;

 

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delay or failure in having subjects complete a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;

 

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clinical sites and investigators deviating from the trial protocol, failing to conduct the trial in accordance with regulatory requirements, or dropping out of a trial;

 

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a clinical hold for any of our planned clinical trials, including for AEB1102, where a clinical hold in a trial in one indication would result in a clinical hold for clinical trials in other indications;

 

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clinical trials of our product candidates may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct more clinical trials than we anticipate or abandon product development programs;

 

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the number of patients required for clinical trials of our product candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate or insufficient or participants may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;

 

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we may experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of patients with Arginase I deficiency or cancer patients with tumors or hematological malignancies dependent on arginine, including the identification of patients with Arginase I deficiency or development or identification of a test, if needed, to screen for those cancer patients;

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our third-party contractors may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;

 

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we may have difficulty partnering with experienced CROs that can screen for cancer patients with tumors or hematological malignancies dependent on arginine that AEB1102 is designed to target and with CROs that can run our clinical trials effectively;

 

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regulators may require that we or our investigators suspend or terminate clinical research for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements or a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks;

 

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the supply or quality of our product candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates may be insufficient or inadequate; or

 

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there may be changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions.

If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of our product candidates beyond those that we currently contemplate, if we are unable to successfully initiate or complete clinical trials of our product candidates or other testing, if the results of these trials or tests do not demonstrate sufficient clinical benefit or if our product candidates do not have an acceptable safety profile, we may:

 

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be delayed in obtaining marketing approval for our product candidates;

 

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not obtain marketing approval at all;

 

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obtain approval for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired;

 

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obtain approval with labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings that would reduce the potential market for our product candidates or inhibit our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates;

 

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be subject to additional post-marketing restrictions and/or testing requirements; or

 

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have the product removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval.

We do not know whether any of our planned or current nonclinical studies or planned clinical trials will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, or at all. For example, we withdrew our initial IND for the treatment of Arginase I deficiency in order to comply with new draft guidance issued by the FDA that required additional toxicology studies. In addition, we originally proposed including subjects younger than age 18 in our initial Phase 1 trial in patients with Arginase I deficiency; however, the FDA stated that enrollment in this Phase 1 trial must currently be limited to adult patients 18 years and older. Significant nonclinical or clinical trial delays also could shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates or allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do and impair our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and may materially harm our business and results of operations.

We may not be able to submit INDs, or foreign equivalents outside of the United States, to commence clinical trials for product candidates on the timeframes we expect, and even if we are able to, the FDA, EMA, MHRA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may not permit us to proceed with planned clinical trials.

We are currently conducting nonclinical development of our product candidates other than our clinical trial for AEB1102 for the treatment of patients with solid tumors and preparing to initiate clinical trials for AEB1102 for the treatment of hematological malignancies and Arginase I deficiency. Progression of any candidate into clinical trials is inherently risky and dependent on the results obtained in nonclinical programs, and other potential results such as the results of other clinical programs and results of third-party programs. If results are not available when expected or problems are identified during therapy development, we may experience significant delays in clinical development. This may also impact our ability to achieve certain financial milestones and the expected timeframes to market any of our product candidates. Failure to submit or have effective INDs, CTAs or other comparable foreign equivalents and commence clinical programs will significantly limit our opportunity to generate revenue.

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Our engineered human enzyme product candidates for our oncology indications represent a novel approach to cancer treatment, which could result in heightened regulatory scrutiny, delays in clinical development, or delays in our ability to achieve regulatory approval or commercialization of our product candidates.

Engineered human enzyme products are a new category of therapeutics. Because this is a relatively new and expanding area of novel therapeutic interventions, there can be no assurance as to the length of the trial period, the number of patients the FDA, EMA, MHRA or another applicable regulatory authority will require to be enrolled in the trials in order to establish the safety, efficacy, purity and potency of engineered human enzyme products, or that the data generated in these trials will be acceptable to the FDA or another applicable regulatory authority to support marketing approval.

We have only very recently initiated enrollment in our Phase 1 clinical trial for the treatment of patients with solid tumors for AEB1102. We have not dosed any of our other product candidates in humans. Our planned clinical trials may reveal significant adverse events, toxicities or other side effects not seen in our nonclinical studies and may result in a safety profile that could inhibit regulatory approval or market acceptance of any of our product candidates.

In order to obtain marketing approval for any of our product candidates, we must demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the product candidate for the relevant clinical indication or indications through nonclinical studies and clinical trials as well as additional supporting data. If our product candidates are associated with undesirable side effects in nonclinical studies or clinical trials or have characteristics that are unexpected, we may need to interrupt, delay or abandon their development or limit development to more narrow uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective.

We have only very recently initiated enrollment for our clinical trial for AEB1102 for the treatment of patients with solid tumors. Given the nature of the patient population enrolled in this trial, we expect to and have observed serious adverse events in some of these patients, including death. Six serious adverse events were reported in a total of four patients. These included hypercalcemia, bacteremia, pericardial effusion, respiratory failure and worsening of the patients’ underlying cancer, none of which were assessed as trial therapy-related. All patients recovered except for one who died after discontinuing the trial due to worsening of the underlying cancer. To date, we do not consider any of these serious adverse events to be drug-related and are proceeding with the dosing schedule. Subjects in our ongoing and planned clinical trials may suffer significant serious adverse events, including those that are drug-related, or other side effects not observed in our nonclinical studies, including, but not limited to, immune responses, organ toxicities such as liver, heart or kidney or other tolerability issues. We have not dosed any of our other product candidates in humans.

Testing in animals, such as our primate studies for AEB1102, may not uncover all side effects in humans or any observed side effects in animals may be more severe in humans. For example, it is possible that patients’ immune systems may recognize our engineered human enzymes as foreign and trigger an immune response. This risk is heightened in patients who lack the target enzyme, as is the case with patients with Arginase I deficiency we will be treating in our planned Phase 1 dose escalation and Phase 2 trials for this IEM. In addition, our product candidates such as AEB1102 break down target amino acids such as arginine, thereby releasing metabolites such as ornithine into the bloodstream. Some patients may be sensitive to these metabolites, increasing the risk of an adverse reaction due to treatment, which risk may not be able to be mitigated through dosing. Finally, although our engineered human enzyme product candidates such as AEB1102 are engineered from the human genome, AEB1102 is produced in E. coli. This manufacturing process could lead AEB1102 to be more likely to trigger an immune response than we expect.

To the extent significant adverse events or other side effects are observed in any of our clinical trials, we may have difficulty recruiting patients to the clinical trial, patients may drop out of our trial, or we may be required to abandon the trial or our development efforts of that product candidate altogether. Some potential therapeutics developed in the biotechnology industry that initially showed therapeutic promise in early-stage studies have later been found to cause side effects that prevented their further development. Even if the side effects do not preclude the drug from obtaining or maintaining marketing approval, undesirable side effects may inhibit market acceptance of the approved product due to its tolerability versus other therapies. Any of these developments could materially harm our business, financial condition and prospects.

Further, toxicities associated with our product candidates may also develop after regulatory approval and lead to the withdrawal of the product from the market. We cannot predict whether our product candidates will cause organ or other injury in humans that would preclude or lead to the revocation of regulatory approval based on nonclinical studies or early stage clinical testing.

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If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of patients in our planned clinical trials, our receipt of necessary regulatory approvals could be delayed or prevented.

We may not be able to initiate or continue our planned clinical trials if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials as required by the FDA, EMA, MHRA or comparable regulatory authorities outside the United States. More specifically, many of our product candidates, including AEB1102, initially target indications that may be characterized as orphan markets, which can prolong the clinical trial timeline for the regulatory process if sufficient patients cannot be enrolled in a timely manner. Arginase I deficiency, for example, is the least common of the urea cycle disorders, with a reported incidence of 1:350,000 to 1:1,000,000 live births. Urea cycle disorders are the IEM resulting from defects in the enzymes of the urea cycle, the process by which the human body detoxifies ammonia, a natural byproduct of protein metabolism. We believe that approximately 500-600 individuals in the United States and Europe suffer from Arginase I deficiency. While there is currently a neonatal blood test to screen for Arginase I deficiency, it has only been in broad use in the United States since 2006 and is not commonly used in Europe. We plan initially to treat patients who are 18 and older in the United States and 12 and older in Europe, and many in these age categories have not been screened for Arginase I deficiency, which may make it more difficult to enroll patients in our initial clinical trials for this indication. One urea cycle disorder physician consortium and one urea cycle disorder patient group have together identified an aggregate of approximately 20 patients with Arginase I deficiency in the United States and approximately 16 in Europe. Because neonatal blood testing for this disorder did not become common in the United States until 2006, we believe that approximately half of those identified in the United States are younger than 18, and thus would not be eligible for inclusion in our proposed Phase 1 trial in the United States.

Our planned toxicology program includes conducting six months of juvenile rat studies prior to the initiation of the Phase 2 trial in Europe. Based on our discussions with the MHRA, we believe these data will ultimately support the treatment of patients two years of age and older in Europe. We have substantially completed a toxicology study in the United States that we believe will support the dosing of patients two years of age and older in the United States in future clinical trials. However, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to enroll sufficient patients in our clinical trials or that the MHRA or FDA will permit us to enroll additional patient populations in the future based on these nonclinical studies.

Delays in patient enrollment could result in increased costs, delays in advancing our product development, delays in testing the effectiveness of our technology or termination of the clinical trials altogether.

Patient enrollment is affected by factors including:

 

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the severity of the disease under investigation;

 

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the design of the clinical trial protocol;

 

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the novelty of the product candidate and acceptance by physicians;

 

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the patient eligibility criteria for the study in question;

 

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the size of the total patient population;