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EX-31.1 - CERTIFICATION OF THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER PURSUANT TO SECTION 302 - Palo Alto Networks Incpanwex311q116.htm
EX-31.2 - CERTIFICATION OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER PURSUANT TO SECTION 302 - Palo Alto Networks Incpanwex312q116.htm
EX-32.2 - CERTIFICATION OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER PURSUANT TO SECTION 906 - Palo Alto Networks Incpanwex322q116.htm
EX-10.2 - AMENDMENT TO LEASE BETWEEN THE COMPANY AND SANTA CLARA PHASE I PROPERTY LLC - Palo Alto Networks Incamendmentno1topaloaltonetw.htm
EX-10.3 - AMENDMENT TO LEASE BETWEEN THE COMPANY AND SANTA CLARA CAMPUS PROPERTY OWNER I - Palo Alto Networks Incamendmenno1topaloaltonetwo.htm
EX-32.1 - CERTIFICATION OF THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER PURSUANT TO SECTION 906 - Palo Alto Networks Incpanwex321q116.htm



UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________ 
Form 10-Q
 _____________________
(Mark One)
x
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended October 31, 2015
or
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to             
Commission File Number 001-35594
Palo Alto Networks, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
Delaware
20-2530195
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
4401 Great America Parkway
Santa Clara, California 95054
(Address of principal executive office, including zip code)
(408) 753-4000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
x
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
¨ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes  ¨   No   x
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant's common stock as of November 16, 2015 was 85,908,948.
 




TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
 
 
 
Page
 
PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
PART II - OTHER INFORMATION
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 6.
 

- 2 -


PART I

ITEM 1.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
PALO ALTO NETWORKS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited, in millions, except per share data)
 
October 31, 2015
 
July 31, 2015
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
275.8

 
$
375.8

Short-term investments
485.5

 
413.2

Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $0.8 and $0.7 at October 31, 2015 and July 31, 2015, respectively
196.4

 
212.4

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
82.2

 
72.6

Total current assets
1,039.9

 
1,074.0

Property and equipment, net
76.7

 
62.9

Long-term investments
694.5

 
538.8

Goodwill
163.5

 
163.5

Intangible assets, net
51.0

 
52.7

Other assets
68.8

 
73.3

Total assets
$
2,094.4

 
$
1,965.2

Liabilities, temporary equity, and stockholders’ equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
17.5

 
$
13.2

Accrued compensation
52.8

 
79.8

Accrued and other liabilities
38.3

 
28.2

Deferred revenue
477.3

 
423.9

Convertible senior notes, net
492.3

 
487.1

Total current liabilities
1,078.2

 
1,032.2

Long-term deferred revenue
327.2

 
289.8

Other long-term liabilities
62.5

 
67.4

Commitments and contingencies (Note 5)


 


Temporary equity
82.7

 
87.9

Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock; $0.0001 par value; 100 shares authorized; none issued and outstanding at October 31, 2015 and July 31, 2015

 

Common stock and additional paid-in capital; $0.0001 par value; 1,000 shares authorized; 85.9 and 84.8 shares issued and outstanding at October 31, 2015 and July 31, 2015, respectively
1,083.6

 
988.7

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(0.4
)
 
(0.1
)
Accumulated deficit
(539.4
)
 
(500.7
)
Total stockholders’ equity
543.8

 
487.9

Total liabilities, temporary equity, and stockholders’ equity
$
2,094.4

 
$
1,965.2

 
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

- 3 -


PALO ALTO NETWORKS, INC.
 
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(Unaudited, in millions, except per share data)
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
October 31,
 
2015
 
2014
Revenue:
 
 
 
Product
$
147.7

 
$
101.5

Services
149.5

 
90.8

Total revenue
297.2

 
192.3

Cost of revenue:
 
 
 
Product
38.8

 
29.1

Services
40.4

 
24.3

Total cost of revenue
79.2

 
53.4

Total gross profit
218.0

 
138.9

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
Research and development
59.7

 
37.3

Sales and marketing
158.3

 
106.4

General and administrative
30.8

 
19.0

Total operating expenses
248.8

 
162.7

Operating loss
(30.8
)
 
(23.8
)
Interest expense
(5.8
)
 
(5.5
)
Other income, net
2.2

 
0.4

Loss before income taxes
(34.4
)
 
(28.9
)
Provision for income taxes
4.3

 
1.2

Net loss
$
(38.7
)
 
$
(30.1
)
Net loss per share, basic and diluted
$
(0.45
)
 
$
(0.38
)
Weighted-average shares used to compute net loss per share, basic and diluted
85.1

 
79.4


See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.


- 4 -


PALO ALTO NETWORKS, INC.
 
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(Unaudited, in millions)

 
Three Months Ended
 
October 31,
 
2015
 
2014
Net loss
$
(38.7
)
 
$
(30.1
)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
 
 
 
Change in unrealized gains (losses) on investments
(0.3
)
 
0.1

Comprehensive loss
$
(39.0
)
 
$
(30.0
)

See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

- 5 -


PALO ALTO NETWORKS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited, in millions)
 
Three Months Ended
 
October 31,
 
2015
 
2014
Cash flows from operating activities
 
 
 
Net loss
$
(38.7
)
 
$
(30.1
)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
Share-based compensation for equity based awards
72.9

 
38.4

Depreciation and amortization
9.2

 
6.1

Amortization of investment premiums, net of accretion of purchase discounts
0.8

 
0.7

Amortization of debt discount and debt issuance costs
5.7

 
5.5

Excess tax benefit from share-based compensation arrangements
(0.2
)
 
(0.3
)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable, net
16.0

 
19.3

Prepaid expenses and other assets
5.0

 
3.4

Accounts payable
5.2

 
(4.5
)
Accrued compensation
(27.0
)
 
(12.8
)
Accrued and other liabilities
7.0

 
1.0

Deferred revenue
90.8

 
48.2

Net cash provided by operating activities
146.7

 
74.9

Cash flows from investing activities
 
 
 
Purchases of investments
(512.5
)
 
(247.9
)
Proceeds from sales of investments
124.4

 
2.0

Proceeds from maturities of investments
144.1

 
50.7

Purchases of property, equipment, and other assets
(19.5
)
 
(5.9
)
Net cash used in investing activities
(263.5
)
 
(201.1
)
Cash flows from financing activities
 
 
 
Proceeds from sales of shares through employee equity incentive plans
16.6

 
15.8

Excess tax benefit from share-based compensation arrangements
0.2

 
0.3

Net cash provided by financing activities
16.8

 
16.1

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents
(100.0
)
 
(110.1
)
Cash and cash equivalents—beginning of period
375.8

 
653.8

Cash and cash equivalents—end of period
$
275.8

 
$
543.7


See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

- 6 -


 NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
Palo Alto Networks, Inc. (the “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our”), located in Santa Clara, California, was incorporated in March 2005 under the laws of the State of Delaware and commenced operations in April 2005. We offer a next-generation security platform that empowers enterprises, service providers, and government entities to secure their organizations by safely enabling the increasingly complex and rapidly growing number of applications running on their networks and by preventing breaches in real-time that stem from targeted cyber attacks.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, consistent in all material respects with those applied in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended July 31, 2015, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 17, 2015. The condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited, but include all adjustments of a normal recurring nature necessary for a fair presentation of our quarterly results. We have made estimates and judgments affecting the amounts reported in our condensed consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. The actual results that we experience may differ materially from our estimates. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to current period presentation.
The condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended July 31, 2015.
Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements include our accounts and our wholly owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
There have been no material changes to our significant accounting policies as of and for the three months ended October 31, 2015, as compared to the significant accounting policies described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended July 31, 2015.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In April 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued new authoritative guidance on fees paid in a cloud computing arrangement. The standard requires customers in a cloud computing arrangement to evaluate whether the arrangement includes a software license. If the arrangement includes a software license, the customer should account for the software license element of the arrangement consistent with the acquisition of other software licenses. If the arrangement does not include a software license, the customer should account for the arrangement as a service contract. The standard is effective for us for our first quarter of fiscal 2017 and will be applied on either a prospective or retrospective basis. We are currently evaluating adoption methods and whether this standard will have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
In April 2015, the FASB issued updated authoritative guidance to simplify the presentation of debt issuance costs. The amended standard requires that debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of the related debt liability, consistent with the presentation of debt discounts, instead of being presented as an asset. The amended standard is effective for us for our first quarter of fiscal 2017 and will be applied on a retrospective basis. We do not expect the adoption of the standard will have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued new authoritative guidance on revenue from contracts with customers. The new standard provides principles for recognizing revenue for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers with the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The standard also requires significantly expanded disclosures about revenue recognition. The FASB subsequently delayed the effective date of the standard by one year and as a result, the standard is now effective for us for our first quarter of fiscal 2019 using either of two methods: (i) retrospective to each prior reporting period presented with the option to elect certain practical expedients as defined within the guidance; or (ii) retrospective with the cumulative effect of initially applying the guidance recognized at the date of initial application and providing certain additional disclosures as defined per the guidance. Early adoption as of the original effective date is permitted. We are currently evaluating adoption methods and whether this standard will have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.

- 7 -


2. Fair Value Measurements
We categorize assets and liabilities recorded at fair value on our condensed consolidated balance sheets based upon the level of judgment associated with inputs used to measure their fair value. The categories are as follows:
Level 1—Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2—Inputs are quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or inputs that are observable for the assets or liabilities, either directly or indirectly through market corroboration, for substantially the full term of the financial instruments.
Level 3—Inputs are unobservable inputs based on our own assumptions used to measure assets and liabilities at fair value. The inputs require significant management judgment or estimation.
The following table presents the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities using the above input categories as of October 31, 2015 and July 31, 2015 (in millions):
 
 
October 31, 2015
 
July 31, 2015
 
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
Cash equivalents:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. government and agency securities
 
$

 
$
14.8

 
$

 
$
14.8

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

Total cash equivalents
 

 
14.8

 

 
14.8

 

 

 

 

Short-term investments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Certificates of deposit
 

 
1.0

 

 
1.0

 

 
1.0

 

 
1.0

Corporate debt securities
 

 
111.6

 

 
111.6

 

 
97.8

 

 
97.8

U.S. government and agency securities
 

 
372.9

 

 
372.9

 

 
314.4

 

 
314.4

Total short-term investments
 

 
485.5

 

 
485.5

 

 
413.2

 

 
413.2

Long-term investments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate debt securities
 

 
180.3

 

 
180.3

 

 
92.9

 

 
92.9

U.S. government and agency securities
 

 
514.2

 

 
514.2

 

 
445.9

 

 
445.9

Total long-term investments
 

 
694.5

 

 
694.5

 

 
538.8

 

 
538.8

Total assets measured at fair value
 
$

 
$
1,194.8

 
$

 
$
1,194.8

 
$

 
$
952.0

 
$

 
$
952.0

Refer to Note 4. Convertible Senior Notes for the carrying amount and estimated fair value of our convertible senior notes as of October 31, 2015.
3. Investments
The following tables summarize the unrealized gains and losses and fair value of our available-for-sale investments as of October 31, 2015 and July 31, 2015 (in millions):
 
October 31, 2015
 
Amortized Cost 
 
Unrealized Gains
 
Unrealized Losses
 
Estimated Fair Value
Certificates of deposit
$
1.0

 
$

 
$

 
$
1.0

Corporate debt securities
292.1

 
0.1

 
(0.3
)
 
291.9

U.S. government and agency securities
902.1

 
0.2

 
(0.4
)
 
901.9

Total
$
1,195.2

 
$
0.3

 
$
(0.7
)
 
$
1,194.8


- 8 -


 
July 31, 2015
 
Amortized Cost 
 
Unrealized Gains
 
Unrealized Losses
 
Estimated Fair Value
Certificates of deposit
$
1.0

 
$

 
$

 
$
1.0

Corporate debt securities
190.9

 

 
(0.2
)
 
190.7

U.S. government and agency securities
760.2

 
0.3

 
(0.2
)
 
760.3

Total
$
952.1

 
$
0.3

 
$
(0.4
)
 
$
952.0

Unrealized losses related to these investments are due to interest rate fluctuations as opposed to credit quality. In addition, we do not intend to sell and it is not likely that we would be required to sell these investments before recovery of their amortized cost basis, which may be at maturity. As a result, there were no other-than-temporary impairments for these investments at October 31, 2015 and July 31, 2015.
The following table summarizes the amortized cost and fair value of our available-for-sale investments as of October 31, 2015, by contractual years-to-maturity (in millions):
 
Amortized Cost
 
Fair Value
Due within one year
$
500.2

 
$
500.3

Due between one and three years
695.0

 
694.5

Total
$
1,195.2

 
$
1,194.8

4. Convertible Senior Notes
Convertible Senior Notes
On June 30, 2014, we issued $575.0 million aggregate principal amount of 0.0% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 (the “Notes”). The Notes mature on July 1, 2019 unless converted or repurchased in accordance with their terms prior to such date. The Notes do not contain any financial covenants and we cannot redeem the Notes prior to maturity.
The Notes are convertible for up to 5.2 million shares of our common stock at an initial conversion price of approximately $110.28 per share of common stock, subject to adjustment. Holders of the Notes may surrender their Notes for conversion at their option at any time prior to the close of business on the business day immediately preceding January 1, 2019, only under the following circumstances:
if the last reported sale price of our common stock for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) during a period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on the last trading day of the immediately preceding fiscal quarter is greater than or equal to 130% of the conversion price for the Notes on each applicable trading day (the “sale price condition”);
during the five business day period after any five consecutive trading day period, in which the trading price per $1,000 principal amount of Notes for each trading day of the measurement period was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price of our common stock and the conversion rate for the Notes on each such trading day (the “trading price condition”); or
upon the occurrence of specified corporate events.
On or after January 1, 2019, holders may convert all or any portion of their Notes at any time prior to the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date regardless of the foregoing conditions. Upon conversion, holders will receive cash equal to the aggregate principal amount of the Notes to be converted, and, at our election, cash and/or shares of our common stock for any amounts in excess of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes being converted.
The sale price condition was initially met during the fiscal quarter ended April 30, 2015. The sale price condition continued to be met through the fiscal quarter ended October 31, 2015 and as a result, holders may convert their Notes at any time during the fiscal quarter ending January 31, 2016. Accordingly, the net carrying amount of the Notes was classified in current liabilities and a portion of the equity component representing the conversion option was classified as temporary equity in our condensed consolidated balance sheets as of October 31, 2015. The portion of the equity component classified as temporary equity is measured as the difference between the principal and net carrying amount of the Notes.

- 9 -


The following table sets forth the components of the Notes as of October 31, 2015 and July 31, 2015 (in millions):
 
October 31, 2015
 
July 31, 2015
Liability:
 
 
 
Principal
$
575.0

 
$
575.0

Less: debt discount, net of amortization
82.7

 
87.9

Net carrying amount
$
492.3

 
$
487.1

 
 
 
 
Equity (including temporary equity)
$
(109.8
)
 
$
(109.8
)
The total estimated fair value of the Notes was $896.3 million and $994.8 million at October 31, 2015 and July 31, 2015, respectively. The fair value was determined based on the closing trading price per $100 of the Notes as of the last day of trading for the period. We consider the fair value of the Notes at October 31, 2015 and July 31, 2015 to be a Level 2 measurement. The fair value of the Notes is primarily affected by the trading price of our common stock and market interest rates. As of October 31, 2015, the if-converted value of the Notes exceeded its principal amount by $308.0 million.
The following table sets forth interest expense recognized related to the Notes (dollars in millions):
 
Three Months Ended October 31,
 
2015
 
2014
Amortization of debt discount
$
5.2

 
$
5.0

Amortization of debt issuance costs
0.5

 
0.5

Total interest expense recognized
$
5.7

 
$
5.5

 
 
 
 
Effective interest rate of the liability component
4.8
%
 
4.8
%
Note Hedges
To minimize the impact of potential economic dilution upon conversion of the Notes, we entered into convertible note hedge transactions (the “Note Hedges”) with respect to our common stock concurrent with the issuance of the Notes. The Note Hedges cover up to 5.2 million shares of our common stock and are exercisable upon conversion of the Notes. The Note Hedges will expire upon maturity of the Notes. The Note Hedges are separate transactions and are not part of the terms of the Notes. Holders of the Notes will not have any rights with respect to the Note Hedges. The shares receivable related to the Note Hedges are excluded from the calculation of diluted earnings per share as they are antidilutive.
Warrants
Separately, but concurrently with our issuance of the Notes, we entered into warrant transactions (the “Warrants”) whereby we sold warrants to acquire up to 5.2 million shares of our common stock at a strike price of approximately $137.85 per share, subject to adjustments. The shares issuable under the Warrants will be included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share when the average market value per share of our common stock for the reporting period exceeds the strike price of the Warrants. The Warrants are separate transactions and are not part of the Notes or Notes Hedges, and are not remeasured through earnings each reporting period. Holders of the Notes and Note Hedges will not have any rights with respect to the Warrants.
For more information on the Notes, the Note Hedges, and the Warrants, refer to Note 7. Convertible Senior Notes of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended July 31, 2015.
5. Commitments and Contingencies
Leases
We lease our facilities under various non-cancelable operating leases, which expire through the year ending July 31, 2028.
In May 2015, we entered into three lease agreements for approximately 752,000 square feet of corporate office space in Santa Clara, California to serve as our future corporate headquarters. In October 2015, we entered into a fourth lease agreement for approximately 310,000 square feet of additional office space at the same location, which will commence in December 2017 and expire in April 2028. The site is currently under construction and as a result, the lease commencement date may change based on progress of the construction project. The lease contains a rent holiday period, scheduled rent increases, lease incentives, and

- 10 -


renewal options which allow the lease term to be extended through April 2046. Rental payments under the fourth lease agreement are approximately $101.2 million over the initial lease term.
The following table presents details of the aggregate future non-cancelable minimum rental payments under our operating leases as of October 31, 2015 (in millions):
 
Amount
Fiscal years ending July 31:
 
Remaining 2016
$
16.9

2017
25.1

2018
28.2

2019
41.9

2020
45.9

2021 and thereafter
350.5

Committed gross lease payments
508.5

Less: proceeds from sublease rental
7.4

Net operating lease obligation
$
501.1

Contract Manufacturer Commitments
Our independent contract manufacturer procures components and assembles our products based on our forecasts. These forecasts are based on estimates of demand for our products primarily for the next 12 months, which are in turn based on historical trends and an analysis from our sales and product marketing organizations, adjusted for overall market conditions. In order to reduce manufacturing lead times and plan for adequate supply, we may issue forecasts and orders for components and products that are non-cancelable. As of October 31, 2015, our purchase commitments under such orders were $46.3 million, excluding obligations under contracts that we can cancel without a significant penalty. 
Litigation
We are subject to legal proceedings, claims, and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business, including intellectual property litigation. Such matters are subject to many uncertainties and outcomes are not predictable with assurance. We accrue for contingencies when we believe that a loss is probable and that we can reasonably estimate the amount of any such loss.
To the extent there is a reasonable possibility that a loss exceeding amounts already recognized may be incurred and the amount of such additional loss would be material, we will either disclose the estimated additional loss or state that such an estimate cannot be made. As of October 31, 2015, we have not recorded any significant accruals for loss contingencies associated with such legal proceedings, determined that an unfavorable outcome is probable or reasonably possible, or determined that the amount or range of any possible loss is reasonably estimable.

- 11 -


6. Equity Award Plans
Stock Option Activities
A summary of the activity under our stock plans during the reporting period and a summary of information related to options exercisable, vested, and expected to vest are presented below (in millions, except per share amounts):
 
Options Outstanding 
 
Number
of
Shares
 
Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price Per Share 
 
Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term
(Years)
 
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Balance—July 31, 2015
3.3

 
$
13.74

 
6.2
 
$
562.9

Options granted

 

 
 
 
 
Options forfeited

 

 
 
 
 
Options exercised
(0.4
)
 
11.46

 
 
 
 
Balance—October 31, 2015
2.9

 
$
14.06

 
5.9
 
$
420.2

Options vested and expected to vest—October 31 2015
2.9

 
$
14.04

 
5.9
 
$
419.6

Options exercisable—October 31, 2015
2.5

 
$
12.89

 
5.9
 
$
364.2

Restricted Stock Unit (RSU) Activities
A summary of the activity under our stock plans during the reporting period and a summary of information related to RSUs vested and expected to vest are presented below (in millions, except per share amounts):
 
RSUs Outstanding
 
Number
of
Shares
 
Weighted-
Average
Grant-Date Fair Value Per Share
 
Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term
(Years)
 
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Balance—July 31, 2015
7.2

 
$
95.66

 
1.2
 
$
1,334.8

RSUs granted
0.4

 
171.01

 
 
 
 
RSUs vested
(0.6
)
 
66.60

 
 
 
 
RSUs forfeited
(0.2
)
 
82.45

 
 
 
 
Balance—October 31, 2015
6.8

 
$
103.05

 
1.1
 
$
1,101.0

RSUs vested and expected to vest—October 31, 2015
6.5

 
$
102.49

 
1.1
 
$
1,046.0

Share-Based Compensation
The following table summarizes share-based compensation included in costs and expenses (in millions):
 
Three Months Ended October 31,
 
2015
 
2014
Cost of product revenue
$
1.3

 
$
0.7

Cost of services revenue
7.0

 
3.5

Research and development
25.0

 
14.0

Sales and marketing
27.2

 
15.8

General and administrative
12.4

 
4.5

Total
$
72.9

 
$
38.5

At October 31, 2015, total compensation cost related to unvested share-based awards not yet recognized was $570.9 million, net of estimated forfeitures. This cost is expected to be amortized on a straight-line basis over a weighted-average period of approximately three years.

- 12 -


7. Income Taxes
Our provision for income taxes for the three months ended October 31, 2015 reflects an effective tax rate of negative 12.2%. Our effective tax rate for this period was negative as we recorded a provision for income taxes on year to date losses. The key components of our income tax provision primarily consist of foreign income taxes, withholding taxes, U.S. federal and state income taxes, and amortization of our deferred tax charges. Key components of our effective tax rate consist of foreign tax losses which derive no benefit, non-deductible share-based compensation, and changes in our valuation allowance. As compared to the same period last year, our effective tax rate changed primarily due to an increase in non-deductible share-based compensation, changes in our valuation allowance against deferred tax assets, and amortization of our deferred tax charges.
Our provision for income taxes for the three months ended October 31, 2014 reflects an effective tax rate of negative 4.0%. Our effective tax rate for this period was negative as we recorded a provision for income taxes on year to date losses. The key components of our income tax provision consist of foreign income taxes, withholding taxes, and limited U.S. federal and state income tax due primarily to our net operating loss carryforward. Key components of our effective tax rate consist of foreign tax losses which derive no benefit, non-deductible share-based compensation, and changes in our valuation allowance.
8. Net Income (Loss) Per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by basic weighted-average shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by diluted weighted-average shares outstanding, including potentially dilutive securities.
The following table presents the computation of basic and diluted net loss per share of common stock (in millions, except per share data):
 
Three Months Ended
 
October 31,
 
2015
 
2014
Net loss
$
(38.7
)
 
$
(30.1
)
Weighted-average shares used to compute net loss per share, basic and diluted
85.1

 
79.4

Net loss per share, basic and diluted
$
(0.45
)
 
$
(0.38
)
The following securities were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share of common stock for the periods presented as their effect would have been antidilutive (in millions):
 
October 31,
 
2015
 
2014
Options to purchase common stock
2.9

 
5.2

RSUs
6.8

 
6.2

Convertible senior notes
5.2

 
5.2

Warrants related to the issuance of convertible senior notes
5.2

 
5.2

Total
20.1

 
21.8

ITEM 2.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements include, among other things: expectations regarding drivers of and factors affecting growth in our business; statements regarding trends in billings, our mix of product and services revenue, cost of revenue, gross margin, cash flows, operating expenses, including future share-based compensation expense, income taxes, investments and liquidity; expected recurring revenues resulting from expected growth in our installed base; the sufficiency of our existing cash and investments to meet our cash needs for the foreseeable future; and other statements regarding our future operations, financial condition and prospects, and business strategies. Forward-looking statements generally can be identified by words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “predicts,” “projects,” “would,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” and similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties, which could cause our actual results to differ materially

- 13 -


from those reflected in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and in particular, the risks discussed under the caption “Risk Factors” in Part II, Item 1A of this report and those discussed in other documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.
Our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is organized as follows:
Overview. A discussion of our business and overall analysis of financial and other highlights in order to provide context for the remainder of MD&A.
Key Financial Metrics. An analysis of our generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and non-GAAP key financial metrics, which management monitors to evaluate our performance.
Results of Operations. A discussion of the nature and trends of the components of our financial results and an analysis of our financial results comparing the three months ended October 31, 2015 to the three months ended October 31, 2014.
Liquidity and Capital Resources. An analysis of changes in our balance sheets and cash flows, and a discussion of our financial condition and our ability to meet cash needs.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments. An overview of our contractual obligations, contingent liabilities, commitments, and off-balance sheet arrangements outstanding as of October 31, 2015, including expected payment schedule.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates. A discussion of accounting policies that require critical estimates, assumptions, and judgments.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements. A discussion of expected impacts of impending accounting changes on financial information to be reported in the future.
Overview
We have pioneered the next-generation of security with our innovative platform that empowers enterprises, service providers, and government entities to secure their organizations by safely enabling the increasingly complex and rapidly growing number of applications running on their networks and by preventing breaches in real-time that stem from targeted cyber attacks. Our platform uses an innovative traffic classification engine that identifies network traffic by application, user, and content. As a result, it provides in-depth visibility into all traffic and all applications, at the user level, at all times, and at the full speed of the network in order to control usage, content, risks, and cyber threats. Our security platform consists of three major elements: our Next-Generation Firewall, our Advanced Endpoint Protection, and our Threat Intelligence Cloud. Our Next-Generation Firewall delivers application, user, and content visibility and control as well as protection against network-based cyber threats integrated within the firewall through our proprietary hardware and software architecture. Our Advanced Endpoint Protection prevents cyber attacks that aim to exploit software vulnerabilities on a broad variety of fixed and virtual endpoints and servers. Our Threat Intelligence Cloud provides central intelligence capabilities, security for software as a service (SaaS) applications, and automated delivery of preventative measures against cyber attacks.
The network-based element of our platform is delivered in the form of a physical or virtual appliance and includes a suite of subscription services. The cyber attack prevention capabilities of our platform are delivered in the form of subscription services that can be used either in the public cloud or in a private cloud using a dedicated appliance. Our subscription services can be easily activated on any of our appliances without requiring additional hardware or processing resources, thereby providing a seamless implementation path for our end-customers.
For the first quarter of fiscal 2016 and 2015, revenues were $297.2 million and $192.3 million, respectively, representing year over year growth of 54.5%. All three components of our hybrid SaaS revenue model experienced year over year growth, led by revenue from subscription services, which grew 68.5% to $73.6 million, followed by support and maintenance services, which grew 60.9% to $75.9 million, and product, which grew 45.5% to $147.7 million.
Our growth reflects the increased adoption of our hybrid SaaS revenue model, which consists of product, subscriptions, and support and maintenance. We believe this model will enable us to benefit from recurring revenues as we continue to grow our installed end-customer base. Our growth was also driven by increased security spending by customers, as security continues to be a critical business imperative for every business in the world. As of October 31, 2015, we had sold our products and services to more than 28,000 end-customers in over 140 countries. Our end-customers represent a broad range of industries including education,

- 14 -


energy, financial services, government entities, healthcare, Internet and media, manufacturing, public sector, and telecommunications, and include some of the largest Fortune 100 and Global 2000 companies in the world.
Product revenue is generated from sales of our appliances, primarily our Next-Generation Firewall, which is available in physical and virtualized form. Our Next-Generation Firewall incorporates our proprietary PAN-OS operating system, which provides a consistent set of capabilities across our entire product line. Our products are designed for different performance requirements throughout an organization, ranging from our PA-200, which is designed for enterprise remote offices, to our top-of-the-line PA-7080, which was released in August 2015 and is especially suited for service provider customers. The same firewall functionality that is delivered in our physical appliances is also available in our VM-Series virtual firewalls, which secure virtualized and cloud-based computing environments.
Services revenue is generated from sales of subscriptions and support and maintenance, which together provide us with a source of recurring services revenue. Our subscriptions include two new services released during the first quarter of fiscal 2016: our Aperture subscription service, which provides content control for IT-sanctioned SaaS applications that are used to store and share end-customer’s data, and our AutoFocus cyber threat intelligence service, which provides prioritized actionable intelligence on targeted cyber attacks. Our subscriptions provide our end-customers with real-time access to the latest antivirus, intrusion prevention, web filtering, and modern malware prevention capabilities across fixed and mobile devices.
We maintain a field sales force that works closely with our channel partners in developing sales opportunities. We use a two-tier, indirect fulfillment model whereby we sell our products and services to our global distributor channel partners, which, in turn, sell our products and services to our reseller network, which then sell to our end-customers. We leverage our appliances to sell SaaS subscription services to meet our customers’ evolving security requirements. When end-customers purchase an appliance, they typically purchase one or more of our subscriptions for additional functionality, as well as support and maintenance in order to receive ongoing security updates, upgrades, bug fixes, and repairs.
We believe that the growth of our business and our short-term and long-term success are dependent upon many factors, including our ability to extend our technology leadership, grow our base of end-customers, expand deployment of our platform and services within existing end-customers, extend the length of service terms within existing end-customers, and focus on end-customer satisfaction. While these areas present significant opportunities for us, they also pose challenges and risks that we must successfully address in order to sustain the growth of our business and improve our operating results.
To manage any future growth effectively, we must continue to improve and expand our information technology and financial infrastructure, our operating and administrative systems and controls, and our ability to manage headcount, capital, and processes in an efficient manner. Additionally, we face intense competition in our market, and to succeed, we need to innovate and offer products that are differentiated from existing infrastructure products, as well as effectively hire, retain, train, and motivate qualified personnel and senior management. If we are unable to successfully address these challenges, our business, operating results, and prospects could be adversely affected.
Key Financial Metrics
We monitor the key financial metrics set forth in the tables below to help us evaluate growth trends, establish budgets, measure the effectiveness of our sales and marketing efforts, and assess operational efficiencies. We discuss revenue, gross margin, and the components of operating loss and margin below under “—Results of Operations.”
 
October 31, 2015
 
July 31, 2015
 
(in millions)
Total deferred revenue
$
804.5

 
$
713.7

Cash, cash equivalents, and investments
$
1,455.8

 
$
1,327.8


- 15 -


 
Three Months Ended October 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
(dollars in millions)
Total revenue
$
297.2

 
$
192.3

Year over year percentage increase
54.5
 %
 
50.1
 %
Gross margin percentage
73.3
 %
 
72.2
 %
Operating loss
$
(30.8
)
 
$
(23.8
)
Operating margin percentage
(10.4
)%
 
(12.4
)%
Billings (non-GAAP)
$
388.0

 
$
240.5

Cash flow provided by operating activities
$
146.7

 
$
74.9

Free cash flow (non-GAAP)
$
127.2

 
$
69.0

Deferred Revenue. Our deferred revenue consists of amounts that have been invoiced, but have not been recognized as revenue as of the period end. The majority of our deferred revenue balance consists of subscription and support and maintenance revenue that is recognized ratably over the contractual service period. We monitor our deferred revenue balance because it represents a significant portion of revenue to be recognized in future periods.
Cash Flow Provided by Operating Activities. We monitor cash flow provided by operating activities as a measure of our overall business performance. Our cash flow provided by operating activities is driven in large part by sales of our products and from up-front payments for both subscriptions and support and maintenance services. Monitoring cash flow provided by operating activities enables us to analyze our financial performance without the non-cash effects of certain items such as depreciation, amortization, and share-based compensation costs, thereby allowing us to better understand and manage the cash needs of our business.
Free Cash Flow (non-GAAP). We define free cash flow, a non-GAAP financial measure, as cash provided by operating activities less purchases of property, equipment, and other assets. We consider free cash flow to be a liquidity measure that provides useful information to management and investors about the amount of cash generated by the business that, after the purchases of property, equipment, and other productive assets, can be used for strategic opportunities, including investing in our business, making strategic acquisitions, and strengthening the balance sheet. A limitation of the utility of free cash flow as a measure of our financial performance and liquidity is that it does not represent the total increase or decrease in our cash balance for the period. In addition, it is important to note that other companies, including companies in our industry, may not use free cash flow, may calculate free cash flow in a different manner than we do, or may use other financial measures to evaluate their performance, all of which could reduce the usefulness of free cash flow as a comparative measure. A reconciliation of free cash flow to cash flow provided by operating activities, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP, is provided below:
 
Three Months Ended October 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
(in millions)
Free cash flow (non-GAAP):
 
 
 
Cash flow provided by operating activities
$
146.7

 
$
74.9

Less: purchases of property, equipment, and other assets
19.5

 
5.9

Free cash flow (non-GAAP)
$
127.2

 
$
69.0

Net cash used in investing activities
$
(263.5
)
 
$
(201.1
)
Net cash provided by financing activities
$
16.8

 
$
16.1

Billings (non-GAAP). We define billings, a non-GAAP financial measure, as total revenue plus the change in deferred revenue during the period. Billings is a key measure used by our management to manage our business because billings drive deferred revenue, which is an important indicator of the health and visibility of our business. We consider billings to be a useful metric for management and investors, particularly if we continue to experience increased sales of subscriptions and strong renewal rates for subscriptions and support and maintenance services, and as we monitor our near term cash flows. We believe that billings provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results in the same manner as our management. However, it is important to note that other

- 16 -


companies, including companies in our industry, may not use billings, may calculate billings differently, may have different billing frequencies, or may use other financial measures to evaluate their performance, all of which could reduce the usefulness of billings as a comparative measure. A reconciliation of billings to revenue, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP, is provided below:
 
Three Months Ended October 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
(in millions)
Billings (non-GAAP):
 
 
 
Total revenue
$
297.2

 
$
192.3

Add: change in total deferred revenue
90.8

 
48.2

Billings (non-GAAP)
$
388.0

 
$
240.5

Results of Operations
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the periods presented and as a percentage of our total revenue for those periods based on our condensed consolidated statements of operations data. The period to period comparison of results is not necessarily indicative of results for future periods.
 
Three Months Ended October 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
Amount
 
% of Revenue
 
Amount
 
% of Revenue
 
(dollars in millions)
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
$
147.7

 
49.7
 %
 
$
101.5

 
52.8
 %
Services
149.5

 
50.3
 %
 
90.8

 
47.2
 %
Total revenue
297.2

 
100.0
 %
 
192.3

 
100.0
 %
Cost of revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
38.8

 
13.0
 %
 
29.1

 
15.2
 %
Services
40.4

 
13.7
 %
 
24.3

 
12.6
 %
Total cost of revenue
79.2

 
26.7
 %
 
53.4

 
27.8
 %
Total gross profit
218.0

 
73.3
 %
 
138.9

 
72.2
 %
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
59.7

 
20.1
 %
 
37.3

 
19.4
 %
Sales and marketing
158.3

 
53.3
 %
 
106.4

 
55.3
 %
General and administrative
30.8

 
10.3
 %
 
19.0

 
9.9
 %
Total operating expenses
248.8

 
83.7
 %
 
162.7

 
84.6
 %
Operating loss
(30.8
)
 
(10.4
)%
 
(23.8
)
 
(12.4
)%
Interest expense
(5.8
)
 
(1.9
)%
 
(5.5
)
 
(2.9
)%
Other income, net
2.2

 
0.7
 %
 
0.4

 
0.2
 %
Loss before income taxes
(34.4
)
 
(11.6
)%
 
(28.9
)
 
(15.1
)%
Provision for income taxes
4.3

 
1.4
 %
 
1.2

 
0.5
 %
Net loss
$
(38.7
)
 
(13.0
)%
 
$
(30.1
)
 
(15.6
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Number of employees at period end
2,998

 
 
 
1,900

 
 

- 17 -


Revenue
We derive revenue from sales of our products and services. Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the fee is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured.
Our total revenue is comprised of the following:
Product Revenue. Product revenue is derived primarily from sales of our appliances. Product revenue also includes revenue derived from software licenses of Panorama, GlobalProtect, and the VM-Series. We recognize product revenue at the time of shipment, provided that all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. As a percentage of total revenue, we expect our product revenue to vary from quarter to quarter based on seasonal and cyclical factors.
Services Revenue. Services revenue is derived primarily from sales of our subscriptions and support and maintenance. Our contractual subscription and support and maintenance terms are typically one year, although we also offer three to five year terms. We recognize revenue from subscriptions and support and maintenance over the contractual service period. As a percentage of total revenue, we expect our services revenue to vary from quarter to quarter and increase over the long term as we introduce new subscriptions, renew existing services contracts, and expand our installed end-customer base.
 
Three Months Ended October 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
Change
 
Amount
 
% of Revenue
 
Amount
 
% of Revenue
 
Amount
 
%
 
(dollars in millions)
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
$
147.7

 
49.7
%
 
$
101.5

 
52.8
%
 
$
46.2

 
45.5
%
Services
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Subscription
73.6

 
24.8
%
 
43.7

 
22.7
%
 
29.9

 
68.5
%
Support and maintenance
75.9

 
25.5
%
 
47.1

 
24.5
%
 
28.8

 
60.9
%
Total services
149.5

 
50.3
%
 
90.8

 
47.2
%
 
58.7

 
64.6
%
Total revenue
$
297.2

 
100.0
%
 
$
192.3

 
100.0
%
 
$
104.9

 
54.5
%
Revenue by geographic theater:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Americas
$
211.3

 
71.1
%
 
$
131.8

 
68.6
%
 
$
79.5

 
60.3
%
EMEA
53.7

 
18.1
%
 
38.5

 
20.0
%
 
15.2

 
39.6
%
APAC
32.2

 
10.8
%
 
22.0

 
11.4
%
 
10.2

 
46.3
%
Total revenue
$
297.2

 
100.0
%
 
$
192.3

 
100.0
%
 
$
104.9

 
54.5
%
Product revenue increased $46.2 million, or 45.5%, for the three months ended October 31, 2015 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014, driven by increased demand for our higher end appliances. The impact of changes in pricing on our product revenue was insignificant.
Services revenue increased $58.7 million, or 64.6%, for the three months ended October 31, 2015 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014, due to increased sales to new and existing end-customers. The mix between subscription revenue and support and maintenance revenue will fluctuate over time, depending on the introduction of new subscription offerings, renewals of support and maintenance services, and our ability to increase sales to new and existing customers. The impact of changes in pricing on our services revenue was insignificant.
With respect to geographic theaters, the Americas contributed the largest portion of the increase in revenue for the three months ended October 31, 2015 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014, due to its larger and more established sales force compared to our other theaters. Revenue from both Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) and Asia Pacific and Japan (APAC) increased for the three months ended October 31, 2015 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014, due to our investment in increasing the size of our sales force and number of channel partners in these theaters.
Cost of Revenue
Our cost of revenue consists of cost of product revenue and cost of services revenue.
Cost of Product Revenue. Cost of product revenue primarily includes costs paid to our third-party contract manufacturer. Our cost of product revenue also includes amortization of intellectual property licenses, product testing

- 18 -


costs, warranty costs, shipping costs, and personnel costs, which consist of salaries, benefits, bonuses, and share-based compensation associated with our operations organization. In addition, our cost of product revenue also includes allocated costs, which consist of certain facilities, depreciation, benefits, recruiting, and information technology costs that we allocate based on headcount. We expect our cost of product revenue to increase as our product revenue increases.
Cost of Services Revenue. Cost of services revenue includes personnel costs for our global customer support and technical operations organizations, amortization of acquired intangible assets, allocated costs, and uniform resource locator (URL) filtering database service fees. We expect our cost of services revenue to increase as our installed end-customer base grows.
 
Three Months Ended October 31,
 
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
Change
 
Amount
 
% of Revenue
 
Amount
 
% of Revenue
 
Amount
 
%
 
(dollars in millions)
Cost of revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
$
38.8

 
13.0
%
 
$
29.1

 
15.2
%
 
$
9.7

 
33.0
%
Services
40.4

 
13.7
%
 
24.3

 
12.6
%
 
16.1

 
66.6
%
Total cost of revenue
$
79.2

 
26.7
%
 
$
53.4

 
27.8
%
 
$
25.8

 
48.3
%
Includes share-based compensation of:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
$
1.3

 
 
 
$
0.7

 
 
 
$
0.6

 
71.8
%
Services
7.0

 
 
 
3.5

 
 
 
3.5

 
99.2
%
Total share-based compensation included in cost of revenue
$
8.3

 
 
 
$
4.2

 
 
 
$
4.1

 
94.4
%
Cost of product revenue increased $9.7 million, or 33.0%, for the three months ended October 31, 2015 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014, due to an increase in product unit volume.
Cost of services revenue increased $16.1 million, or 66.6%, for the three months ended October 31, 2015 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014, due to increases in personnel costs of $8.6 million related to increasing our headcount, allocated costs of $2.6 million, and third party professional services costs of $1.4 million to expand our customer service capabilities to support our growing installed end-customer base.
Gross Margin
Gross margin, or gross profit as a percentage of revenue, has been and will continue to be affected by a variety of factors, including the average sales price of our products, manufacturing costs, the mix of products sold, and the mix of revenue between products and services. For sales of our products, our higher end firewall products generally have higher gross margins than our lower end firewall products within each product series. For sales of our services, our subscriptions typically have higher gross margins than our support and maintenance. We expect our gross margins to fluctuate over time depending on the factors described above.
 
Three Months Ended October 31,
 
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
Change
 
Amount
 
Gross Margin
 
Amount
 
Gross Margin
 
Amount
 
Percentage
 
(dollars in millions)
Gross profit:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
$
108.9

 
73.8
%
 
$
72.4

 
71.3
%
 
$
36.5

 
2.5
 %
Services
109.1

 
72.9
%
 
66.5

 
73.2
%
 
42.6

 
(0.3
)%
Total gross profit
$
218.0

 
73.3
%
 
$
138.9

 
72.2
%
 
$
79.1

 
1.1
 %
Gross margin increased 110 basis points for the three months ended October 31, 2015 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014, driven by the increase of 250 basis points in product margin, which was due to our continued focus on material cost reductions and increased demand for our higher end appliances.

- 19 -


Operating Expenses
Our operating expenses consist of research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expense. Personnel costs are the most significant component of operating expenses and consist of salaries, benefits, bonuses, share-based compensation, and with regard to sales and marketing expense, sales commissions. Our operating expenses also include allocated costs, which consist of certain facilities, depreciation, benefits, recruiting, and information technology costs that we allocate based on headcount. We expect operating expenses to increase in absolute dollars and decrease over the long term as a percentage of revenue as we continue to scale our business. As of October 31, 2015, we expect to recognize approximately $570.9 million of share-based compensation expense over a weighted-average period of approximately three years, excluding additional share-based compensation expense related to any future grants of share-based awards. Share-based compensation expense, net of forfeitures, is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards.
Research and Development. Research and development expense consists primarily of personnel costs. Research and development expense also includes prototype related expenses and allocated costs. We expect research and development expense to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in our future products and services, although our research and development expense may fluctuate as a percentage of total revenue.
Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expense consists primarily of personnel costs, including commission costs. We expense commission costs as incurred. Sales and marketing expense also includes costs for market development programs, promotional and other marketing costs, travel costs, professional services, and allocated costs. We continue to increase the size of our sales force and have also substantially grown our sales presence internationally. We expect sales and marketing expense to continue to increase in absolute dollars as we increase the size of our sales and marketing organizations to increase touch points with end-customers and to expand our international presence, although our sales and marketing expense may fluctuate as a percentage of total revenue.
General and Administrative. General and administrative expense consists of personnel costs for our executive, finance, human resources, legal, and information technology organizations, professional services, and certain non-recurring general expenses. Professional services consist primarily of legal, auditing, accounting, and other consulting costs. We expect general and administrative expense to increase in absolute dollars due to additional costs associated with accounting, compliance, insurance, and investor relations, although our general and administrative expense may fluctuate as a percentage of total revenue.
 
Three Months Ended October 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
Change
 
Amount
 
% of Revenue
 
Amount
 
% of Revenue
 
Amount
 
%
 
(dollars in millions)
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
$
59.7

 
20.1
%
 
$
37.3

 
19.4
%
 
$
22.4

 
60.1
%
Sales and marketing
158.3

 
53.3
%
 
106.4

 
55.3
%
 
51.9

 
48.8
%
General and administrative
30.8

 
10.3
%
 
19.0

 
9.9
%
 
11.8

 
61.9
%
Total operating expenses
$
248.8

 
83.7
%
 
$
162.7

 
84.6
%
 
$
86.1

 
52.9
%
Includes share-based compensation of:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
$
25.0

 
 
 
$
14.0

 
 
 
$
11.0

 
78.3
%
Sales and marketing
27.2

 
 
 
15.8

 
 
 
11.4

 
72.2
%
General and administrative
12.4

 
 
 
4.5

 
 
 
7.9

 
180.9
%
Total share-based compensation included in operating expenses
$
64.6

 
 
 
$
34.3

 
 
 
$
30.3

 
88.8
%
Research and development expense increased $22.4 million, or 60.1%, for the three months ended October 31, 2015 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014, due to an increase in personnel costs of $19.6 million, largely due to an increase in headcount, and an increase in allocated costs of $2.2 million.
Sales and marketing expense increased $51.9 million, or 48.8%, for the three months ended October 31, 2015 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014, due to an increase in personnel costs of $34.0 million, largely due to an increase in headcount, an increase in allocated costs of $6.5 million, an increase in travel and entertainment costs of $4.2 million, and an increase in demand generation activities, trade shows, and other marketing activities of $1.6 million.

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General and administrative expense increased $11.8 million, or 61.9%, for the three months ended October 31, 2015 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014, due to an increase in personnel costs of $10.6 million, largely due to an increase in headcount.
Other Income, Net
Other income, net includes interest income earned on our cash, cash equivalents, and investments, foreign currency remeasurement gains and losses, and foreign currency transaction gains and losses.
 
Three Months Ended October 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
Change 
 
Amount
 
Amount
 
Amount
 
%
 
(dollars in millions)
Other income, net
$
2.2

 
$
0.4

 
$
1.8

 
510.2
%
Other income, net increased $1.8 million for the three months ended October 31, 2015 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014, due to an increase in interest income and higher foreign currency remeasurement gains.
Provision for Income Taxes
Provision for income taxes consists primarily of income taxes in foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct business, withholding taxes, federal and state income taxes in the United States, and amortization of our deferred tax charges. We maintain a full valuation allowance for domestic deferred tax assets, including net operating loss carryforwards and tax credits.
 
Three Months Ended October 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
Change 
 
(dollars in millions)
Provision for income taxes
$
4.3

 
$
1.2

 
$
3.1

 
264.0
%
Effective tax rate
(12.2
)%
 
(4.0
)%
 
 
 
 
We recorded an income tax provision for the three months ended October 31, 2015, due to federal, state, and foreign income taxes, withholding taxes, and amortization of our deferred tax charges. The provision for income taxes increased for the three months ended October 31, 2015 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014, primarily due to an increase in non-deductible share-based compensation, changes in our valuation allowance against deferred tax assets, and amortization of our deferred tax charges.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
October 31, 2015
 
July 31, 2015
 
(in millions)
Working capital (1)
$
(38.3
)
 
$
41.8

Cash, cash equivalents, and investments:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
275.8

 
$
375.8

Investments
1,180.0

 
952.0

Total cash, cash equivalents, and investments
$
1,455.8

 
$
1,327.8

______________
(1)
The net carrying amount of the Notes was classified in current liabilities in our condensed consolidated balance sheets as of October 31, 2015 and July 31, 2015. Refer to Note 4. Convertible Senior Notes of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for more information.
At October 31, 2015, our total cash, cash equivalents, and investments of $1.5 billion were held for general corporate purposes, of which approximately $93.8 million was held outside of the United States. We do not provide for federal income taxes on the undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries, all of which we expect to reinvest outside of the United States

- 21 -


indefinitely. However, if these funds were needed for our domestic operations, we would be required to accrue and pay U.S. taxes on undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries. There are no other restrictions on the use of these funds. If we were to repatriate these earnings to the United States, any associated income tax liability would be insignificant.
In June 2014, we issued the Notes, which mature on July 1, 2019, with an aggregate principal amount of $575.0 million. Prior to January 1, 2019, holders may surrender their Notes for early conversion under certain circumstances. Upon conversion, we will pay cash equal to the aggregate principal amount of the Notes to be converted, and, at our election, will pay or deliver cash and/or shares of our common stock for the amount of our conversion obligation in excess of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes being converted. Refer to Note 4. Convertible Senior Notes of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for information on the Notes.
The following table summarizes our cash flows for the three months ended October 31, 2015 and 2014:
 
Three Months Ended October 31,
2015
 
2014
 
(in millions)
Cash provided by operating activities
$
146.7

 
$
74.9

Cash used in investing activities
(263.5
)
 
(201.1
)
Cash provided by financing activities
16.8

 
16.1

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents
$
(100.0
)
 
$
(110.1
)
We believe that our cash flow from operations with existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for the foreseeable future. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors including our growth rate, the timing and extent of spending to support development efforts, the expansion of sales and marketing activities, the introduction of new and enhanced products and services offerings, the costs to acquire or invest in complementary businesses and technologies, the costs to ensure access to adequate manufacturing capacity, and the continuing market acceptance of our products. In addition, from time to time we may incur additional tax liability in connection with certain tax structuring decisions.
We may also choose to seek additional equity or debt financing. In the event that additional financing is required from outside sources, we may not be able to raise it on terms acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital when desired, our business, operating results, and financial condition may be adversely affected.
Operating Activities
Our operating activities have consisted of net loss adjusted for certain non-cash items and changes in assets and liabilities.
Cash provided by operating activities during the three months ended October 31, 2015 was $146.7 million, an increase of $71.8 million compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014. The increase was due to growth of our business and changes in our assets and liabilities during the three months ended October 31, 2015, which included an increase in sales of subscription and support and maintenance contracts to new and existing customers as reflected by an increase in deferred revenue.
Investing Activities
Our investing activities have consisted of capital expenditures and net investment purchases, sales, and maturities. We expect to continue such activities as our business grows.
Cash used in investing activities during the three months ended October 31, 2015 was $263.5 million, an increase of $62.4 million compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014, due to higher net purchases of available-for-sale investments and an increase in investment in infrastructure and facilities to support the growth of our business.
Financing Activities
Our financing activities have consisted of proceeds from sales of shares through employee equity incentive plans.
Cash provided by financing activities was flat for the three months ended October 31, 2015 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2014.

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Contractual Obligations and Commitments
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations and commitments as of October 31, 2015:
 
Payments Due by Period 
 
Total 
 
Less Than 1
Year
 
1 - 3 Years
 
3- 5 Years
 
More Than 5
Years
 
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
0.0% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 (1)
$
575.0

 
$

 
$

 
$
575.0

 
$

Operating lease obligations (2) (3) 
508.5

 
23.3

 
57.5

 
90.6

 
337.1

Purchase obligations (4)
46.3

 
46.3

 

 

 

Total (5)
$
1,129.8

 
$
69.6

 
$
57.5

 
$
665.6

 
$
337.1

______________
(1)
As of October 31, 2015, holders may convert their Notes at any time during the fiscal quarter ending January 31, 2016. Refer to Note 4. Convertible Senior Notes of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for more information.
(2)
Consists of contractual obligations from our non-cancelable operating leases, including the lease agreement executed in October 2015 for additional corporate office space in Santa Clara, California. Refer to Note 5. Commitments and Contingencies of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for more information.
(3)
Excludes contractual sublease proceeds of $7.4 million, of which $3.0 million will be received in less than one year and $4.4 million will be received in one to three years.
(4)
Consists of minimum purchase commitments of products and components with our independent contract manufacturer and original design manufacturers. Obligations under contracts that we can cancel without a significant penalty are not included in the table above.
(5)
No amounts related to income taxes are included. As of October 31, 2015, we had approximately $41.8 million of tax liabilities recorded related to uncertainty in income tax positions.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
As of October 31, 2015, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated organizations or financial partnerships, such as structured finance or special purpose entities that would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses, and related disclosures. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Actual results may differ from these estimates. To the extent that there are material differences between these estimates and our actual results, our future financial statements will be affected.
We believe the critical accounting policies and estimates discussed under Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on September 17, 2015, reflect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements. There have been no significant changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates as filed in such report.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Refer to “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” in Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

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ITEM 3.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Our exposures to market risk have not changed materially since July 31, 2015. For our quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk, see the disclosures in Part II, Item 7A in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on September 17, 2015.
ITEM 4.
CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, with the participation of our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Rule 13a-15 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on our evaluation, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer concluded that, as of October 31, 2015, our disclosure controls and procedures are designed at a reasonable assurance level and are effective to provide reasonable assurance that information we are required to disclose in reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rule 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act that occurred during the quarter ended October 31, 2015 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Limitations on Controls
In designing and evaluating the disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In addition, the design of disclosure controls and procedures must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints and that management is required to apply its judgment in evaluating the benefits of possible controls and procedures relative to their costs. Further, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within the Company have been detected.

- 24 -


PART II
ITEM 1.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The information set forth under the “Litigation” subheading in Note 5. Commitments and Contingencies of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS
Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties including those described below. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, also may become important factors that affect us. If any of the following risks or others not specified below materialize, our business, financial condition, and operating results could be materially adversely affected. In that case, the market price of our common stock could decline.
Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry
Our business and operations have experienced rapid growth in recent periods, and if we do not effectively manage any future growth or are unable to improve our systems, processes, and controls, our operating results will be adversely affected.
We have experienced rapid growth and increased demand for our products over the last few years. Our employee headcount and number of end-customers have increased significantly, and we expect to continue to grow our headcount significantly over the next year. For example, from the end of fiscal 2015 to the end of the first quarter of fiscal 2016, our headcount increased from 2,637 to 2,998 employees, and our number of end-customers increased from over 26,000 to over 28,000. The growth and expansion of our business and product and service offerings places a continuous significant strain on our management, operational, and financial resources. As we have grown, we have increasingly managed more complex deployments of our products and services with larger end-customers. To manage any future growth effectively, we must continue to improve and expand our information technology and financial infrastructure, our operating and administrative systems, and our ability to manage headcount, capital, and processes in an efficient manner.
We may not be able to successfully scale improvements to our enterprise resource planning system or implement or scale improvements to our other systems, processes, and controls in an efficient or timely manner or in a manner that does not negatively affect our operating results. In addition, our existing systems, processes, and controls may not prevent or detect all errors, omissions, or fraud. We have licensed technology from third parties to help us accomplish this objective. We may experience difficulties in managing improvements to our systems, processes, and controls or in connection with third-party software, which could disrupt existing customer relationships, cause us to lose customers, limit us to smaller deployments of our products, or increase our technical support costs. Our failure to improve our systems, processes, and controls, or their failure to operate in the intended manner, may result in our inability to manage the growth of our business and to accurately forecast our revenue, expenses, and earnings, or to prevent certain losses. For example, we are implementing certain new enterprise management systems and any failure to implement these systems may disrupt our operations and our operating expenses could increase. Additionally, our productivity and the quality of our products and services may be adversely affected if we do not integrate and train our new employees quickly and effectively. Any future growth would add complexity to our organization and require effective coordination throughout our organization. Failure to manage any future growth effectively could result in increased costs, negatively impact our end-customers’ satisfaction with our products and services, and harm our operating results.
Our operating results may vary significantly from period to period and be unpredictable, which could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
Our operating results, in particular, our revenues, gross margins, operating margins, and operating expenses, have historically varied from period to period, and we expect that this trend will continue as a result of a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and may be difficult to predict, including:
our ability to attract and retain new end-customers;
the budgeting cycles, seasonal buying patterns, and purchasing practices of end-customers;
changes in end-customer, distributor or reseller requirements, or market needs;
price competition;
the timing and success of new product and service introductions by us or our competitors or any other change in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or end-customers;

- 25 -


changes in the mix of our products and services, including increases in multi-year subscriptions and support and maintenance;
changes in the growth rate of the enterprise security market;
deferral of orders from end-customers in anticipation of new products or product enhancements announced by us or our competitors;
our ability to successfully expand our business domestically and internationally;
the timing and costs related to the development or acquisition of technologies or businesses;
lack of synergy, or the inability to realize expected synergies, resulting from recent acquisitions;
our inability to complete or integrate efficiently any acquisitions that we have completed, or that we may undertake;
our ability to increase the size and productivity of our distribution channel;
decisions by potential end-customers to purchase security solutions from larger, more established security vendors or from their primary network equipment vendors;
changes in end-customer attach rates and renewal rates for our services;
timing of revenue recognition and revenue deferrals;
our ability to manage production and manufacturing related costs, global customer service organization costs, inventory excess and obsolescence costs, and warranty costs;
insolvency or credit difficulties confronting our customers, which could adversely affect their ability to purchase or pay for our products and services, or confronting our key suppliers, including our sole source suppliers, which could disrupt our supply chain;
any disruption in our channel or termination of our relationships with important channel partners, including as a result of consolidation among distributors and resellers of security solutions;
our inability to fulfill our end-customers’ orders due to supply chain delays or events that impact our manufacturers or their suppliers;
increased expenses, unforeseen liabilities, or write-downs and any impact on our operating results from any acquisitions we consummate;
the cost and potential outcomes of litigation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business;
seasonality or cyclical fluctuations in our markets;
future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies, including the potential impact of the adoption and implementation of the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s new standard regarding revenue recognition;
the impact on our overall effective tax rate caused by any reorganization in our corporate structure or any changes in our valuation allowance for domestic deferred assets;
increases or decreases in our expenses or fluctuations in our sales cycle caused by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, as an increasing amount of our expenses is incurred and paid in currencies other than the U.S. dollar;
political, economic and social instability, including continued hostilities in the Middle East, terrorist activities, and any disruption these events may cause to the broader global industrial economy; and
general macroeconomic conditions, both domestically and in our foreign markets.
Any one of the factors above, or the cumulative effect of some of the factors referred to above, may result in significant fluctuations in our financial and other operating results. This variability and unpredictability could result in our failure to meet our revenue, margin, or other operating result expectations or those of securities analysts or investors for a particular period. If we fail to meet or exceed such expectations for these or any other reasons, the market price of our common stock could fall substantially, and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class action suits.
Our revenue growth rate in recent periods may not be indicative of our future performance.
We have recently experienced revenue growth rates of 54.5% and 50.1% in the first quarter of fiscal 2016 and 2015, respectively. You should not rely on our revenue for any prior quarterly or annual periods as any indication of our future revenue or revenue growth for any future period. If we are unable to maintain consistent revenue or revenue growth, the market price of our common stock could be volatile, and it may be difficult for us to achieve and maintain profitability.

- 26 -


We have a history of losses, anticipate increasing our operating expenses in the future, and may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability or maintain or increase cash flow on a consistent basis. If we cannot achieve or maintain profitability or maintain or increase our cash flow, our business, financial condition, and operating results may suffer.
Other than fiscal 2012, we have incurred losses in all fiscal years since our inception. We incurred a net loss of $38.7 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2016, $165.0 million in fiscal 2015, and $226.5 million in fiscal 2014, respectively. As a result, we had an accumulated deficit of $539.4 million at October 31, 2015. We anticipate that our operating expenses will increase substantially in the foreseeable future as we continue to enhance our product and service offerings, broaden our installed end-customer base, expand our sales channels, expand our operations, hire additional employees, and continue to develop our technology. These efforts may prove more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenues sufficiently, or at all, to offset these higher expenses. Revenue growth may slow or revenue may decline for a number of possible reasons, including slowing demand for our products or services, increasing competition, a decrease in the growth of our overall market, or a failure to capitalize on growth opportunities. Any failure to increase our revenues as we grow our business could prevent us from achieving or maintaining profitability or maintaining or increasing cash flow on a consistent basis. If we are unable to meet these risks and challenges as we encounter them, our business, financial condition, and operating results may suffer.
Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects, and may increase the risk of your investment.
We were founded in 2005 and shipped our first products in 2007. The majority of our revenue growth has occurred since 2009. Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and our future prospects, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by rapidly growing companies in constantly evolving industries, including the risks described in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. If we do not address these risks successfully, our business and operating results will be adversely affected, and the market price of our common stock could decline. Further, we have limited historical financial data and we operate in a rapidly evolving market. As such, any predictions about our future revenue and expenses may not be as accurate as they would be if we had a longer operating history or operated in a more predictable market.
If we are unable to sell additional products and services to our end-customers or maintain or increase our installed end-customer base, our future revenue and operating results will be harmed.
Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to expand the deployment of our platform with existing end-customers by selling additional products, to secure other areas of our end-customers’ network and endpoints, and to upsell additional subscription services. This may require increasingly sophisticated and costly sales efforts that may not result in additional sales. In addition, the rate at which our end-customers purchase additional products and services depends on a number of factors, including the perceived need for additional security products and services as well as general economic conditions. If our efforts to sell additional products and services to our end-customers are not successful, our business may suffer.
Further, existing end-customers that purchase our subscription services have no contractual obligation to renew their contracts after the completion of their initial contract period, which is typically one year, and we cannot accurately predict renewal rates. Our end-customers’ renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including their satisfaction with our services and our end-customer support, the frequency and severity of subscription outages, our product uptime or latency, and the pricing of our, or competing, services. If our end-customers renew their subscriptions, they may renew for shorter contract lengths or on other terms that are less economically beneficial to us. We have limited historical data with respect to rates of end-customer renewals, so we may not accurately predict future renewal trends. We cannot be certain that our end-customers will renew their subscriptions. If our end-customers do not renew their agreements or renew on less favorable terms, our revenues may grow more slowly than expected or decline.
We also depend on our installed end-customer base for future support and maintenance revenues. Our support and maintenance agreements are typically one year. If end-customers choose not to renew their support and maintenance agreements, or seek to renegotiate the terms of their support and maintenance agreements prior to renewing such agreements, our revenue may grow more slowly than expected or decline.
We face intense competition in our market, especially from larger, well-established companies, and we may lack sufficient financial or other resources to maintain or improve our competitive position.
The market for enterprise security products is intensely competitive, and we expect competition to increase in the future from established competitors and new market entrants. Our main competitors fall into four categories:
large networking vendors such as Cisco Systems, Inc. (“Cisco”) and Juniper Networks, Inc. (“Juniper”) that incorporate security features in their products;

- 27 -


large companies such as Intel Corporation, International Business Machines Corporation, and Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company that have acquired large network and endpoint security specialist vendors in recent years and have the technical and financial resources to bring competitive solutions to the market;
independent security vendors such as Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. (“Check Point”), Fortinet, Inc., and FireEye, Inc., that offer a mix of network and endpoint security products; and Symantec Corporation, that offers endpoint security products; and
small and large companies that offer point solutions that compete with some of the features present in our platform.
Many of our existing competitors have, and some of our potential competitors could have, substantial competitive advantages such as:
greater name recognition and longer operating histories;
larger sales and marketing budgets and resources;
broader distribution and established relationships with distribution partners and end-customers;
greater customer support resources;
greater resources to make acquisitions;
lower labor and development costs;
larger and more mature intellectual property portfolios; and
substantially greater financial, technical, and other resources.
In addition, some of our larger competitors have substantially broader and more diverse product offerings and leverage their relationships based on other products or incorporate functionality into existing products to gain business in a manner that discourages users from purchasing our products, including through selling at zero or negative margins, product bundling, or closed technology platforms. Potential end-customers may also prefer to purchase from their existing suppliers rather than a new supplier regardless of product performance or features. These larger competitors often have broader product lines and market focus and may therefore not be as susceptible to downturns in a particular market. Many of our smaller competitors that specialize in providing protection from a single type of security threat are often able to deliver these specialized security products to the market more quickly than we can. Conditions in our market could change rapidly and significantly as a result of technological advancements, partnering by our competitors, or continuing market consolidation. New start-up companies that innovate and large competitors that are making significant investments in research and development may invent similar or superior products and technologies that compete with our products and technology. Our current and potential competitors may also establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties that may further enhance their resources.
Some of our competitors have made or could make acquisitions of businesses that may allow them to offer more directly competitive and comprehensive solutions than they had previously offered. As a result of such acquisitions, our current or potential competitors might be able to adapt more quickly to new technologies and end-customer needs, devote greater resources to the promotion or sale of their products and services, initiate or withstand substantial price competition, take advantage of acquisitions or other opportunities more readily, or develop and expand their product and service offerings more quickly than we do. Due to various reasons, organizations may be more willing to incrementally add solutions to their existing security infrastructure from competitors than to replace it with our solutions. These competitive pressures in our market or our failure to compete effectively may result in price reductions, fewer orders, reduced revenue and gross margins, and loss of market share. Any failure to meet and address these factors could seriously harm our business and operating results.
A network or data security incident may allow unauthorized access to our network or data, harm our reputation, create additional liability and adversely impact our financial results.
Increasingly, companies are subject to a wide variety of attacks on their networks on an ongoing basis. In addition to traditional computer “hackers,” malicious code (such as viruses and worms), employee theft or misuse, and denial of service attacks, sophisticated nation-state and nation-state supported actors now engage in intrusions and attacks (including advanced persistent threat intrusions), and add to the risks to our internal networks and the information they store and process. Despite significant efforts to create security barriers to such threats, it is virtually impossible for us to entirely mitigate these risks. Furthermore, as a well-known provider of security solutions, any such breach could compromise our networks or networks secured by our products, creating system disruptions or slowdowns and exploiting security vulnerabilities of our products, and the information stored on our networks could be accessed, publicly disclosed, altered, lost, or stolen, which could subject us to liability and cause us financial harm. These breaches, or any perceived breach, may also result in damage to our reputation, negative publicity, loss of channel partners, end-customers and sales, increased costs to remedy any problem, and costly litigation. Any of these negative outcomes could adversely impact market acceptance of our products and could seriously harm our business or operating results.

- 28 -


If functionality similar to that offered by our products is incorporated into existing network infrastructure products, organizations may decide against adding our appliances to their network, which would have an adverse effect on our business.
Large, well-established providers of networking equipment such as Cisco and Juniper offer, and may continue to introduce, security features that compete with our products, either in stand-alone security products or as additional features in their network infrastructure products. The inclusion of, or the announcement of an intent to include, functionality perceived to be similar to that offered by our security solutions in networking products that are already generally accepted as necessary components of network architecture may have an adverse effect on our ability to market and sell our products. Furthermore, even if the functionality offered by network infrastructure providers is more limited than our products, a significant number of end-customers may elect to accept such limited functionality in lieu of adding appliances from an additional vendor such as us. Many organizations have invested substantial personnel and financial resources to design and operate their networks and have established deep relationships with other providers of networking products, which may make them reluctant to add new components to their networks, particularly from other vendors such as us. In addition, an organization’s existing vendors or new vendors with a broad product offering may be able to offer concessions that we are not able to match because we currently offer only security products and have fewer resources than many of our competitors. If organizations are reluctant to add additional network infrastructure from new vendors or otherwise decide to work with their existing vendors, our ability to increase our market share and improve our financial condition and operating results will be adversely affected.
Reliance on shipments at the end of the quarter could cause our revenue for the applicable period to fall below expected levels.
As a result of end-customer buying patterns and the efforts of our sales force and channel partners to meet or exceed their sales objectives, we have historically received a substantial portion of sales orders and generated a substantial portion of revenue during the last few weeks of each fiscal quarter. If expected revenue at the end of any fiscal quarter is delayed for any reason, including the failure of anticipated purchase orders to materialize, our logistics partners’ inability to ship products prior to fiscal quarter-end to fulfill purchase orders received near the end of the fiscal quarter, our failure to manage inventory to meet demand, our inability to release new products on schedule, any failure of our systems related to order review and processing, or any delays in shipments based on trade compliance requirements, our revenue for that quarter could fall below our expectations and the estimates of analysts, which could adversely impact our business and operating results and cause a decline in the market price of our common stock.
If we are unable to hire, retain, train, and motivate qualified personnel and senior management, our business could suffer.
Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to continue to attract and retain highly skilled personnel. The loss of the services of any of our key personnel, the inability to attract or retain qualified personnel, or delays in hiring required personnel, particularly in engineering and sales, may seriously harm our business, financial condition, and operating results. Although we have entered into employment offer letters with our key personnel, these agreements have no specific duration and constitute at-will employment. We are also substantially dependent on the continued service of our existing engineering personnel because of the complexity of our platform. Additionally, any failure to hire, train, and adequately incentivize our sales personnel could negatively impact our growth. Further, the inability of our recently hired sales personnel to effectively ramp to target productivity levels could negatively impact our operating margins. In addition, if we are not effective in managing any leadership transition in our sales organization, our business could be adversely impacted and our operating results and financial condition could be harmed.
Competition for highly skilled personnel, particularly engineering personnel, is often intense, especially in the San Francisco Bay Area, where we have a substantial presence and need for highly skilled personnel. Additionally, the industry in which we operate generally experiences high employee attrition. We may not be successful in attracting, integrating, or retaining qualified personnel to fulfill our current or future needs. Also, to the extent we hire personnel from competitors, we may be subject to allegations that they have been improperly solicited, that they have divulged proprietary or other confidential information, or that their former employers own their inventions or other work product.
Our future performance also depends on the continued services and continuing contributions of our senior management to execute on our business plan and to identify and pursue new opportunities and product innovations. The loss of services of senior management could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our development and strategic objectives, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.
Our employees do not have employment arrangements that require them to continue to work for us for any specified period, and therefore, they could terminate their employment with us at any time. We do not maintain key person life insurance policies on any of our employees. The loss of one or more of our key employees could seriously harm our business.
We rely on third-party channel partners to sell substantially all of our products, and if these partners fail to perform, our ability to sell and distribute our products and services will be limited, and our operating results will be harmed.
Substantially all of our revenue is generated by sales through our channel partners, including distributors and resellers. We provide our sales channel partners with specific training and programs to assist them in selling our products, but there can be no assurance that these steps will be effective. In addition, our channel partners may be unsuccessful in marketing, selling, and supporting

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our products and services. If we are unable to develop and maintain effective sales incentive programs for our channel partners, we may not be able to incentivize these partners to sell our products to end-customers and, in particular, to large enterprises. These partners may also market, sell, and support products and services that are competitive with ours and may devote more resources to the marketing, sales, and support of such competitive products. These partners may have incentives to promote our competitors’ products to the detriment of our own or may cease selling our products altogether. Our agreements with our channel partners may generally be terminated for any reason by either party with advance notice prior to each annual renewal date. We cannot assure you that we will retain these channel partners or that we will be able to secure additional or replacement channel partners. The loss of one or more of our significant channel partners or a decline in the number or size of orders from any of them could harm our operating results. In addition, any new sales channel partner requires extensive training and may take several months or more to achieve productivity. Our channel partner sales structure could subject us to lawsuits, potential liability, and reputational harm if, for example, any of our channel partners misrepresent the functionality of our products or services to end-customers or violate laws or our corporate policies. If we fail to effectively manage our existing sales channels, if our channel partners are unsuccessful in fulfilling the orders for our products, or if we are unable to enter into arrangements with, and retain a sufficient number of, high quality channel partners in each of the regions in which we sell products and services and keep them motivated to sell our products, our ability to sell our products and operating results will be harmed.
Because we depend on third-party manufacturers to build and ship our products, we are susceptible to manufacturing and logistics delays and pricing fluctuations that could prevent us from shipping customer orders on time, if at all, or on a cost-effective basis, which may result in the loss of sales and customers.
We depend on third-party manufacturers, primarily a subsidiary of Flextronics International Ltd. (“Flex”), our contract manufacturer, as sole source manufacturers for our product lines. Our reliance on these third-party manufacturers reduces our control over the manufacturing process and exposes us to risks, including reduced control over quality assurance, product costs, and product supply and timing, as well as the risk that minerals which originate from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjoining countries, or conflict minerals, may be included in our products. In addition, while the majority of our products are manufactured by our contract manufacturers at facilities located in the United States, any growth or expansion of such manufacturing at facilities in foreign countries may subject us to additional risks associated with complying with local rules and regulations. Any manufacturing and logistics disruption by these third-party manufacturers could severely impair our ability to fulfill orders. In addition, we are subject to requirements under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 that require us to diligence, disclose, and report whether or not our products contain conflict minerals. Under these rules, we are required to obtain sourcing data from suppliers, perform supply chain due diligence, and file annually with the SEC a specialized disclosure report on Form SD covering the prior calendar year. We have incurred and expect to incur additional costs to comply with these disclosure requirements, including costs related to determining the source of any of the relevant minerals and metals used in our products.
These requirements could adversely affect the sourcing, availability, and pricing of minerals used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices or other components used in our products. We may also encounter customers who require that all of the components of our products be certified as conflict free. If we are not able to meet this requirement, such customers may choose not to purchase our products, which could adversely impact sales of our products.
Our third-party manufacturers typically fulfill our supply requirements on the basis of individual orders. We do not have long-term contracts with these manufacturers that guarantee capacity, the continuation of particular pricing terms, or the extension of credit limits. Accordingly, they are not obligated to continue to fulfill our supply requirements, which could result in supply shortages, and the prices we pay for manufacturing services could be increased on short notice. Our contract with Flex permits them to terminate the agreement for their convenience, subject to prior notice requirements. If we are required to change contract manufacturers, our ability to meet our scheduled product deliveries to our customers could be adversely affected, which could cause the loss of sales to existing or potential customers, delayed revenue or an increase in our costs which could adversely affect our gross margins. Any production interruptions for any reason, such as a natural disaster, epidemic, capacity shortages, or quality problems, at one of our manufacturing partners would negatively affect sales of our product lines manufactured by that manufacturing partner and adversely affect our business and operating results.
Managing the supply of our products and product components is complex. Insufficient supply and inventory may result in lost sales opportunities or delayed revenue, while excess inventory may harm our gross margins.
Our third-party manufacturers procure components and build our products based on our forecasts, and we generally do not hold inventory for a prolonged period of time. These forecasts are based on estimates of future demand for our products, which are in turn based on historical trends and analyses from our sales and marketing organizations, adjusted for overall market conditions. In order to reduce manufacturing lead times and plan for adequate component supply, from time to time we may issue forecasts for components and products that are non-cancelable and non-returnable.
Our inventory management systems and related supply chain visibility tools may be inadequate to enable us to forecast accurately and effectively manage supply of our products and product components. Supply management remains an increased area of focus as we balance the need to maintain supply levels that are sufficient to ensure competitive lead times against the risk of

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obsolescence because of rapidly changing technology and end-customer requirements. If we ultimately determine that we have excess supply, we may have to reduce our prices and write-down inventory, which in turn could result in lower gross margins. If our actual component usage and product demand are lower than the forecast we provide to our third-party manufacturers, we accrue for losses on manufacturing commitments in excess of forecasted demand. Alternatively, insufficient supply levels may lead to shortages that result in delayed revenue or loss of sales opportunities altogether as potential end-customers turn to competitors’ products that are readily available. Additionally, any increases in the time required to manufacture our products or ship products could result in supply shortfalls. If we are unable to effectively manage our supply and inventory, our operating results could be adversely affected.
Because some of the key components in our products come from limited sources of supply, we are susceptible to supply shortages or supply changes, which could disrupt or delay our scheduled product deliveries to our customers and may result in the loss of sales and customers.
Our products rely on key components, including integrated circuit components, which our contract manufacturers purchase on our behalf from a limited number of suppliers, including sole source providers. The manufacturing operations of some of our component suppliers are geographically concentrated in Asia and elsewhere, which makes our supply chain vulnerable to regional disruptions. A fire, flood, earthquake, tsunami or other disaster, condition or event such as political instability, civil unrest or a power outage that adversely affects any of these component suppliers’ facilities could significantly affect our ability to obtain the necessary components for our products, which could result in a substantial loss of sales and revenue and a substantial harm to our operating results. Similarly, a localized health risk affecting employees at these facilities, such as the spread of a pandemic influenza, could impair the volume of components that we are able to obtain, which could result in substantial harm to our operating results.
We do not have volume purchase contracts with any of our component suppliers, and they could cease selling to us at any time. In addition, our component suppliers change their selling prices frequently in response to market trends, including industry-wide increases in demand, and because we do not have volume purchase contracts with these suppliers, we are susceptible to price fluctuations related to raw materials and components. If we are unable to pass component price increases along to our end-customers or maintain stable pricing, our gross margins and operating results could be negatively impacted. If we are unable to obtain a sufficient quantity of these components in a timely manner for any reason, sales of our products could be delayed or halted or we could be forced to expedite shipment of such components or our products at dramatically increased costs, which would negatively impact our revenue and gross margins. Additionally, poor quality in any of the sole-sourced components in our products could result in lost sales or lost sales opportunities. If the quality of the components does not meet our or our end-customers’ requirements, if we are unable to obtain components from our existing suppliers on commercially reasonable terms, or if any of our sole source providers cease to remain in business or manufacture such components, we could be forced to redesign our products and qualify new components from alternate suppliers. The resulting stoppage or delay in selling our products and the expense of redesigning our products could result in lost sales opportunities and damage to customer relationships, which would adversely affect our business and operating results.
If we are not successful in executing our strategy to increase sales of our products and services to new and existing medium and large enterprise end-customers, our operating results may suffer.
Our growth strategy is dependent, in part, upon increasing sales of our products to medium and large enterprises. Sales to these types of end-customers involve risks that may not be present (or that are present to a lesser extent) with sales to smaller entities. These risks include:
competition from larger competitors, such as Cisco, Check Point, and Juniper, that traditionally target larger enterprises, service providers, and government entities and that may have pre-existing relationships or purchase commitments from those end-customers;
increased purchasing power and leverage held by large end-customers in negotiating contractual arrangements with us;
more stringent requirements in our worldwide support and maintenance service contracts, including stricter support response times and penalties for any failure to meet support requirements; and
longer sales cycles and the associated risk that substantial time and resources may be spent on a potential end-customer that elects not to purchase our products and services.
Large enterprises often undertake a significant evaluation process that results in a lengthy sales cycle, in some cases over 12 months. Although we have a channel sales model, our sales representatives typically engage in direct interaction with our distributors and resellers in connection with sales to larger end-customers. Because these evaluations are often lengthy, with significant size and scope and stringent requirements, we typically provide evaluation products to these end-customers. We may spend substantial time, effort, and money in our sales efforts without being successful in generating any sales. In addition, product purchases by large enterprises are frequently subject to budget constraints, multiple approvals, and unplanned administrative, processing, and other delays. Finally, large enterprises typically have longer implementation cycles, require greater product functionality and scalability and a broader range of services, demand that vendors take on a larger share of risks, sometimes require acceptance provisions that can lead to a delay in revenue recognition, and expect greater payment flexibility from vendors. All of these factors can add further risk to

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business conducted with these end-customers. If we fail to realize an expected sale from a large end-customer in a particular quarter or at all, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
We rely on revenue from subscription and support and maintenance services, which may decline, and because we recognize revenue from subscription and support and maintenance services over the term of the relevant service period, downturns or upturns in sales of these subscription and support and maintenance services are not immediately reflected in full in our operating results.
Services revenue accounts for a significant portion of our revenue, comprising 50.3% of total revenue in the first quarter of fiscal 2016 and 47.2% of total revenue in the first quarter of fiscal 2015. Sales of new or renewal subscription and support and maintenance contracts may decline and fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including end-customers’ level of satisfaction with our products and services, the prices of our products and services, the prices of products and services offered by our competitors, and reductions in our end-customers’ spending levels. If our sales of new or renewal subscription and support and maintenance contracts decline, our total revenue and revenue growth rate may decline and our business will suffer. In addition, we recognize subscription and support and maintenance revenue monthly over the term of the relevant service period, which is typically one year and can be up to five years. As a result, much of the subscription and support and maintenance revenue we report each fiscal quarter is the recognition of deferred revenue from subscription and support and maintenance contracts entered into during previous fiscal quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed subscription or support and maintenance contracts in any one fiscal quarter will not be fully or immediately reflected in revenue in that fiscal quarter but will negatively affect our revenue in future fiscal quarters. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in new or renewed sales of our subscriptions or support and maintenance is not reflected in full in our operating results until future periods. Also, it is difficult for us to rapidly increase our services revenue through additional services sales in any period, as revenue from new and renewal subscription and support and maintenance contracts must be recognized over the applicable service period. Furthermore, any increase in the average term of subscription and support and maintenance contracts would result in revenue for such contracts being recognized over longer periods of time.
Defects, errors, or vulnerabilities in our products or services or the failure of our products or services to block a virus or prevent a security breach could harm our reputation and adversely impact our operating results.
Because our products and services are complex, they have contained and may contain design or manufacturing defects or errors that are not detected until after their commercial release and deployment by our end-customers. For example, from time to time, certain of our end-customers have reported defects in our products related to performance, scalability, and compatibility that were not detected before shipping the product. Additionally, defects may cause our products or services to be vulnerable to security attacks, cause them to fail to help secure networks, or temporarily interrupt end-customers’ networking traffic. Because the techniques used by computer hackers to access or sabotage networks change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques and provide a solution in time to protect our end-customers’ networks. Furthermore, as a well-known provider of security solutions, our networks, products, including cloud-based technology, and services could be targeted by attacks specifically designed to disrupt our business and harm our reputation. In addition, defects or errors in our subscription updates or our products could result in a failure of our services to effectively update end-customers’ hardware and cloud-based products and thereby leave our end-customers vulnerable to attacks. Our data centers and networks may experience technical failures and downtime, may fail to distribute appropriate updates, or may fail to meet the increased requirements of a growing installed end-customer base, any of which could temporarily or permanently expose our end-customers’ networks, leaving their networks unprotected against the latest security threats.
Any defects, errors, or vulnerabilities in our products, whether real or perceived, could result in:
expenditure of significant financial and product development resources in efforts to analyze, correct, eliminate, or work-around errors or defects or to address and eliminate vulnerabilities;
loss of existing or potential end-customers or channel partners;
delayed or lost revenue;
delay or failure to attain market acceptance;
an increase in warranty claims compared with our historical experience, or an increased cost of servicing warranty claims, either of which would adversely affect our gross margins; and
litigation, regulatory inquiries, or investigations that may be costly and harm our reputation.
Our business is subject to the risks of warranty claims, product returns, product liability, and product defects.
Our products are very complex and, despite testing prior to their release, they have contained and may contain undetected defects or errors, especially when first introduced or when new versions are released. Product defects or errors could affect the performance of our products and could delay the development or release of new products or new versions of products, adversely affect our reputation and our end-customers’ willingness to buy products from us, and adversely affect market acceptance or perception of

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our products. Any such errors or delays in releasing new products or new versions of products or allegations of unsatisfactory performance could cause us to lose revenue or market share, increase our service costs, cause us to incur substantial costs in redesigning the products, cause us to lose significant end-customers, subject us to liability for damages, and divert our resources from other tasks, any one of which could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition. Our products must successfully interoperate with products from other vendors. As a result, when problems occur in a network, it may be difficult to identify the sources of these problems. For example, from time to time, certain of our end-customers have experienced temporary delays or interoperability issues when implementing our products in large complex global deployments where our products are required to interoperate with a complex environment of third-party products. The occurrence of hardware or software errors, whether or not caused by our products, could delay or reduce market acceptance of our products, and have an adverse effect on our business and financial performance, and any necessary revisions may cause us to incur significant expenses. The occurrence of any such problems could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.
The limitation of liability provisions in our standard terms and conditions of sale may not fully or effectively protect us from claims as a result of federal, state, or local laws or ordinances, or unfavorable judicial decisions in the United States or other countries. The sale and support of our products also entails the risk of product liability claims. Although we may be indemnified by our third-party manufacturers for product liability claims arising out of manufacturing defects, because we control the design of our products, we may not be indemnified for product liability claims arising out of design defects. We maintain insurance to protect against certain claims associated with the use of our products, but our insurance coverage may not adequately cover any claim asserted against us. In addition, even claims that ultimately are unsuccessful could result in our expenditure of funds in litigation, divert management’s time and other resources, and harm our reputation.
If the enterprise security market does not continue to adopt our security platform, our sales will not grow as quickly as anticipated, and the market price of our common stock could decline.
We are seeking to disrupt the enterprise security market with our security platform. However, organizations that use legacy products and services for their security needs may believe that these products and services sufficiently achieve their purpose. Organizations may also believe that our products and services only serve the needs of a portion of the enterprise security market. Accordingly, organizations may continue allocating their information technology budgets for legacy products and services and may not adopt our security platform. If the enterprise security market does not continue to adopt our security platform, if end-customers do not recognize the value of our platform compared to legacy products and services, or if we are otherwise unable to sell our products and services to organizations, then our revenue may not grow or may decline and the market price of our common stock could decline.
If we do not accurately predict, prepare for, and respond promptly to the rapidly evolving technological and market developments and changing end-customer needs in the enterprise security market, our competitive position and prospects will be harmed.
The enterprise security market has grown quickly and is expected to continue to evolve rapidly. Moreover, many of our end-customers operate in markets characterized by rapidly changing technologies and business plans, which require them to add numerous network access points and adapt increasingly complex enterprise networks, incorporating a variety of hardware, software applications, operating systems, and networking protocols. The technology in our products is especially complex because it needs to effectively identify and respond to new and increasingly sophisticated methods of attack, while minimizing the impact on network performance. Additionally, some of our new products and enhancements may require us to develop new hardware architectures that involve complex, expensive, and time-consuming research and development processes. Although the market expects rapid introduction of new products or product enhancements to respond to new threats, the development of these products is difficult and the timetable for commercial release and availability is uncertain as there can be long time periods between releases and availability of new products. We may experience unanticipated delays in the availability of new products and services and fail to meet customer expectations for such availability. If we do not quickly respond to the rapidly changing and rigorous needs of our end-customers by developing, releasing, and making available on a timely basis new products and services or enhancements that can respond adequately to new security threats, our competitive position and business prospects will be harmed.
Additionally, the process of developing new technology is complex and uncertain, and if we fail to accurately predict end-customers’ changing needs and emerging technological trends in the enterprise security industry, including the areas of mobility, virtualization, cloud computing, and software defined networks (SDN), our business could be harmed. We must commit significant resources to developing new products before knowing whether our investments will result in products the market will accept. The success of new products depends on several factors, including appropriate new product definition, component costs, timely completion and introduction of these products, differentiation of new products from those of our competitors, and market acceptance of these products. There can be no assurance that we will successfully identify new product opportunities, develop and bring new products to market in a timely manner, or achieve market acceptance of our products, or that products and technologies developed by others will not render our products or technologies obsolete or noncompetitive.

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To remain competitive, we must successfully manage product introductions and transitions.
Due to the highly volatile and competitive nature of the industries in which we compete, we must continually introduce new products, services and technologies, and enhance existing products and services. The success of new product introductions depends on a number of factors including, but not limited to, timely and successful product development, market acceptance, our ability to manage the risks associated with new product production ramp-up issues, the availability of application software for new products, the effective management of purchase commitments and inventory in line with anticipated product demand, the availability of products in appropriate quantities and costs to meet anticipated demand, and the risk that new products may have quality or other defects or deficiencies in the early stages of introduction. Accordingly, we cannot determine in advance the ultimate effect of new product introductions and transitions on our business and operating results.
Our current research and development efforts may not produce successful products or features that result in significant revenue, cost savings or other benefits in the near future, if at all.
Developing our products and related enhancements is expensive. Our investments in research and development may not result in significant design improvements, marketable products or features, or may result in products that are more expensive than anticipated. Additionally, we may not achieve the cost savings or the anticipated performance improvements we expect, and we may take longer to generate revenue, or generate less revenue, than we anticipate. Our future plans include significant investments in research and development and related product opportunities. We believe that we must continue to dedicate a significant amount of resources to our research and development efforts to maintain our competitive position. However, we may not receive significant revenue from these investments in the near future, if at all, or these investments may not yield the expected benefits, either of which could adversely affect our business and operating results.
The sales prices of our products and services may decrease, which may reduce our gross profits and adversely impact our financial results.
The sales prices for our products and services may decline for a variety of reasons, including competitive pricing pressures, discounts, a change in our mix of products and services, anticipation of the introduction of new products or services, or promotional programs. Competition continues to increase in the market segments in which we participate, and we expect competition to further increase in the future, thereby leading to increased pricing pressures. Larger competitors with more diverse product and service offerings may reduce the price of products or services that compete with ours or may bundle them with other products and services. Additionally, although we price our products and services worldwide in U.S. dollars, currency fluctuations in certain countries and regions may negatively impact actual prices that channel partners and end-customers are willing to pay in those countries and regions. Furthermore, we anticipate that the sales prices and gross profits for our products will decrease over product life cycles. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in developing and introducing new offerings with enhanced functionality on a timely basis, or that our product and service offerings, if introduced, will enable us to maintain our prices and gross profits at levels that will allow us to achieve and maintain profitability.
We generate a significant amount of revenue from sales to distributors, resellers, and end-customers outside of the United States, and we are therefore subject to a number of risks associated with international sales and operations.
We have a limited history of marketing, selling, and supporting our products and services internationally. As a result, we must hire and train experienced personnel to staff and manage our foreign operations. To the extent that we experience difficulties in recruiting, training, managing, and retaining an international staff, and specifically staff related to sales management and sales personnel, we may experience difficulties in sales productivity in foreign markets. We also enter into strategic distributor and reseller relationships with companies in certain international markets where we do not have a local presence. If we are not able to maintain successful strategic distributor relationships internationally or recruit additional companies to enter into strategic distributor relationships, our future success in these international markets could be limited. Business practices in the international markets that we serve may differ from those in the United States and may require us in the future to include terms other than our standard terms in customer contracts. To the extent that we may enter into customer contracts in the future that include non-standard terms related to payment, warranties, or performance obligations, our operating results may be adversely impacted.
Additionally, our international sales and operations are subject to a number of risks, including the following:
political, economic and social uncertainty around the world, in particular, macroeconomic challenges in Europe, terrorist activities, and continued hostilities in the Middle East;
greater difficulty in enforcing contracts and accounts receivable collection and longer collection periods;
the uncertainty of protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
greater risk of unexpected changes in regulatory practices, tariffs, and tax laws and treaties;
risks associated with trade restrictions and foreign legal requirements, including the importation, certification, and localization of our products required in foreign countries;

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greater risk of a failure of foreign employees, channel partners, distributors, and resellers to comply with both U.S. and foreign laws, including antitrust regulations, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act, U.S. or foreign sanctions regimes and export or import control laws, and any trade regulations ensuring fair trade practices;
heightened risk of unfair or corrupt business practices in certain geographies and of improper or fraudulent sales arrangements that may impact financial results and result in restatements of, or irregularities in, financial statements;
increased expenses incurred in establishing and maintaining office space and equipment for our international operations;
greater difficulty in recruiting local experienced personnel, and the costs and expenses associated with such activities;
management communication and integration problems resulting from cultural and geographic dispersion;
fluctuations in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies in markets where we do business; and
general economic and political conditions in these foreign markets.
These factors and other factors could harm our ability to gain future international revenues and, consequently, materially impact our business, operating results, and financial condition. The expansion of our existing international operations and entry into additional international markets will require significant management attention and financial resources. Our failure to successfully manage our international operations and the associated risks effectively could limit the future growth of our business.
A small number of channel partners represent a large percentage of our revenue and gross accounts receivable. We are exposed to the credit and liquidity risk of some of our channel partners and to credit exposure in weakened markets, which could result in material losses.
For the first quarter of fiscal 2016, two channel partners represented 58.7% of our total revenue, and as of October 31, 2015, two channel partners represented 57.9% of our gross accounts receivable. Most of our sales to our channel partners are made on an open credit basis. Although we have programs in place that are designed to monitor and mitigate these risks, we cannot assure you these programs will be effective in reducing our credit risks, especially as we expand our business internationally. If we are unable to adequately control these risks, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be harmed.
A portion of our revenue is generated by sales to government entities, which are subject to a number of challenges and risks.
Sales to government entities are subject to a number of risks. Selling to government entities can be highly competitive, expensive, and time-consuming, often requiring significant upfront time and expense without any assurance that these efforts will generate a sale. Government certification requirements for products like ours may change, thereby restricting our ability to sell into the federal government sector until we have attained the revised certification. Government demand and payment for our products and services may be impacted by public sector budgetary cycles and funding authorizations, with funding reductions or delays adversely affecting public sector demand for our products and services. For example, the U.S. Congress may take additional action to further reduce federal spending and the deficit, which could further impact our business and operating results.
The substantial majority of our sales to date to government entities have been made indirectly through our channel partners. Government entities may have statutory, contractual, or other legal rights to terminate contracts with our distributors and resellers for convenience or due to a default, and any such termination may adversely impact our future operating results. Governments routinely investigate and audit government contractors’ administrative processes, and any unfavorable audit could result in the government refusing to continue buying our products and services, a reduction of revenue, or fines or civil or criminal liability if the audit uncovers improper or illegal activities, which could adversely impact our operating results in a material way. Finally, the U.S. government may require certain products purchased by it to be manufactured in the United States and other relatively high cost manufacturing locations, and we may not manufacture all products in locations that meet such requirements, affecting our ability to sell these products to the U.S. government.
If our products do not interoperate with our end-customers’ infrastructure, sales of our products and services could be negatively affected, which would harm our business.
Our products must interoperate with our end-customers’ existing infrastructure, which often have different specifications, utilize multiple protocol standards, deploy products from multiple vendors, and contain multiple generations of products that have been added over time. As a result, when problems occur in a network, it may be difficult to identify the sources of these problems. If we find defects in the hardware, we replace the hardware as part of our normal warranty process. If we find errors in the existing software that create problematic network configurations or settings, as we have in the past, we may have to issue software updates as part of our normal maintenance process. Any delays in identifying the sources of problems or in providing necessary modifications to our software or hardware could have a negative impact on our reputation and our end-customers’ satisfaction with our products and services, and our ability to sell products and services could be adversely affected. In addition, governments and other end-customers may require our products to comply with certain security or other certifications and standards. If our products are late in achieving or fail to achieve compliance with these certifications and standards, or our competitors achieve compliance with these certifications and

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standards, we may be disqualified from selling our products to such end-customers, or be at a competitive disadvantage, which would harm our business, operating results, and financial condition.
Our ability to sell our products is dependent on the quality of our technical support services and those of our channel partners, and the failure to offer high-quality technical support services could have a material adverse effect on our end-customers’ satisfaction with our products and services, our sales, and our operating results.
After our products are deployed within our end-customers’ networks, our end-customers depend on our technical support services, as well as the support of our channel partners, to resolve any issues relating to our products. Our channel partners often provide similar technical support for third parties’ products, and may therefore have fewer resources to dedicate to the support of our products. If we or our channel partners do not effectively assist our end-customers in deploying our products, succeed in helping our end-customers quickly resolve post-deployment issues, or provide effective ongoing support, our ability to sell additional products and services to existing end-customers would be adversely affected and our reputation with potential end-customers could be damaged. Many larger enterprise, service provider, and government entity end-customers have more complex networks and require higher levels of support than smaller end-customers. If we or our channel partners fail to meet the requirements of these larger end-customers, it may be more difficult to execute on our strategy to increase our coverage with larger end-customers. Additionally, if our channel partners do not effectively provide support to the satisfaction of our end-customers, we may be required to provide direct support to such end-customers, which would require us to hire additional personnel and to invest in additional resources. It can take several months to recruit, hire, and train qualified technical support employees. We may not be able to hire such resources fast enough to keep up with unexpected demand, particularly if the sales of our products exceed our internal forecasts. To the extent that we or our channel partners are unsuccessful in hiring, training, and retaining adequate support resources, our and our channel partners’ ability to provide adequate and timely support to our end-customers will be negatively impacted, and our end-customers’ satisfaction with our products and services will be adversely affected. Additionally, to the extent that we may need to rely on our sales engineers to provide post-sales support while we are ramping our support resources, our sales productivity will be negatively impacted, which would harm our revenues. Our or our channel partners’ failure to provide and maintain high-quality support services would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.
We face risks associated with having operations and employees located in Israel.
As a result of our acquisition of Cyvera Ltd. (“Cyvera”), we have offices and employees located in Israel. As a result, political, economic, and military conditions in Israel directly affect our operations. The future of peace efforts between Israel and its Arab neighbors remains uncertain. There has been a significant increase in hostilities and political unrest between Hamas and Israel in the past year. The effects of these hostilities and violence on the Israeli economy and our operations in Israel are unclear, and we cannot predict the effect on us of further increases in these hostilities or future armed conflict, political instability or violence in the region. Current or future tensions and conflicts in the Middle East could adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
In addition, many of our employees in Israel are obligated to perform annual reserve duty in the Israeli military and are subject to being called for active duty under emergency circumstances. We cannot predict the full impact of these conditions on us in the future, particularly if emergency circumstances or an escalation in the political situation occurs. If many of our employees in Israel are called for active duty for a significant period of time, our operations and our business could be disrupted and may not be able to function at full capacity. Any disruption in our operations in Israel could adversely affect our business.
We may acquire other businesses, which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value, and adversely affect our operating results.
As part of our business strategy, we may acquire or make investments in complementary companies, products, or technologies. For example, in December 2013, we acquired Morta Security, Inc., in April 2014, we acquired Cyvera, and in May 2015, we acquired CirroSecure, Inc., all of which were cybersecurity companies. However, we have not made any other significant acquisitions to date, and as a result, our ability as an organization to acquire and integrate other companies, products, or technologies in a successful manner is unproven. The identification of suitable acquisition candidates is difficult, and we may not be able to complete such acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. If we do complete future acquisitions, we may not ultimately strengthen our competitive position or achieve our goals and business strategy, we may be subject to claims or liabilities assumed from an acquired company, product, or technology, and any acquisitions we complete could be viewed negatively by our end-customers, investors, and securities analysts. In addition, if we are unsuccessful at integrating past or future acquisitions, or the technologies associated with such acquisitions, into our company, the revenue and operating results of the combined company could be adversely affected. Any integration process may require significant time and resources, which may disrupt our ongoing business and divert management’s attention, and we may not be able to manage the integration process successfully. We may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology or personnel, realize anticipated synergies from the acquisition, or accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction and integration of such acquisition, including accounting charges. We may have to pay cash, incur debt, or issue equity or equity-linked securities to pay for any future acquisitions, each of which could adversely affect our financial condition or the market price of our common stock. The sale of equity or issuance of equity-linked debt to finance any future acquisitions could

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result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed obligations and could also include covenants or other restrictions that would impede our ability to manage our operations. The occurrence of any of these risks could harm our business, operating results, and financial condition.
False detection of applications, viruses, spyware, vulnerability exploits, data patterns, or URL categories could adversely affect our business.
Our classifications of application type, virus, spyware, vulnerability exploits, data, or URL categories may falsely detect applications, content, or threats that do not actually exist. This risk is heightened by the inclusion of a “heuristics” feature in our products, which attempts to identify applications and other threats not based on any known signatures but based on characteristics or anomalies which indicate that a particular item may be a threat. These false positives may impair the perceived reliability of our products and may therefore adversely impact market acceptance of our products. If our products restrict important files or applications based on falsely identifying them as malware or some other item that should be restricted, this could adversely affect end-customers’ systems and cause material system failures. Any such false identification of important files or applications could result in damage to our reputation, negative publicity, loss of channel partners, end-customers and sales, increased costs to remedy any problem, and costly litigation.
Claims by others that we infringe their proprietary technology or other rights could harm our business.
Companies in the enterprise security industry own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks, domain names, and trade secrets and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation, or other violations of intellectual property or other rights. As we face increasing competition and gain an increasingly high profile, the possibility of intellectual property rights claims against us grows. Third parties have asserted and may in the future assert claims of infringement of intellectual property rights against us. For example, in December 2011, Juniper, one of our competitors, filed a lawsuit against us alleging patent infringement. In September 2013, we filed a lawsuit against Juniper alleging patent infringement. In May 2014, we entered into a Settlement, Release and Cross-License Agreement with Juniper to resolve all pending disputes between Juniper and us, including dismissal of all pending litigation.
Third parties may also assert such claims against our end-customers or channel partners, whom our standard license and other agreements obligate us to indemnify against claims that our products infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties. Furthermore, we may be unaware of the intellectual property rights of others that may cover some or all of our technology or products. As the number of products and competitors in our market increases and overlaps occur, infringement claims may increase. While we intend to increase the size of our patent portfolio, our competitors and others may now and in the future have significantly larger and more mature patent portfolios than we have. In addition, future litigation may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product revenue and against whom our own patents may therefore provide little or no deterrence or protection. In addition, we have not registered our trademarks in all of our geographic markets and failure to secure those registrations could adversely affect our ability to enforce and defend our trademark rights. Any claim of infringement by a third party, even those without merit, could cause us to incur substantial costs defending against the claim, could distract our management from our business, and could require us to cease use of such intellectual property. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation.
Although third parties may offer a license to their technology or other intellectual property, the terms of any offered license may not be acceptable and the failure to obtain a license or the costs associated with any license could cause our business, financial condition, and operating results to be materially and adversely affected. In addition, some licenses may be non-exclusive, and therefore our competitors may have access to the same technology licensed to us. If a third party does not offer us a license to its technology or other intellectual property on reasonable terms, or at all, we could be enjoined from continued use of such intellectual property. As a result, we may be required to develop alternative, non-infringing technology, which could require significant time (during which we would be unable to continue to offer our affected products or services), effort, and expense and may ultimately not be successful. Furthermore, a successful claimant could secure a judgment or we may agree to a settlement that prevents us from distributing certain products or performing certain services or that requires us to pay substantial damages, royalties, or other fees. Any of these events could seriously harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.
Our proprietary rights may be difficult to enforce or protect, which could enable others to copy or use aspects of our products without compensating us.
We rely and expect to continue to rely on a combination of confidentiality and license agreements with our employees, consultants, and third parties with whom we have relationships, as well as trademark, copyright, patent, and trade secret protection laws, to protect our proprietary rights. We have filed various applications for certain aspects of our intellectual property. Valid patents may not issue from our pending applications, and the claims eventually allowed on any patents may not be sufficiently broad to protect our technology or products. Any issued patents may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, and any rights granted under these patents may not actually provide adequate defensive protection or competitive advantages to us. Patent applications in the

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United States are typically not published until 18 months after filing, or, in some cases, not at all, and publications of discoveries in industry-related literature lag behind actual discoveries. We cannot be certain that we were the first to make the inventions claimed in our pending patent applications or that we were the first to file for patent protection, which could prevent our patent applications from issuing as patents or invalidate our patents following issuance. Additionally, the process of obtaining patent protection is expensive and time-consuming, and we may not be able to prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. Additional uncertainty may result from changes to patent-related laws enacted in the United States and other jurisdictions, including the America Invents Act and changes that may bring into question the validity of certain categories of software patents, and from interpretations of the intellectual property laws of the United States and other countries by applicable courts and agencies. As a result, we may not be able to obtain adequate patent protection or effectively enforce any issued patents.
Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of our products or obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary. We generally enter into confidentiality or license agreements with our employees, consultants, vendors, and customers, and generally limit access to and distribution of our proprietary information. However, we cannot assure you that we have entered into such agreements with all parties who may have or have had access to our confidential information or that the agreements we have entered into will not be breached. We cannot guarantee that any of the measures we have taken will prevent misappropriation of our technology. Because we may be an attractive target for computer hackers, we may have a greater risk of unauthorized access to, and misappropriation of, our proprietary information. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect our proprietary rights to as great an extent as the laws of the United States, and many foreign countries do not enforce these laws as diligently as government agencies and private parties in the United States. From time to time, we may need to take legal action to enforce our patents and other intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others or to defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Such litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could negatively affect our business, operating results, and financial condition. Attempts to enforce our rights against third parties could also provoke these third parties to assert their own intellectual property or other rights against us, or result in a holding that invalidates or narrows the scope of our rights, in whole or in part. If we are unable to protect our proprietary rights (including aspects of our software and products protected other than by patent rights), we may find ourselves at a competitive disadvantage to others who need not incur the additional expense, time, and effort required to create the innovative products that have enabled us to be successful to date. Any of these events would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.
Our use of open source software in our products could negatively affect our ability to sell our products and subject us to possible litigation.
Our products contain software modules licensed to us by third-party authors under “open source” licenses. Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software we use. If we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software to the public. This would allow our competitors to create similar products with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of product sales for us.
Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our products to conditions we do not intend, the terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by United States courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products. From time to time, there have been claims against companies that distribute or use open source software in their products and services, asserting that open source software infringes the claimants’ intellectual property rights. We could be subject to suits by parties claiming infringement of intellectual property rights in what we believe to be licensed open source software. Moreover, we cannot assure you that our processes for controlling our use of open source software in our products will be effective. If we are held to have breached the terms of an open source software license, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties to continue offering our products on terms that are not economically feasible, to re-engineer our products, to discontinue the sale of our products if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely basis, or to make generally available, in source code form, our proprietary code, any of which could adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.
In addition to risks related to license requirements, usage of open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or assurance of title or controls on origin of the software. In addition, many of the risks associated with usage of open source software, such as the lack of warranties or assurances of title, cannot be eliminated, and could, if not properly addressed, negatively affect our business. We have established processes to help alleviate these risks, including a review process for screening requests from our development organizations for the use of open source software, but we cannot be sure that all open source software is submitted for approval prior to use in our products.
Our failure to adequately protect personal information could have a material adverse effect on our business.
A wide variety of provincial, state, national, and international laws and regulations apply to the collection, use, retention, protection, disclosure, transfer, and other processing of personal data. These data protection and privacy-related laws and regulations

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are evolving and being tested in courts and may result in ever-increasing regulatory and public scrutiny as well as escalating levels of enforcement and sanctions. Our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or to protect such data, could result in enforcement action against us, including fines, imprisonment of company officials and public censure, claims for damages by end-customers and other affected individuals, damage to our reputation and loss of goodwill (both in relation to existing end-customers and prospective end-customers), any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations, financial performance, and business. Evolving and changing definitions of personal data and personal information, within the European Union, the United States, and elsewhere, especially relating to classification of IP addresses, machine identification, location data, and other information, may limit or inhibit our ability to operate or expand our business, including limiting strategic partnerships that may involve the sharing of data. Even the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may harm our reputation and inhibit adoption of our products by current and future end-customers.
We license technology from third parties, and our inability to maintain those licenses could harm our business.
We incorporate technology that we license from third parties, including software, into our products and services. We cannot be certain that our licensors are not infringing the intellectual property rights of third parties or that our licensors have sufficient rights to the licensed intellectual property in all jurisdictions in which we may sell our products. Some of our agreements with our licensors may be terminated for convenience by them. If we are unable to continue to license any of this technology because of intellectual property infringement claims brought by third parties against our licensors or against us, or if we are unable to continue our license agreements or enter into new licenses on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to develop and sell products and services containing that technology would be severely limited, and our business could be harmed. Additionally, if we are unable to license necessary technology from third parties, we may be forced to acquire or develop alternative technology, which we may be unable to do in a commercially feasible manner or at all, and that may require us to use alternative technology of lower quality or performance standards. This would limit and delay our ability to offer new or competitive products and services and increase our costs of production. As a result, our margins, market share, and operating results could be significantly harmed.
Misuse of our products could harm our reputation and divert resources.
Our products may be misused by end-customers or third parties that obtain access to our products. For example, our products could be used to censor private access to certain information on the Internet. Such use of our products for censorship could result in negative press coverage and negatively affect our reputation.
We are subject to governmental export and import controls that could subject us to liability or impair our ability to compete in international markets.
Because we incorporate encryption technology into our products, certain of our products are subject to U.S. export controls and may be exported outside the United States only with the required export license or through an export license exception. If we were to fail to comply with U.S. export licensing requirements, U.S. customs regulations, U.S. economic sanctions, or other laws, we could be subject to substantial civil and criminal penalties, including fines, incarceration for responsible employees and managers, and the possible loss of export or import privileges. Obtaining the necessary export license for a particular sale may be time-consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. Furthermore, U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions prohibit the shipment of certain products to U.S. embargoed or sanctioned countries, governments, and persons. Even though we take precautions to ensure that our channel partners comply with all relevant regulations, any failure by our channel partners to comply with such regulations could have negative consequences for us, including reputational harm, government investigations, and penalties.
In addition, various countries regulate the import of certain encryption technology, including through import permit and license requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our products or could limit our end-customers’ ability to implement our products in those countries. Changes in our products or changes in export and import regulations may create delays in the introduction of our products into international markets, prevent our end-customers with international operations from deploying our products globally or, in some cases, prevent or delay the export or import of our products to certain countries, governments, or persons altogether. Any change in export or import regulations, economic sanctions or related legislation, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons, or technologies targeted by such regulations, could result in decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products to, existing or potential end-customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our products or limitation on our ability to export to or sell our products in international markets would likely adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.