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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10‑K

 

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Commission File Number 001‑16817

FIVE STAR QUALITY CARE, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

Maryland
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or
Organization)

04‑3516029
(IRS Employer Identification No.)

 

400 Centre Street, Newton, Massachusetts 02458

(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code): 617‑796‑8387

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

Title Of Each Class

Name Of Each Exchange On Which Registered

Common Stock

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well‑known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes   No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S‑T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes   No 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S‑K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10‑K or any amendment to this Form 10‑K. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non‑accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non‑accelerated filer 
(Do not check if a
smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b‑2 of the Act). Yes   No 

The aggregate market value of the voting shares of common stock, $.01 par value, or common shares, of the registrant held by non‑affiliates was $215.6 million based on the $5.01 closing price per common share on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2014. For purposes of this calculation, an aggregate of 1,345,361.1 common shares held directly by, or by affiliates of, the directors and the officers of the registrant, plus 4,235,000 common shares held by Senior Housing Properties Trust, have been included in the number of common shares held by affiliates.

Number of the registrant’s common shares outstanding as of March 13, 2015:  48,997,315.

References in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K to “we,” “us” or “our” mean Five Star Quality Care, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise.

 

 


 

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Certain information required by Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is incorporated by reference to our definitive Proxy Statement for the 2015 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, or our definitive Proxy Statement, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, within 120 days after the close of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014. 

 

WARNING CONCERNING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

THIS ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10‑K CONTAINS STATEMENTS THAT CONSTITUTE FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE PRIVATE SECURITIES LITIGATION REFORM ACT OF 1995 AND OTHER SECURITIES LAWS. ALSO, WHENEVER WE USE WORDS SUCH AS BELIEVE,  EXPECT,  ANTICIPATE,  INTEND,  PLAN,  ESTIMATE OR SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS, WE ARE MAKING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS. THESE FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS ARE BASED UPON OUR PRESENT INTENT, BELIEFS OR EXPECTATIONS, BUT FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS ARE NOT GUARANTEED TO OCCUR AND MAY NOT OCCUR. FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS IN THIS REPORT RELATE TO VARIOUS ASPECTS OF OUR BUSINESS, INCLUDING:

·

OUR ABILITY TO OPERATE OUR SENIOR LIVING COMMUNITIES PROFITABLY,

·

OUR ABILITY TO COMPLY AND TO REMAIN IN COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE MEDICARE, MEDICAID AND OTHER FEDERAL AND STATE REGULATORY, RULE MAKING AND RATE SETTING REQUIREMENTS,

·

OUR ABILITY TO MEET OUR RENT AND DEBT OBLIGATIONS,

·

OUR ABILITY TO RAISE EQUITY OR DEBT CAPITAL,

·

OUR ABILITY TO COMPETE FOR ACQUISITIONS EFFECTIVELY, TO MANAGE ADDITIONAL SENIOR LIVING COMMUNITIES AND TO SELL PROPERTIES WE OFFER FOR SALE,

·

THE FUTURE AVAILABILITY OF BORROWINGS UNDER OUR CREDIT FACILITIES,

·

OUR EXPECTATION THAT WE WILL BENEFIT FINANCIALLY BY PARTICIPATING IN AFFILIATES INSURANCE COMPANY, OR AIC, WITH REIT MANAGEMENT & RESEARCH LLC, OR RMR, AND COMPANIES TO WHICH RMR PROVIDES MANAGEMENT SERVICES,

·

THE IMPACT OF THE PATIENT PROTECTION AND AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, AS AMENDED BY THE HEALTHCARE AND EDUCATION RECONCILIATION ACT, OR COLLECTIVELY, THE ACA, AND OTHER EXISTING OR PROPOSED LEGISLATION OR REGULATIONS ON US, AND

·

OTHER MATTERS.

OUR ACTUAL RESULTS MAY DIFFER MATERIALLY FROM THOSE CONTAINED IN OR IMPLIED BY OUR FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS AS A RESULT OF VARIOUS FACTORS. FACTORS THAT COULD HAVE A MATERIAL ADVERSE EFFECT ON OUR FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS AND UPON OUR BUSINESS, RESULTS OF OPERATIONS, FINANCIAL CONDITION, CASH FLOWS, LIQUIDITY AND PROSPECTS INCLUDE, BUT ARE NOT LIMITED TO:

 

i

 


 

·

CHANGES IN MEDICARE AND MEDICAID POLICIES, INCLUDING THOSE THAT MAY RESULT FROM THE IMPACT OF THE ACA AND OTHER RECENTLY ENACTED, ADOPTED OR PROPOSED LEGISLATION OR REGULATIONS, WHICH COULD RESULT IN REDUCED RATES OF PAYMENT TO US,

·

THE IMPACT OF CHANGES IN THE ECONOMY AND THE CAPITAL MARKETS ON US AND OUR RESIDENTS AND OTHER CUSTOMERS,

·

COMPETITION WITHIN THE SENIOR LIVING SERVICES BUSINESS,

·

INCREASES IN INSURANCE AND TORT LIABILITY COSTS,

·

INCREASES IN OUR LABOR COSTS OR IN COSTS WE PAY FOR GOODS AND SERVICES,

·

ACTUAL AND POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST WITH OUR MANAGING DIRECTORS, SENIOR HOUSING PROPERTIES TRUST OR ITS SUBSIDIARIES, OR SNH, RMR, AIC AND THEIR RELATED PERSONS AND ENTITIES,

·

DELAYS OR NONPAYMENTS OF GOVERNMENT PAYMENTS TO US THAT COULD RESULT FROM GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWNS, PAYMENT DEFAULTS OR PAYMENT DELAYS,

·

COMPLIANCE WITH, AND CHANGES TO FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS THAT COULD AFFECT OUR SERVICES OR IMPOSE REQUIREMENTS, COSTS AND ADMINISTRATIVE BURDENS THAT MAY REDUCE OUR ABILITY TO PROFITABLY OPERATE OUR BUSINESS, AND

·

ACTS OF TERRORISM, OUTBREAKS OF SO CALLED PANDEMICS OR OTHER MANMADE OR NATURAL DISASTERS BEYOND OUR CONTROL.

FOR EXAMPLE:

·

THE VARIOUS GOVERNMENTS WHICH PAY US FOR THE SERVICES WE PROVIDE TO OUR RESIDENTS ARE CURRENTLY EXPERIENCING BUDGETARY CONSTRAINTS AND MAY LOWER THE MEDICARE, MEDICAID AND OTHER RATES THEY PAY US. BECAUSE WE OFTEN CANNOT ETHICALLY LOWER THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICES WE PROVIDE TO MATCH THE AVAILABLE MEDICARE, MEDICAID AND OTHER RATES WE ARE PAID, WE MAY EXPERIENCE LOSSES AND SUCH LOSSES MAY BE MATERIAL,

·

WE MAY ENTER INTO ADDITIONAL OR CHANGED MANAGEMENT ARRANGEMENTS OR POOLING AGREEMENTS WITH SNH SIMILAR TO THOSE CURRENTLY IN EFFECT FOR US TO MANAGE ADDITIONAL SENIOR LIVING COMMUNITIES SNH MAY ACQUIRE IN THE FUTURE. HOWEVER, THERE CAN BE NO ASSURANCE THAT SNH WILL ACQUIRE ADDITIONAL COMMUNITIES OR THAT WE AND SNH WILL ENTER INTO ANY ADDITIONAL MANAGEMENT ARRANGEMENTS OR POOLING AGREEMENTS,

·

OUR ABILITY TO OPERATE AND MANAGE NEW SENIOR LIVING COMMUNITIES PROFITABLY DEPENDS UPON MANY FACTORS, INCLUDING OUR ABILITY TO INTEGRATE NEW COMMUNITIES INTO OUR EXISTING OPERATIONS AND SOME FACTORS WHICH ARE BEYOND OUR CONTROL SUCH AS THE DEMAND FOR OUR SERVICES ARISING FROM ECONOMIC CONDITIONS GENERALLY AND COMPETITION FROM OTHER PROVIDERS OF SENIOR LIVING SERVICES. WE MAY NOT BE ABLE TO SUCCESSFULLY INTEGRATE NEW COMMUNITIES OR OPERATE AND MANAGE NEW COMMUNITIES PROFITABLY,

ii

 


 

·

OUR BELIEF THAT THE AGING OF THE U.S. POPULATION WILL INCREASE DEMAND FOR SENIOR LIVING COMMUNITIES MAY NOT BE REALIZED OR MAY NOT RESULT IN INCREASED DEMAND FOR OUR SERVICES,

·

AT DECEMBER 31, 2014, WE HAD $21.0 MILLION OF CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS, $35.0 MILLION OF BORROWINGS OUTSTANDING UNDER OUR CREDIT FACILITIES AND $139.4 MILLION OF REMAINING AVAILABILITY UNDER THESE CREDIT FACILITIES, AND WE HAVE IN THE PAST SOLD IMPROVEMENTS TO SNH AND EXPECT TO REQUEST TO SELL ADDITIONAL IMPROVEMENTS TO SNH FOR INCREASED RENT PURSUANT TO OUR LEASES WITH SNH. THESE FACTS MAY IMPLY THAT WE HAVE ABUNDANT CASH LIQUIDITY. HOWEVER, OUR OPERATIONS AND BUSINESS REQUIRE SIGNIFICANT AMOUNTS OF WORKING CASH AND REQUIRE US TO MAKE SIGNIFICANT CAPITAL EXPENDITURES TO MAINTAIN OUR COMPETITIVENESS. ACCORDINGLY, WE MAY NOT HAVE SUFFICIENT CASH LIQUIDITY,

·

SPECIAL COMMITTEES OF EACH OF OUR BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND SNH’S BOARD OF TRUSTEES COMPOSED SOLELY OF OUR INDEPENDENT DIRECTORS AND SNH’S INDEPENDENT TRUSTEES WHO ARE NOT ALSO DIRECTORS OR TRUSTEES OF THE OTHER PARTY AND WHO WERE REPRESENTED BY SEPARATE COUNSEL REVIEWED AND APPROVED THE TERMS OF THE INITIAL MANAGEMENT AGREEMENTS AND POOLING AGREEMENTS BETWEEN US AND SNH AND THE TERMS OF THE SUBSEQUENT MANAGEMENT AGREEMENTS, POOLING AGREEMENTS AND AMENDMENTS WERE APPROVED BY OUR INDEPENDENT DIRECTORS AND BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND BY THE INDEPENDENT TRUSTEES OF SNH. AN IMPLICATION OF THIS STATEMENT MAY BE THAT THE TERMS OF THE AGREEMENTS ARE AS FAVORABLE TO US AS TERMS WE COULD OBTAIN FROM UNRELATED THIRD PARTIES. HOWEVER, DESPITE THESE PROCEDURAL SAFEGUARDS, WE COULD STILL BE SUBJECTED TO CLAIMS CHALLENGING THESE TRANSACTIONS OR OUR ENTRY INTO THESE AGREEMENTS BECAUSE OF THE MULTIPLE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG US, SNH AND RMR AND THEIR RELATED PERSONS AND ENTITIES, AND DEFENDING EVEN MERITLESS CLAIMS COULD BE EXPENSIVE AND DISTRACTING TO MANAGEMENT,

·

DURING THE PAST SEVERAL YEARS, WEAK ECONOMIC CONDITIONS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY HAVE NEGATIVELY AFFECTED MANY ENTITIES BOTH IN AND OUTSIDE OF OUR INDUSTRY, AND THESE CONDITIONS HAVE RESULTED IN, AMONG OTHER THINGS, A DECREASE IN OUR COMMUNITIES’ OCCUPANCY; HOWEVER, IN RECENT YEARS ECONOMIC INDICATORS REFLECT AN IMPROVING HOUSING MARKET AND MANY OF THE SERVICES WE PROVIDE ARE NEEDS-DRIVEN. THESE FACTORS MAY IMPLY THAT ECONOMIC CONDITIONS WILL IMPROVE, THAT THERE MAY BE PENT UP DEMAND FOR SERVICES THAT WE PROVIDE AND THAT OUR REVENUES AND PROFITABILITY WILL IMPROVE AS A RESULT.  HOWEVER, THERE CAN BE NO ASSURANCE THAT ECONOMIC CONDITIONS WILL IMPROVE, THAT THERE EXISTS ANY PENT UP DEMAND FOR SERVICES WE PROVIDE OR THAT, EVEN IF THERE IS SUCH DEMAND, WE WOULD BE SUCCESSFUL IN ATTRACTING SUCH DEMAND, OR THAT OUR REVENUES AND PROFITS WILL IMPROVE,

·

RESIDENTS WHO PAY FOR OUR SERVICES WITH THEIR PRIVATE RESOURCES MAY BECOME UNABLE TO AFFORD OUR SERVICES WHICH COULD RESULT IN DECREASED OCCUPANCY AND DECREASED REVENUES AT OUR SENIOR LIVING COMMUNITIES AND INCREASED RELIANCE ON LOWER RATES FROM GOVERNMENTS AND OTHER PAYERS,

·

WE MAY BE UNABLE TO REPAY OUR DEBT OBLIGATIONS WHEN THEY BECOME DUE,

 

iii

 


 

·

THE AMOUNT OF AVAILABLE BORROWINGS UNDER OUR CREDIT FACILITIES IS SUBJECT TO OUR HAVING QUALIFIED COLLATERAL, WHICH IS PRIMARILY BASED ON THE VALUE OF THE ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE SECURING OUR $25.0 MILLION CREDIT AGREEMENT AND THE VALUE OF THE PROPERTIES SECURING OUR $150.0 MILLION CREDIT FACILITY. ACCORDINGLY, THE AVAILABILITY OF BORROWINGS UNDER OUR CREDIT FACILITIES AT ANY TIME MAY BE LESS THAN $25.0 MILLION AND $150.0 MILLION, RESPECTIVELY. ADDITIONALLY, THE AVAILABILITY OF BORROWINGS UNDER OUR CREDIT FACILITIES IS SUBJECT TO OUR SATISFYING CERTAIN FINANCIAL COVENANTS AND MEETING OTHER CUSTOMARY CONDITIONS,

·

ACTUAL COSTS UNDER OUR CREDIT FACILITIES WILL BE HIGHER THAN LIBOR PLUS A PREMIUM BECAUSE OF OTHER FEES AND EXPENSES ASSOCIATED WITH OUR CREDIT FACILITIES,

·

WE HAVE VOLUNTARILY DISCLOSED CERTAIN MEDICARE BILLING DEFICIENCIES RELATED TO MEDICAL RECORDS AND OTHER MATTERS AT ONE OF OUR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES, OR SNFs, TO THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL, OR THE OIG, AND WE HAVE INFORMED THE OIG THAT WE EXPECT OUR INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT OF THESE MATTERS TO BE COMPLETED BY MAY 13, 2015; HOWEVER, THERE CAN BE NO ASSURANCE THAT OUR INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT OF THESE MATTERS WILL BE COMPLETED BY THAT DATE. FURTHER, ALTHOUGH WE HAVE ACCRUED A REVENUE RESERVE OF $4.3 MILLION FOR MEDICARE REPAYMENTS AND WE HAVE ACCRUED OR EXPENSED $3.6 MILLION FOR OTHER RELATED COSTS RESULTING FROM THE IDENTIFIED DEFICIENCIES, THERE CAN BE NO ASSURANCE THAT OUR RESERVES WILL BE ADEQUATE TO COVER THE PAYMENT OBLIGATIONS WE ARE ULTIMATELY DETERMINED TO OWE FOR THIS MATTER. ALSO, DURING OUR ONGOING INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT OF THESE MATTERS WE MAY LEARN OF ADDITIONAL COMPLIANCE DEFICIENCIES THAT COULD RESULT IN ADDITIONAL PAYMENT OBLIGATIONS THAT WE OWE,

·

WE AND SNH HAVE DECIDED TO OFFER FOR SALE CERTAIN SENIOR LIVING COMMUNITIES THAT WE LEASE FROM SNH, WHICH HAVE NOT YET BEEN SOLD, AND WE HAVE DECIDED TO OFFER FOR SALE ONE COMMUNITY WHICH WE OWN. WE AND SNH MAY BE UNABLE TO SELL ANY OF THOSE COMMUNITIES WE LEASE FROM SNH, AND WE MAY BE UNABLE TO SELL THE ONE COMMUNITY WE OWN, ON ACCEPTABLE TERMS. ACCORDINGLY, WE CAN PROVIDE NO ASSURANCE THAT THESE COMMUNITIES WILL BE SOLD OR WHAT THE TERMS OR TIMING OF ANY SALE WOULD BE,

·

CONTINGENCIES IN OUR AND SNH’S APPLICABLE ACQUISITION AND SALE AGREEMENTS MAY NOT BE SATISFIED AND OUR AND SNH’S APPLICABLE PENDING SALES OR ACQUISITIONS AND ANY RELATED MANAGEMENT AGREEMENTS MAY NOT OCCUR, MAY BE DELAYED OR THE TERMS OF SUCH TRANSACTIONS MAY CHANGE, AND

·

WE BELIEVE THAT OUR CONTINUING RELATIONSHIPS WITH SNH, RMR AND AIC AND THEIR AFFILIATED AND RELATED PERSONS AND ENTITIES MAY BENEFIT US AND PROVIDE US WITH COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN OPERATING AND GROWING OUR BUSINESS. IN FACT, THE ADVANTAGES WE BELIEVE WE MAY REALIZE FROM THESE RELATIONSHIPS MAY NOT MATERIALIZE.

THESE RESULTS COULD OCCUR DUE TO MANY DIFFERENT CIRCUMSTANCES, SOME OF WHICH ARE BEYOND OUR CONTROL, SUCH AS NATURAL DISASTERS, CHANGED MEDICARE AND MEDICAID RATES, NEW LEGISLATION, REGULATIONS OR RULE MAKING AFFECTING OUR BUSINESS, OR CHANGES IN CAPITAL MARKETS OR THE ECONOMY GENERALLY.

iv

 


 

THE INFORMATION CONTAINED ELSEWHERE IN THIS ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10‑K OR IN OUR FILINGS WITH THE SEC, INCLUDING UNDER THE CAPTION RISK FACTORS, OR INCORPORATED HEREIN OR THEREIN, IDENTIFIES OTHER IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT COULD CAUSE DIFFERENCES FROM OUR FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS. OUR FILINGS WITH THE SEC ARE AVAILABLE ON THE SECS WEBSITE AT WWW.SEC.GOV.

YOU SHOULD NOT PLACE UNDUE RELIANCE UPON OUR FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS.

EXCEPT AS REQUIRED BY LAW, WE DO NOT INTEND TO UPDATE OR CHANGE ANY FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS AS A RESULT OF NEW INFORMATION, FUTURE EVENTS OR OTHERWISE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

v

 


 

FIVE STAR QUALITY CARE, INC.

2014 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10‑K

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

    

    

Page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1. 

 

Business

 

 

Item 1A. 

 

Risk Factors

 

14 

 

Item 1B. 

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

28 

 

Item 2. 

 

Properties

 

28 

 

Item 3. 

 

Legal Proceedings

 

33 

 

Item 4. 

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

33 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5. 

 

Market For Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

34 

 

Item 6. 

 

Selected Financial Data

 

34 

 

Item 7. 

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

35 

 

Item 7A. 

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

52 

 

Item 8. 

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

53 

 

Item 9. 

 

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

53 

 

Item 9A. 

 

Controls and Procedures

 

53 

 

Item 9B. 

 

Other Information

 

55 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10. 

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

56 

 

Item 11. 

 

Executive Compensation

 

56 

 

Item 12. 

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

56 

 

Item 13. 

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

56 

 

Item 14. 

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

56 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15. 

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

57 

 

 

 

Signatures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

vi

 

 

 

 


 

PART I

Item 1.  Business

GENERAL

We operate senior living communities, including independent living communities, assisted living communities and SNFs. As of December 31, 2014, we operated 258 senior living communities located in 31 states with 30,379 living units, including 227 primarily independent and assisted living communities with 27,557 living units and 31 SNFs with 2,822 living units. As of December 31, 2014, we owned and operated 31 communities (3,061 living units), we leased and operated 181 communities (20,040 living units) and we managed 46 communities (7,278 living units). Our 258 senior living communities included 10,585 independent living apartments, 14,584 assisted living suites and 5,210 skilled nursing units. The foregoing numbers exclude, as of December 31, 2014:  (i) one assisted living community with 32 living units that we own which was being offered for sale and is classified as a discontinued operation; and (ii) three SNFs and one assisted living community with a total of 265 living units that are leased by us from SNH that were being offered for sale and are classified as discontinued operations.

As of December 31, 2014, we leased from SNH 181 senior living communities (including three SNFs and one assisted living community we have classified as discontinued operations) pursuant to four long term leases. For more information about our leases with SNH see Our SNH Leases and Management Agreements in Item 2 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Our principal executive offices are located at 400 Centre Street, Newton, Massachusetts 02458, and our telephone number is (617) 796‑8387.

TYPES OF PROPERTIES

Our present business plan contemplates the ownership, leasing and management of independent living communities, assisted living communities and SNFs. Some of our properties combine more than one type of service in a single building or campus.

Independent Living Communities.  Independent living communities provide high levels of privacy to residents and require residents to be capable of relatively high degrees of independence. An independent living apartment usually bundles several services as part of a regular monthly charge. For example, the base charge may include one or two meals per day in a central dining room, weekly maid service or services of a social director. Additional services are generally available from staff employees on a fee for service basis. In some independent living communities, separate parts of the community are dedicated to assisted living or nursing services. As of December 31, 2014, our continuing operations included 10,585 independent living apartments in 91 communities.

Assisted Living Communities.  Assisted living communities are typically comprised of one bedroom units which include private bathrooms and efficiency kitchens. Services bundled within one charge usually include three meals per day in a central dining room, daily housekeeping, laundry, medical reminders and 24 hour availability of assistance with the activities of daily living such as dressing and bathing. Professional nursing and healthcare services are usually available at the community as requested or at regularly scheduled times. As of December 31, 2014, our continuing operations included 14,584 assisted living suites in 203 communities.

Skilled Nursing Facilities.  SNFs generally provide extensive nursing and healthcare services similar to those available in hospitals, without the high costs associated with operating theaters, emergency rooms or intensive care units. A typical purpose built SNF generally includes one or two beds per room with a separate bathroom in each room and shared dining facilities. SNFs are staffed by licensed nursing professionals 24 hours per day. As of December 31, 2014, our continuing operations included 5,210 skilled nursing units in 72 communities.

1


 

OUR RECENT HISTORY

Senior Living

We have grown our business through acquisitions, through initiation of long term leases of independent and assisted living communities where residents private resources account for a large majority of revenues and, beginning in 2011, through entering into long term contracts to manage independent and assisted living communities.

In 2014:

·

We acquired a senior living community with 116 living units located in Alabama for approximately $19.9 million, including the assumption of approximately $13.9 million of mortgage debt and the assumption of approximately $0.1 million of net working capital liabilities, but excluding closing costs.

·

We began managing two communities with an aggregate of 228 living units located in Wisconsin pursuant to long term contracts with SNH, increasing the total number of our managed communities to 46 as of December 31, 2014.

Discontinued Operations

Under our leases with SNH, we may request that SNH sell certain noneconomic properties we lease from SNH, which, if sold, would reduce our rent payable to SNH, as determined pursuant to the applicable lease. For more information about our leases with SNH, see “Our SNH Leases and Management Agreements” in Item 2 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

We and SNH previously agreed that SNH would offer for sale 11 senior living communities we lease from SNH, which we have classified as discontinued operations. In August 2013, we and SNH sold one of these communities, a SNF with 112 living units located in Missouri, for a sale price of $2.6 million, and as a result of this sale, our annual minimum rent payable to SNH decreased by $0.3 million in accordance with the terms of the applicable lease.

 

In 2014:

 

·

We and SNH sold an assisted living community with 48 living units located in Texas for a sale price of $2.4 million, and as a result of this sale, our annual minimum rent payable to SNH decreased by $0.2 million in accordance with the terms of the applicable lease.

 

·

We and SNH sold two SNFs with an aggregate of 139 living units located in Wisconsin for a sale price of $4.5 million, and as a result of this sale, our annual minimum rent payable to SNH decreased by $0.5 million in accordance with the terms of the applicable lease.

 

·

We and SNH sold an assisted living community with 55 living units located in Virginia for a sale price of $2.9 million, and as a result of this sale, our annual minimum rent payable to SNH decreased by $0.3 million in accordance with the terms of the applicable lease.

 

·

We and SNH sold an assisted living community and a SNF with an aggregate of 160 living units located in Arizona for a sale price of $5.9 million, and as a result of this sale, our annual minimum rent payable to SNH decreased by $0.6 million in accordance with the terms of the applicable lease.

 

In 2015:

 

·

We and SNH sold an assisted living community with 103 living units located in Pennsylvania for a sale price of $0.3 million, and as a result of this sale, our annual minimum rent payable to SNH decreased by $22,500 in accordance with the terms of the applicable lease.

2


 

We can provide no assurance that we and SNH will be able to sell the remaining three senior living communities we lease from SNH that are being offered for sale, or what the terms or timing of any sales may be.

OUR GROWTH STRATEGY

We believe that the aging of the U.S. population will increase demand for senior living communities. Our principal growth strategy is to profit from this anticipated demand by operating communities that provide high quality services to residents who pay with private resources.

We seek to improve the profitability of our existing operations by increasing our revenues and improving our operating margins. We attempt to increase revenues by increasing rates and occupancies. We attempt to improve margins by limiting increases in expenses and otherwise improving operating efficiencies. For example, during the recent economic recession experienced in the United States, the senior living industry generally experienced declining occupancies as a result of this slowdown in the U.S. economy. During this same period, we improved our operating margins and profitability by increasing rates and limiting increases in our expenses. As the U.S. economy and the housing market gradually improve, we expect that our occupancies may increase and our profitability may grow; however, the condition of the U.S. economy and the housing market are beyond our control and may not improve and could decline. Further, the reductions in government payments for our services, such as the reductions we experienced during 2013 and 2014 as a result of the sequestration rate cuts, negatively impacted our results of operations and may continue to do so. For more information about government payments for our services, see Government Regulation and Reimbursement.

We currently intend to continue to grow our business by adding to our operations primarily independent and assisted living communities where residents private resources account for a large majority of revenues. We expect some of these increases may be achieved by our entering leases or management agreements and some may be achieved by our purchasing communities. Since we became a public company in 2001, we have acquired or have begun to lease 181 primarily independent and assisted living communities that are included in our continuing operations as of December 31, 2014, which realized approximately 87% of their revenues from residents private resources, rather than from Medicare and Medicaid in the year ended December 31, 2014. Historically, we have principally expanded our operations by entering operating leases. Since 2011, we have started to expand our operations by acquiring senior living communities for our own account and entering agreements to manage senior living communities which are owned by SNH. In the future, we expect to continue to grow our business by adding communities that we either own, lease or manage.

OPERATING STRUCTURE

We have four operating divisions. Three of our divisions are each responsible for multiple geographic regions with respect to our senior living communities that consist of independent, assisted living and skilled nursing units. One of our divisions is responsible for our rehabilitation and wellness inpatient and outpatient clinics which are associated with our senior living communities. Each division is headed by a divisional vice president with extensive experience in the senior living industry. We have several regional offices within our divisions. Each regional office is responsible for multiple communities and is headed by a regional director of operations with extensive experience in the senior living industry. Each regional office is typically supported by a clinical or wellness director, a rehabilitation services director, a regional accounts manager, a human resources specialist and a sales and marketing specialist. Regional staff are responsible for all of our senior living community operations within a geographic region, including:

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resident services;

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Medicare and Medicaid billing;

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marketing and sales;

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hiring of community personnel;

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compliance with applicable legal and regulatory requirements; and

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supporting our development and acquisition plans within their region.

Our corporate office staff, located in Massachusetts, provides services such as:

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the establishment of company wide policies and procedures relating to resident care;

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human resources policies and procedures;

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information technology;

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private pay billing for our independent living apartments and assisted living communities;

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maintenance of licensing and certification;

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legal and compliance;

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central purchasing;

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budgeting and supervision of maintenance and capital expenditures;

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implementation of our growth strategy; and

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accounting, auditing and finance functions, including operations, budgeting, certain accounts receivable and collections functions, accounts payable, payroll, tax and financial reporting.

As described elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K, we have a business management and shared services agreement, or the business management agreement, with RMR, pursuant to which RMR provides to us certain business management, administrative and information system services, including internal audit, capital markets, legal and investor relations, among other matters.

STAFFING

Independent and Assisted Living Community Staffing.  Each of the independent and assisted living communities we operate has an executive director responsible for the day to day operations of the community, including quality of care, resident services, sales and marketing, financial performance and staff supervision. The executive director is supported by department heads who oversee the care and service of the residents, a wellness director who is responsible for coordinating the services necessary to meet the healthcare needs of our residents and a marketing director who is responsible for selling our services. Other important staff includes the dining services coordinator, the activities coordinator and the property maintenance coordinator.

Skilled Nursing Facility Staffing.  Each of our SNFs is managed by a state licensed administrator who is supported by other professional personnel, including a director of nursing, an activities director, a marketing director, a social services director, a business office manager, and physical, occupational and speech therapists. Our directors of nursing are state licensed nurses who supervise our registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and nursing assistants. Staff size and composition vary depending on the size and occupancy of each SNF and on the type of care provided by the SNF. Our SNFs also contract with physicians who provide certain medical services.

EMPLOYEES

As of March 13, 2015, we had approximately 25,000 employees, including approximately 15,500 full time equivalents. We believe our relations with our employees are good.

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GOVERNMENT REGULATION AND REIMBURSEMENT

The healthcare industry is subject to extensive and frequently changing federal, state and local laws and regulations. These laws and regulations vary by jurisdiction but may address, among other things, licensure, personnel training, staffing ratios, quality of medical care, physical facility requirements, government healthcare program participation, fraud and abuse, payments for patient services and patient records.

We are subject to, and our operations must comply with, these laws and regulations. From time to time, our facilities receive notices from federal, state and local agencies regarding noncompliance with such requirements. Upon receipt of these notices, we review them for correctness and, based on our review, we either take corrective action or contest the allegation of noncompliance. When corrective action is required, we work with the relevant agency to address and remediate any violations. Challenging and appealing any notices or allegations of noncompliance require the expenditure of significant legal fees and management attention. Any adverse determination concerning any of our licenses or eligibility for Medicare or Medicaid reimbursement, any penalties, repayments or sanctions, and the increasing costs of required compliance with applicable laws may adversely affect our ability to meet our financial obligations and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

The healthcare industry depends significantly upon federal and state programs for revenues and, as a result, is affected by the budgetary policies of both the federal and state governments. Reimbursements under the Medicare and Medicaid programs for skilled nursing, physical therapy and rehabilitation services provided operating revenues at our outpatient clinics and some of our senior living communities (principally our SNFs). We derived approximately 23%, 23% and 24% of our consolidated revenues from continuing operations from Medicare and Medicaid programs for each of the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.

In addition to existing government regulation, we are aware of numerous healthcare regulatory initiatives on the federal, state and local levels, which may affect our business operations if implemented.

Independent Living Communities.  Government benefits are not generally available for services at independent living communities, and residents in those communities use private resources to pay for their living units and the services they receive. The rates in these communities are determined by local market conditions and operating costs. However, a number of federal Supplemental Security Income program benefits pay housing costs for elderly or disabled recipients to live in these types of residential communities. The Social Security Act requires states to certify that they will establish and enforce standards for any category of group living arrangement in which a significant number of Supplemental Security Income recipients reside or are likely to reside. Categories of living arrangements that may be subject to these state standards include independent living communities and assisted living communities. Because independent living communities usually offer common dining facilities, in many jurisdictions they are required to obtain licenses applicable to food service establishments in addition to complying with land use and life safety requirements. In addition, in many states, state or county health departments, social service agencies or offices on aging have jurisdiction over group residential communities for seniors and license independent living communities. To the extent that independent living communities include units to which assisted living or nursing services are provided, these units are subject to applicable state licensing regulations. If the communities receive Medicaid or Medicare funds, they are subject to certification standards and conditions of participation. In some states, insurance or consumer protection agencies regulate independent living communities in which residents pay entrance fees or prepay for services.

Assisted Living Communities.  A majority of states provide or are approved to provide Medicaid payments for personal care and medical services to some residents in licensed assisted living communities under waivers granted by or under Medicaid state plans approved by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS. State Medicaid programs control costs for assisted living and other home and community based services by various means such as restrictive financial and functional eligibility standards, enrollment limits and waiting lists. Because rates paid to assisted living community operators are generally lower than rates paid to nursing home operators, some states use Medicaid funding of assisted living as a means of lowering the cost of services for residents who may not need the higher level of health services provided in SNFs. States that administer Medicaid programs for services in assisted living communities are responsible for monitoring the services at, and physical conditions of, the participating communities.

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As a result of the large number of states using Medicaid funds to purchase services at assisted living communities and the growth of assisted living in recent years, states have adopted licensing standards applicable to assisted living communities. According to the National Center for Assisted Living, all states regulate assisted living and residential care communities, although states do not use a uniform approach. Most state licensing standards apply to assisted living communities regardless of whether they accept Medicaid funding. Also, a few states require certificates of need from state health planning authorities before new assisted living communities may be developed. Based on our analysis of recent economic and regulatory trends, we believe that assisted living communities that become dependent upon Medicaid or other public payments for a majority of their revenues may decline in value because Medicaid and other public rates may fail to keep up with increasing costs. We also believe that assisted living communities located in states that adopt certificate of need, or CON, requirements or other limitations on the development of new assisted living communities may increase in value because those limitations may help ensure higher non‑governmental rates.

HHS, the Senate Special Committee on Aging, and the Government Accountability Office, or the GAO, have studied and reported on the development of assisted living and its role in the continuum of long term care and as an alternative to SNFs. Since 2003, CMS has commenced a series of actions to increase its oversight of state quality assurance programs for assisted living facilities and has provided guidance and technical assistance to states to improve their ability to monitor and improve the quality of services paid for through Medicaid waiver programs. CMS is encouraging state Medicaid programs to expand their use of home and community based services as alternatives to institutional services, pursuant to provisions of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, or the DRA, the ACA (as defined and described below) and other authorities, through the use of several programs. One such program, the Community First Choice Option, or the CFC Option, grants states that choose to participate in the program a 6% increase in federal matching payments for related medical assistance expenditures. California implemented the CFC Option in fiscal year 2012 followed by Oregon in 2013, and Maryland and Montana in 2014; at least six other states have reported that they are considering implementing it in 2015. We are unable to predict the effect of the implementation of the CFC Option and other similar programs, but their impact may be adverse and material to our operations and our future financial results of operations.

Skilled Nursing FacilitiesReimbursement.  A majority of all nursing home revenues in the United States comes from publicly funded programs. According to CMS, Medicaid is the largest source of public funding for nursing homes, followed by Medicare. In 2013, approximately 30% of nursing care facility and continuing care retirement community revenues came from Medicaid and 22% from Medicare. SNFs are highly regulated businesses. The federal and state governments regularly monitor the quality of care provided at SNFs. State health departments conduct surveys of resident care and inspect the physical condition of nursing home properties. These periodic inspections and occasional changes in life safety and physical plant requirements sometimes require nursing home operators to make significant capital improvements. These mandated capital improvements have usually resulted in Medicare and Medicaid rate adjustments, albeit on the basis of amortization of expenditures over expected useful lives of the improvements. Under the Medicare prospective payment system, or the PPS, for SNFs, capital costs are part of the prospective rate and are not community specific. The PPS and other recent legislative and regulatory actions with respect to state Medicaid rates limit the reimbursement levels for some nursing home services. At the same time, federal and state enforcement has increased oversight of SNFs, making licensing and certification of these communities more rigorous.

CMS implemented the PPS for SNFs pursuant to the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, or the BBA. Under the PPS, SNFs receive a fixed payment for each day of care provided to residents who are Medicare beneficiaries. The PPS requires SNFs to assign each resident to a care group depending on that residents medical characteristics and service needs. These care groups are known as Resource Utilization Groups, or RUGs, and CMS establishes a per diem payment rate for each RUG. CMS currently uses the RUG‑IV case mix classification system and a resident assessment instrument called the Minimum Data Set 3.0, which SNFs must use to collect clinical data to assign residents to RUG‑IV reimbursement categories. Medicare PPS payments cover substantially all services provided to Medicare residents in SNFs, including ancillary services such as rehabilitation therapies.

CMS updates PPS payment rates each year by a market basket update to account for inflation and periodically implements changes to the RUG categories and payment rates.

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In 2011, CMS adopted a final rule designed to recalibrate Medicare PPS rates for SNFs, which resulted in a reduction in aggregate Medicare payment rates for SNFs of approximately 11.1%, or $3.87 billion, in federal fiscal year 2012.

For federal fiscal year 2013, CMS adopted a final rule updating Medicare PPS rates for SNFs which resulted in an increase in aggregate Medicare payment rates of approximately 1.8%. CMS estimated this update resulted in an overall increase of $670 million in Medicare payments to SNFs in federal fiscal year 2013 as compared to federal fiscal year 2012. On October 1, 2013, CMS adopted a final rule updating Medicare payments to SNFs for federal fiscal year 2014, which CMS estimated would increase payments to SNFs by an aggregate of 1.3%, or approximately $470 million, compared to federal fiscal year 2013. On July 31, 2014, CMS released a final rule updating Medicare payments to SNFs for federal fiscal year 2015, which CMS estimates will increase payments to SNFs by an aggregate of 2.0%, or approximately $750 million, compared to federal fiscal year 2014.  Due to the previous reduction of Medicare payment rates of approximately 11.1% for federal fiscal year 2012 discussed above, however, Medicare payment rates will be lower for federal fiscal year 2015 than they were in federal fiscal year 2011.

The Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, enacted in February 2012, incrementally reduces the SNF reimbursement rate for Medicare bad debt from 100% to 65% by federal fiscal year 2015 for beneficiaries dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid. Because nearly 90% of SNF bad debt is related to dual‑eligible beneficiaries, this rule has a substantial negative effect on SNFs. The Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 also reduced the SNF Medicare bad debt reimbursement rate for Medicare beneficiaries not eligible for Medicaid from 70% to 65% in federal fiscal year 2013 and going forward.

In addition, the Budget Control Act of 2011 and the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 allow for automatic reductions in federal spending by means of a process called sequestration, which reduces Medicare payment rates by up to 2% through 2023. In February 2014, Congress approved an additional one year extension of Medicare sequestration, through 2024. Medicaid is exempt from the automatic reductions, as are certain Medicare benefits. The automatic 2% payment cuts took effect on April 1, 2013, and had an adverse effect on our operations and financial results during 2014. We are unable to predict the future financial impact on us of those automatic payment cuts; however, they may continue to have similar or worse impacts in the future.

The federal government is seeking to slow the growth of Medicare and Medicaid payments for nursing home services by several methods. In 2006, the government implemented limits on Medicare payments for outpatient therapies and then, pursuant to the DRA, created an exception process under which beneficiaries could request an exception from the cap and be granted the amount of services deemed medically necessary by Medicare. On April 1, 2014, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, or PAMA, extended the Medicare outpatient therapy cap exception process through March 31, 2015, further postponing the implementation of firm limits on Medicare payments for outpatient therapies. PAMA also extended the 0.5% increase to the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule, or MPFS, rates through December 31, 2014 and provided no increase in the MPFS rates, to which our Medicare outpatient therapy rates are tied, in the period between January 1, 2015 and March 31, 2015. Unless further delayed, the MPFS rates are scheduled to be reduced by 21.2% effective April 1, 2015. Additionally, PAMA established a SNF value‑based purchasing program. Under this program, HHS will assess SNFs based on hospital readmissions measures and make these assessments available to the public no later than October 1, 2017. Beginning in federal fiscal year 2019, SNFs will face a 2% withholding of SNF payments and will receive incentive payments based on either their performance or improvement in certain hospital readmission measures. The collective amount of incentive payments to all SNFs are anticipated to be between 50% and 70% of the total payment amounts withheld. In addition, the DRA increased the look‑back period for prohibited asset transfers that disqualify individuals from Medicaid nursing home benefits from three to five years. The period of Medicaid ineligibility begins on the date of the prohibited transfer or the date an individual has entered the nursing home and would otherwise be eligible for Medicaid coverage, whichever occurs later, rather than on the date of the prohibited transfer, effectively extending the Medicaid penalty period and placing added burdens on SNFs to collect charges directly from residents and their transferees.

The DRA also established the five year Money Follows the Person demonstration project in 2007 to award competitive grants to 30 states to provide home and community based long term care services to qualified individuals relocated from SNFs, and to increase federal medical assistance for each qualifying beneficiary for a limited time period.

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The ACA expanded eligibility for this program and extended this program for an additional five years through 2016. According to the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, as of November 2014, 44 states and the District of Columbia had operational Money Follows the Person programs, one state had an inactive program and one state had withdrawn its program. The DRA also established the Post Acute Care Payment Reform demonstration project under which CMS compared and assessed patient care needs, costs and outcomes of services at different post acute care sites over three years. In January 2012 CMS issued a report to Congress regarding the project stating that CMS successfully used a new uniform patient assessment tool to measure patient acuity in acute care hospitals and post acute settings, providing the basis for the potential development of new standardized information reporting requirements and more uniform post acute case mix payment systems. States are also permitted to include home and community based services as optional services under their Medicaid state plans or through Medicaid waiver programs, and states opting to do so may establish more stringent needs based criteria for nursing home services than for home and community based services. The ACA expands the services that states may provide and limits their ability to set caps on enrollment, waiting lists or geographic limitations on home and community based services.

On October 6, 2014, President Obama signed into law the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, or the IMPACT Act, which requires certain post-acute care providers, including SNFs, to begin collecting and reporting various types of data. Specifically, the Secretary of HHS will require SNFs to begin reporting certain quality measures and resource use measures in a standardized and interoperable format by October 1, 2016 and begin reporting certain patient assessment data in such a format by October 1, 2018. Beginning in federal fiscal year 2018, SNFs that fail to comply with the reporting requirements by the established times will be subject to a 2% reduction in their Medicare payment rates for that fiscal year. Beginning October 1, 2018, the Secretary of HHS will make this data publicly available pursuant to certain procedures to be established. The IMPACT Act also requires the Secretary of HHS and the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission to submit reports to Congress recommending a future Medicare PPS for post-acute care providers and analyzing both its effects on the reported metrics and financial effect on post-acute care providers. We are unable to predict the impact on us of these or other recent legislative and regulatory actions or proposed actions with respect to federal Medicare rates, state Medicaid rates, and the federal payments to states for Medicaid programs.

Skilled Nursing FacilitiesSurvey and Enforcement. Pursuant to the Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1987, Congress enacted major reforms to federal and state regulatory systems for SNFs that participate in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Since then, the GAO has reported that, although much progress has been made, substantial problems remain in the effectiveness of federal and state regulatory activities. The HHS Office of Inspector General, or OIG, has issued several reports concerning quality of care in SNFs, and the GAO has issued several reports recommending that CMS and states strengthen their compliance and enforcement practices, including federal oversight of state actions and to ensure that SNFs provide adequate care and states act more consistently.

The Senate Special Committee on Aging and other congressional committees have also held hearings on these issues. As a result, CMS has undertaken several initiatives to increase the effectiveness of Medicare and Medicaid nursing home survey and enforcement activities. CMS has been taking steps to identify and focus enforcement efforts on SNFs and chains of SNF operators with findings of substandard care or repeat violations of Medicare and Medicaid standards. CMS has increased its oversight of state survey agencies and has improved the process by which data is captured from these surveys. As an added measure of improving patient care, the ACA provides for the funding of a state background check system for job applicants to long term care providers who will have direct access to patients. CMS has begun the administration of this program, to which approximately half of the states have already applied.

In addition, CMS adopted regulations expanding federal and state authority to impose civil monetary penalties in instances of noncompliance. When CMS or state agencies identify deficiencies under state licensing and Medicare and Medicaid standards, they may impose sanctions and remedies such as denials of payment for new Medicare and Medicaid admissions, civil monetary penalties, state oversight, temporary management or receivership and loss of Medicare and Medicaid participation or licensure on nursing home operators. Our communities may incur sanctions and penalties from time to time. If we are unable to cure deficiencies that have been identified or that are identified in the future, or if appeals of proposed sanctions or penalties are not successful, decertification or additional sanctions or penalties may be imposed. These consequences may adversely affect our ability to meet our financial obligations and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

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Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Regulation and Rate Setting.  We transferred our operations at our inpatient rehabilitation facilities, or IRFs, and affiliated clinics in the fourth quarter of 2013 to third parties in connection with SNHs sale of those IRFs. Our IRFs were subject to federal, state and local regulation that affected their business activities and determined the rates they received for services. CMS certified these facilities to participate in the Medicare program, and these facilities received a significant portion of their revenues from that program.

CMS establishes standards that facilities must meet in order to be classified as IRFs under the Medicare program. One such standard is known as the 60% Rule. As amended by the Medicare, Medicaid and the SCHIP Extension Act of 2007, the 60% Rule provides that, to be considered an IRF and receive reimbursement under the IRF PPS, at least 60% of a facilitys total inpatient population must receive the facilitys services for treatment of at least one of 13 designated medical conditions. To comply with the 60% Rule and maintain revenue levels, many IRFs have reduced the number of non‑qualifying patients treated and replaced them with qualifying patients, established other sources of revenues or both. We believe that we operated our IRFs in compliance with the 60% Rule during the period in which we operated them; however, we can provide no assurance that CMS will not make a determination that we were non‑compliant during this period.

Medicare reimburses IRFs under a PPS implemented in 2002 pursuant to the BBA. Under the IRF PPS, reimbursement is paid at a predetermined per‑discharge rate. CMS updates IRF Medicare payment rates each year. Medicare revenues realized at our IRFs in the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2013 were approximately $71.1 million and $71.3 million, respectively. IRF Medicare payments may be subject to subsequent upwards or downwards adjustments as part of the cost report settlement process. As previously noted, in the fourth quarter of 2013, we transferred our operations at our IRFs and affiliated clinics to third parties in connection with SNH’s sale of those IRFs. 

Certificates of Need.  As a mechanism to prevent overbuilding and subsequent healthcare price inflation, most states limit the number of SNFs and hospitals by requiring developers to obtain certificates of need before new facilities may be built or additional beds may be added to existing facilities. A few states also limit the number of assisted living facilities by requiring certificates of need. In addition, some states (such as California and Texas) that have eliminated CON laws have retained other means of limiting new development, including moratoria, licensing laws or limitations upon participation in the state Medicaid program. These governmental requirements limit expansion, which we believe may make existing SNFs more valuable by limiting competition.

Healthcare Reform.  The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, or collectively the ACA, signed into law in March 2010, has resulted in changes to insurance, payment systems and healthcare delivery systems. The ACA is intended to expand access to health insurance coverage and reduce the growth of healthcare expenditures while simultaneously maintaining or improving the quality of healthcare. Some of the provisions of the ACA took effect immediately, whereas others will take effect at later dates. Due to the complexity of the ACA, its ramifications may only become apparent through later regulatory and judicial interpretations.

Beginning in federal fiscal year 2012, the ACA reduced the SNF PPS annual adjustment for inflation by a productivity adjustment based on national economic productivity statistics. We are unable to predict the impact of this reduction on Medicare rates for SNFs, but its impact may be adverse and material to our operations and our future financial results of operations.

The ACA establishes an Independent Payment Advisory Board to submit legislative proposals to Congress and take other actions with a goal of reducing Medicare spending growth. When and if such spending reductions take effect they may be adverse and material to our financial results. The ACA also provides for the National Pilot Program on Payment Bundling to develop and evaluate making bundled payments for services provided during an episode of care, to include hospital and physician services and post‑acute care such as SNF and IRF services. The pilot program can be expanded in January 2016 if it meets its goals. The ACA also includes the development of Medicare value‑based purchasing plans to include quality measures as a basis for bonuses and several initiatives to encourage states to develop and expand home and community based services under Medicaid.

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The ACA includes various other provisions affecting Medicare and Medicaid providers, including expanded public disclosure requirements for SNFs and other providers, enforcement reforms and increased funding for Medicare and Medicaid program integrity control initiatives. The ACA has resulted in several changes to existing healthcare fraud and abuse laws, established additional enforcement tools and funding to the government, and provided for increased cooperation between agencies by establishing mechanisms for sharing information relating to noncompliance. Furthermore, the ACA has resulted in enhanced criminal and administrative penalties for noncompliance. For example, the ACA amended the Anti‑Kickback Statute to provide that a claim that includes items or services resulting from a violation of the Anti‑Kickback Statute now constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the False Claims Act.

In June 2012, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld two major provisions of the ACA—the individual mandate, which requires most Americans to maintain health insurance or to pay a penalty, and the Medicaid expansion, which requires states to expand their Medicaid programs by 2014 to cover all individuals under the age of 65 with incomes not exceeding 133% of the federal poverty level. In upholding the Medicaid expansion, the Supreme Court held that it violated the U.S. Constitution as drafted but remedied the violation by modifying the expansion to preclude the Secretary of HHS from withholding existing federal Medicaid funds from states that fail to comply with Medicaid expansion, instead allowing the Secretary only to deny new expansion funding. Under the ACA, the federal government will pay for 100% of a state’s Medicaid expansion costs for the first three years (2014‑2016) and gradually reduce its subsidy to 90% for 2020 and future years. As of January 27, 2015, 15 states had elected not to broaden Medicaid eligibility under the ACA, and seven remained undecided; those states that ultimately choose not to participate in Medicaid expansion will forgo the federal funds that would otherwise be available for that purpose. We are unable to predict the impact of these or other recent legislative and regulatory actions or proposed actions with respect to state Medicaid rates and payments to states for Medicaid programs on us.

In addition, on November 7, 2014, the Supreme Court agreed to hear a lawsuit challenging the legality of an Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, regulation that allows eligible individuals in all states to receive subsidies for health insurance under the ACA, even in states that have not established their own health exchanges. Such subsidies have provided certain eligible taxpayers with the ability to purchase or maintain health insurance. We are unable to predict the outcome of that challenge or its impact on our business.

We cannot estimate the type and magnitude of the potential Medicare and Medicare policy changes, rate reductions or other changes and the impact on us of the possible failure of these programs to increase rates to match our increasing expenses, but they may be material to and adversely affect our future results of operations. Similarly, we are unable to predict the impact on us of the insurance reforms, payment reforms, and healthcare delivery systems reforms contained in and to be developed pursuant to the ACA. Expanded insurance availability may provide more paying customers for the services we provide. If the changes to be implemented under the ACA result in reduced payments for our services or the failure of Medicare, Medicaid or insurance payment rates to cover our costs, however, our future financial results could be adversely and materially affected.

In addition, other aspects of the ACA that affect employers generally, including the employer shared responsibility provisions that the IRS began enforcing on January 1, 2015, may have an impact on the design and cost of the health coverage that we offer to our employees. Due to the scope and complexity of the provisions of the ACA that apply to employers and employer group health plans, it is difficult to predict the overall impact of the ACA on our employee benefit plans and our cost of doing business over the coming years. We will continue to analyze how to provide our employees with cost‑effective coverage, taking into account the various requirements of the ACA and the impact of any changes on our ability to attract and retain employees. For information on some recent changes that we have made to the health insurance coverage we offer employees in response to the rising cost of health insurance generally, please see the information contained below under the caption Insurance in this Business section of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Other Matters.  Federal and state efforts to target false claims, fraud and abuse and violations of anti‑kickback laws, physician referral laws (including the Ethics in Patient Referrals Act of 1989), privacy laws and consumer protection laws by Medicare and Medicaid providers and providers under other public and private programs have increased in recent years, as have civil monetary penalties, treble damages, repayment requirements and criminal sanctions for noncompliance. The federal False Claims Act, as amended and expanded by the Fraud Enforcement and

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Recovery Act of 2009, and the ACA, provides significant civil money penalties and treble damages for false claims and authorizes individuals to bring claims on behalf of the federal government for false claims. The federal Civil Monetary Penalties Law authorizes the Secretary of HHS to impose substantial civil penalties, treble damages, and program exclusions administratively for false claims or violations of the federal Anti‑Kickback Statute. In addition, the ACA increased penalties under federal sentencing guidelines by between 20% and 50% for healthcare fraud offenses involving more than $1.0 million. State Attorneys General typically enforce consumer protection laws relating to senior living services, clinics and other healthcare facilities.

Governmental authorities are devoting increasing attention and resources to the prevention, detection, and prosecution of healthcare fraud and abuse. The HHS OIG has guidelines for SNFs intended to assist them in developing voluntary compliance programs to prevent fraud and abuse; these guidelines recommend that CMS identify SNFs that are billing for higher paying RUGs and more closely monitor compliance with patient therapy assessments as methods of fraud prevention. CMS contractors are expanding the retroactive audits of Medicare claims submitted by SNFs and other providers, and recouping alleged overpayments for services determined by auditors not to have been medically necessary or not to meet Medicare coverage criteria as billed. State Medicaid programs and other third party payers are conducting similar medical necessity and compliance audits. The ACA facilitates the Department of Justice’s, or the DOJ’s, ability to investigate allegations of wrongdoing or fraud at SNFs, in part because of increased cooperation and data sharing among CMS, OIG, DOJ and the states. In addition, the ACA requires all states to terminate the Medicaid participation of any provider that has been terminated under Medicare or any Medicaid state plan. Moreover, state Medicaid fraud control agencies may investigate and prosecute assisted living communities and SNFs, clinics and other healthcare facilities under fraud and patient abuse and neglect laws.

Current state laws and regulations allow enforcement officials to make determinations as to whether the care provided at our healthcare facilities exceeds the level of care for which a particular facility is licensed. A finding that a facility is delivering care beyond the scope of its license could result in the immediate discharge and transfer of residents. Some states and the federal government allow certain citations of one facility to impact other facilities operated by the same entity or a related entity, including facilities in other states. Revocation of a license or certification at one facility could therefore impact our ability to obtain new licenses or certifications or to maintain or renew existing licenses at other facilities. In addition, an adverse finding by state officials could serve as the basis for lawsuits by private plaintiffs and lead to investigations under federal and state laws, which could result in civil and/or criminal penalties against the facility as well as a related entity.

Our communities must comply with laws designed to protect the confidentiality and security of individually identifiable patient information. Under the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or the HITECH Act, our facilities that are covered entities within the meaning of HIPAA must comply with rules adopted by HHS governing the privacy, security, use and disclosure of individually identifiable information, including financial information and protected health information, or PHI, and security rules for electronic PHI. HIPAA and the HITECH Act are intended to ensure patient privacy and the efficiency of healthcare claims and payment transactions. There may be both civil monetary penalties and criminal sanctions for noncompliance with such federal laws. Under the HITECH Act, penalties for violation of certain provisions may be as high as $50,000 per violation for a maximum civil penalty of $1.5 million per calendar year. On January 17, 2013, HHS released the HIPAA Omnibus Rule, or the Omnibus Rule, which went into effect on March 26, 2013 and required compliance with most provisions by September 23, 2013. Pursuant to the Omnibus Rule, covered entities were required to make certain modifications to any business associate agreements that they have in place with their business associates within the meaning of HIPAA, depending on the circumstances. In addition, the Omnibus Rule required covered entities to modify and redistribute their notices of privacy practices to include certain provisions relating to the use of PHI. Further, the Omnibus Rule modified the standard for providing breach notices, which was previously based on an analysis of the harm resulting from any disclosure, to a more objective analysis on whether any PHI was actually acquired or viewed as a result of the breach. In addition to HIPAA, many states have enacted their own security and privacy laws relating to individually identifiable information, including financial information and PHI. In some states, these laws are more burdensome than HIPAA. In instances in which the state provisions are more stringent than or differ from HIPAA, our facilities must comply with applicable federal and state standards.

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Our communities must comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act, or the ADA, and similar state and local laws to the extent that such facilities are public accommodations as defined in those statutes. The obligation to comply with the ADA and other similar laws is an ongoing obligation, and we continue to assess our communities and make appropriate modifications.

Other legislative proposals introduced in Congress, proposed by federal or state agencies or under consideration by some state governments include the option of block grants for states rather than federal matching money for certain state Medicaid services, laws authorizing or directing Medicare to negotiate rate reductions for prescription drugs, additional Medicare and Medicaid enforcement procedures and federal and state cost containment measures, such as freezing Medicare or Medicaid SNF payment rates at their current levels and reducing or eliminating annual Medicare or Medicaid inflation allowances or gradually reducing rates for SNFs.

Some of the states in which we operate either have not raised Medicaid rates by amounts sufficient to offset increased costs or have frozen or reduced, or are likely to freeze or reduce, Medicaid rates. Despite these freezes, Medicaid expenditures are projected to have increased by 12.8% in 2014 and to increase by 6.7% in 2015 and 8.6% in 2016, due in part to the expansion in Medicaid eligibility under the ACA, which began in 2014. From 2016 through 2023, Medicaid spending is expected to grow by an average annual rate of 6.8% per year, mainly driven by increased spending for aged and disabled beneficiaries and higher provider reimbursement rates. Effective June 30, 2011, Congress ended certain temporary increases in federal payments to states for Medicaid programs that had been in effect since 2008. We expect the ending of these temporary federal payments, combined with other state budgetary pressures, to result in continued challenging state fiscal conditions, particularly in those states that are not participating in Medicaid expansion. As a result, some state budget deficits may increase, and certain states may continue to reduce Medicaid payments to healthcare services providers like us as part of an effort to balance their budgets. Despite these freezes and reduced payments to states, according to the 2013 Actuarial Report on the Financial Outlook for Medicaid, Medicaid enrollment is projected to increase at an average annual rate of 3.3% through 2022, due in part to the expansion in Medicaid eligibility under the ACA, beginning in 2014. These state-level cuts have the potential to negatively impact our revenue from Medicaid sources. 

INSURANCE

Litigation against senior living and healthcare companies continues to increase. As a result, liability insurance costs have risen. Also, our insurance costs for workers compensation and employee healthcare have increased. To partially offset these insurance cost increases, we have taken a number of actions including the following:

·

we have become fully self‑insured for all health related claims of covered employees;

·

we have increased the deductible or retention amounts for which we are liable under our liability insurance;

·

we have established an offshore captive insurance company which participates in our liability, workers compensation and automobile insurance programs. These programs may allow us to reduce our net insurance costs by allowing us to retain the earnings on our reserves, provided that our claims experience matches that projected by various statutory and actuarial formulas;

·

we have increased the amounts that some of our employees are required to pay for health insurance coverage and co‑payments for health services and pharmaceutical prescriptions and decreased the amount of certain healthcare benefits as well as adding a high deductible health insurance plan as an option for our employees;

·

we have hired professional advisors to help us establish programs to reduce our insured workers compensation and professional and general liabilities, including a program to monitor and proactively settle liability claims and to reduce workplace injuries;

·

we have hired insurance and other professionals to help us establish appropriate reserves for our retained liabilities and captive insurance programs; and

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·

in order to obtain more control over our insurance costs, we, RMR and other companies, including SNH, to which RMR provides management services, organized AIC. We and the other six current shareholders of AIC have property insurance providing $500.0 million of coverage pursuant to an insurance program arranged by AIC and with respect to which AIC is a reinsurer of certain coverage amounts. In June 2014, we and the other shareholders of AIC renewed our participation in this program and paid AIC a premium, including taxes and fees, of approximately $3.9 million in connection with that policy, which amount may be adjusted from time to time as we acquire or dispose of properties that are included in the policy. We periodically consider the possibilities for expanding our insurance relationships with AIC to include other types of insurance and may in the future participate in additional insurance offerings AIC may provide or arrange.

We partially self‑insure up to certain limits for workers compensation, professional liability and property coverage. Claims in excess of these limits are insured up to contractual limits, over which we are self‑insured. Our current insurance arrangements are generally renewable annually in June. We do not know if our insurance charges and self‑insurance reserve requirements will increase, and we cannot now predict the amount of any such increase, or to what extent, if at all, we may be able to offset any increase through use of higher deductibles, retention amounts, self‑insurance or other means in the future. For more information about certain of our insurance initiatives see Note 15 to the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. 

COMPETITION

The senior living services business is highly competitive. We compete with numerous other companies that provide senior living services, including home healthcare companies and other real estate based service providers. We have large lease obligations and limited financeable assets. Many of our existing competitors are larger than us and have greater financial resources than we do. We may expand our business with SNH and our relationships with SNH and RMR may provide us with competitive advantages; however, SNH is not obligated to provide us with opportunities to lease or manage additional properties. Some of our competitors are not for profit entities which have endowment income and may not have the same financial pressures that we face. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to compete successfully for business. For additional information on competition and the risks associated with our business, please see Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE CHANGE MATTERS

Under various laws, owners as well as tenants and operators of real estate may be required to investigate and clean up or remove hazardous substances present at or migrating from properties they own, lease or operate and may be held liable for property damage or personal injuries that result from hazardous substances. These laws also expose us to the possibility that we may become liable to reimburse governments or third parties for damages and costs they incur in connection with hazardous substances. Under our leases with SNH, we have also agreed to indemnify SNH for any such liabilities related to the properties we lease from SNH. We reviewed environmental conditions surveys of certain of our leased and owned communities. Based upon those surveys, we do not believe that there are environmental conditions at any of our properties that have had or will have a material adverse effect on us. However, no assurances can be given that conditions are not present at our properties or that costs we may be required to incur in the future to remediate contamination will not have a material adverse effect on our business or financial condition and results of operations.

The current political debate about global climate change has resulted in various treaties, laws and regulations which are intended to limit carbon emissions. We believe these laws being enacted or proposed may cause energy costs at our communities to increase in the future. In the long term, we believe any such increased costs will be passed through and paid by our residents and other customers in higher charges for our services. However, in the short term, these increased costs, if material in amount, could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. For more information regarding climate change matters and their possible adverse impact on us, please see Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsImpact of Climate Change.

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INTERNET WEBSITE

Our internet website address is www.fivestarseniorliving.com. Copies of our governance guidelines, or Governance Guidelines, code of business conduct and ethics, or Code of Conduct, our policy outlining procedures for handling concerns or complaints about internal accounting controls or auditing matters and the charters of our audit, quality of care, compensation and nominating and governance committees are posted on our website and may be obtained free of charge by writing to our Secretary, Five Star Quality Care, Inc., 400 Centre Street, Newton, Massachusetts, 02458 or at our website. We make available, free of charge, on our website, our Annual Reports on Form 10‑K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10‑Q, our Current Reports on Form 8‑K and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after these forms are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Any stockholder or other interested party who desires to communicate with our non‑management Directors, individually or as a group, may do so by filling out a report on our website. Our Board of Directors also provides a process for security holders to send communications to our entire Board of Directors. Information about the process for sending communications to our Board of Directors can be found on our website. Our website address and website addresses of one or more unrelated third parties are included several times in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K as textual references only and the information in any such website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Item 1A.  Risk Factors

Our business faces many risks. The risks described below may not be the only risks we face but are the risks we know of that we believe may be material at this time. Additional risks that we do not yet know of, or that we currently think are immaterial, may also impair our business operations or financial results. If any of the events or circumstances described in the following risks occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could suffer and the trading price of our securities could decline. Investors and prospective investors should consider the following risks and the information contained under the heading Warning Concerning Forward Looking Statements before deciding whether to invest in our securities.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS

A small percentage decline in our revenues or increase in our expenses could have a material negative impact upon our operating results.

For the year ended December 31, 2014, our revenues were $1.33 billion and our operating expenses were $1.35 billion. A small percentage decline in our revenues or increase in our expenses could have a material negative impact on our operating results because some of our fixed costs, such as our base rent, would not decrease during times of lower revenues and could not be reduced to offset other expenses which may be increasing.

The failure of Medicare and Medicaid rates to match our costs will reduce our income or create losses.

Some of our current operations, especially our SNFs, receive significant revenues from Medicare and Medicaid. During the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, we derived approximately 23% of our senior living revenues from continuing operations from these programs. The Obama Administration and some members of Congress have proposed Medicare and Medicaid policy changes and rate reductions to take effect during the next several years. The ACA includes provisions that may result in future payment rates for a fiscal year being less than payment rates for a preceding fiscal year for SNFs. Effective as of October 1, 2011, CMS reduced aggregate Medicare payment rates for SNFs by approximately 11.1% for federal fiscal year 2012. Even with the increases in Medicare payment rates to SNFs for federal fiscal years 2013, 2014 and 2015, Medicare payment rates to SNFs will be lower for federal fiscal year 2015 than they were in federal fiscal year 2011. We are unable to predict how the continued Medicare rate reductions under the ACA will affect our future financial results of operations.

In addition, our revenues received from Medicare and Medicaid may be subject to statutory and regulatory changes, retroactive rate adjustments, recovery of program overpayments or set‑offs, administrative rulings and policy interpretations, and payment delays.

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The Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, which was enacted in February 2012, gradually reduces the SNF reimbursement rate for Medicare bad debt from 100% to 65% by federal fiscal year 2015 for beneficiaries dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid. Because nearly 90% of SNF bad debt has historically been related to dual-eligible beneficiaries, this rule has a substantial adverse effect on SNFs, including some of those we operate. The same law also reduced the SNF Medicare bad debt reimbursement rate for Medicare beneficiaries not eligible for Medicaid from 70% to 65% in federal fiscal year 2013.  In addition, pursuant to the Budget Control Act of 2011 and the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, the federal budget includes automatic spending reductions through 2023, including reductions of up to 2% to Medicare providers, but exempting reductions to Medicaid and certain Medicare benefits. In February 2014, Congress approved an additional one year extension of Medicare sequestration, through 2024. We are unable to predict the future financial impact on us of the automatic payments cuts; however, these payment cuts had an adverse and material impact on our operations and financial results during 2013 and may continue to have similar or worse impacts in the future.

Congress extended the process to allow medically necessary exceptions to annual caps on Medicare Part B payments for outpatient rehabilitation services to individual patients through March 31, 2015, but strict caps on reimbursement for these services will go into effect on April 1, 2015 if another extension is not granted. In addition, our Medicare Part B outpatient therapy revenue rates are tied to the MPFS. Although the MPFS had previously been scheduled to be reduced by more than 25% in 2013, MPFS rates remained fixed at the 2012 level throughout 2013 and increased 0.5% for the period between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014.  On April 1, 2014, PAMA, as defined above, extended the Medicare outpatient therapy cap exception process through March 31, 2015, further postponing the implementation of limits on Medicare payments for outpatient therapies. PAMA also extended the 0.5% increase to MPFS rates through December 31, 2014 and provided no increase in the MPFS rates in the period between January 1, 2015 and March 31, 2015. The MPFS rates are scheduled to be reduced by 21.2% effective April 1, 2015. Unless the reduction is once again delayed, it will likely result in a reduction of our Medicare Part B rates for outpatient therapy services and could be materially adverse to our future financial results of operations.

On October 6, 2014, President Obama signed into law the IMPACT Act, as defined above, which requires certain post-acute care providers, including SNFs, to begin collecting and reporting various types of data. Specifically, the Secretary of HHS will require SNFs to begin reporting certain quality measures and resource use measures in a standardized and interoperable format by October 1, 2016 and begin reporting certain patient assessment data in such a format by October 1, 2018. Beginning in federal fiscal year 2018, SNFs that fail to comply with the reporting requirements by the established times will be subject to a 2% reduction in their Medicare payment rates for that fiscal year. Beginning October 1, 2018, the Secretary of HHS will make this data publicly available pursuant to certain procedures to be established. The IMPACT Act also requires the Secretary of HHS and the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission to submit reports to Congress recommending a future Medicare PPS for post-acute care providers and analyzing both its effects on the reported metrics and financial effect on post-acute care providers.

Some of the states in which we operate either have not raised Medicaid rates by amounts sufficient to offset increasing costs, have frozen or reduced Medicaid rates, or are likely to freeze or reduce Medicaid rates. Many states are experiencing difficult fiscal conditions or budgetary constraints, thus increasing the likelihood of Medicaid rate reductions, freezes or increases that are insufficient to offset increased operating costs. Also, certain temporary increases in federal payments to states for Medicaid programs ended on June 30, 2011. The ending of these temporary federal payments, combined with the anticipated slow recovery of state revenues, has resulted in and is expected to result in continued challenging state fiscal conditions. Some state budget deficits will likely increase, and it is possible that certain states will reduce Medicaid payments to healthcare service providers like us as part of an effort to balance their budgets. The ACA authorized an expansion of Medicaid eligibility beginning in 2014, which has the potential to increase Medicaid enrollment. The U.S. Supreme Court has held, however, that states may choose not to participate in the Medicaid expansion program without risking the loss of federal Medicaid funding. As of December 17, 2014, 16 states had elected not to broaden Medicaid eligibility and, instead, forgo the federal funds that would otherwise be available for Medicaid expansion, and seven remained undecided.  Despite these freezes and reduced payments to states, according to the 2013 Actuarial Report on the Financial Outlook for Medicaid, Medicaid enrollment is projected to increase at an average annual rate of 3.3% through 2022, due in part to the expansion in Medicaid eligibility under the ACA, beginning in 2014.

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We cannot currently estimate the magnitude of the potential Medicare and Medicaid rate reductions, the impact of the failure of these programs to increase rates to match increasing expenses, the impact of states that choose not to expand Medicaid eligibility and the impact on us of potential Medicare and Medicaid policy changes proposed by members of Congress and the Obama Administration, but they may be material to our operations and may affect our future results of operations. We cannot predict whether future Medicare and Medicaid rates will be sufficient to cover our costs. Future Medicare and Medicaid rate declines or a failure of these rates to cover our costs could result in our experiencing materially lower earnings or losses.

Circumstances that adversely affect the ability of seniors or their families to pay for our services could have a material adverse effect on us.

Our residents paid approximately 77% of our senior living revenues from continuing operations during the year ended December 31, 2014 from their private resources. We expect to continue to rely on the ability of our residents to pay for our services from their own financial resources. Inflation, continued high levels of unemployment, market declines affecting the value and liquidity of personal assets, or other circumstances that adversely affect the ability of the elderly or their families to pay for our services could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Seniors inability to sell real estate may delay their moving into senior living facilities.

Housing price declines and reduced home mortgage financing availability have negatively affected the U.S. housing market. Although home prices and sales activity have recently been generally increasing, they continue to be generally below levels experienced prior to the recent economic recession in the United States. Further, although mortgage financing availability has improved since the recession, there are market expectations that interest rates in the United States will increase in the near term; if interest rates rise sharply, the prices for homes or home sales activity may decline. Difficulties in the U.S. housing market may have a negative effect on our revenues or lead to increased reliance on Medicare and Medicaid for our revenues. Specifically, if seniors have a difficult time selling their homes, fewer seniors may relocate to our senior living communities or finance their stays at our facilities with private resources.

Private third party payers continue to try to reduce healthcare costs.

Private third party payers such as insurance companies continue their efforts to control healthcare costs through direct contracts with healthcare providers, increased utilization review practices and greater enrollment in managed care programs and preferred provider organizations. These third party payers increasingly demand discounted fee structures and the assumption by healthcare providers of all or a portion of the financial risk. These efforts of third party payers to limit the amount of payments we receive for healthcare services could adversely affect us. Reimbursement payments under third party payer programs may not remain at levels comparable to present levels or be sufficient to cover the costs allocable to patients participating in such programs. Future changes in, or renegotiations of, the reimbursement rates or methods of third party payers, or the implementation of other measures to reduce payments for our services could result in a substantial reduction in our net operating revenues. At the same time, as a result of competitive pressures, our ability to maintain operating margins through price increases to private pay residents may be limited.

Provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could reduce our income and increase our costs.

The ACA contains insurance changes, payment changes and healthcare delivery systems changes that have affected, and will continue to affect, us. The ACA provides for multiple reductions to the annual market basket updates for inflation that may result in reductions in SNF Medicare payment rates. In addition, certain provisions of the ACA that affect employers generally, including the employer shared responsibility provisions that went into effect on January 1, 2015, may have an impact on the design and cost of the health coverage that we offer to our employees. We are unable to predict the impact of the ACA on our future financial results of operations, but it may be adverse and material. In addition, maintaining compliance with the ACA will require us to expend management time and financial resources.

The ACA also established an Independent Payment Advisory Board to submit legislative proposals to Congress and take other actions with a goal of reducing Medicare spending growth. When and if such spending reductions take effect, they may be adverse and material to our financial results. The ACA includes other changes that may affect us, such as enforcement reforms and Medicare and Medicaid program integrity control initiatives, new compliance, ethics and public disclosure requirements, initiatives to encourage the development of home and community based long term

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care services rather than institutional services under Medicaid, value‑based purchasing plans and a Medicare post‑acute care pilot program to develop and evaluate making a bundled payment for services, including physician and SNF services, provided during an episode of care. In addition, on November 7, 2014, the Supreme Court agreed to hear a lawsuit challenging the legality of an IRS regulation that allows eligible individuals in all states to receive subsidies for health insurance under the ACA, even in states that have not established their own health exchanges. Such subsidies have provided certain eligible taxpayers with the ability to purchase or maintain health insurance. We are unable to predict the impact on us of the insurance, payment, and healthcare delivery systems reforms contained in and to be developed pursuant to the ACA, as well as the pending legal challenge to the health insurance subsidies under the ACA. If the changes to be implemented under the ACA result in reduced payments for our services or the failure of Medicare, Medicaid or insurance payment rates to cover our increasing costs, our future financial results could be adversely and materially affected.

Increases in our labor costs may have a material adverse effect on us.

Wages and employee benefits associated with our continuing operations were approximately 42% of our 2014 total operating costs. We compete with other operators of senior living communities to attract and retain qualified personnel responsible for the day to day operations of our communities. The market for qualified nurses, therapists and other healthcare professionals is highly competitive. Periodic and geographic area shortages of nurses or other trained personnel may require us to increase the wages and benefits offered to our employees in order to attract and retain these personnel or to hire more expensive temporary personnel. Also, we may have to compete with numerous other employers for lesser skilled workers. Further, when we acquire new communities (or enter into leases or management agreements  for new communities) we may be required to pay increased compensation or offer other incentives to retain key personnel and other employees. Employee benefits costs, including employee health insurance and workers compensation insurance costs, have materially increased in recent years and, as discussed above, we cannot predict the future impact of the ACA on the cost of employee health insurance. Although we have determined our self‑insurance reserves with guidance from third party professionals, our reserves may be inadequate. Increasing employee health and workers compensation insurance costs and increasing self‑insurance reserves for labor related insurance may materially and adversely affect our earnings. We cannot assure that our labor costs will not increase or that any increase will be matched by corresponding increases in rates we charge to residents or other revenues. Any significant failure by us to control labor costs or to pass on any such increased labor costs to residents through rate increases could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our business is subject to extensive regulation which increases our costs and may result in losses.

Licensing and Medicare and Medicaid laws require operators of senior living communities and rehabilitation and wellness clinics to comply with extensive standards governing operations and physical environments. Federal and state laws also prohibit fraud and abuse by senior living providers and rehabilitation and wellness clinic operators, including civil and criminal laws that prohibit false claims and that regulate patient referrals in Medicare, Medicaid and other programs. In recent years, federal and state governments have devoted increased resources to monitoring the quality of care at senior living communities and to anti‑fraud investigations in healthcare generally. CMS contractors are expanding the retroactive audits of Medicare claims submitted by SNFs and other providers, and recouping alleged overpayments for services determined by auditors not to have been medically necessary or not to meet Medicare coverage criteria as billed. State Medicaid programs and other third party payers are conducting similar medical necessity and compliance audits. When federal or state agencies identify violations of anti‑fraud, false claims, anti‑kickback and physician referral laws, they may impose or seek civil or criminal penalties, treble damages and other governmental sanctions, and may revoke the healthcare facility’s license or make conditional or exclude the healthcare facility from Medicare or Medicaid participation. The ACA amended the federal Anti‑Kickback Statute and the False Claims Act, making it easier for government agencies and private plaintiffs to prevail in lawsuits brought against healthcare providers, and for severe fines and penalties to be imposed on healthcare providers that violate applicable laws and regulations. In addition, when these agencies determine that there have been quality of care deficiencies or improper billing, they may impose or seek various remedies or sanctions, including denial of new admissions, exclusion from Medicare or Medicaid program participation, monetary penalties, restitution of overpayments, governmental oversight, temporary management, loss of licensure and criminal penalties. Current state laws and regulations allow enforcement officials to make determinations as to whether the care provided at our healthcare facilities exceeds the

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level of care for which a particular facility is licensed. A finding that a facility is delivering care beyond the scope of its license could result in the immediate discharge and transfer of residents. Certain states and the federal government may determine that citations relating to one facility affect other facilities operated by the same entity or related entities, which may negatively impact an operator’s ability to maintain or renew other licenses or Medicare or Medicaid certifications or to secure new licenses or certifications.

Our communities incur sanctions and penalties from time to time. As a result of the healthcare industry’s extensive regulatory system and increasing enforcement initiatives, we have experienced increased costs for monitoring quality of care compliance, billing procedures, and compliance with referral laws and other laws that apply to us, and we expect these costs may continue to increase. For example, as disclosed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as a result of our compliance program to review medical records related to our Medicare billing practices, during 2014, we discovered potentially inadequate documentation and other issues at one of our leased SNFs, and as a result of these discoveries, we have made a voluntary disclosure of deficiencies to the OIG pursuant to the OIG’s Provider Self-Disclosure Protocol. As of December 31, 2014, we have accrued a revenue reserve of $4.3 million to account for historical Medicare payments we expect to repay and we have accrued or expensed compliance costs of $3.6 million including an expected penalty amount and certain costs of the investigation of this matter. As a result of the continuing investigation and assessment of these deficiencies, additional deficiencies may be discovered which could increase our liability to the OIG and other costs.

If we become subject to additional regulatory sanctions or repayment obligations at any of our existing communities (or at any of our newly acquired communities with prior deficiencies that we are unable to correct or resolve), our business may be adversely affected, and we might experience financial losses. Any adverse determination concerning any of our licenses or eligibility for Medicare or Medicaid reimbursement or any penalties, repayments, or sanctions, and the increasing costs of required compliance with applicable federal and state laws, may adversely affect our ability to meet our financial obligations and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Successful union organization of our employees may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

From time to time labor unions attempt to organize our employees. If federal legislation modifies the labor laws to make it easier for employee groups to unionize, then additional groups of employees may seek union representation. If more of our employees unionize it could result in business interruptions, work stoppages, the degradation of service levels due to work rules, or increased operating expenses that may adversely affect our results of operations.

The nature of our business exposes us to litigation risks.

The nature of our business exposes us to litigation, and we are subject to lawsuits in the ordinary course of our business. In several well publicized instances, private litigation by residents of senior living communities for alleged abuses has resulted in large damage awards against other senior living companies. Some lawyers and law firms specialize in bringing litigation against senior living companies. As a result of this litigation and potential litigation, the cost of our liability insurance continues to increase. Medical liability insurance reform has become a topic of political debate and some states have enacted legislation to limit future liability awards. However, such reforms have not generally been adopted and we expect our insurance costs may continue to increase. Although our reserves for liability self‑insurance have been determined with guidance from third party professionals, our reserves may prove inadequate. Increasing liability insurance costs and increasing self‑insurance reserves could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our growth strategy may not succeed.

We have grown our business through acquisitions, through initiation of long term leases of senior living communities and through entering into long term contracts to manage senior living communities where residents private resources account for a large majority of revenues. Our business plan includes seeking to take advantage of an expected

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increase in demand for senior living communities and acquiring, leasing or managing additional senior living communities. Our growth strategy involves risks, including the following:

·

we may be unable to identify and operate additional senior living communities that receive a large percentage of their revenues from residents’ private resources;

·

we may be unable to identify and operate senior living communities available for purchase at acceptable prices or lease or manage such senior living communities on acceptable terms;

·

we may be unable to access capital to make acquisitions or operate acquired businesses;

·

acquired, leased or managed additional operations may not perform in accordance with our expectations;

·

we may be required to make significant capital expenditures to improve acquired or additional leased or managed facilities, including capital expenditures that may not have been anticipated by us at the time of the acquisition;

·

we may have difficulty retaining key employees and other personnel at acquired, leased or managed facilities;

·

acquired, leased or managed additional operations may subject us to unanticipated contingent liabilities or regulatory problems;

·

to the extent we incur acquisition debt or leases, our operating leverage and resulting risks of debt defaults may increase; and, to the extent we issue additional equity to fund our acquisitions, our stockholders percentage of ownership of us will be diluted;

·

combining our present operations with newly acquired, leased or managed operations may disrupt operations or cost more than anticipated; and

·

we may acquire properties subject to liabilities and without any recourse, or with only limited recourse, for unknown liabilities such as liabilities for cleanup of undisclosed environmental contamination, claims by vendors, or other persons dealing with the former owners of the properties and claims for indemnification by general partners, directors, officers and others indemnified by the former owners of the properties.

For these reasons and others:

·

our business plan to grow may not succeed;

·

the benefits which we hope to achieve by growing may not be achieved;

·

we may suffer declines in profitability or suffer recurring losses; and

·

our existing operations may suffer from a lack of management attention or financial resources if such attention and resources are devoted to a failed growth strategy.

When we acquire, lease or manage new communities, we sometimes experience a decline in community occupancy and it may take a period of time for us to stabilize acquired, leased or managed community operations. Our efforts to restore occupancy or stabilize acquired, leased or managed community operations may not be successful.

We may be unable to use our federal and state tax credits or net operating loss carry forwards, or NOLs, before they expire or our ability to use our tax credits and NOLs may be limited.  

 

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As of December 31, 2014, our federal NOLs were approximately $112.2 million and our tax credit carry forwards were approximately $17.2 million. As of December 31, 2014, and after conferring with our accounting experts, we have established a full valuation allowance against these net deferred tax assets because we may not generate sufficient taxable income in time to use these NOLs or tax credits prior to their expiration beginning in 2026 and 2022, respectively. Also, if we use our NOLs or tax credits to reduce our future tax liabilities, the existence and amounts of these NOLs and tax credits may be subject to audit by the federal (and any applicable state) tax authorities and the amounts of these NOLs or tax credits may be reduced.

 

Our past failure to timely file periodic reports with the SEC limits us from quickly accessing the public markets to raise debt or equity capital.

We did not file our Annual Report on Form 10‑K for the year ended December 31, 2013 or our Quarterly Reports on Form 10‑Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2014, June 30, 2014 and September 30, 2014 by the filing dates required by the SEC; therefore, we are not eligible to use our current shelf registration statement on Form S‑3 (or file a new Form S‑3 registration statement) to conduct public offerings of our securities until our filings with the SEC have been timely made for a full year. Our ineligibility to use Form S‑3 during this time period will have a negative impact on our ability to quickly access the public capital markets because we would be required to file a long‑form registration statement, which would be subject to an extended filing and possible SEC review period.

Our credit agreements contain terms limiting our ability to incur additional debt. These terms, or our failure or inability to meet them, could adversely affect our business.

Our $25.0 million Credit Agreement and our $150.0 million Credit Facility agreement, or together, our credit agreements, include various conditions to our borrowing and various financial and other covenants, including covenants requiring us to maintain certain minimum debt service coverage and leverage ratios, and events of default. We may not be able to satisfy all of these conditions or may default on some of these covenants for various reasons, including matters which are beyond our control. Further, maintaining compliance with these covenants may limit our ability to pursue actions that may otherwise be beneficial to us and our stockholders.

 If we are unable to borrow under our credit agreements, we may be unable to meet our business obligations or to grow by buying additional properties, or we may be required to sell some of our properties. If we default under our credit agreements, our lenders may demand immediate payment and may elect not to make further borrowings available to us. Any default under our credit agreements that resulted in our obligations to repay outstanding indebtedness being accelerated or in our no longer being permitted to borrow under our credit agreements would likely have serious and adverse consequences to us and would likely cause the market price of our common shares to materially decline.

In the future, we may obtain additional debt financing, and the covenants and conditions which apply to any such additional indebtedness may be more restrictive than the covenants and conditions contained in our credit agreements. Defaults under our future debt could likely have the same consequences as described above

We have determined that we have material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting because we lacked sufficient personnel with requisite accounting competencies and had an insufficient level of oversight in the financial statement close process. Failure to establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and the value of our common shares.

We have determined that we have material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting because we lacked sufficient personnel with requisite accounting competencies and had an insufficient level of oversight in the financial statement close process. As a result, we concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was ineffective. A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. We are continuing to develop our remediation plan for the material weaknesses described above, which currently includes recruitment of additional experienced personnel for certain accounting positions, restructuring of our accounting department and providing enhanced training for employees regarding our

20


 

accounting policies and procedures. We have begun to implement this remediation plan while we are continuing to develop it. Successful remediation of the material weaknesses described above requires review and evidence of the effectiveness of the related internal control processes as part of our periodic assessments of our internal controls over financial reporting. As we continue to evaluate and work to enhance our internal control over financial reporting, we may determine that additional measures should be taken to address the material weaknesses described above or other control deficiencies, or that we should modify the remediation plan. We expect that the remediation of the material weaknesses described above will be completed by December 31, 2015.

If we fail to remediate these material weaknesses or to design, implement and maintain new or improved controls and procedures designed to prevent additional material weaknesses, or if our management or our independent registered public accounting firm were to conclude in their future reports that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective, our ability to meet our periodic reporting obligations may be adversely affected, and may result in additional errors and material misstatements or omissions not detected by management in our financial statements. Any such failure could adversely affect the results of periodic management evaluations and annual auditor attestation reports regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Any such failure could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and could therefore adversely affect our business, results of operations and the value of our common shares.

Failure to comply with laws governing the privacy and security of personal information, including relating to health, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are required to comply with federal and state laws governing the privacy, security, use and disclosure of personally identifiable information, including information relating to health. Under HIPAA and the HITECH Act, as updated by the HIPAA Omnibus Rule, we are required to comply with the HIPAA privacy rule, security standards, and standards for electronic healthcare transactions. State laws also govern the privacy of individual health information, and rules regarding state privacy rights may be more stringent than HIPAA. Other federal and state laws govern the privacy of other personal information. If we fail to comply with applicable federal or state standards, we could be subject to civil sanctions and criminal penalties, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on information technology in our operations, and any material failure, inadequacy, interruption or security failure of that technology could harm our business.

We rely on information technology networks and systems, including the Internet, to process, transmit and store electronic information and to manage or support a variety of our business processes, including medical records, financial transactions and maintenance of records, which may include personal identifying information of residents and other customers, payroll data and workforce scheduling information. We rely on commercially available systems, software, tools and monitoring to provide security for processing, transmitting and storing this confidential information, such as individually identifiable information relating to health and financial accounts. Although we have taken steps to protect the security of the data maintained in our information systems, it is possible that our security measures will not be able to prevent the systems’ improper functioning, or the improper disclosure of personally identifiable information such as in the event of cyber attacks. Security breaches, including physical or electronic break‑ins, computer viruses, attacks by hackers and similar breaches, can create system disruptions, shutdowns or unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. Any failure to maintain proper function, security and availability of our information systems could interrupt our operations, damage our reputation, subject us to liability claims or regulatory penalties and could materially and adversely affect us.

Termination of assisted living resident agreements and resident attrition could adversely affect our revenues and earnings.

State regulations governing assisted living facilities typically require a written resident agreement with each resident. Most of these regulations also require that each resident have the right to terminate these assisted living resident agreements for any reason on reasonable notice. Consistent with these regulations, most of our resident agreements allow residents to terminate their agreements on 30 days notice. Thus, we may be unable to contract with assisted living residents to stay for longer periods of time, unlike typical apartment leasing arrangements that involve lease agreements with terms of up to a year or longer. If a large number of residents elected to terminate their resident agreements at or

21


 

around the same time, our revenues and earnings could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, the advanced ages of our senior living residents make the resident turnover rate in our senior living communities difficult to predict.

Our former rehabilitation hospitals may be subject to retroactive Medicare reclassifications or repayments.

During the period we operated our rehabilitation hospitals, which were sold in the fourth quarter of 2013, Medicare payments accounted for a significant amount of the rehabilitation hospitals revenues. CMS has established a standard known as the 60% Rule, which provides that at least 60% of an IRFs total inpatient population must require intensive rehabilitation services associated with treatment of at least one of 13 designated medical conditions in order for the facility to be classified as an IRF by the Medicare program. Although we believe that our IRFs were operated in compliance with the 60% Rule during the period in which we operated them, CMS could determine that we were non‑compliant in a prior year. Such an event would result in these rehabilitation hospitals being subject to Medicare reclassification to a different type of provider and our receiving lower Medicare payment rates retroactively. Reductions in our Medicare payments as a result of the reclassification of our rehabilitation hospitals could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Also, retroactive audits of Medicare claims submitted by IRFs and other providers are expanding, and CMS is recouping amounts paid for services determined by auditors not to have been medically necessary or not to meet Medicare criteria for coverage as billed. If our facilities were required to make substantial retroactive repayments to Medicare, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Our business requires us to make significant capital expenditures to maintain and improve our communities.

Our communities sometimes require significant expenditures to address ongoing required maintenance and to make them attractive to residents. Physical characteristics of senior living communities are mandated by various governmental authorities; changes in these regulations may require us to make significant expenditures. In addition, we often are required to make significant capital expenditures when we acquire new communities. Our available financial resources may be insufficient to fund these expenditures. SNH has historically provided most of the capital we need to improve the communities we lease from them; however, whenever SNH provides such capital, our rent increases and we may be unable to pay the increased rent without experiencing losses. In addition, for properties we manage for SNH, SNH funds these capital expenditures, resulting in the invested capital on which its returns are based increasing, which may reduce or prevent our receipt of incentive fees.

We face significant competition and we may be unable to operate profitably.

We compete with numerous other companies that provide senior living services, including home healthcare companies and other real estate based service providers. Although some states require certificates of need to develop new SNFs and assisted living communities, there are fewer barriers to competition for home healthcare or for independent and assisted living services. Many of our existing competitors are larger and have greater financial resources than us. Some of our competitors are not for profit entities which have endowment income and may not have the same financial pressures that we face. We cannot assure that we will be able to attract a sufficient number of residents to our communities or that we will be able to attract employees and keep wages and other employee benefits, insurance costs and other operating expenses at levels which will allow us to compete successfully or to operate profitably.

Increased leverage may harm our financial condition and results of operations.

Our total consolidated long term debt as of December 31, 2014 was approximately $49.4 million and represented approximately 16% of our total book capitalization as of that date. In addition to our indebtedness, we have substantial lease and other obligations.

Our level of indebtedness and substantial lease and other obligations could have important consequences to our business, because:

·

it could affect our ability to satisfy our debt obligations;

22


 

·

the portion of our cash flows from operations required to make interest and principal payments will not be available for operations, working capital, capital expenditures, expansion, acquisitions or general corporate or other purposes;

·

it may impair our ability to obtain additional financing in the future;

·

it may limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry; and

·

it may make us more vulnerable to downturns in our business, our industry or the economy in general than a company with less debt leverage.

Increasing interest rates may adversely affect us. 

Interest rates have been at historically low levels for an extended period of time and it is unclear how long rates will remain low. Increasing interest rates may adversely affect us, including in the following ways: 

·

Amounts outstanding under our credit facilities bear interest at variable interest rates. When interest rates increase, so will our interest costs, which could adversely affect our cash flow, our ability to pay principal and interest on our debt, our cost of refinancing our debt when it becomes due and our ability to fund our operations and working capital.  Additionally, if we choose to hedge our interest rate risk, we cannot assure that the hedge will be effective or that our hedging counterparty will meet its obligations to us.

·

An increase in interest rates could adversely affect the housing market and reduce demand for our services and communities.  Further, increased interest rates may increase the rent we pay for new leases of senior living communities due to the landlord setting rent based on a required return on the landlord’s investment. Similarly, increased interest rates may reduce the likelihood that we earn incentive fees for senior living communities we may manage due to the owners of the communities requiring a minimum return on their investment prior to our being eligible to receive an incentive fee.

·

Interest rates may negatively impact the value of our shares, which may increase our cost of capital, including decreasing the amount of equity and debt we may be able to raise, increasing the extent of dilution from any equity offering we may make or increasing the costs to us for any such equity or debt offering.

 

Ownership and leasing of real estate is subject to environmental and climate change risks.

Ownership and leasing of real estate is subject to risks associated with environmental hazards. We may be liable for environmental hazards at, or migrating from, our properties, including properties we lease, including those created by prior owners or occupants, abutters or other persons. Various federal and state laws impose liabilities upon property owners, such as us, for any environmental damages arising at, or migrating from, properties they own, and we cannot assure that we will not be held liable for environmental investigation and clean up at, or near, our properties. As an owner or previous owner of properties which contain environmental hazards, we also may be liable to pay damages to governmental agencies or third parties for costs and damages they incur arising from environmental hazards at, or migrating from, our properties. Under our leases with SNH, we have also agreed to indemnify SNH for any such liabilities related to the properties we lease from SNH. Moreover, the costs and damages which may arise from environmental hazards are often difficult to project and may be substantial.

We believe any asbestos in our communities is contained in accordance with current regulations, and we have no current plans to remove it. If we removed the asbestos or demolished these communities, certain environmental regulations govern the manner in which the asbestos must be handled and removed, and we could incur substantial costs complying with such regulations.

23


 

There have recently been severe weather activities in different parts of the country that some observers believe evidence global climate change. Such severe weather that may result from climate change may have an adverse effect on individual properties we own, lease or operate. Further, the current political debate about climate change has resulted in various treaties, laws and regulations which are intended to limit carbon emissions. We believe these laws being enacted or proposed may cause energy costs at our properties to increase. In the long term, we believe any such increased costs will be passed through and paid by our residents and other customers in higher charges for our services. However, in the short term, these increased costs, if material in amount, could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. For more information regarding climate change matters and their possible adverse impact on us, please see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Impact of Climate Change.”

RISKS ARISING FROM CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS OF OURS AND OUR ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE

We are subject to possible conflicts of interest; our agreements and relationships with SNH and RMR may restrict our ability to grow our business; and we have engaged in, and expect to continue to engage in, transactions with parties that may be considered related parties.

Our business is subject to possible conflicts of interest as follows:

·

as of December 31, 2014, we leased from SNH 181 of our 263 senior living communities (including four that we have classified as discontinued operations) for total annual rent of approximately $190.7 million plus percentage rent based on increases in gross revenues at certain properties;

·

as of December 31, 2014, we managed 46 senior living communities which are owned by SNH, and during 2014, we realized $9.8 million in management fees from SNH;

·

we manage a portion of a senior living community for D&R Yonkers LLC, which is owned by SNHs President and Chief Operating Officer and its Treasurer and Chief Financial Officer and to which a subsidiary of SNH subleases that portion of the community;

·

RMR, the manager of SNH, provides business management and shared services to us;

·

our President and Chief Executive Officer, Bruce J. Mackey Jr., and our Treasurer and Chief Financial Officer, Paul V. Hoagland, are also officers and employees of RMR; our Managing Directors, Barry  Portnoy and Gerard M. Martin, are directors of RMR; and Mr. Barry Portnoy is a managing trustee of SNH and is also the majority beneficial owner and the chairman of RMR;

·

RMRs simultaneous contractual obligations to us and SNH create potential conflicts of interest, or the appearance of such conflicts of interest, and under the business management agreement with RMR, in the event of a conflict between SNH and us, RMR may act on behalf of SNH rather than on our behalf; and

·

we lease our headquarters from an affiliate of RMR.

On December 31, 2001, SNH distributed substantially all of its ownership of our common shares to its shareholders. Simultaneously with the spin off, we entered into agreements with SNH and RMR which, among other things, limit (subject to certain exceptions) ownership of more than 9.8% of our voting shares, restrict our ability to take any action that could jeopardize the tax status of SNH as a real estate investment trust and limit our ability to acquire real estate of types which are owned by SNH or other businesses managed by RMR. As a result of these agreements, our leases and management agreements with SNH, and our business management agreement with RMR, SNH, RMR and their respective affiliates have significant roles in our business and we do not anticipate any changes to those roles in the future. In addition, as of December 31, 2014, SNH owned 4.2 million of our common shares, or approximately 8.6% of our outstanding common shares, and SNH is our largest stockholder.

24


 

We believe that our historical and ongoing business dealings with SNH, RMR and D&R Yonkers LLC have benefited us and that, despite these possible conflicts of interest, the transactions we have entered with SNH, RMR and D&R Yonkers LLC have been commercially reasonable and not less favorable than otherwise available to us. Nonetheless, in the past, in particular following periods of volatility in the overall market or declines in the market price of a company's securities, stockholder litigation, dissident stockholder director nominations and dissident stockholder proposals have often been instituted against companies alleging conflicts of interest in business dealings with affiliated and related persons and entities. Our relationships with SNH, RMR, D&R Yonkers LLC, AIC, the other businesses and entities to which RMR provides management services, Messrs. Portnoy and Martin and with other related parties of RMR may precipitate such activities. These activities, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management's attention, even if the action is unfounded.

Our leases of certain of our senior living communities are subordinated to mortgage debt of SNH, and a default by SNH could result in the termination of those leases.

As of December 31, 2014, our leases with SNH for 27 of our senior living communities, which had 2014 revenues totaling $188.6 million, were subordinated to mortgage financing secured by such communities. As a result, in the event SNH was to default on such mortgage financing, by reason of our default under our leases or for reasons unrelated to us or beyond our control, and its lender were to foreclose on those properties, our leases would terminate as a matter of law. While we may be able to enter into new leases with the lenders or the purchaser or purchasers of such properties, or they may elect to continue our occupancy under the terms of the lease as if there had been no foreclosure, they would not be obligated to pursue either of those options and, if we are able to retain possession, the terms of our continued occupancy may not be as favorable to us as those contained in our leases with SNH. If we do not enter into new leases of such communities following a foreclosure, we would lose the right to continue to operate these communities and we may incur material obligations to residents, employees and other parties as a result of such loss, each of which could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.

Ownership limitations and certain provisions in our charter, bylaws and certain material agreements, as well as certain provisions of Maryland law, may deter, delay or prevent a change in our control or unsolicited acquisition proposals.

Our charter and bylaws contain separate provisions which prohibit any stockholder from owning more than 9.8% and 5% of the number or value of any class or series of our outstanding shares of stock. The 9.8% ownership limitation in our charter is consistent with our contractual obligation with SNH to not take actions that may conflict with SNH's status as a real estate investment trust under the Internal Revenue Code. The 5% ownership limitation in our bylaws is intended to help us preserve the tax treatment of our NOLs and other tax benefits. We also believe these provisions promote good orderly governance. These provisions inhibit acquisitions of a significant stake in us and may deter, delay or prevent a change in control of us or unsolicited acquisition proposals that a stockholder may consider favorable. Additionally, provisions contained in our charter and bylaws or under Maryland law may have a similar impact, including, for example, provisions relating to:

·

the division of our Directors into three classes, with the term of one class expiring each year, which could delay a change of control;

·

stockholder voting rights and standards for the election of Directors and other provisions which require larger majorities for approval of actions which are not approved by our Directors than for actions which are approved by our Directors;

·

the authority of our Board of Directors, and not our stockholders, to adopt, amend or repeal our bylaws and to fill vacancies on our Board of Directors;

·

required qualifications for an individual to serve as a Director and a requirement that certain of our Directors be Independent Directors and other Directors be Managing Directors, as defined in our bylaws;

25


 

·

limitations on the ability of our stockholders to propose nominees for election as Directors and propose other business to be considered at a meeting of stockholders;

·

limitations on the ability of our stockholders to remove our Directors; and

·

the authority of our Board of Directors to create and issue new classes or series of stock (including stock with voting rights and other rights and privileges that may deter a change in control) and issue additional common stock.

In addition, our shareholders agreement with respect to AIC provides that AIC and the other shareholders of AIC may have rights to acquire our interests in AIC in the event that anyone acquires more than 9.8% of our shares or we experience some other change in control. The terms of our leases and management contracts with SNH provide that our rights under these agreements may be cancelled by SNH upon the acquisition by any person or group of more than 9.8% of our voting stock, and upon other change in control events, as defined in those documents including, in certain of the leases and management agreements, the adoption of any proposal (other than a precatory proposal) or the election to our Board of Directors of any individual if such proposal or individual was not approved, nominated or appointed, as the case may be, by vote of a majority of our Directors in office immediately prior to the making of such proposal or the nomination or appointment of such individual. In addition, a termination of our business management agreement with RMR is a default under our Credit Agreement, and a change in control event of us, including upon the acquisition by any person or group of more than 9.8% (or 35% for the purposes of our Credit Facility) of our voting stock, is a default under our Credit Agreement and our Credit Facility, unless approved by our lenders.

Our ownership interest in AIC may prevent stockholders from accumulating large share ownership, from nominating or serving as Directors, or from taking actions to otherwise control our business.

As an owner of AIC, we are licensed and approved as an insurance holding company; and any stockholder who owns or controls 10% or more of our securities or anyone who wishes to solicit proxies for election of, or to serve as, one of our Directors or for another proposal of business not approved by our Board of Directors may be required to receive pre-clearance from the concerned insurance regulators. These pre-approval procedures may discourage or prevent investors from purchasing our securities, from nominating persons to serve as our Directors or from taking other actions.

Our rights and the rights of our stockholders to take action against our Directors and officers are limited.

Our charter limits the liability of our Directors and officers to us and our stockholders for money damages to the maximum extent permitted under Maryland law. Under current Maryland law, our Directors and officers will not have any liability to us and our stockholders for money damages other than liability resulting from:

·

actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or

·

active and deliberate dishonesty by such director or officer that was established by a final judgment as being material to the cause of action adjudicated.

Our charter and contractual obligations authorize and may require us to indemnify our present and former Directors and officers for actions taken by them in those capacities to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law. However, except with respect to proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification, we will indemnify any person referenced in the previous sentence in connection with a proceeding initiated by such person against us only if such proceeding is authorized by our charter or bylaws or by our Board of Directors or stockholders. In addition, we may be obligated to pay or reimburse the expenses incurred by our present and former Directors and officers without requiring a preliminary determination of their ultimate entitlement to indemnification. As a result, we and our stockholders may have more limited rights against our present and former Directors and officers than might otherwise exist absent the provisions in our charter and contracts or that might exist with other companies, which could limit your recourse in the event of actions not in your best interest.

26


 

Disputes with SNH and RMR and stockholder litigation against us or our Directors and officers may be referred to binding arbitration proceedings.

Our contracts with SNH and RMR provide that any dispute arising under those contracts may be referred to binding arbitration proceedings. Similarly, our bylaws provide that actions by our stockholders against us or against our Directors and officers, including derivative and class actions, may be referred to binding arbitration proceedings. As a result, we and our stockholders would not be able to pursue litigation for these disputes in courts against SNH, RMR or our Directors and officers if the disputes were referred to arbitration. In addition, the ability to collect attorneys' fees or other damages may be limited in the arbitration proceedings, which may discourage attorneys from agreeing to represent parties wishing to commence such a proceeding.

We may experience losses from our business dealings with AIC.

We have invested approximately $6.0 million in AIC, we have purchased substantially all our property insurance in a program designed and reinsured in part by AIC, and we periodically consider the possibilities for expanding our relationship with AIC to other types of insurance. We, RMR and five other companies to which RMR provides management services each own approximately 14.3% of AIC, and we and those other AIC shareholders participate in a combined insurance program designed and reinsured in part by AIC. Our principal reason for investing in AIC and for purchasing insurance in these programs is to seek to improve our financial results by obtaining improved insurance coverages at lower costs than may be otherwise available to us or by participating in any profits which we may realize as an owner of AIC. While we believe we have in the past benefitted from these arrangements, these beneficial financial results may not occur in the future, and we may need to invest additional capital in order to continue to pursue these results. AIC's business involves the risks typical of an insurance business, including the risk that it may not operate profitably. Accordingly, financial benefits from our business dealings with AIC may not be achieved in the future, and we may experience losses from these dealings.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR SECURITIES

We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our common shares in the foreseeable future.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common shares, and we currently do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

Changes in market conditions, our operating results and investors’ perception of our prospects could adversely affect the market price of our common shares.

As with other publicly traded equity securities, the value of our common shares depends on various market conditions and other factors that may change from time to time, including:

·

the liquidity of the market for our common shares;

·

changes in our operating results;

·

changes in analysts’ expectations;

·

the extent of investor interest in our common shares;

·

market interest rates;

·

national economic conditions; and

·

general market conditions.

27


 

In addition, the stock market in recent years has experienced broad price and volume fluctuations that often have been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may also cause the market price of our common shares to decline. Stockholders may be unable to resell our common shares at or above the price at which they purchased our common shares.

Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2.  Properties

OUR SENIOR LIVING COMMUNITIES

As of December 31, 2014, we owned or leased and operated as continuing operations 212 senior living communities which we have categorized into two groups as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Type of units

 

 

 

Average

 

 

 

 

Percent of

 

 

    

 

    

Indep.

    

Assist.

    

Skilled

    

Total

    

occupancy for

    

Revenues for

    

revenues

 

 

 

No. of

 

living

 

living

 

nursing

 

living

 

the year ended

 

the year ended

 

from private

 

Type of community

 

communities

 

apts.

 

suites

 

beds

 

units

 

Dec. 31, 2014

 

Dec. 31, 2014

 

resources

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

Independent and assisted living communities

 

181 

 

7,091 

 

11,204 

 

1,984 

 

20,279 

 

86.8 

%  

$

909,230 

 

87.4 

%  

SNFs

 

31 

 

68 

 

 

2,754 

 

2,822 

 

79.7 

%  

 

179,049 

 

25.6 

%  

Totals:

 

212 

 

7,159 

 

11,204 

 

4,738 

 

23,101 

 

86.0 

%  

$

1,088,279 

 

77.2 

%  

 

Excluded from the preceding and following data are 46 independent and assisted living communities with 3,426 independent living apartments, 3,380 assisted living suites and 472 skilled nursing beds that we manage for the account of SNH. Also excluded is one assisted living community with 32 living units that we own and three SNFs and one assisted living community with an aggregate of 265 living units that we lease from SNH that we have classified as discontinued operations, each as of December 31, 2014. Unless specifically provided below or unless the context provides otherwise, the discussion and analysis provided below does not include the senior living communities that we have classified as discontinued operations.

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Independent and Assisted Living Communities

As of December 31, 2014, we owned or leased and operated 181 independent and assisted living communities. We leased 146 of these communities from SNH and four of these communities from HCP, Inc., or HCP. We own the remaining 31 communities. These communities have 20,279 living units and are located in 26 states. The following table provides additional information about these communities and their operations as of December 31, 2014:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Type of units

 

 

 

Average

 

 

 

 

Percent of

 

 

    

 

    

Indep.

    

Assist.

    

Skilled

    

Total

    

occupancy for

    

Revenues for

    

revenues

 

 

 

No. of

 

living

 

living

 

nursing

 

living

 

the year ended

 

the year ended

 

from private

 

Location

 

communities

 

apts.

 

suites

 

beds

 

units

 

Dec. 31, 2014

 

Dec. 31, 2014

 

resources

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

1. Alabama

 

 

67 

 

373 

 

 

440 

 

87.6 

%  

$

14,221 

 

100.0 

%  

2. Arizona

 

 

512 

 

309 

 

199 

 

1,020 

 

76.4 

%  

 

43,325 

 

80.2 

%  

3. California

 

 

495 

 

424 

 

59 

 

978 

 

84.0 

%  

 

46,357 

 

91.2 

%  

4. Delaware

 

 

336 

 

322 

 

341 

 

999 

 

80.2 

%  

 

64,868 

 

68.6 

%  

5. Florida

 

 

1,179 

 

712 

 

155 

 

2,046 

 

96.0 

%  

 

84,943 

 

78.8 

%  

6. Georgia

 

11 

 

111 

 

524 

 

40 

 

675 

 

88.8 

%  

 

27,370 

 

91.8 

%  

7. Illinois

 

 

112 

 

73 

 

 

185 

 

95.9 

%  

 

5,408 

 

100.0 

%  

8. Indiana

 

16 

 

950 

 

577 

 

140 

 

1,667 

 

85.9 

%  

 

63,645 

 

88.3 

%  

9. Kansas

 

 

334 

 

67 

 

198 

 

599 

 

87.6 

%  

 

29,289 

 

74.1 

%  

10. Kentucky

 

 

491 

 

281 

 

183 

 

955 

 

89.4 

%  

 

44,849 

 

84.7 

%  

11. Maryland

 

10 

 

239 

 

692 

 

 

931 

 

90.0 

%  

 

54,009 

 

99.8 

%  

12. Massachusetts

 

 

123 

 

 —

 

 

123 

 

89.6 

%  

 

8,445 

 

100.0 

%  

13. Minnesota

 

 

 

230 

 

 

230 

 

87.2 

%  

 

13,090 

 

95.9 

%  

14. Mississippi

 

 

 

113 

 

 

113 

 

85.7 

%  

 

3,555 

 

100.0 

%  

15. Missouri

 

 

110 

 

 

 

110 

 

87.7 

%  

 

2,714 

 

100.0 

%  

16. Nebraska

 

 

27 

 

111 

 

62 

 

200 

 

91.0 

%  

 

9,511 

 

54.4 

%  

17. New Jersey

 

 

215 

 

555 

 

60 

 

830 

 

89.4 

%  

 

40,755 

 

84.0 

%  

18. New Mexico

 

 

114 

 

35 

 

60 

 

209 

 

84.3 

%  

 

13,217 

 

85.1 

%  

19. North Carolina

 

15 

 

143 

 

1,293 

 

 

1,436 

 

87.0 

%  

 

65,517 

 

99.5 

%  

20. Ohio

 

 

143 

 

115 

 

57 

 

315 

 

87.2 

%  

 

18,843 

 

82.9 

%  

21. Pennsylvania

 

10 

 

 

1,011 

 

 

1,011 

 

87.0 

%  

 

39,958 

 

100.0 

%  

22. South Carolina

 

18 

 

101 

 

887 

 

58 

 

1,046 

 

85.7 

%  

 

43,421 

 

91.2 

%  

23. Tennessee

 

11 

 

 

672 

 

 

679 

 

94.4 

%  

 

25,924 

 

100.0 

%  

24. Texas

 

 

898 

 

590 

 

298 

 

1,786 

 

80.2 

%  

 

81,690 

 

85.0 

%  

25. Virginia

 

11 

 

284 

 

718 

 

 

1,002 

 

91.5 

%  

 

39,977 

 

100.0 

%  

26. Wisconsin

 

 

100 

 

520 

 

74 

 

694 

 

77.5 

%  

 

24,329 

 

74.3 

%  

Totals:

 

181 

 

7,091 

 

11,204 

 

1,984 

 

20,279 

 

86.8 

%  

$

909,230 

 

87.4 

%  

 

Skilled Nursing Facilities

As of December 31, 2014, we operated 31 SNFs that we lease from SNH. These facilities have 2,822 living units and are located in seven states. The following table provides additional information about these facilities and their operations as of December 31, 2014:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Type of units

 

 

 

Average

 

 

 

 

Percent of

 

 

    

 

    

Indep.

    

Assist.

    

Skilled

    

Total

    

occupancy for

    

Revenues for

    

revenues

 

 

 

No. of

 

living

 

living

 

nursing

 

living

 

the year ended

 

the year ended

 

from private

 

Location

 

communities

 

apts.

 

suites

 

beds

 

units

 

Dec. 31, 2014

 

Dec. 31, 2014

 

resources

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

1. California

 

 

 

 

373 

 

373 

 

84.5 

%  

 

33,009 

 

11.6 

%  

2. Colorado

 

 

45 

 

 

756 

 

801 

 

80.1 

%  

 

55,022 

 

29.7 

%  

3. Iowa

 

 

19 

 

 

283 

 

302 

 

82.5 

%  

 

16,580 

 

34.9 

%  

4. Kansas

 

 

 

 

56 

 

60 

 

86.9 

%  

 

3,332 

 

20.9 

%  

5. Nebraska

 

10 

 

 

 

611 

 

611 

 

83.2 

%  

 

33,897 

 

27.9 

%  

6. Wisconsin

 

 

 

 

484 

 

484 

 

70.0 

%  

 

26,116 

 

26.9 

%  

7. Wyoming

 

 

 

 

191 

 

191 

 

74.8 

%  

 

11,093 

 

24.3 

%  

Totals:

 

31 

 

68 

 

 

2,754 

 

2,822 

 

79.7 

%  

$

179,049 

 

25.6 

%  

 

29


 

OUR SNH LEASES AND MANAGEMENT AGREEMENTS

SNH Leases

The following table provides a summary of our leases as of December 31, 2014 (including with respect to four senior living communities that we have classified as discontinued operations) and is followed by a summary of the material terms of our leases as of December 31, 2014 with SNH. Because it is a summary, it does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. If you would like more information, you should read the leases which are among the exhibits listed in Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K and incorporated herein by reference.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 

    

Annual Minimum

    

 

    

 

 

 

 

Number of

 

Rent as of

 

Current Expiration

 

 

 

 

 

Properties

 

December 31, 2014

 

date

 

Remaining Renewal Options

 

1. Lease No. 1 for SNFs and independent and assisted living communities(1)

 

86 

 

$

58.5 million

 

December 31, 2024

 

Two 15-year renewal options.

 

2. Lease No. 2 for SNFs, independent and assisted living communities

 

49 

 

 

62.9 million

 

June 30, 2026

 

Two 10-year renewal options.

 

3. Lease No. 3 for independent and assisted living communities(2)

 

17 

 

 

34.4 million

 

December 31, 2028

 

Two 15-year renewal options.

 

4. Lease No. 4 for SNFs and independent and assisted living communities(3)

 

29 

 

 

34.9 million

 

April 30, 2032

 

Two 15-year renewal options.

 

Totals

 

181 

 

$

190.7 million

 

 

 

 

 

 


(1)

Lease No. 1 is comprised of two separate leases. One of these two leases exists to accommodate a mortgage financing in effect at the time SNH acquired the property; we have agreed with SNH to combine these two leases into one lease when this mortgage financing is paid in full.

(2)

Lease No. 3 exists to accommodate certain mortgage financing by SNH.

(3)

Lease No. 4 is comprised of two separate leases. One of these two leases exists to accommodate a mortgage financing in effect at the time SNH acquired the property; we have agreed with SNH to combine these two leases into one lease when the mortgage financing is paid in full.

Percentage Rent.  Our leases with SNH require us to pay percentage rent at 174 of the 181 senior living communities we lease from SNH (including four that we have classified as discontinued operations) equal to 4% of the amount by which gross revenues, as defined in our leases, of each property exceeds gross revenues in a specific base year. These amounts are in addition to the minimum annual rent amounts payable by us to SNH. We paid total percentage rent of $5.8 million in 2014. Different base years apply to those communities that pay percentage rent. The base year is usually the first full calendar year after each community is leased.

Operating Costs.  Each lease is a so‑called triple‑net lease which requires us to pay all costs incurred in the operation of the properties, including the costs of maintenance, personnel, services to residents, insurance and real estate and personal property taxes.

Rent During Renewal Term.  For all but seven of the properties we lease from SNH, rent during each applicable renewal term is the same as the minimum rent and percentage rent payable during the initial term. For the remaining seven properties, rent during the second renewal term is based on the fair market rental value of such properties.

Licenses.  Our leases require us to obtain, maintain and comply with all applicable permits and licenses necessary to operate the leased properties.

Maintenance and Alterations.  We are required to operate continuously and maintain, at our expense, the leased properties in good order and repair, including structural and nonstructural components. We may request that SNH fund amounts needed for repairs and renovations in return for rent increases according to formulas in the leases; however, SNH is not obligated to fund such requests and we are not required to sell them to SNH. At the end of each lease term, we are required to surrender the leased properties in substantially the same condition as existed on the commencement date of the lease, subject to any permitted alterations and ordinary wear and tear.

30


 

Assignment and Subletting.  SNHs consent is generally required for any direct or indirect assignment or sublease of any of the properties. Also, in the event of any assignment or subletting, we remain liable under the terms of the applicable lease.

Indemnification and Insurance.  With limited exceptions, we are required to indemnify SNH from all liabilities which may arise from the ownership or operation of the leased properties. We generally are required to maintain insurance against such risks and in such amounts as SNH shall reasonably require and may be commercially reasonable. Each lease requires that SNH be named as an additional insured under these insurance policies.

Damage, Destruction, Condemnation and Environmental Matters.  If any of the leased properties is damaged by fire or other casualty or taken for a public use, we are generally obligated to rebuild it unless the property cannot be restored. If the property cannot be restored, SNH will generally receive all insurance or taking proceeds and we are liable to SNH for the amount of any deductible or deficiency between the replacement cost and the insurance proceeds, and our rent will be adjusted pro rata. We are also required to remove and dispose of any hazardous substance at the leased properties in compliance with all applicable environmental laws and regulations.

Events of Default.  Events of default under each lease generally include the following:

·

our failure to pay rent or any money due under the lease when it is due, which failure continues for five business days;

·

our failure to maintain the insurance required under such lease;

·

any person or group acquiring ownership of 9.8% or more of our outstanding voting stock or any change in our control, the adoption of any stockholder proposal (other than a precatory proposal) or the election to our Board of Directors of any individual if such proposal or individual was not approved, nominated or appointed, as the case may be, by vote of a majority of our Directors in office immediately prior to the making of such proposal or the nomination or appointment of such individual;

·

the occurrence of certain events with respect to our insolvency or dissolution;

·

our default under indebtedness which gives the holder the right to accelerate our repayment of the indebtedness;

·

our being declared ineligible to receive reimbursement under Medicare or Medicaid programs for any of the leased properties which participate in such programs or the revocation of any material license required for our operations; and

·

our failure to perform any terms, covenants or agreements of such lease and the continuance thereof for a specified period of time after written notice.

Remedies.  Upon the occurrence of any event of default, each lease provides that, among other things, SNH may, to the extent legally permitted:

·

accelerate the rents;

·

terminate the leases in whole or in part;

·

enter the property and take possession of any and all our personal property and retain or sell the same at a public or private sale;

·

make any payment or perform any act required to be performed by us under the leases; and

31


 

·

rent the property and recover from us the difference between the amount of rent which would have been due under the lease and the rent received from the re‑letting.

We are obligated to reimburse SNH for all costs and expenses incurred in connection with any exercise of the foregoing remedies.

Management.  We may not enter into any new management agreement affecting any leased property without the prior written consent of SNH.

Lease Subordination.  Our leases may be subordinated to any mortgages on properties leased from SNH. As of December 31, 2014, SNH had mortgages on 27 of our communities to which our leases were subordinated. These 27 communities had 4,001 living units and 2014 revenues totaling $188.6 million. SNHs outstanding borrowing secured by mortgages on these 27 communities totaled $340.8 million as of December 31, 2014.

Financing Limitations; Security.  Our leases subject to mortgage financings of SNH require SNHs consent before we incur debt secured by our investments in our tenant subsidiaries that lease or operate the properties subject to these leases. Further, our leases subject to mortgage financings prohibit our tenant subsidiaries from incurring liabilities, other than operating liabilities incurred in the ordinary course of business, secured by our accounts receivable or purchase money debt. We may pledge interests in our leases only if the pledge is approved by SNH. In addition, in connection with our leases subject to mortgage financings with SNH, certain of our subsidiaries pledged to the lenders under such mortgage financings certain tangible and intangible personal property, such as accounts receivable and contract rights, located at, or arising from the operations of, the properties subject to such leases to secure their obligations under such leases and certain of their obligations relating to such mortgage financings.

Non‑Economic Circumstances.  If we determine that continued operations of one or more properties is not economical, we may negotiate with SNH to close or sell that community, including SNHs ownership in the property. In the event of such a sale, SNH receives the net proceeds and our rent for the remaining properties in the applicable lease is reduced according to formulas contained in the applicable lease.

Our Relationship with SNH.  SNH is our largest landlord. We were a 100% owned subsidiary of SNH before December 31, 2001. On December 31, 2001, SNH distributed substantially all of our then outstanding common shares to its shareholders. Both we and SNH receive management services from RMR. SNH owns 4,235,000, or 8.6%, of our outstanding common shares as of December 31, 2014. For more information about our dealings with SNH, and about the risks which may arise as a result of these related person transactions, see Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsRelated Person Transactions of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Management Contracts

We began managing communities for SNHs account in June 2011 in connection with SNHs acquisition of certain senior living communities at that time. We have since begun managing additional communities that SNH has acquired. With the exception of the management agreement for the senior living community in New York, described in Note 15 to the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K, or Note 15, which is incorporated herein by reference, the management agreements for the communities we manage for SNHs account provide us with a management fee equal to 3% of the gross revenues realized at the communities, plus reimbursement for our direct costs and expenses related to the communities and an incentive fee equal to 35% of the annual net operating income of the communities after SNH realizes an annual return equal to 8% of its invested capital. The management agreements provide that we and SNH each have the option to terminate the contracts upon the acquisition by a person or group of more than 9.8% of the others voting stock and upon other change in control events affecting the other party, as defined in those documents, including the adoption of any shareholder proposal (other than a precatory proposal) or the election to the board of directors or board of trustees of any individual if such proposal or individual was not approved, nominated or appointed, as the case may be, by vote of a majority of the board of directors or board of trustees in office immediately prior to the making of such proposal or the nomination or appointment of such individual.

32


 

In connection with the management agreements, we and SNH have entered into four combination agreements, or pooling agreements, three of which combine certain of our management agreements with SNH for communities that include assisted living units, or the AL Pooling Agreements, and the fourth of which combines our management agreements with SNH for communities consisting only of independent living units, or the IL Pooling Agreement. The management agreements that are included in each of the pooling agreements are on substantially similar terms. The first AL Pooling Agreement, which we entered into in May 2011, includes 20 identified communities and the second AL Pooling Agreement, which we entered into in October 2012, includes 19 identified communities. We and SNH entered into our third AL Pooling Agreement in November 2013 and that pooling agreement currently includes three identified communities, as further discussed in Note 15. We entered into the IL Pooling Agreement in August 2012 and that agreement currently includes two identified communities that have only independent living units. Each of the AL Pooling Agreements and the IL Pooling Agreement aggregates the determination of fees and expenses of the various communities that are subject to such pooling agreement, including determinations of our incentive fees and SNH's return of its invested capital. Under each of the pooling agreements, SNH has the right, after the period of time specified in the agreement has elapsed and subject to our cure rights, to terminate all, but not less than all, of the management agreements that are subject to the pooling agreement if SNH does not receive its minimum return in each of three consecutive years. In addition, under each of the pooling agreements, we have a limited right to require the sale of underperforming communities. Also, under each of the pooling agreements, any nonrenewal notice given by us with respect to a community is deemed a nonrenewal with respect to all the communities that are the subject of the agreement. We also manage for the accounts of SNH and an entity owned by SNH’s executive officers a senior living community in New York, and we manage for the account of SNH a senior living community in California; the management agreements for these communities are not included in any of our pooling agreements. The term of each of the management agreements between us and SNH for the 20 assisted living communities currently included in the first AL Pooling Agreement and for the portion of the senior living community in New York that we manage for SNH, referenced in the preceding sentence expires on December 31, 2031, the term of each of the management agreements for the two independent living communities currently included in the IL Pooling Agreement expires on December 31, 2032, the term of each of the management agreements between us and SNH for the senior living community in California referenced in the preceding sentence and the 19 assisted living communities currently included in the second AL Pooling Agreement expires on December 31, 2033, and the term of each of the management agreements between us and SNH for the senior living communities included in the third AL Pooling Agreement expires December 31, 2035. Special committees of each of our Board of Directors and SNHs board of trustees composed solely of our Independent Directors and SNHs independent trustees who are not also directors or trustees of the other party and who were represented by separate counsel reviewed and approved the terms of the initial management agreements and pooling agreements and the terms of subsequent management agreements, pooling agreements and amendments were approved by our Independent Directors and Board of Directors and by the Independent Trustees and Board of Trustees of SNH. Please see Note 15 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information relating to our management arrangements with SNH.

 

Item 3.  Legal Proceedings

We are routinely involved in various legal and administrative proceedings incidental to the ordinary course of business, none of which we expect, individually or in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

33


 

 

PART II

Item 5.  Market for Registrants Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common shares are traded on the NYSE (symbol: FVE). The following table sets forth for the periods indicated the high and low sale prices for our common shares as reported by the NYSE:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

High

    

Low

 

2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter

 

$

6.72 

 

$

4.97 

 

Second Quarter

 

 

6.87 

 

 

4.44 

 

Third Quarter

 

 

6.20 

 

 

5.04 

 

Fourth Quarter

 

 

5.66 

 

 

4.41 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter

 

$

6.09 

 

$

4.71 

 

Second Quarter

 

 

5.35 

 

 

4.59 

 

Third Quarter

 

 

5.21 

 

 

3.23 

 

Fourth Quarter

 

 

4.67 

 

 

3.68 

 

 

The closing price of our common shares on the NYSE on March 13, 2015 was $3.57 per share.

As of March 13, 2015, there were approximately 2,200 stockholders of record of our common shares.

We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our common shares. At present, we intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to fund our operations and the growth of our business. Furthermore, our credit agreements restrict our payment of cash dividends on our common shares, unless certain requirements are met. Our future decisions concerning the payment of dividends on our common shares will depend upon our results of operations, financial condition, and capital expenditure and investment plans, as well as other factors as our Board of Directors, in its discretion, may consider relevant, and the extent to which the declaration or payment of dividends may be limited by agreements we have entered or cause us to lose the benefits of certain of our agreements.

On December 15, 2014, pursuant to our 2014 equity compensation plan, or our Share Award Plan, we granted an aggregate of 353,050 of our common shares, valued at $4.40 per share, the closing price of our common shares on the NYSE on that day, to our officers and certain employees of RMR. We made these grants pursuant to an exemption from registration contained in Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

In 2014, employees and officers of ours who are recipients of our share awards were permitted to elect to have us withhold the number of their then vesting common shares with a fair market value equal to, but not greater than, the minimum required tax withholding obligations with respect to their vesting share awards in satisfaction of those withholding obligations. In December 2014, we acquired through this share withholding process an aggregate of 11,377 common shares with an aggregate value of approximately $47,000.

Item 6.  Selected Financial Data

The following table sets forth selected financial data for the periods and dates indicated. Our comparative results are impacted by community acquisitions and dispositions during the periods shown. This data should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K and our Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes included in Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

 

34


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year ended December 31,

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

2011

 

2010

 

 

 

(in thousands, except per share data)

 

Operating data:

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

 

 

Total revenues

 

$

1,328,075 

 

$

1,296,787 

 

$

1,207,806 

 

$

1,060,602 

 

$

991,195 

 

Net (loss) income from continuing operations

 

 

(79,350)

 

 

3,449 

 

 

10,590 

 

 

75,555 

 

 

23,566 

 

Net (loss) income from discontinued operations

 

 

(6,056)

 

 

(5,789)

 

 

11,717 

 

 

(3,381)

 

 

(1,213)

 

Net (loss) income

 

 

(85,406)

 

 

(2,340)

 

 

22,307 

 

 

72,174 

 

 

22,353 

 

Basic net (loss) income per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Loss) income from continuing operations

 

 

(1.65)

 

 

0.07 

 

 

0.23 

 

 

1.79 

 

 

0.65 

 

(Loss) income from discontinued operations

 

 

(0.13)

 

 

(0.12)

 

 

0.24 

 

 

(0.08)

 

 

(0.03)

 

Net (loss) income

 

 

(1.78)

 

 

(0.05)

 

 

0.47 

 

 

1.71 

 

 

0.62 

 

Diluted net (loss) income per share: