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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K

(Mark One)
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014
 
 
or
 
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
For the transition period from __________ to __________
 
Commission File Number: 001-35797
Zoetis Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
 
46-0696167
(State or other jurisdiction of
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
incorporation or organization)
 
 
100 Campus Drive, Florham Park, New Jersey
 
07932
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(973) 822-7000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share
 
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of Securities Act.    Yes x   No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes x   No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).     Yes x    No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):  
Large accelerated filer x
 
Accelerated filer ¨
 
Non-accelerated filer ¨
 
Smaller reporting company ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the registrant as of June 29, 2014, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $16,224 million. The registrant has no non-voting common stock.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant's common stock as of February 23, 2015 was 500,787,817 shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:




Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2015 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 1, 2015 (hereinafter referred to as the “2015 Proxy Statement”) are incorporated into Parts II and III of this Form 10-K.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1A.
 
 
Item 1B.
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
 
 
Item 6.
 
 
Item 7.
 
 
Item 7A.
 
 
Item 8.
 
 
Item 9.
 
 
Item 9A.
 
 
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
 
 
Item 11.
 
 
Item 12.
 
 
Item 13.
 
 
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
 
 
 






PART I
Item 1. Business.
Overview
Zoetis Inc. is a global leader in the discovery, development, manufacture and commercialization of animal health medicines and vaccines, with a focus on both livestock and companion animals. We market a diverse range of products across four regions: the United States, Europe/Africa/Middle East, Canada/Latin America and Asia/Pacific; eight core species: the livestock species of cattle, swine, poultry, sheep and fish, and the companion animal species of dogs, cats and horses; and five major product categories: anti-infectives, vaccines, parasiticides, medicated feed additives and other pharmaceutical products. For more than 60 years, as a business unit of Pfizer Inc. (Pfizer), and now as an independent public company, we have been committed to enhancing the health of animals and bringing solutions to our customers who raise and care for them.
We were incorporated in Delaware in July 2012. The address of our principal executive offices is 100 Campus Drive, Florham Park, New Jersey 07932. Unless the context requires otherwise, references to “Zoetis,” “the company,” “we,” “us” or “our” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014 (2014 Annual Report) refer to Zoetis Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries. In addition, unless the context requires otherwise, references to “Pfizer” in this 2014 Annual Report refer to Pfizer Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries. Unless the context requires otherwise, statements relating to our history, for periods prior to the initial public offering (IPO), describe the history of Pfizer’s animal health business unit, although it is important to note that the net assets, operations and cash flows of Zoetis are not the same as the historical net assets, operations and cash flows of Pfizer's animal health operating segment.
On February 1, 2013, our Class A common stock began trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol “ZTS.” On February 6, 2013, an IPO of our Class A common stock was completed, which represented approximately 19.8% of our total outstanding shares. Prior to and in connection with the IPO, we completed a $3.65 billion senior notes offering (senior notes offering) and Pfizer transferred to us substantially all of the assets and liabilities of their animal health business. We did not receive any of the proceeds from the IPO. We paid an amount of cash equal to substantially all of the net proceeds that we received in the senior notes offering to Pfizer prior to the completion of the IPO. In addition, immediately prior to the completion of the IPO, we and Pfizer entered into certain agreements that provide a framework for our ongoing relationship with Pfizer. On June 24, 2013, an exchange offer was completed whereby Pfizer shareholders exchanged a portion of Pfizer common stock for Zoetis common stock, resulting in the full separation of Zoetis and the disposal of Pfizer's entire ownership and voting interest in Zoetis. We refer to the transactions to separate our business from Pfizer, as described here and elsewhere in this 2014 Annual Report, as the “Separation.” For additional information, see Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 2. The Separation, Adjustments Associated with the Separation, Senior Notes Offering, Initial Public Offering and Exchange Offer.
Operating Segments
The animal health medicines and vaccines market is characterized by meaningful differences in customer needs across different regions. This is due to a variety of factors, including:
economic differences, such as standards of living in developed markets as compared to emerging markets;
cultural differences, such as dietary preferences for different animal proteins, pet ownership preferences and pet care standards;
epidemiological differences, such as the prevalence of certain bacterial and viral strains and disease dynamics;
treatment differences, such as utilization of different types of medicines and vaccines, as well as the pace of adoption of new technologies;
environmental differences, such as seasonality, climate and the availability of arable land and fresh water; and
regulatory differences, such as standards for product approval and manufacturing.
As a result of these differences, among other things, we organize and operate our business in four segments: the United States, Europe/Africa/Middle East, Canada/Latin America and Asia/Pacific. Within each of these operating segments, we offer a diversified product portfolio for both livestock and companion animal customers so that we can capitalize on local trends and customer needs. Our operating segments are:
United States with revenue of $2,059 million, or 43% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014.
Europe/Africa/Middle East with revenue of $1,141 million, or 24% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014. Key developed markets in this segment include the United Kingdom, France and Germany. Key emerging markets in this segment include South Africa, Russia and Turkey.
Canada/Latin America with revenue of $815 million, or 17% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014. The developed market in this segment is Canada. Key emerging markets in this segment include Brazil and Mexico.
Asia/Pacific with revenue of $720 million, or 15% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014. Key developed markets in this segment include Australia, Japan and New Zealand. Key emerging markets in this segment include China, India and Thailand.
In addition, our Client Supply Services (CSS) organization provides contract manufacturing services to third parties and represented 1% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014.


1 |


Our 2014 reported revenue for the U.S. and top ten non-U.S. markets, based on total revenue, is as follows:

 
US
Brazil
Canada
Australia
UK
France
Germany
China
Japan
Italy
Spain
Livestock
56%
84%
63%
61%
55%
65%
58%
84%
56%
60%
79%
Companion Animal
44%
16%
37%
39%
45%
35%
42%
16%
44%
40%
21%
% of 2014 reported revenue
For additional information regarding our performance in each of these operating segments and the impact of foreign exchange rates, see Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 18A. Segment, Geographic and Other Revenue Information—Segment Information.
Our 2014 reported revenue for each segment, by species and top countries, is as follows:







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2014 EuAfME Segment Revenue
*Includes Russia and Commonwealth of Independent States, Africa, Turkey and Egypt, the Middle East, Iran and Caucasus, and Israel.
**Includes key markets such as Netherlands, Poland and Ireland.
2014 CLAR Segment Revenue
*Includes key markets such as Chile, Colombia and Peru.
2014 APAC Segment Revenue
*Includes markets such as Korea, New Zealand and Taiwan.

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Products
Over the course of our history, we have focused on developing a diverse portfolio of animal health products, including medicines and vaccines, complemented by diagnostics and genetics. We refer to a single product in all brands, or its dosage forms for all species, as a product line. We have more than 300 comprehensive product lines for both livestock and companion animals across each of our major product categories.
Our livestock products primarily help prevent or treat diseases and conditions to enable the cost-effective production of safe, high-quality animal protein. Human population growth and increasing standards of living are important long-term growth drivers for our livestock products in three major ways. First, population growth and increasing standards of living drive increased demand for improved nutrition, particularly animal protein. Second, population growth leads to increased natural resource constraints driving a need for enhanced productivity. Finally, as standards of living improve, there is increased focus on food quality and safety. Livestock products represented approximately 65% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014.

Our companion animal products help extend and improve the quality of life for pets; increase convenience and compliance for pet owners; and help veterinarians improve the quality of their care and the efficiency of their businesses. Growth in the companion animal medicines and vaccines sector is driven by economic development, related increases in disposable income and increases in pet ownership and spending on pet care. Companion animals are also living longer, receiving increased medical treatment and benefiting from advances in animal health medicines and vaccines. Companion animal products represented approximately 34% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014.
In addition, our Client Supply Services (CSS) organization provides contract manufacturing services to third parties and represented 1% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014.
Our major product categories are:
anti-infectives: products that prevent, kill or slow the growth of bacteria, fungi or protozoa;
vaccines: biological preparations that help prevent diseases of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts or induce a specific immune response;
parasiticides: products that prevent or eliminate external and internal parasites such as fleas, ticks and worms;
medicated feed additives: products added to animal feed that provide medicines to livestock; and
other pharmaceutical products: pain and sedation, oncology, antiemetic, allergy and dermatology; and reproductive products.
Our remaining revenue is derived from other product categories, such as nutritionals and agribusiness, as well as products and services in complementary areas, including diagnostics, genetics, biodevices and services.
As part of our growth strategy, through our research and development (R&D) group, we focus on the discovery and development of new chemical and biological entities, as well as product lifecycle development. Historically, a substantial portion of our products and revenue has been the result of product lifecycle development where we actively work to broaden the value of existing products by developing claims in additional species, more convenient formulations and combinations, and by expanding usage into more countries. For example, the first product in our ceftiofur line was an anti-infective approved for treating bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in cattle that was administered via intramuscular injection. Through follow-on studies and reformulations, we have expanded the product line into additional cattle claims and administration routes, as well as other species and regions. The ceftiofur product line currently includes the brands Excede, Excenel RTU, Excenel RTU EZ, Excenel, Naxcel and Spectramast.
Examples of our first-in-class and/or best-in-class products that we have launched in the past ten years and products that we believe may represent platforms for future product lifecycle development include:
Improvac/Improvest/Vivax, a protein product that works like an immunization, is currently the only product that provides a safe and effective alternative to physical castration to manage unpleasant aromas that can occur when cooking pork; launched in Australia and New Zealand in 2004, in Brazil in 2007, in certain European countries beginning in 2008, and in the United States in 2011;
Convenia, the first single-injection anti-infective for common bacterial skin infections in cats and dogs, launched in 2006;
Cerenia®, the first and only product on the market to prevent vomiting due to motion sickness in dogs, was first launched in Europe in 2006, followed by the United States in 2007;
Palladia, the first drug to be approved by the FDA for treating cancer in dogs, launched in 2009;
InforceTM3, the first and only respiratory vaccine for cattle that prevents respiratory disease caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) while also aiding in the prevention of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and parainfluenza3 (PI3), launched in 2010;
Fostera® PCV MH was introduced in November 2013 and developed to help protect pigs from PCVAD and enzootic pneumonia caused by M. hyo. Unlike other combination vaccines that require field mixing, the one-bottle formulation of Fostera PCV MH allows the convenience of a one-dose program or the flexibility of a two-dose program; and
Apoquel, the first Janus kinase inhibitor for use in veterinary medicine, was approved for the control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis and the control of atopic dermatitis in dogs at least 12 months of age. We launched Apoquel in the United States, United Kingdom, Austria and Germany in January 2014 and expect other market launches to follow.
We pursue the development of new vaccines for emerging infectious diseases, with an operating philosophy of “first to know and fast to market.” Examples of the successful execution of this strategy include the first equine vaccine for West Nile virus in the United States and European Union; the first swine vaccine for pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in the United States; the first fully licensed vaccine to help reduce disease caused by the

4 |


Georgia 08 variant of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in poultry; and a conditionally licensed vaccine to help fight porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) in the United States.
In 2014, our top selling product line, the ceftiofur line, contributed approximately 8% of our revenue. The ceftiofur line and our next two top selling products, Revolution and Draxxin, contributed approximately 21% of our revenue. Our top ten product lines contributed 39% of our revenue. Our product lines and products that represented approximately 1% or more of our revenue in 2014, which comprise 59% of our total revenue, are as follows:
Livestock products
 
 
 
 
 
Product line / product
 
Description
 
Primary species
 
 
 
 
 
Anti-infectives
 
 
 
 
Ceftiofur injectable line
 
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including ß-lactamase-producing strains, with some formulations producing a single course of therapy in one injection
 
Cattle, sheep, swine
Draxxin
 
Single-dose low-volume antibiotic for the treatment and prevention of bovine and swine respiratory disease, infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and bovine foot rot
 
Cattle, swine
Spectramast
 
Treatment of subclinical or clinical mastitis in dry or lactating dairy cattle, delivered via intramammary infusion; same active ingredient as the ceftiofur line
 
Cattle
Terramycin line
 
Antibiotic for the treatment of susceptible infections
 
Cattle, poultry, sheep, swine
 
 
 
 
 
Vaccines
 
 
 
 
Bovi-shield®  line
 
Aids in preventing diseases, including infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) Types 1 and 2, parainfluenza3 (PI3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and leptospirosis caused by Leptospira borgpetersenii, L.canicola, L grippotyphosa, L. hardjo,L. icterohaemorrhagiae, and L. pamona, depending on formulation
 
Cattle
Improvac / Improvest / Vivax
 
Reduces boar taint, as an alternative to surgical castration
 
Swine
Rispoval® line
 
Aids in preventing three key viruses involved in cattle pneumonia-BRSV, PI3 and BVD-as well as other respiratory diseases, depending on formulation
 
Cattle
Suvaxyn® PCV / Fostera™ PCV
 
Aids in preventing viremia and helps control lymphoid depletion caused by porcine circovirus
 
Swine
 
 
 
 
 
Parasiticides
 
 
 
 
Cydectin
 
Injectable or pour-on endectocide to treat and control internal and external cattle parasites, including gastrointestinal roundworms, lungworms, cattle grubs, mites and lice
 
Cattle, sheep
Dectomax
 
Injectable or pour-on endectocide, characterized by extended duration of activity, for the treatment and control of internal and external parasite infections
 
Cattle, swine
 
 
 
 
 
Medicated Feed Additives
 
 
 
 
Aureomycin
 
Provides livestock producers control, treatment and convenience against a wide range of respiratory, enteric and reproductive diseases
 
Cattle, poultry, sheep, swine
BMD
 
Aids in preventing and controlling enteritis; and increases rate of weight gain and improves feed efficiency in poultry and swine
 
Poultry, swine
Lasalocid line
 
Controls coccidiosis in poultry (Avatec) and cattle (Bovatec) and for increased rate of weight gain and improved feed efficiency in cattle
 
Poultry, cattle
Lincomycin line
 
Controls necrotic enteritis; treatment of dysentery (bloody scours), control of ileitis, treatment/reduction in severity of mycoplasmal pneumonia, increases weight gain in swine
 
Swine, poultry
 
 
 
 
 
Other
 
 
 
 
Embrex® devices
 
Devices for enhancing hatchery operations' efficiency through in ovo detection and vaccination
 
Poultry
Lutalyse
 
For estrus control or in the induction of parturition or abortion
 
Cattle, swine
Orbeseal / Teatseal
 
Non-antibiotic intramammary infusion that prevents new intramammary infections in dairy cattle
 
Cattle

5 |


Companion animal products
 
 
 
 
 
Product line / product
 
Description
 
Primary species
 
 
 
 
 
Anti-infectives
 
 
 
 
Clavamox / Synulox
 
A broad-spectrum antibiotic and the first and only potentiated penicillin approved for use in dogs and cats
 
Cats, dogs
Convenia
 
Anti-infective for the treatment of common bacterial skin infections that provides a course of treatment in a single injection
 
Cats, dogs
 
 
 
 
 
Vaccines
 
 
 
 
Vanguard® L4 (4-way Lepto)
 
Compatible with the Vanguard line and helps protect against leptospirosis caused by Leptospira canicola, L. grippotyphosa, L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L. pomona
 
Dogs
Vanguard line
 
Aids in preventing canine distemper caused by canine distemper virus, infectious canine hepatitis caused by canine adenovirus type 1, respiratory disease caused by canine adenovirus type 2, canine parainfluenza caused by canine parainfluenza virus and canine parvoviral enteritis caused by canine parvovirus
 
Dogs
 
 
 
Parasiticides
 
 
 
 
Revolution / Stronghold
 
An antiparasitic for protection against fleas, heartworm disease and ear mites in cats and dogs; canine sarcoptic mites and American dog tick and roundworms and hookworms for cats
 
Cats, dogs
ProHeart
 
Prevents heartworm infestation; also for treatment of existing larval and adult hookworm infections
 
Dogs
 
 
 
Other
 
 
 
 
Cerenia
 
A medication that prevents and treats acute vomiting in dogs, treats acute vomiting in cats and prevents vomiting due to motion sickness in dogs
 
Cats, dogs

Rimadyl
 
For the relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and for the control of postoperative pain associated with soft tissue and orthopedic surgeries
 
Dogs
International Operations
We directly market our products in approximately 70 countries across North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia and South America, and our products are sold in more than 120 countries. Operations outside the United States accounted for 57% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014. Through our efforts to establish an early and direct presence in many emerging markets, such as Brazil, China and India, emerging markets contributed 24% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014.
Our international businesses are subject, in varying degrees, to a number of risks inherent in carrying on business in other countries. These include, among other things, currency fluctuations, capital and exchange control regulations, expropriation and other restrictive government actions. See Item 1A. Risk Factors— Risks related to our international operations.
Sales and Marketing
Our sales organization includes sales representatives and technical and veterinary operations specialists. In markets where we do not have a direct commercial presence, we generally contract with distributors that provide logistics and sales and marketing support for our products.
Our sales representatives visit our customers, including veterinarians and livestock producers, to provide information and to promote and sell our products and services. Our technical and veterinary operations specialists, who generally have advanced veterinary medicine degrees, provide scientific consulting focused on disease management and herd management, training and education on diverse topics, including responsible product use. These direct relationships with customers allow us to understand the needs of our customers. Additionally, our sales representatives and technical and veterinary operations specialists partner with customers to provide training and support in areas of disease awareness and treatment protocols, including through the use of our products. As a result of these relationships, our sales and consulting visits are typically longer, more meaningful and provide us with better access to customer decision makers as compared to human health. As of December 31, 2014, our sales organization consisted of approximately 3,600 employees.
Our livestock and companion animal products are primarily available by prescription through a veterinarian. On a more limited basis, in certain markets, we sell certain products through local agricultural and farming retail outlets, pharmacies and pet stores. We also market our products by advertising to veterinarians, livestock producers and pet owners.
Customers
We sell our livestock products directly to a diverse set of livestock producers, including beef and dairy farmers as well as pork and poultry operations, and to veterinarians, third-party veterinary distributors and retail outlets that typically then sell the products to livestock producers. We primarily sell our companion animal products to veterinarians or to third-party veterinary distributors that typically then sell our products to veterinarians, and in each case veterinarians then typically sell our products to pet owners. Our two largest customers, both distributors, represented approximately 11% and 6%, respectively, of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014, and no other customer represented more than 4% of our revenue for the same period.

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Research and Development
Our R&D operations are comprised of a dedicated veterinary medicine R&D organization, research alliances and other operations focused on the development or registration of our products. We spent $396 million in 2014, $399 million in 2013 and $409 million in 2012 on R&D.
Our R&D efforts are comprised of more than 400 programs and reflect our commitment to better solutions.  We create new insights for preventing and treating disease, and maximizing healthy performance, that result in the development of new platforms of knowledge which become the basis for continuous innovation.  Leveraging internal discoveries, complemented by diverse external research collaborations, results in the delivery of novel vaccine, pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical products to help our customers face their toughest challenges.  While the development of new chemical and biological entities through new product R&D plays a critical role in our growth strategies, the majority of our R&D investment (including regulatory functions) is focused on product lifecycle development. A commitment to continuous innovation, based on customer need, ensures we actively work to broaden the value of existing products by developing claims in additional species, more convenient formulations and combinations, and by expanding usage into more countries. We also create opportunities to optimize solutions through our extensive capabilities in diagnostics and genetics research, ensuring we can help our customers diagnose, prevent and treat a variety of conditions.
We prioritize our R&D spending on an annual basis with the goal of aligning our of research and business objectives, and do not disaggregate our R&D operations by research stage or by therapeutic area for purposes of managing our business. We make our strategic investments in R&D based on four criteria: strategic fit and importance to our current portfolio; technical feasibility of development and manufacture; return on investment; and the needs of customers and the market. A centralized portfolio management function links development plans with financial systems to build a comprehensive view of the status of project progression and spend without a focus on spending by research stage or by therapeutic area. This comprehensive view facilitates our ability to set targets for project timing and goals for investment efficiency. The allocation of our R&D investment between product lifecycle and new product development, in addition to our ability to leverage the discoveries of our existing R&D and other industries, supports a cost-effective, efficient, sustainable and relatively predictable R&D process.
Prior to the IPO, we entered into an R&D collaboration and license agreement with Pfizer pursuant to which we will maintain access to Pfizer's proprietary compound library and database to develop new products, subject to certain restrictions. See Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence—Relationship with Pfizer—Research and development collaboration and license agreement. In addition, we regularly enter into R&D collaboration agreements and external alliances with other parties.
As of December 31, 2014, we employed approximately 1,100 employees in our global R&D operations. Our R&D headquarters is located in Kalamazoo, Michigan. We have R&D operations co-located with manufacturing sites in Melbourne, Australia; Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Campinas, Brazil; Guarulhos, Brazil; Olot, Spain; Charles City, Iowa, United States and Lincoln, Nebraska, United States. We co-locate R&D operations with manufacturing sites to facilitate the efficient transfer of production processes from our laboratories to manufacturing. In addition, we maintain R&D operations in Zaventem, Belgium; São Paulo, Brazil; Beijing, China; Mumbai, India; and College Park, Maryland, United States and Durham, North Carolina, United States. We own each of these R&D facilities, with the exception of our Mumbai, India facility, which we lease from Pfizer. See Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence—Relationship with Pfizer—Mumbai, India interim lease agreement. Each site is designed to meet the regulatory requirements for working with chemical or infectious disease agents.
Many of our research programs involve external partnerships, often with funding from a non-governmental organization or a government grant. We are generally responsible for providing technical direction and supplemental direct and indirect expertise in, as well as investment for, such external partnerships. Depending on the nature of the agreement, we may act as the commercialization partner for discoveries that originate during the period of collaborative research, or we may own or have exclusive rights to any intellectual property that enables the development of proprietary products or models.
Manufacturing and Supply Chain
Our products are manufactured at both sites operated by us and sites operated by third-party contract manufacturing organizations, which we refer to as CMOs. We have a global manufacturing network of 27 sites, which utilizes centralized oversight of a system of 13 “anchor” and 14 “satellite” manufacturing sites to maximize cost efficiencies.

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Our global manufacturing network is comprised of the following sites:
Anchor Sites
 
Satellite Sites
Site
 
Location
 
Site
 
Location
Catania
 
Italy
 
Campinas
 
Brazil
Charles City
 
Iowa, U.S.
 
Durham
 
North Carolina, U.S.
Chicago Heights
 
Illinois, U.S.
 
Eagle Grove
 
Iowa, U.S.
Guarulhos(1)
 
Brazil
 
Hsinchu(4)
 
Taiwan
Haridwar
 
India
 
Laurinburg
 
North Carolina, U.S.
Jilin(2)
 
China
 
Longmont
 
Colorado, U.S.
Kalamazoo(3)
 
Michigan, U.S.
 
Medolla
 
Italy
Lincoln
 
Nebraska, U.S.
 
Salisbury
 
Maryland, U.S.
Louvain-la-Neuve
 
Belgium
 
San Diego
 
California, U.S.
Melbourne
 
Australia
 
Shenzhou
 
China
Olot
 
Spain
 
Van Buren
 
Arkansas, U.S.
Suzhou
 
China
 
Wellington
 
New Zealand
Willow Island
 
West Virginia, U.S.
 
White Hall
 
Illinois, U.S.
 
 
 
 
Yantai
 
China
(1)  
This site is owned by us and leased back to Pfizer, pursuant to an arrangement by which Pfizer operates the manufacturing operations at the site for a period of time. See Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence—Relationship with Pfizer—Brazil lease agreements.
(2) 
This site is operated by the China joint venture, Jilin Zoetis Guoyuan Animal Health Company, Ltd.
(3) 
Prior to the Separation, Pfizer's manufacturing site in Kalamazoo manufactured both human health and animal health products. Since the Separation, we own the portions of this site that predominantly manufacture animal health products and Pfizer owns the portions of this site that predominantly manufacture human health products.
(4) 
This site is operated by the Taiwan joint venture, Zoetis Biotech Manufacturing Limited.
We own all of these sites, with the exception of our facilities in Melbourne, Australia; Medolla, Italy; Van Buren, Arkansas, United States; and San Diego, California, United States, which are leased sites.
In addition to our global manufacturing network and our CMOs, Pfizer continues to manufacture products for us at 11 Pfizer sites located in 11 countries pursuant to a master manufacturing and supply agreement. Included in these 11 Pfizer sites is our facility in Guarulhos, Brazil, where Pfizer will continue its manufacturing operations for a period of time. See Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence—Relationship with Pfizer—Master manufacturing and supply agreements.
Our global manufacturing and supply chain is supported by a network of CMOs. As of December 31, 2014, this network was comprised of approximately 200 CMOs, including those centrally managed as well as local CMOs.
We select CMOs based on several factors: (i) their ability to reliably supply products or materials that meet our quality standards at an optimized cost; (ii) their access to niche products and technologies; (iii) capacity; and (iv) financial efficiency analyses. Our regional and global manufacturing teams seek to ensure that all of the CMOs we use adhere to our standards of manufacturing quality and are regularly audited.
We purchase certain raw materials necessary for the commercial production of our products from a variety of third-party suppliers. We utilize logistics service providers as a part of our global supply chain, primarily for shipping and logistics support.
We intend to continue our efficiency improvement programs in our manufacturing and supply chain organization, including Six Sigma and Lean capabilities, which are processes intended to improve manufacturing efficiency. We have strong globally managed and coordinated quality control and quality assurance programs in place at our global manufacturing network sites, and we regularly inspect and audit our global manufacturing network and CMO sites. We are currently conducting a review of our global manufacturing and supply network to improve efficiency.
Competition
Although our business is the largest based on revenue in the animal health medicines and vaccines industry, we face competition in the regions in which we compete. Principal drivers of competition vary depending on the particular region, species, product category and individual product, and include new product development, quality, price, service and promotion to veterinary professionals, pet owners and livestock producers.
Our primary competitors include animal health medicines and vaccines companies such as Merck Animal Health, the animal health division of Merck & Co., Inc. (formerly known as Intervet/Schering-Plough); Merial, the animal health division of Sanofi S.A.; Elanco, the animal health division of Eli Lilly and Company; Bayer Animal Health, the animal health division of Bayer AG; and Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, the animal health division of Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH. In addition, we compete with hundreds of other producers of animal health products throughout the world.
The level of competition from generic products varies from market to market. For example, the level of generic competition is higher in Europe and certain emerging markets than in the United States. Unlike in the human health market, there is no large, well-capitalized company focused on generic animal health products that exists as a global competitor in the industry. The reasons for this include the relatively smaller average market

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size of each product opportunity, the importance of direct distribution and education to veterinarians and livestock producers and the primarily self-pay nature of the business. In addition, companion animal health products are often directly prescribed and dispensed by veterinarians.
Our livestock products tend to experience lower generic competition than our companion animal products for several reasons:
livestock producers tend to be loyal to medicines and vaccines that have been demonstrated to be efficacious because medicines and vaccines are a small portion of a livestock producer's total production costs and ineffective medicines and vaccines could result in the loss of animals, causing disproportionate harm to such producer's investment;
livestock producers value the technical assistance provided through our veterinary operations' support of our products and field force; and
the importance of reliable supply.
The importance of quality and safety concerns to pet owners, veterinarians and livestock producers also contributes to animal health brand loyalty. As a result, we believe that significant brand loyalty to products often continues after the loss of patent-based and regulatory exclusivity.
Intellectual Property
Our technology, brands and other intellectual property are important elements of our business. We rely on patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws, as well as regulatory exclusivity periods and non-disclosure agreements to protect our intellectual property rights. Our policy is to vigorously protect, enforce and defend our rights to our intellectual property, as appropriate.
Our product portfolio enjoys the protection of approximately 4,800 granted patents and 2,000 pending patent applications, filed in more than 60 countries, with concentration in our major market countries as well as other countries with strong patent systems, such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, Europe, Japan and the United States. Many of the patents and patent applications in our portfolio are the result of our own and Pfizer's work, while other patents and patent applications in our portfolio were at least partially developed by, and are licensed to us by, third parties.
Patents for individual products extend for varying periods depending on the date of the patent filing or grant and the legal term of patents in the countries where such patents are obtained. Several patents cover the ceftiofur product line, including formulation and use patents that begin expiring in the United States in 2015, with others extending until 2024. Draxxin and Convenia are covered by patents in the United States with terms that expire in 2021 and 2023, respectively. The compound patent on doramectin, which is the active ingredient in Dectomax, an antiparasitic, expired in all regions; however, process patents and the injectable formulation patent for this product do not expire in the United States until 2020 and 2016, respectively. The compound patent on selamectin, which is the active ingredient in Revolution, a parasiticide, expired during 2014; however, we have process and formulation patents covering this product expiring in 2018 and 2019, respectively.
Additionally, many of our vaccine products are based on proprietary master seeds and proprietary or patented adjuvant formulations. We actively seek to protect our proprietary information, including our trade secrets and proprietary know-how, including by seeking to require our employees, consultants, advisors and partners to enter into confidentiality agreements and other arrangements upon the commencement of their employment or engagement.
In order to facilitate the Separation and allow Pfizer and our operations to continue with minimal interruption, Pfizer has licensed to us the right to use certain intellectual property rights in the animal health field. We license to Pfizer the right to use certain of our trademarks and substantially all of our other intellectual property rights in the human health field and all other fields outside of animal health. In addition, Pfizer granted us a transitional license to use certain of Pfizer's trademarks and we granted Pfizer a transitional license to use certain of our trademarks for a period of time following the completion of the IPO.
We seek to file and maintain trademarks around the world based on commercial activities in most regions where we have, or desire to have, a business presence for a particular product or service. We currently maintain more than 10,000 trademark applications and registrations in major regions, identifying goods and services dedicated to the care of livestock and companion animals.
Regulatory
The sale of animal health products is governed by the laws and regulations specific to each country in which we sell our products. To maintain compliance with these regulatory requirements, we have established processes, systems and dedicated resources with end-to-end involvement from product concept to launch and maintenance in the market. Our regulatory function actively seeks to engage in dialogue with various global agencies regarding their policies that relate to animal health products. In the majority of our markets, the relevant animal health authority is separate from those governing human medicinal products.
United States
United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The regulatory body that is responsible for the regulation of animal health pharmaceuticals in the United States is the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), housed within the FDA. All manufacturers of animal health pharmaceuticals must show their products to be safe, effective and produced by a consistent method of manufacture as defined under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. The FDA's basis for approving a drug application is documented in a Freedom of Information Summary. Post-approval monitoring of products is required by law, with reports being provided to the CVM's Surveillance and Compliance group. Reports of product quality defects, adverse events or unexpected results are produced in accordance with the law. Additionally, we are required to submit all new information for a product, regardless of the source.
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The regulatory body in the United States for veterinary vaccines is the USDA. The USDA's Center for Veterinary Biologics is responsible for the regulation of animal health vaccines, including immunotherapeutics. All manufacturers of animal health biologicals must show their products to be pure, safe, effective and produced by a consistent method of manufacture as defined under

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the Virus Serum Toxin Act. Post-approval monitoring of products is required. Reports of product quality defects, adverse events or unexpected results are produced in accordance with the agency requirements.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The main regulatory body in the United States for veterinary pesticides is the EPA. The EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs is responsible for the regulation of pesticide products applied to animals. All manufacturers of animal health pesticides must show their products will not cause “unreasonable adverse effects to man or the environment” as stated in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. Within the United States, pesticide products that are approved by the EPA must also be approved by individual state pesticide authorities before distribution in that state. Post-approval monitoring of products is required, with reports provided to the EPA and some state regulatory agencies.
In addition, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) prohibits U.S. corporations and their representatives from offering, promising, authorizing or making payments to any foreign government official, government staff member, political party or political candidate in an attempt to obtain or retain business abroad. The scope of the FCPA includes interactions with certain healthcare professionals in many countries. Other countries have enacted similar anti-corruption laws and/or regulations.
Outside the United States
European Union (EU). The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is the centralized regulatory agency of the EU, located in London. The agency is responsible for the scientific evaluation of medicines developed by healthcare companies seeking centralized approval for use in the EU. The agency has a veterinary review section distinct from the medical review section. The Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products (CVMP) is responsible for scientific and technical review of the submissions for innovative pharmaceuticals, biopharmaceuticals and vaccines. After the CVMP issues a positive opinion on the approvability of a product, the EU commission reviews the opinion and, if they agree with the CVMP, they grant the product market authorization. Once granted by the European Commission, a centralized marketing authorization is valid in all EU and European Economic Area-European Free Trade Association states. Products can also be registered in the EU via a decentralized route under the supervision of the Co-ordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralized Procedures - Veterinary (CMDv). This co-ordination group is composed of one representative per member state from each national regulatory agency, including Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. The CMDv reviews submissions of pharmaceuticals and vaccines for authorization of a veterinary product in two or more member states in accordance with the mutual recognition or the decentralized procedure. A series of Regulations, Directives, Guidelines and EU Pharmacopeia Monographs provide the requirements for product approval in the EU. In general, these requirements are similar to those in the United States, requiring demonstrated evidence of, safety, efficacy, and quality/consistency of manufacturing processes.
Brazil. The Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock Production and Supply (MAPA) is the regulatory body in Brazil that is responsible for the regulation and control of pharmaceuticals, biologicals and medicated feed additives for animal use. MAPA's regulatory activities are conducted through the Secretary of Agricultural Defense and its Livestock Products Inspection Department. In addition, regulatory activities are conducted at a local level through the Federal Agriculture Superintendence. These activities include the inspection and licensing of both manufacturing and commercial establishments for veterinary products, as well as the submission, review and approval of pharmaceuticals, biologicals and medicated feed additives. MAPA is one of the most active regulatory agencies in Latin America, having permanent seats at several international animal health forums, such as Codex Alimentarius, World Organization for Animal Health and Committee of Veterinary Medicines for the Americas. MAPA was also invited to be a Latin American representative at meetings of the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH). Several normative instructions issued by MAPA have set regulatory trends in Latin America.
Australia. The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) is an Australian government statutory authority established in 1993 to centralize the registration of all agricultural and veterinary products into the Australian marketplace. Previously each State and Territory government had its own system of registration. The APVMA assesses applications from companies and individuals seeking registration so they can supply their product to the marketplace. Applications undergo rigorous assessment using the expertise of the APVMA's scientific staff and drawing on the technical knowledge of other relevant scientific organizations, Commonwealth government departments and state agriculture departments. If the product works as intended and the scientific data confirms that when used as directed on the product label it will have no harmful or unintended effects on people, animals, the environment or international trade, the APVMA will register the product. As well as registering new agricultural and veterinary products, the APVMA reviews older products that have been on the market for a substantial period of time to ensure they still do the job users expect and are safe to use. The APVMA also reviews registered products when particular concerns are raised about their safety and effectiveness. The review of a product may result in confirmation of its registration, or it may see registration continue with some changes to the way the product can be used. In some cases the review may result in the registration of a product being cancelled and the product taken off the market.
Rest of world. Country-specific regulatory laws have provisions that include requirements for certain labeling, safety, efficacy and manufacturers' quality control procedures (to assure the consistency of the products), as well as company records and reports. With the exception of the EU, most other countries' regulatory agencies will generally refer to the FDA, USDA, EU and other international animal health entities, including the World Organization for Animal Health, Codex Alimentarius, in establishing standards and regulations for veterinary pharmaceuticals and vaccines.
Global policy and guidance
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives is an international expert scientific committee that is administered jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). They provide a risk assessment/safety evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs in animal products, exposure and residue definition and maximum residue limit proposals for veterinary drugs. We work with them to establish acceptable safe levels of residual product in food-producing animals after treatment. This in turn enables the calculation of appropriate withdrawal times for our products prior to an animal entering the food chain.
Advertising and promotion review. Promotion of prescription animal health products is controlled by regulations in many countries. These rules generally restrict advertising and promotion to those claims and uses that have been reviewed and endorsed by the applicable agency. We conduct a review of promotion materials for compliance with the local and regional requirements in the markets where we sell animal health products.

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Food Safety Inspection Service/generally recognized as safe. The FDA is authorized to determine the safety of substances (including “generally recognized as safe” substances, food additives and color additives), as well as prescribing safe conditions of use. However, although the FDA has the responsibility for determining the safety of substances, the Food Safety and Inspection Service, the public health agency in the USDA, still retains, under the tenets of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and the Poultry Products Inspection Act and their implementing regulations, the authority to determine that new substances and new uses of previously approved substances are suitable for use in meat and poultry products.
International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH). VICH is a trilateral (EU-Japan-USA) program aimed at harmonizing technical requirements for veterinary product registration. The objectives of the VICH are as follows:
Establish and implement harmonized technical requirements for the registration of veterinary medicinal products in the VICH regions, which meet high quality, safety and efficacy standards and minimize the use of test animals and costs of product development.
Provide a basis for wider international harmonization of registration requirements.
Monitor and maintain existing VICH guidelines, taking particular note of the ICH work program and, where necessary, update these VICH guidelines.
Ensure efficient processes for maintaining and monitoring consistent interpretation of data requirements following the implementation of VICH guidelines.
By means of a constructive dialogue between regulatory authorities and industry, provide technical guidance enabling response to significant emerging global issues and science that impact on regulatory requirements within the VICH regions.
Employees
As of December 31, 2014, we had more than 10,000 employees worldwide, which included approximately 4,150 employees in the United States and approximately 5,850 in other jurisdictions. Some of these employees are members of unions, works councils, trade associations or are otherwise subject to collective bargaining agreements, including approximately 50 union employees in the United States.
Environmental, Health and Safety
We are subject to various federal, state, local and foreign environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These laws and regulations govern matters such as the emission and discharge of hazardous materials into the ground, air or water; the generation, use, storage, handling, treatment, packaging, transportation, exposure to, and disposal of hazardous and biological materials, including recordkeeping, reporting and registration requirements; and the health and safety of our employees. Due to our operations, these laws and regulations also require us to obtain, and comply with, permits, registrations or other authorizations issued by governmental authorities. These authorities can modify or revoke our permits, registrations or other authorizations and can enforce compliance through fines and injunctions.
Certain environmental laws, such as the U.S. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, as amended (CERCLA), impose joint and several liability, without regard to fault, for cleanup costs on persons who disposed of or released hazardous substances into the environment, including at third-party sites or offsite disposal locations, or that currently own or operate (or formerly owned or operated) sites where such a release occurred. In addition to clean-up actions brought by federal, state, local and foreign governmental entities, private parties could raise personal injury or other claims against us due to the presence of, or exposure to, hazardous materials on, from or otherwise relating to such a property.
We have made, and intend to continue to make, necessary expenditures for compliance with applicable environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. We are also a party to proceedings in which the primary relief sought is the cost of past and/or future remediation, or remedial measures to mitigate or remediate pollution. In connection with such proceedings, and otherwise, we are investigating and cleaning up environmental contamination from past industrial activity at certain sites, or financing other parties' completion of such activities. As a result, we incurred capital and operational expenditures in 2014 for environmental compliance purposes and for the clean-up of certain past industrial activities as follows:
environmental-related capital expenditures - $1 million; and
other environmental-related expenditures - $10 million.
However, we may not have identified all of the potential environmental liabilities relating to our current and former properties, or those liabilities associated with off-site disposal locations. Such liability could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Furthermore, regulatory agencies are showing increasing concern over the impact of animal health products and livestock operations on the environment. This increased regulatory scrutiny may necessitate that additional time and resources be spent to address these concerns in both new and existing products.
In connection with past acquisitions and divestitures, we have undertaken certain indemnification obligations that require us, or may require us in the future, to conduct or finance environmental cleanups at sites that we no longer own or operate. We have also entered into indemnification agreements in which we are being indemnified for various environmental cleanups; however, such indemnities are limited in both time and scope and may be further limited in the presence of new information, or may not be available at all.
While we cannot predict with certainty our future capital expenditures or operating costs for environmental compliance or remediation of contaminated sites, we have no reason to believe that they will have a material adverse effect on our operating results or financial condition.

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Available Information
The company's Internet website address is www.zoetis.com. On our website, the company makes available, free of charge, its annual, quarterly and current reports, including amendments to such reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after the company electronically files such material with, or furnishes such material to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
Also available on our website is information relating to corporate governance at Zoetis and our Board of Directors, including as follows: our Corporate Governance Principles; Director Qualification Standards; Zoetis Policies on Business Conduct (for all of our employees, including our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer); Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for our Directors; Board Committees and Committee Charters; and ways to communicate by email with our Directors. We will provide any of the foregoing information without charge upon written request to our Corporate Secretary, Zoetis Inc., 100 Campus Drive, Florham Park, New Jersey 07932. Information relating to shareholder services is also available on our website.
We use our website (www.zoetis.com) as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation Fair Disclosure promulgated by the SEC. These disclosures are included on our website (www.zoetis.com) in the “Investors” and “News & Media” sections. Accordingly, investors should monitor these portions of our website (www. zoetis.com), in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts.
The information contained on our website does not constitute, and shall not be deemed to constitute, a part of this 2014 Annual Report, or any other report we file with, or furnish to, the SEC. Our references to the URLs for websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
In addition to the other information in this 2014 Annual Report, any of the factors described below could materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity, which could cause the trading price of our securities to decline.
This report contains “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, future events and performance. We generally identify forward-looking statements by words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “could,” “expect,” “intend,” “project,” “plan,” “predict,” “believe,” “seek,” “continue,” “outlook,” “may,” “might,” “will,” “should,” “can have,” “likely” or the negative version of these words or comparable words or by using future dates in connection with any discussion of future performance, actions or events. Forward-looking statements are based on beliefs and assumptions made by management using currently available information. These statements are not guarantees of future performance, actions or events.
In particular, forward-looking statements include statements relating to our indebtedness, our ability to make interest and principal payments on our indebtedness, our ability to satisfy the covenants contained in our indebtedness, the redemption of the notes, expectations regarding indebtedness, the repurchase of shares, future use of cash and dividend payments, future actions, business plans or prospects, prospective products, product approvals or products under development, R&D costs, timing and likelihood of success, future operating or financial performance, future results of current and anticipated products and services, strategies, sales efforts, expenses, production efficiencies, production margins, interest rates, foreign exchange rates, growth in emerging markets, the outcome of contingencies, such as legal proceedings, our agreements with Pfizer, the expected timing and content of regulatory actions, government regulation and financial results. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, and are potentially inaccurate assumptions. However, there may also be other risks that we are unable to predict at this time. If one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or if management's underlying beliefs and assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may differ materially from those contemplated by a forward-looking statement. You should not put undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made.
We undertake no obligation to publicly update forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law or by the rules and regulations of the SEC. You are advised, however, to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects in our Form 10-Q and 8-K reports and our other filings with the SEC. We note these factors for investors as permitted by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You should understand that it is not possible to predict or identify all such factors. Consequently, you should not consider the following to be a complete discussion of all potential risks or uncertainties.
Risks related to our business and industry
Restrictions and bans on the use of antibacterials in food-producing animals may become more prevalent.
The issue of the potential transfer of increased antibacterials resistance in bacteria from food-producing animals to human pathogens, and the causality of that transfer, continue to be the subject of global scientific and regulatory discussion. Antibacterials refer to small molecules that can be used to treat or prevent bacterial infections and are a sub-categorization of the products that make up our anti-infectives and medicated feed additives portfolios. In some countries, this issue has led to government restrictions and bans on the use of specific antibacterials in some food-producing animals, regardless of the route of administration (in feed or injectable). These restrictions are more prevalent in countries where animal protein is plentiful and governments are willing to take action even when there is scientific uncertainty. Our total revenue attributable to antibacterials for livestock was approximately $1.3 billion for the year ended December 31, 2014.
In December 2013, the FDA announced final guidance establishing procedures for the voluntary phase out in the United States over a three year period of the use of medically important antibacterials in animal feed for growth promotion in food production animals (medically important antibacterials include classes that are prescribed in animal and human health). The guidance provides for continued use of antibacterials in food producing animals for treatment, control and under certain circumstances for prevention of disease, all under the supervision of a veterinarian. Our total revenue attributable to medicated feed additives was approximately $479 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The FDA indicated that they took this action to help preserve the efficacy of medically important antibacterials to treat infections in humans. Zoetis supports the FDA's

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efforts to voluntarily phase-out growth promotion indications for medically important antibiotics in food producing animals and will comply with procedures outlined in the December 2013 FDA guidance.
In addition, in October 2014, the French Parliament passed a law that, inter-alia, prohibits rebates and discounts on antibiotics and requires the reporting of antibiotics sold to and agreements entered into with certain animal healthcare providers (including veterinarians, veterinary schools, pharmacists and students). The Parliament indicated that the law is in response to a government initiative aimed at fighting antimicrobial resistance in animals and reducing the use of certain categories of antibiotics by 25% (compared to 2013) by December 31, 2016.
We cannot predict whether antibacterials resistance concerns will result in additional restrictions or bans, expanded regulations or public pressure to discontinue or reduce use of antibacterials in food-producing animals, which could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Perceived adverse effects on human health linked to the consumption of food derived from animals that utilize our products could cause a decline in the sales of such products.
Our livestock business depends heavily on a healthy and growing livestock industry. If the public perceives a risk to human health from the consumption of the food derived from animals that utilize our products, there may be a decline in the production of such food products and, in turn, demand for our products. For example, livestock producers may experience decreased demand for their products or reputational harm as a result of evolving consumer views of animal rights, nutrition and health-related or other concerns. Any reputational harm to the livestock industry may also extend to companies in related industries, including our company. Adverse consumer views related to the use of one or more of our products in livestock also may result in a decrease in the use of such products and could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
Increased regulation or decreased governmental financial support relating to the raising, processing or consumption of food-producing animals could reduce demand for our livestock products.
Companies in the livestock industries are subject to extensive and increasingly stringent regulations. If livestock producers are adversely affected by new regulations or changes to existing regulations, they may reduce herd sizes or become less profitable and, as a result, they may reduce their use of our products, which may materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Furthermore, adverse regulations related, directly or indirectly, to the use of one or more of our products may injure livestock producers' market position. More stringent regulation of the livestock industry or our products could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. Also, many food-producing companies, including livestock producers, benefit from governmental subsidies, and if such subsidies were to be reduced or eliminated, these companies may become less profitable and, as a result, may reduce their use of our products.
An outbreak of infectious disease carried by animals could negatively affect the sale and production of our products.
Sales of our livestock products could be materially adversely affected by the outbreak of disease carried by animals, such as avian influenza, foot-and-mouth disease or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (otherwise known as BSE or mad cow disease) or porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (otherwise known as PEDv), which could lead to the widespread death or precautionary destruction of animals as well as the reduced consumption and demand for animal protein. In addition, outbreaks of disease carried by animals may reduce regional or global sales of particular animal-derived food products or result in reduced exports of such products, either due to heightened export restrictions or import prohibitions, which may reduce demand for our products due to reduced herd or flock sizes. For example, the outbreaks of PEDv that have seriously impacted swine herds in Asia since 2012 and the United States since 2013 spread to additional markets in 2014, including Canada, Mexico, Japan, Taiwan, Spain and Portugal. The continued spread of PEDv in the United States, Asia, Europe and neighboring countries could impact the size of swine herds and the demand for our swine products in these markets. In addition, in 2012, the USDA and the World Animal Health Organization announced that individual cases of BSE had been identified in California and Brazil. These announcements caused certain countries to implement additional inspections of, or suspend the importation of, U.S. and Brazilian beef. While the restrictions that were implemented as a result of these cases of BSE have not significantly affected demand for our products, the discovery of additional cases of BSE may result in additional restrictions related to, or reduced demand for, animal protein, which may have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. Also, the outbreak of any highly contagious disease near our main production sites could require us to immediately halt production of our products at such sites or force us to incur substantial expenses in procuring raw materials or products elsewhere.
Consolidation of our customers could negatively affect the pricing of our products.
Veterinarians and livestock producers are our primary customers. In recent years, there has been a trend towards the concentration of veterinarians in large clinics and hospitals. In addition, livestock producers, particularly swine and poultry producers, have seen recent consolidation in their industries. If these trends towards consolidation continue, these customers could attempt to improve their profitability by leveraging their buying power to obtain favorable pricing. The resulting decrease in our prices could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
Our business may be negatively affected by weather conditions and the availability of natural resources.
The animal health industry and demand for many of our animal health products in a particular region are affected by weather conditions, as usage of our products follows varying weather patterns and weather-related pressures from pests, such as ticks. As a result, we may experience regional and seasonal fluctuations in our results of operations.
In addition, veterinary hospitals and practitioners depend on visits from and access to animals under their care. Veterinarians’ patient volume and ability to operate could be adversely affected if they experience prolonged snow, ice or other weather conditions, particularly in regions not accustomed to sustained inclement weather. Furthermore, livestock producers depend on the availability of natural resources, including large supplies of fresh water. Their animals' health and their ability to operate could be adversely affected if they experience a shortage of fresh water due to human population growth or floods, droughts or other weather conditions. In the event of adverse weather conditions or a shortage of fresh water, veterinarians or livestock producers may purchase less of our products.

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For example, the widespread drought that impacted the United States in 2011, 2012 and in some regions in 2013 was considered the worst in many years, impacting both the supply of corn and the availability of grazing pasture and resulting in a reduction in the total cow herd in 2013. A decrease in harvested corn may result in higher corn prices, which may impact the profitability of livestock producers of cattle, pork and poultry. Higher corn prices may contribute to reductions in herd or flock sizes that may result in reduced spending on animal health products. Reduced availability of grazing pasture may also force cattle producers to cull their herds. Fewer heads of cattle would result in reduced demand for our products. A prolonged drought could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
Our business is subject to risk based on global economic conditions.
Macroeconomic, business and financial disruptions could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, financial condition and liquidity. Certain of our customers and suppliers could be affected directly by an economic downturn and could face credit issues or cash flow problems that could give rise to payment delays, increased credit risk, bankruptcies and other financial hardships that could decrease the demand for our products or hinder our ability to collect amounts due from customers. For example, the economic downturns experienced in many markets across the globe have had an impact on certain of our customers and, as a result, on our operating results in those affected markets. If one or more of our large customers, including distributors discontinue their relationship with us as a result of economic conditions or otherwise, our operating results and financial condition may be materially adversely affected. In addition, economic concerns may cause some pet owners to forgo or defer visits to veterinary practices or could reduce their willingness to treat pet health conditions or even to continue to own a pet. Furthermore, our exposure to credit and collectability risk is higher in certain international markets and our ability to mitigate such risks may be limited. While we have procedures to monitor and limit exposure to credit and collectability risk, there can be no assurances such procedures will effectively limit such risk and avoid losses.
Our business is subject to risk based on customer exposure to rising costs and reduced customer income.
Feed, fuel and transportation and other key costs for livestock producers may increase or animal protein prices or sales may decrease. Either of these trends could cause deterioration in the financial condition of our livestock product customers, potentially inhibiting their ability to purchase our products or pay us for products delivered. Our livestock product customers may offset rising costs by reducing spending on our products, including by switching to lower-cost alternatives to our products. In addition, concerns about the financial resources of pet owners also could cause veterinarians to alter their treatment recommendations in favor of lower-cost alternatives to our products. These shifts could result in a decrease in sales of our companion animal products, especially in developed countries where there is a higher rate of pet ownership.
Changes in distribution channels for companion animal products could negatively impact our market share, margins and distribution of our products.
In most markets, companion animal owners typically purchase their animal health products directly from veterinarians. Companion animal owners increasingly have the option to purchase animal health products from sources other than veterinarians, such as Internet-based retailers, “big-box” retail stores or other over-the-counter distribution channels. This trend has been demonstrated by the significant shift away from the veterinarian distribution channel in the sale of flea and tick products in recent years. Companion animal owners also could decrease their reliance on, and visits to, veterinarians as they rely more on Internet-based animal health information. Because we market our companion animal prescription products through the veterinarian distribution channel, any decrease in visits to veterinarians by companion animal owners could reduce our market share for such products and materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. In addition, companion animal owners may substitute human health products for animal health products if human health products are deemed to be lower-cost alternatives.
Legislation has also been proposed in the United States, and may be proposed in the United States or abroad in the future, that could impact the distribution channels for our companion animal products. For example, such legislation may require veterinarians to provide pet owners with written prescriptions and disclosure that the pet owner may fill prescriptions through a third party, which may further reduce the number of pet owners who purchase their animal health products directly from veterinarians. Such requirements may lead to increased use of generic alternatives to our products or the increased substitution of our products with other animal health products or human health products if such other products are deemed to be lower-cost alternatives. Many states already have regulations requiring veterinarians to provide prescriptions to pet owners upon request and the American Veterinary Medical Association has long-standing policies in place to encourage this practice.
Over time, these and other competitive conditions may increase our reliance on Internet-based retailers, “big-box” retail stores or other over-the-counter distribution channels to sell our companion animal products. We may be unable to sustain our current margins and we may not be adequately prepared or able to distribute our products if an increased portion of our sales is through these channels. Any of these events could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
The animal health industry is highly competitive.
The animal health industry is highly competitive. We believe many of our competitors are conducting R&D activities in areas served by our products and in areas in which we are developing products. Our competitors include the animal health businesses of large pharmaceutical companies and specialty animal health businesses. There are several new start-up companies working in the animal health area. These competitors may have access to greater financial, marketing, technical and other resources. As a result, they may be able to devote more resources to developing, manufacturing, marketing and selling their products, initiating or withstanding substantial price competition or more readily taking advantage of acquisitions or other opportunities. In addition to competition from established market participants, new entrants to the animal health medicines and vaccines industry could substantially reduce our market share or render our products obsolete.
To the extent that any of our competitors are more successful with respect to any key competitive factor or we are forced to reduce, or are unable to raise, the price of any of our products in order to remain competitive, our operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. Competitive pressure could arise from, among other things, safety and efficacy concerns, limited demand growth or a significant number of additional competitive products being introduced into a particular market, price reductions by competitors, the ability of competitors to capitalize on their economies of scale, the ability of competitors to produce or otherwise procure animal health products at lower costs than us and the ability of competitors to access more or newer technology than us.

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Generic products may be viewed as more cost-effective than our products.
We face competition from products produced by other companies, including generic alternatives to our products. We depend on patents and data exclusivity periods to provide us with exclusive marketing rights for some of our products. Our patent protection for these products extends for varying periods in accordance with the dates of filing or grant and the legal life of patents in countries in which patents are granted. The protection afforded by our patents, which varies from country to country, is limited by the following in the applicable country: the scope and applicable terms of our patents and the availability and enforcement of legal remedies. As a result, we may face competition from lower-priced generic alternatives to many of our products. Generic competitors are becoming more aggressive in terms of launching at risk before our patent rights expire, and their pricing, and generic products are an increasing percentage of overall animal health sales in certain regions. In addition, private label products may compete with our products. If animal health customers increase their use of new or existing generic or private label products, our operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. We estimate that approximately 80% of our revenue in 2014 was derived from products that are either unpatented (i.e., never patented or off-patent) or covered by our patents that, while providing a competitive advantage, may not provide market exclusivity. Over the next several years, several of our products' patents will expire. For example, our compound patent on selamectin, the active ingredient in Revolution and Stronghold, expired in several countries in January 2014, which could lead to the launch of generic counterparts, if generic manufacturers are able to successfully design-around our formulation and process patents.
We may not successfully acquire and integrate other businesses, license rights to technologies or products, form and manage alliances or divest businesses.
We may pursue acquisitions, technology licensing arrangements, strategic alliances or divestitures of some of our businesses as part of our business strategy. We may not complete these transactions in a timely manner, on a cost-effective basis or at all. In addition, we may be subject to regulatory constraints or limitations or other unforeseen factors that prevent us from realizing the expected benefits. Even if we are successful in making an acquisition, the products and technologies that are acquired may not be successful or may require significantly greater resources and investments than originally anticipated. We may be unable to integrate acquisitions successfully into our existing business, and we may be unable to achieve expected gross margin improvements or efficiencies. We also could incur or assume significant debt and unknown or contingent liabilities. Our reported results of operations could be negatively affected by acquisition or disposition-related charges, amortization of expenses related to intangibles and charges for impairment of long-term assets. We may be subject to litigation in connection with, or as a result of, acquisitions, dispositions, licenses or other alliances, including claims from terminated employees, customers or third parties, and we may be liable for future or existing litigation and claims related to the acquired business, disposition, license or other alliance because either we are not indemnified for such claims or the indemnification is insufficient. These effects could cause us to incur significant expenses and could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
We may not successfully implement our business strategies or achieve expected gross margin improvements.
We are pursuing, and will continue to pursue, strategic initiatives that management considers critical to our long-term success, including, but not limited to, increasing sales in emerging markets, operational revenue growth through new product development and value-added product lifecycle development; improving operational efficiency through manufacturing efficiency improvement and other programs; using cash flow from operations to service or reduce debt; and expanding our complementary products and services. In addition to base revenue growth, we also have historically grown our business through Pfizer's acquisitions of large pharmaceutical companies that had animal health businesses, including the Fort Dodge Animal Health (FDAH) business of Wyeth and the Alpharma Animal Health business of King Pharmaceuticals, Inc. However, as a result of the Separation, we are no longer able to benefit from Pfizer's acquisition activity. We also have acquired or partnered with a number of smaller animal health businesses, and we intend to continue to do so in the future. There are significant risks involved with the execution of these initiatives, including significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control. Accordingly, we cannot predict whether we will succeed in implementing these strategic initiatives. It could take several years to realize the anticipated benefits from these initiatives, if any benefits are achieved at all. We may be unable to achieve expected gross margin improvements on our products and technologies, including those acquired and those developed internally. Additionally, our business strategy may change from time to time, which could delay our ability to implement initiatives that we believe are important to our business.
Our business could be affected adversely by labor disputes, strikes or work stoppages.
Some of our employees are members of unions, works councils, trade associations or are otherwise subject to collective bargaining agreements in certain jurisdictions, including the United States. As a result, we are subject to the risk of labor disputes, strikes, work stoppages and other labor-relations matters. We may be unable to negotiate new collective bargaining agreements on similar or more favorable terms and may experience work stoppages or other labor problems in the future at our sites. These risks may be increased by the Separation because we are no longer able to benefit from Pfizer's prior relationships and negotiations relating to such agreements. We could experience a disruption of our operations or higher ongoing labor costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition, potentially resulting in canceled orders by customers, unanticipated inventory accumulation or shortages and reduced revenue and net income. In addition, labor problems at our suppliers or CMOs could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
Loss of our executive officers could disrupt our operations.
We depend on the efforts of our executive officers. Our executive officers are not currently, and are not expected to be, subject to non-compete provisions. In addition, we have not entered into employment agreements with our executive officers. Any unplanned turnover or our failure to develop an adequate succession plan for one or more of our executive officer positions could deplete our institutional knowledge base and erode our competitive advantage. The loss or limited availability of the services of one or more of our executive officers, or our inability to recruit and retain qualified executive officers in the future, could, at least temporarily, have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

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We may be required to write down goodwill or identifiable intangible assets.
Under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP), if we determine goodwill or identifiable intangible assets are impaired, we will be required to write down these assets and record a non-cash impairment charge. As of December 31, 2014, we had goodwill of $976 million and identifiable intangible assets, less accumulated amortization, of $727 million. Identifiable intangible assets consist primarily of developed technology rights, brands, trademarks, license agreements, patents and in-process R&D.
Determining whether an impairment exists and the amount of the potential impairment involves quantitative data and qualitative criteria that are based on estimates and assumptions requiring significant management judgment. Future events or new information may change management's valuation of an intangible asset in a short amount of time. The timing and amount of impairment charges recorded in our consolidated and combined statements of income and write-downs recorded in our consolidated balance sheets could vary if management's conclusions change. Any impairment of goodwill or identifiable intangible assets could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial position.
Our historical combined financial data is not necessarily representative of the results we would have achieved as an independent company and may not be a reliable indicator of our future results.
Our historical combined financial data for the periods prior to the IPO (the years ended December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012, and the period ended January 31, 2013) included in this 2014 Annual Report does not reflect the financial condition, results of operations or cash flows we would have achieved as an independent company during the periods presented or those we will achieve in the future. This is primarily the result of the following factors:
our historical combined financial data does not reflect the Separation;
our historical combined financial data reflects expense allocations for certain support functions that are provided on a centralized basis within Pfizer, such as expenses for business technology, facilities, legal, finance, human resources, business development, public affairs and procurement, as well as certain manufacturing and supply costs incurred by manufacturing sites that are shared with other Pfizer business units that may be higher or lower than the comparable expenses we would have actually incurred, or will incur, as an independent company;
our cost of debt and our capital structure is different from that reflected in our historical combined financial statements;
significant increases may occur in our cost structure as a result of our being an independent public company, including costs related to public company reporting, investor relations and compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Sarbanes-Oxley Act); and
loss of economies of scale as a result of our no longer being a part of Pfizer.
Our financial condition and future results of operations will be materially different from amounts reflected in our historical combined financial statements included in this 2014 Annual Report for the periods prior to the IPO. As a result of the Separation, it may be difficult for investors to compare our future results to historical results or to evaluate our relative performance or trends in our business.
As an independent public company, we are required to expend additional time and resources to comply with rules and regulations that did not previously apply to us, and failure to comply with such rules may lead investors to lose confidence in our financial data.
As an independent public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act, and regulations of the NYSE. Such requirements have increased our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, have made some activities more difficult, time-consuming and costly and require additional resources. We are devoting significant resources to address these public company-associated requirements, including compliance programs and investor relations, as well as our financial reporting obligations. Complying with these rules and regulations has increased and will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and makes some activities more time-consuming and costly.
In particular, as a public company, our management is required to conduct an annual evaluation of our internal controls over financial reporting and include a report of management on our internal controls in our Annual Reports on Form 10-K. In addition, we are required to have our independent registered public accounting firm attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Auditing Standard No. 5 beginning with this 2014 Annual Report. If we are unable to conclude that we have effective internal controls over financial reporting, or if our registered public accounting firm is unable to provide us with an attestation and an unqualified report as to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which could result in a decrease in the value of our securities.
Risks related to research and development
Our R&D, acquisition and licensing efforts may fail to generate new products and product lifecycle developments.
Our future success depends on both our existing product portfolio and our pipeline of new products, including new products that we may develop through joint ventures and products that we are able to obtain through license or acquisition. We commit substantial effort, funds and other resources to R&D, both through our own dedicated resources and through collaborations with third parties.
We may be unable to determine with accuracy when or whether any of our products now under development will be approved or launched, or we may be unable to develop, license or otherwise acquire product candidates or products. In addition, we cannot predict whether any products, once launched, will be commercially successful or will achieve sales and revenue that are consistent with our expectations. The animal health industry is subject to regional and local trends and regulations and, as a result, products that are successful in some of our markets may not achieve similar success when introduced into new markets. Furthermore, the timing and cost of our R&D may increase, and our R&D may become less predictable. For example, changes in regulations applicable to our industry may make it more time-consuming and/or costly to research, develop and register products.

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Products in the animal health industry are sometimes derived from molecules and compounds discovered or developed as part of human health research. In addition to the R&D collaboration and license agreement with Pfizer, we expect to enter into other collaboration or licensing arrangements with third parties to provide us with access to compounds and other technology for purposes of our business. Such agreements are typically complex and require time to negotiate and implement. If we enter into these arrangements, we may not be able to maintain these relationships or establish new ones in the future on acceptable terms or at all. In addition, any collaboration that we enter into may not be successful, and the success may depend on the efforts and actions of our collaborators, which we may not be able to control. If we are unable to access human health-generated molecules and compounds to conduct R&D on cost-effective terms, our ability to develop some types of new products could be limited.
Advances in veterinary medical practices and animal health technologies could negatively affect the market for our products.
The market for our products could be impacted negatively by the introduction and/or broad market acceptance of newly-developed or alternative products that address the diseases and conditions for which we sell products, including “green” or “holistic” health products or specially bred disease-resistant animals. In addition, technological breakthroughs by others may obviate our technology and reduce or eliminate the market for our products. Introduction or acceptance of such products or technologies could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Our R&D relies on evaluations in animals, which may become subject to bans or additional regulations.
As an animal health medicines and vaccines business, the evaluation of our existing and new products in animals is required to register our products. Animal testing in certain industries has been the subject of controversy and adverse publicity. Some organizations and individuals have attempted to ban animal testing or encourage the adoption of additional regulations applicable to animal testing. To the extent that the activities of such organizations and individuals are successful, our R&D, and by extension our operating results and financial condition, could be materially adversely affected. In addition, negative publicity about us or our industry could harm our reputation.
Risks related to manufacturing
Manufacturing problems and capacity imbalances may cause product launch delays, inventory shortages, recalls or unanticipated costs.
In order to sell our products, we must be able to produce and ship our products in sufficient quantities. We have a global manufacturing network consisting of 27 manufacturing sites located in 10 countries. In addition, 11 Pfizer sites located in 11 countries manufacture certain of our products for us. Included in these Pfizer sites is our facility in Guarulhos, Brazil, where Pfizer will continue its manufacturing operations for a period of time. These Pfizer sites consist of sites operated by Pfizer that, immediately prior to the Separation, predominantly manufactured human health products. We also employ a network of approximately 200 CMOs. Many of our products involve complex manufacturing processes and are sole-sourced from certain manufacturing sites.
Minor deviations in our manufacturing or logistical processes, such as temperature excursions or improper package sealing, could result in delays, inventory shortages, unanticipated costs, product recalls, product liability and/or regulatory action. In addition, a number of factors could cause production interruptions, including:
the failure of us or any of our vendors or suppliers, including logistical service providers, to comply with applicable regulations and quality assurance guidelines;
construction delays;
equipment malfunctions;
shortages of materials;
labor problems;
natural disasters;
power outages;
criminal and terrorist activities;
changes in manufacturing production sites and limits to manufacturing capacity due to regulatory requirements, changes in types of products produced, shipping distributions or physical limitations; and
the outbreak of any highly contagious diseases near our production sites.
These interruptions could result in launch delays, inventory shortages, recalls, unanticipated costs or issues with our agreements under which we supply third parties, which may adversely affect our operating results. For example, our manufacturing site in Medolla, Italy was damaged in an earthquake in May 2012, which resulted in production interruptions at that site.
Our manufacturing network may be unable to meet the demand for our products or we may have excess capacity if demand for our products changes. The unpredictability of a product's regulatory or commercial success or failure, the lead time necessary to construct highly technical and complex manufacturing sites, and shifting customer demand (including as a result of market conditions or entry of branded or generic competition) increase the potential for capacity imbalances. In addition, construction of sites is expensive, and our ability to recover costs will depend on the market acceptance and success of the products produced at the new sites, which is uncertain.

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We rely on third parties to provide us with materials and services and are subject to increased labor and material costs.
The materials used to manufacture our products may be subject to availability constraints and price volatility caused by changes in demand, weather conditions, supply conditions, government regulations, economic climate and other factors. In addition, labor costs may be subject to volatility caused by the supply of labor, governmental regulations, economic climate and other factors. Increases in the demand for, availability or the price of, materials used to manufacture our products and increases in labor costs could increase the costs to manufacture our products. We may not be able to pass all or a material portion of any higher material or labor costs on to our customers, which could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
In addition, certain third-party suppliers are the sole source of certain materials necessary for production of our products. We may be unable to meet demand for certain of our products if any of our third-party suppliers cease or interrupt operations, fail to renew contracts with us or otherwise fail to meet their obligations to us.
Risks related to legal matters and regulation
We may incur substantial costs and receive adverse outcomes in litigation and other legal matters.
Our operating results, financial condition and liquidity could be materially adversely affected by unfavorable results in pending or future litigation matters. These matters include, among other things, allegations of violation of United States and foreign competition laws, labor laws, consumer protection laws, and environmental laws and regulations, as well as claims or litigations relating to product liability, intellectual property, securities, breach of contract and tort. In addition, changes in the interpretations of laws and regulations to which we are subject, or in legal standards in one or more of the jurisdictions in which we operate, could increase our exposure to liability. For example, in the United States, attempts have been made to allow damages for emotional distress and pain and suffering in connection with the loss of, or injury to, a companion animal. If such attempts were successful, our exposure with respect to product liability claims could increase materially.
Litigation matters, regardless of their merits or their ultimate outcomes, are costly, divert management's attention and may materially adversely affect our reputation and demand for our products. We cannot predict with certainty the eventual outcome of pending or future litigation matters. An adverse outcome of litigation or legal matters could result in our being responsible for significant damages. Any of these negative effects resulting from litigation matters could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
The misuse or off-label use of our products may harm our reputation or result in financial or other damages.
Our products have been approved for use under specific circumstances for the treatment of certain diseases and conditions in specific species. There may be increased risk of product liability if veterinarians, livestock producers, pet owners or others attempt to use our products off-label, including the use of our products in species (including humans) for which they have not been approved. For example, Ketamine, the active pharmaceutical ingredient in our Ketaset product (a nonnarcotic agent for anesthetic use in cats), is commonly abused by humans as a hallucinogen. Furthermore, the use of our products for indications other than those indications for which our products have been approved may not be effective, which could harm our reputation and lead to an increased risk of litigation. If we are deemed by a governmental or regulatory agency to have engaged in the promotion of any of our products for off-label use, such agency could request that we modify our training or promotional materials and practices and we could be subject to significant fines and penalties, and the imposition of these sanctions could also affect our reputation and position within the industry. Any of these events could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
The illegal distribution and sale by third parties of counterfeit or illegally compounded versions of our products or of stolen, diverted or relabeled products could have a negative impact on our reputation and business.
Third parties may illegally distribute and sell counterfeit or illegally compounded versions of our products that do not meet the exacting standards of our development, manufacturing and distribution processes. Counterfeit or illegally compounded medicines pose a significant risk to animal health and safety because of the conditions under which they are manufactured and the lack of regulation of their contents. Counterfeit or illegally compounded products are frequently unsafe or ineffective and can be potentially life-threatening to animals. Our reputation and business could suffer harm as a result of counterfeit or illegally compounded products sold under our brand name. In addition, products stolen or unlawfully diverted from inventory, warehouses, plants or while in transit, which are not properly stored or which have been repackaged or relabeled and which are sold through unauthorized channels, could adversely impact animal health and safety, our reputation and our business. Public loss of confidence in the integrity of vaccines and/or pharmaceutical products as a result of counterfeiting, illegally compounding or theft could have a material adverse effect on our product sales, business and results of operations.
Animal health products are subject to unanticipated safety, quality, or efficacy concerns, which may harm our reputation.
Unanticipated safety, quality, or efficacy concerns can arise with respect to animal health products, whether or not scientifically or clinically supported, leading to product recalls, withdrawals or suspended or declining sales, as well as product liability and other claims. For example, as a result of safety concerns related to our product, PregSure BVD, in 2010, we voluntarily suspended sales of the product and withdrew the marketing authorization in the EU and, in 2011, we suspended sales and withdrew the marketing authorization for the product in New Zealand. Also, in May 2013, we were advised that the European Commission started a procedure regarding the EU marketing authorization for Suvaxyn PCV, a vaccine against porcine circovirus type 2 in swine. The initiation of the procedure followed a recall of two batches of Suvaxyn PCV as a result of higher than expected adverse reactions, reported mainly in Spain. In June 2013, we completed a root cause investigation of the higher than expected adverse reactions in these two batches, and subsequently submitted to the EMA a proposed variation to describe specific adjustments to the manufacturing process to help minimize the risk of future reactive batches. In October 2013, the EMA’s Committee on Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use adopted a positive opinion as to the proposed variation and concurrently adopted an opinion concluding that no action was required at that time with regard to the EU marketing authorization for Suvaxyn PCV. Both opinions were transmitted to the European Commission according to the applicable procedure and the Commission officially advised us in January 2014 that it had adopted those positive opinions and concluded the procedure begun in May 2013 by maintaining the marketing authorization for Suvaxyn PCV in effect.

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Regulatory actions based on these types of safety, quality or efficacy concerns could impact all or a significant portion of a product’s sales and could, depending on the circumstances, materially adversely affect our operating results.
In addition, since we depend on positive perceptions of the safety, quality and efficacy of our products, and animal health products generally, by our customers, veterinarians and end-users, any concerns as to the safety, qualify or efficacy of our products, whether actual or perceived, may harm our reputation. These concerns and the related harm to our reputation could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition, regardless of whether such reports are accurate.
Our business is subject to substantial regulation.
As a global company, we are subject to various state, federal and international laws and regulations, including regulations relating to the development, quality assurance, manufacturing, importation, distribution, marketing and sale of our products. In addition, our manufacturing facilities are subject to periodic inspections by regulatory agencies. An inspection may report conditions or practices that indicate possible violations of regulatory requirements. Our failure to comply with these regulatory requirements, allegations of such non-compliance or the discovery of previously unknown problems with a product or manufacturer could result in, among other things, inspection observation notices, warning letters or similar regulatory correspondence, fines, a partial or total shutdown of production in one or more of our facilities while an alleged violation is remediated, withdrawals or suspensions of current products from the market, and civil or criminal prosecution, as well as decreased sales as a result of negative publicity and product liability claims. Any one of these consequences could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
In addition, we will not be able to market new products unless and until we have obtained all required regulatory approvals in each jurisdiction where we propose to market those products. Even after a product reaches market, it may be subject to re-review and may lose its approvals. In connection with the Separation, we will likely change the location of the manufacture of certain of our products and, because of these changes, may be required to obtain new regulatory approvals. Our failure to obtain approvals, delays in the approval process, or our failure to maintain approvals in any jurisdiction, may prevent us from selling products in that jurisdiction until approval or reapproval is obtained, if ever.
Furthermore, we cannot predict the nature of future laws, regulations, or changes in tax laws, challenges brought against our incentive tax rulings, and tariffs, nor can we determine the effect that additional laws or regulations or changes in existing laws or regulations could have on our business when and if promulgated, or the impact of changes in the interpretation of these laws and regulations, or of disparate federal, state, local and foreign regulatory schemes. Changes to such laws or regulations may include, among other things, changes to taxation requirements, such as tax-rate changes and changes affecting the taxation by the United States of income earned outside the United States.
Changes in applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. For example, regulatory agencies have recently increased their focus on the potential for vaccines to induce immunity anomalies. Absent a clear understanding of these anomalies, regulatory scrutiny of vaccines may become stricter. Additional scrutiny or regulation of our vaccine products could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
We are subject to complex environmental, health and safety laws and regulations.
We are subject to various federal, state, local and foreign environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These laws and regulations govern matters such as the emission and discharge of hazardous materials into the ground, air or water; the generation, use, storage, handling, treatment, packaging, transportation, exposure to, and disposal of hazardous and biological materials, including recordkeeping, reporting and registration requirements; and the health and safety of our employees. Due to our operations, these laws and regulations also require us to obtain, and comply with, permits, registrations or other authorizations issued by governmental authorities. These authorities can modify or revoke our permits, registrations or other authorizations and can enforce compliance through fines and injunctions.
Given the nature of our business, we have incurred, are currently incurring and may in the future incur, liabilities under CERCLA or under other federal, state, local and foreign environmental cleanup laws, with respect to our current or former sites, adjacent or nearby third-party sites, or offsite disposal locations. See Item 1. Business—Environmental, Health and Safety. The costs associated with future cleanup activities that we may be required to conduct or finance could be material. Additionally, we may become liable to third parties for damages, including personal injury and property damage, resulting from the disposal or release of hazardous materials into the environment. Such liability could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Furthermore, regulatory agencies are showing increasing concern over the impact of animal health products and livestock operations on the environment. This increased regulatory scrutiny may necessitate that additional time and resources be spent to address these concerns in both new and existing products.
Our failure to comply with the environmental, health and safety laws and regulations to which we are subject, including any permits issued thereunder, may result in environmental remediation costs, loss of permits, fines, penalties or other adverse governmental or private actions, including regulatory or judicial orders enjoining or curtailing operations or requiring corrective measures, installation of pollution control equipment or remedial measures. We could also be held liable for any and all consequences arising out of human exposure to hazardous materials or environmental damage. Environmental laws and regulations are complex, change frequently, have tended to become more stringent and stringently enforced over time and may be subject to new interpretation. We cannot assure you that our costs of complying with current and future environmental, health and safety laws, and our liabilities arising from past or future releases of, or exposure to, hazardous materials will not materially adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Risks related to our international operations
A significant portion of our operations are conducted in foreign jurisdictions and are subject to the economic, political, legal and business environments of the countries in which we do business.
Our international operations could be limited or disrupted by any of the following:
volatility in the international financial markets;

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compliance with governmental controls;
difficulties enforcing contractual and intellectual property rights;
parallel trade in our products (importation of our products from European Union countries where our products are sold at lower prices into European Union countries where the products are sold at higher prices);
compliance with a wide variety of laws and regulations, such as the FCPA and similar non-U.S. laws and regulations;
compliance with foreign labor laws;
burdens to comply with multiple and potentially conflicting foreign laws and regulations, including those relating to environmental, health and safety requirements;
changes in laws, regulations, government controls or enforcement practices with respect to our business and the businesses of our customers;
political and social instability, including crime, civil disturbance, terrorist activities and armed conflicts;
trade restrictions and restrictions on direct investments by foreign entities, including restrictions administered by the OFAC and the European Union, in relation to our products or the products of farmers and other customers (e.g., restrictions on the importation of agricultural products from the European Union to Russia);
changes in tax laws, challenges brought against our incentive tax rulings, and tariffs;
imposition of antidumping and countervailing duties or other trade-related sanctions;
costs and difficulties in staffing, managing and monitoring international operations; and
longer payment cycles and increased exposure to counterparty risk.
In addition, international transactions may involve increased financial and legal risks due to differing legal systems and customs. Compliance with these requirements may prohibit the import or export of certain products and technologies or may require us to obtain a license before importing or exporting certain products or technology. A failure to comply with any of these laws, regulations or requirements could result in civil or criminal legal proceedings, monetary or non-monetary penalties, or both, disruptions to our business, limitations on our ability to import and export products and services, and damage to our reputation. In addition, variations in the pricing of our products between jurisdictions may result in the unauthorized importation or unauthorized re-importation of our products between jurisdictions and may also result in the imposition of antidumping and countervailing duties or other trade-related sanctions. While the impact of these factors is difficult to predict, any of them could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Changes in any of these laws, regulations or requirements, or the political environment in a particular country, may affect our ability to engage in business transactions in certain markets, including investment, procurement and repatriation of earnings.
Foreign exchange rate fluctuations and potential currency controls affect our results of operations, as reported in our financial statements.
We conduct operations in many areas of the world, involving transactions denominated in a variety of currencies. In 2014, we generated approximately 53% of our revenue in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, principally the euro, Australian dollar and Brazilian real. We are subject to currency exchange rate risk to the extent that our costs are denominated in currencies other than those in which we earn revenue. In addition, because our financial statements are reported in U.S. dollars, changes in currency exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other currencies have had, and will continue to have, an impact on our results of operations.
For example, on February 13, 2013, the Venezuelan government devalued its currency from a rate of 4.3 to 6.3 Venezuelan bolivars per U.S. dollar. We incurred a foreign currency loss of $9 million immediately on the devaluation as a result of remeasuring the local assets and liabilities, which is included in Other (income)/deductions—net for the year ended December 31, 2013.
Our Venezuelan subsidiary's functional currency is the U.S. dollar because of the hyperinflationary status of the Venezuelan economy. In the first quarter of 2014, the Venezuelan government expanded its exchange mechanisms, resulting in three official rates of exchange for the Venezuelan bolivar. As of December 31, 2014, the Venezuelan bolivar to U.S. dollar exchange rates were the CENCOEX rate of 6.3; the SICAD I rate of 12.0; and the SICAD II rate of 49.99. We continue to use the CENCOEX rate of 6.3 to report our Venezuela financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
We may experience adverse impacts to earnings as our revenue, costs and expenses may be translated into U.S. dollars at lower rates. These impacts are not expected to be significant to our financial condition or results of operations. As of November 30, 2014, we had net monetary assets denominated in local currency of $56 million in Venezuela and other consolidated entities had receivables from our Venezuela business of $37 million. For the year ended November 30, 2014, our revenue from the Venezuelan market was approximately $77 million. These amounts may grow in the future.
On February 10, 2015, the Venezuelan government announced that they would continue to operate with a three-tier exchange rate system and that the primary rate of 6.3 bolivars to the dollar would remain in place for imports that are deemed essential. A new free-floating rate (SIMADI) will replace the existing third-tier rate (SICAD II). We cannot predict whether there will be further devaluation of the Venezuelan bolivar or whether our use of the 6.3 rate will continue to be supported by evolving facts and circumstances. Further, other potential actions by the Venezuelan government in response to economic uncertainties could impact the recoverability of our investment in Venezuela, which could result in an impairment charge and, under extreme circumstances, could impact our ability to continue to operate in the country in the same manner as we have historically.

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We also face risks arising from currency devaluations and the imposition of cash repatriation restrictions and exchange controls. Currency devaluations result in a diminished value of funds denominated in the currency of the country instituting the devaluation. Cash repatriation restrictions and exchange controls may limit our ability to convert foreign currencies into U.S. dollars or to remit dividends and other payments by our foreign subsidiaries or businesses located in or conducted within a country imposing restrictions or controls. While we currently have no need, and do not intend, to repatriate or convert cash held in countries that have significant restrictions or controls in place, should we need to do so to fund our operations, we may be unable to repatriate or convert such cash, or be unable to do so without incurring substantial costs. We currently have substantial operations in countries that have cash repatriation restrictions or exchange controls in place, including China and Venezuela, and, if we were to need to repatriate or convert such cash, these controls and restrictions may have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
We may not be able to realize the expected benefits of our investments in emerging markets.
We have been taking steps to increase our presence in emerging markets, including by expanding our manufacturing presence, sales organization and product offerings in these markets. Failure to continue to maintain and expand our business in emerging markets could also materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Some countries within emerging markets may be especially vulnerable to periods of local, regional or global economic, political or social instability or crisis. For example, our sales in certain emerging markets have suffered from extended periods of disruption due to natural disasters. Furthermore, we have also experienced lower than expected sales in certain emerging markets due to local, regional and global restrictions on banking and commercial activities in those countries. In addition, certain emerging markets have currencies that fluctuate substantially, which may impact our financial performance. For example, in the past, our revenue in certain emerging markets in Latin America have been adversely impacted by currency fluctuations and devaluations. For all these and other reasons, sales within emerging markets carry significant risks.
Risks related to tax matters
The Company could be subject to changes in its tax rates, the adoption of new U.S. or foreign tax legislation or exposure to additional tax liabilities.
The multinational nature of our business subjects us to taxation in the U.S and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Due to economic and political conditions, tax rates in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change. The company’s future effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws or their interpretation.
For example, the European Commission has opened formal investigations to examine whether decisions by the tax authorities in certain European countries, including Belgium, comply with European Union rules on state aid. The outcome of the European Commission’s investigations could require changes to existing tax rulings that, in turn, could have an impact on the company’s taxes. In addition, our effective tax rate is subject to potential risks that various taxing authorities may challenge the pricing of our cross-border arrangements and subject us to additional tax, adversely impacting our effective tax rate and our tax liability. The company is also subject to the examination of its tax returns and other tax matters by the Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities and governmental bodies. The company regularly assesses the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of its provision for taxes. There can be no assurance as to the outcome of these examinations. If the company’s effective tax rates were to increase, particularly in the United States or other material foreign jurisdictions, or if the ultimate determination of the company’s taxes owed is for an amount in excess of amounts previously accrued, the company’s operating results, cash flows, and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Risks related to intellectual property
The actual or purported intellectual property rights of third parties may negatively affect our business.
A third party may sue us or otherwise make a claim, alleging infringement or other violation of the third-party's patents, trademarks, trade dress, copyrights, trade secrets, domain names or other intellectual property rights. If we do not prevail in this type of litigation, we may be required to:
pay monetary damages;
obtain a license in order to continue manufacturing or marketing the affected products, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all; or
stop activities, including any commercial activities, relating to the affected products, which could include a recall of the affected products and/or a cessation of sales in the future.
The costs of defending an intellectual property claim could be substantial and could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition, even if we successfully defend such claims. The intellectual property positions of animal health medicines and vaccines businesses frequently involve complex legal and factual questions, and an issued patent does not guarantee us the right to practice the patented technology or develop, manufacture or commercialize the patented product. We cannot be certain that a competitor or other third party does not have or will not obtain rights to intellectual property that may prevent us from manufacturing, developing or marketing certain of our products, regardless of whether we believe such intellectual property rights are valid and enforceable or we believe we would be otherwise able to develop a more commercially successful product, which may harm our operating results and financial condition.
If our intellectual property rights are challenged or circumvented, competitors may be able to take advantage of our research and development efforts.
Our long-term success largely depends on our ability to market technologically competitive products. We rely and expect to continue to rely on a combination of intellectual property, including patent, trademark, trade dress, copyright, trade secret, data protection, and domain name protection laws, as well as confidentiality and license agreements with our employees and others, to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights. If

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we fail to obtain and maintain adequate intellectual property protection, we may not be able to prevent third parties from using our proprietary technologies or from marketing products that are very similar or identical to ours. Our currently pending or future patent applications may not result in issued patents, or be approved on a timely basis, or at all. Similarly, any term extensions that we seek may not be approved on a timely basis, if at all. In addition, our issued patents may not contain claims sufficiently broad to protect us against third parties with similar technologies or products or provide us with any competitive advantage, including exclusivity in a particular product area. The scope of our patent claims also may vary between countries, as individual countries have their own patent laws. For example, some countries only permit the issuance of patents covering a novel chemical compound itself, and its first use, and thus further methods of use for the same compound, may not be patentable. We may be subject to challenges by third parties regarding our intellectual property, including claims regarding validity, enforceability, scope and effective term. The validity, enforceability, scope and effective term of patents can be highly uncertain and often involve complex legal and factual questions and proceedings. Our ability to enforce our patents also depends on the laws of individual countries and each country's practice with respect to enforcement of intellectual property rights. In addition, if we are unable to maintain our existing license agreements or other agreements pursuant to which third parties grant us rights to intellectual property, including because such agreements expire or are terminated, our operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
In addition, patent law reform in the United States and other countries may also weaken our ability to enforce our patent rights, or make such enforcement financially unattractive. For instance, in September 2011, the United States enacted the America Invents Act, which will permit enhanced third-party actions for challenging patents and will implement a first-to-invent system. In April 2012, Australia enacted the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment (Raising the Bar) Act, which provides higher standards for obtaining patents. Similarly, in 2012, Argentina enacted new regulations regarding the patentability of formulations, methods and processes which raises the standards for such patents. In September 2013, the Brazilian Patent Office challenged the validity and term of the so-called “mailbox patents” of pharmaceutical and veterinary companies which were filed in the interim period before Brazil fully implemented the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Right (TRIPS) Agreement's patentability standards. The action of the Brazilian Patent Office potentially could shorten the duration or invalidate some of our patents. We have filed an appeal, but the decision will not be known for several years. These reforms could result in increased costs to protect our intellectual property or limit our ability to patent our products in these jurisdictions.
Additionally, certain foreign governments have indicated that compulsory licenses to patents may be granted in the case of national emergencies, which could diminish or eliminate sales and profits from those regions and materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Likewise, in the United States and other countries, we currently hold issued trademark registrations and have trademark applications pending, any of which may be the subject of a governmental or third-party objection, which could prevent the maintenance or issuance of the same and thus create the potential need to rebrand or re-label a product. As our products mature, our reliance on our trademarks to differentiate us from our competitors increases and as a result, if we are unable to prevent third parties from adopting, registering or using trademarks and trade dress that infringe, dilute or otherwise violate our trademark rights, our business could be materially adversely affected.
Many of our vaccine products and other products are based on or incorporate proprietary information, including proprietary master seeds and proprietary or patented adjuvant formulations. We actively seek to protect our proprietary information, including our trade secrets and proprietary know-how, by requiring our employees, consultants, other advisors and other third parties to execute proprietary information and confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of their employment, engagement or other relationship. Despite these efforts and precautions, we may be unable to prevent a third party from copying or otherwise obtaining and using our trade secrets or our other intellectual property without authorization and legal remedies may not adequately compensate us for the damages caused by such unauthorized use. Further, others may independently and lawfully develop substantially similar or identical products that circumvent our intellectual property by means of alternative designs or processes or otherwise.
The misappropriation and infringement of our intellectual property, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States, may occur even when we take steps to prevent it. We are currently, and expect to be in the future, party to patent lawsuits and other intellectual property rights claims that are expensive and time consuming, and if resolved adversely, could have a significant impact on our business and financial condition. In the future, we may not be able to enforce intellectual property that relates to our products for various reasons, including licensor restrictions and other restrictions imposed by third parties, or the cost of enforcing our intellectual property may outweigh the value of doing so; either of which could have a material adverse impact on our business and financial condition.
Risks related to information technology
We depend on sophisticated information technology and infrastructure.
We rely on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of complex information technology systems to manage our operations, to process, transmit and store electronic and financial information, and to comply with regulatory, legal and tax requirements. We also depend on our information technology infrastructure for digital marketing activities and for electronic communications among our personnel, customers and suppliers around the world. System failures or outages could compromise our ability to perform these functions in a timely manner, which could harm our ability to conduct business, hurt our relationships with our customers, or delay our financial reporting. Such failures could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
In addition, we depend on third parties and applications on virtualized (cloud) infrastructure to operate and support our information systems. These third parties include large established vendors, as well as many small, privately owned companies. Failure by these providers to adequately support our operations or a change in control or insolvency of these providers could have an adverse effect on our business, which in turn may materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
In connection with the IPO and the Separation, we have substantially changed a number of our business processes, including our financial reporting and supply chain processes. In order to support the new business processes under the terms of our transitional services agreement with Pfizer, we have made significant configuration and data changes within some of our information technology systems. If our information and processes are not sufficient to support our business and financial reporting functions, or if we fail to properly implement our new business processes, our financial

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reporting may be delayed or inaccurate and our operations may be adversely affected and, as a result, our operating results and financial condition may be materially adversely affected.
In addition, we are implementing new business systems to support our operations, including an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system to better integrate our manufacturing, financial, commercial and business operations. There is risk associated with ensuring that the milestones, timelines and budget associated with these new systems stay on track. Transitioning to new systems, integrating new systems into current systems or any disruptions or malfunctions (including from circumstances beyond our control) affecting our information systems could cause critical information upon which we rely to be delayed, unreliable, corrupted, insufficient or inaccessible. Any of these potential issues, individually or in aggregation, could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
Even if we are able to implement these systems successfully, all information systems, despite implementation of security measures, are vulnerable to disability, failures or unauthorized access. If our information systems were to fail or be breached, such failure or breach could materially adversely affect our ability to perform critical business functions and sensitive and confidential data could be compromised.
We may experience difficulties with the implementation of our enterprise resource planning system, which could disrupt our business and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We are engaged in a multi-year implementation of an ERP. The ERP is designed to accurately maintain our books and records and provide information important to the operation of our business to our management team. The implementation of the ERP will require significant investment of human and financial resources. In implementing the ERP, we may experience significant delays, increased costs and other difficulties. While we have invested significant resources in planning, project management and training, additional and significant implementation issues may arise. Any significant disruption or deficiency in the design and implementation of the ERP could adversely affect our ability to process orders, ship product, send invoices and track payments, fulfill contractual obligations or otherwise operate our business. Any of these consequences could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We may be unable to successfully manage our online ordering sites.
In many markets around the world, such as the United States and Brazil, we provide online ordering sites to customers, often relying on third parties to host and support the application. The operation of our online business depends on our ability to maintain the efficient and uninterrupted operation of our online order-taking and fulfillment operations. Risks associated with our online business include: disruptions in telephone service or power outages; failures of the information systems that support our website, including inadequate system capacity, computer viruses, human error, changes in programming, security breaches, system upgrades or migration of these services to new systems; reliance on third parties for computer hardware and software as well as delivery of merchandise to our customers; rapid technology changes; credit card fraud; natural disasters or adverse weather conditions; power and network outages; changes in applicable federal and state regulations; liability for online content; and consumer privacy concerns. Problems in any one or more of these areas could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition and could damage our reputation.
We may be unable to adequately protect our information technology systems from cyber-attacks, which could result in the disclosure of confidential information, damage our reputation, and subject us to significant financial and legal exposure.
Our reputation as a global leader in animal health and our reliance on complex information systems make us inherently vulnerable to malicious cyber intrusion and attack. Cyber-attacks are increasing in their frequency, sophistication and intensity, and have become increasingly difficult to detect. Cyber-attacks could include wrongful conduct by hostile foreign governments, industrial espionage, the deployment of harmful malware, denial-of-service, and other means to threaten data confidentiality, integrity and availability. A successful cyber-attack could cause serious negative consequences for our company, including the disruption of operations, the misappropriation of confidential business information and trade secrets, and the disclosure of corporate strategic plans. Like other global companies, we have experienced threats to our data and information technology systems. To date, those threats have not had a material impact on our business operations or financial condition. However, although we devote resources to protect our information technology systems, we expect cyber-attacks to continue, and there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent information security breaches that would result in business, legal or reputational harm to us, or would have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
We may be unable to adequately protect our customers' privacy or we may fail to comply with privacy laws.
The protection of customer, employee and company data is critical and the regulatory environment surrounding information security, storage, use, processing, disclosure and privacy is demanding, with the frequent imposition of new and changing requirements. In addition, our customers expect that we will adequately protect their personal information. Any actual or perceived significant breakdown, intrusion, interruption, cyber-attack or corruption of customer, employee or company data or our failure to comply with federal, state, local and foreign privacy laws could result in lost sales, remediation costs, legal liability including severe penalties, regulatory action and reputational harm. Despite our considerable efforts and investments in technology to secure our computer network, security could be compromised, confidential information could be misappropriated or system disruptions could occur. Failure to comply with the security requirements or rectify a security issue may result in fines and the imposition of restrictions on our ability to accept payment by credit or debit cards. In addition, the payment card industry (PCI) is controlled by a limited number of vendors that have the ability to impose changes in PCI's fee structure and operational requirements on us without negotiation. Such changes in fees and operational requirements may result in our failure to comply with PCI security standards, as well as significant unanticipated expenses. Such failures could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Risks related to our indebtedness
We have substantial indebtedness.
We have a significant amount of indebtedness, which could materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity. As of December 31, 2014, we had approximately $3.6 billion of total unsecured indebtedness outstanding. In addition, we have entered into an agreement

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for a five-year revolving credit facility and a commercial paper program each with a capacity of up to $1.0 billion. While we currently do not have any amounts drawn under the credit facility nor any commercial paper issued under the commercial paper program, we may incur indebtedness under these arrangements in the future.
We may incur substantial additional debt from time to time to finance working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions, or for other purposes. If we do so, the risks related to our high level of debt could intensify. Specifically, our high level of debt could have important consequences, including:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures, business development or other general corporate requirements, including dividends;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings are and may in the future be at variable rates of interest;
limiting our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in the animal health industry;
placing us at a competitive disadvantage to other, less leveraged competitors;
impacting our effective tax rate; and
increasing our cost of borrowing.
In addition, the instruments governing our indebtedness contain restrictive covenants that will limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interest. For example, our credit facility contains a financial covenant requiring us to not exceed a maximum total leverage ratio and covenants that, among other things, limit or restrict our and our subsidiaries' ability, subject to certain exceptions, to incur liens, merge, consolidate or sell, transfer or lease assets, transact with affiliates and incur priority indebtedness. Our failure to comply with such covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of all our debt.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on or refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors beyond our control. We may be unable to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal and interest on our indebtedness.
If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, or to dispose of material assets or operations, alter our dividend policy, seek additional debt or equity capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to effect any such alternative measures on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, those alternative actions may not allow us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. The instruments that will govern our indebtedness may restrict our ability to dispose of assets and may restrict the use of proceeds from those dispositions and may also restrict our ability to raise debt or equity capital to be used to repay other indebtedness when it becomes due. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain proceeds in an amount sufficient to meet any debt service obligations when due.
In addition, we conduct our operations through our subsidiaries. Accordingly, repayment of our indebtedness will depend on the generation of cash flow by our subsidiaries, including certain international subsidiaries, and their ability to make such cash available to us, by dividend, debt repayment or otherwise. Our subsidiaries may not have any obligation to pay amounts due on our indebtedness or to make funds available for that purpose. Our subsidiaries may not be able to, or may not be permitted to, make distributions to enable us to make payments in respect of our indebtedness. Each subsidiary is a distinct legal entity, and under certain circumstances, legal, tax and contractual restrictions may limit our ability to obtain cash from our subsidiaries. In the event that we do not receive distributions from our subsidiaries, we may be unable to make required principal and interest payments on our indebtedness.
Our inability to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all, may materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity and our ability to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness or pay dividends on our common stock.
We may not have the funds necessary to finance the change of control offer required by the indenture governing our senior notes.
Upon the occurrence of a change of control of us and a downgrade below investment grade by Moody's Investor Services, Inc. and Standard & Poor's Rating Services, we will be required to offer to repurchase all of our outstanding senior notes. We did not receive any proceeds from the sale of the $1.0 billion aggregate principal amount of the Pfizer-owned notes and we paid an amount of cash equal to substantially all of the net proceeds that we received in the senior notes offering to Pfizer prior to the completion of the IPO. As a result of these and other factors, we may not have sufficient funds available to finance a change of control offer.
Our credit ratings may not reflect all risks of an investment in our senior notes.
The credit ratings assigned to our senior notes are limited in scope, and do not address all material risks relating to an investment in our senior notes, but rather reflect only the view of each rating agency at the time the rating is issued. There can be no assurance that such credit ratings will remain in effect for any given period of time or that a rating will not be lowered, suspended or withdrawn entirely by the applicable rating agencies, if, in such rating agency's judgment, circumstances so warrant. Credit ratings are not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold any security. Each agency's rating should be evaluated independently of any other agency's rating. Actual or anticipated changes or downgrades in our credit ratings, including any

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announcement that our ratings are under further review for a downgrade, could affect the market prices of our securities and increase our borrowing costs.
Risks related to our relationship with Pfizer
We may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits of the Separation.
We may not be able to achieve the full strategic and financial benefits expected to result from the Separation, or such benefits may be delayed or not occur at all. These expected benefits include the following:
improving strategic and operational flexibility, increasing management focus and streamlining decision-making by providing the flexibility to implement our strategic plan and to respond more effectively to different customer needs and the changing economic environment;
allowing us to adopt the capital structure, investment policy and dividend policy best suited to our financial profile and business needs, without competing for capital with Pfizer's other businesses;
creating an independent equity structure that will facilitate our ability to effect future acquisitions utilizing our common stock; and
facilitating incentive compensation arrangements for employees more directly tied to the performance of our business, and enhancing employee hiring and retention by, among other things, improving the alignment of management and employee incentives with performance and growth objectives of our business.
We may not achieve the anticipated benefits of the Separation for a variety of reasons, which could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Pfizer may compete with us.
Pfizer is not restricted from competing with us in the animal health business, including as a result of acquiring a company that operates an animal health business. Due to the significant resources of Pfizer, including financial resources, name recognition and know-how resulting from the previous management of our business, Pfizer could have a significant competitive advantage over us should it decide to engage in the type of business we conduct, which may cause our operating results and financial condition to be materially adversely affected.
Certain of our directors may have actual or potential conflicts of interest because of their positions with Pfizer.
Certain of our directors are employed by Pfizer or may own Pfizer common stock, options to purchase Pfizer common stock or other Pfizer equity awards. Certain of these holdings may be individually significant to these directors as compared with such director's total assets. These directors' positions at Pfizer and the ownership of any Pfizer equity or equity awards may create, or may create the appearance of, conflicts of interest when these directors are faced with decisions that could have different implications for Pfizer than for us.
To preserve the tax-free treatment to Pfizer and/or its stockholders of the Exchange Offer and certain related transactions, we may not be able to engage in certain transactions.
To preserve the tax-free treatment to Pfizer and/or its stockholders of the Exchange Offer and certain related transactions, under the tax matters agreement, we are restricted from taking any action that prevents such transactions from being tax-free for U.S. federal, state, local and foreign income tax purposes. These restrictions may limit our ability to pursue certain strategic transactions or engage in other transactions, including taking certain actions with respect to our 3.250% Senior Notes due 2023 and using our common stock to make acquisitions in connection with equity capital market transactions that might increase the value of our business. See Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director IndependenceRelationship with PfizerTax matters agreement.
We may not be able to fully realize the expected benefits of our R&D agreement with Pfizer.
Prior to the Separation, as a business unit of Pfizer, we had the ability to leverage Pfizer's proprietary compound library and database to identify, research and develop compounds suitable as new product candidates for the animal health field. As part of the Separation, we entered into an R&D collaboration and license agreement with Pfizer, which is referred to as the “R&D agreement.” Pursuant to the R&D agreement, subject to certain restrictions, we have continued access to Pfizer's compound library and database for a period of seven years from the date of the IPO and have, subject to Pfizer's approval, the possibility to exclusively license compounds from Pfizer that we develop under the R&D agreement.
While the R&D agreement is intended to supplement our post-Separation R&D capabilities, certain terms of the R&D agreement may limit our ability to achieve this expected benefit, including:
Pfizer will retain ownership of, and license to us, the intellectual property that we develop under the R&D agreement. In many circumstances, the intellectual property we license from Pfizer will be non-exclusive as to Pfizer and third parties.
We are not assured access to Pfizer's newest programs.
Pfizer can prevent us from progressing pre-development compounds and, under certain circumstances, Pfizer may terminate our rights to a development stage compound by paying us the fair market value for such compound.
The R&D agreement may be terminated before the expiration of the seven year term in certain circumstances, including if we acquire an interest in, or assets of, a human pharmaceutical business, enter into a definitive agreement relating to, or undergo, a change of control or if Pfizer acquires, or is acquired by, an animal health business.
Each of the foregoing terms and Pfizer's other rights under the R&D agreement and related licenses (if any), could limit our ability to realize the expected benefits of the R&D agreement. If we fail to achieve the expected benefits of the R&D agreement, it may be more difficult, time-consuming or expensive for us to develop and commercialize certain new products.

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For a summary description of the terms of the R&D collaboration and license agreement, see Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence— Relationship with Pfizer—Research and development collaboration and license agreement.
Pfizer's rights as licensor under the patent and know-how license could limit our ability to develop and commercialize certain products.
Under the patent and know-how license agreement (Pfizer as licensor) (the Patent and Know-How License Agreement), Pfizer licenses to us certain of its intellectual property. If we fail to comply with our obligations under this license agreement and Pfizer exercises its right to terminate it, our ability to continue to research, develop and commercialize products incorporating that intellectual property will be limited. In addition, in circumstances where Pfizer has an interest in the licensed intellectual property in connection with its human health development programs, our rights to use the licensed intellectual property are restricted and/or, in limited instances, subject to Pfizer's right to terminate such license at will. These limitations and termination rights may make it more difficult, time-consuming or expensive for us to develop and commercialize certain new products, or may result in our products being later to market than those of our competitors.
For a summary description of the terms of the patent and know-how license (Pfizer as licensor), see Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence—Relationship with Pfizer—Intellectual property license agreements.
We are dependent on Pfizer to prosecute, maintain and enforce certain intellectual property.
Under the Patent and Know-How License Agreement, Pfizer is responsible for filing, prosecuting and maintaining patents that Pfizer licenses to us. In the animal health field, Pfizer has the first right, and in some cases the sole right, to enforce such licensed patents, and in the human health field, subject to certain exceptions, Pfizer has the sole right to enforce the licensed patents. If Pfizer fails to fulfill its obligations or chooses to not enforce the licensed patents under this agreement, we may not be able to prevent competitors from making, using and selling competitive products, which could have an adverse effect on our business.
We have incurred and will continue to incur significant charges in connection with the Separation and incremental costs as an independent public company.
Prior to the Separation, Pfizer performed or supported many important corporate functions for our company. Our combined financial statements reflect charges for these services on an allocation basis. Following the Separation, many of these services are governed by our transitional services agreement with Pfizer. Under the transitional services agreement we are able to use these Pfizer services for a fixed term established on a service-by-service basis. However, we generally have the right to terminate a service earlier if we give notice to Pfizer. Partial reduction in the provision of any service requires Pfizer's consent. In addition, either party is able to terminate the agreement due to a material breach of the other party, upon prior written notice, subject to limited cure periods.
We pay Pfizer mutually agreed-upon fees for these services, based on Pfizer's costs of providing the services. During the two years following the IPO, the markup for these services was 0% and, for the remainder of the term of the agreement, Pfizer may introduce a markup of 7%. For the services that Pfizer continues to provide to Zoetis under this agreement, a 7% markup will apply for the remainder of 2015. We believe this markup is consistent with arm's length pricing for the services provided. However, since our transitional services agreement was negotiated in the context of a parent-subsidiary relationship, the terms of the agreement, including the fees charged for the services, may be higher or lower than those that would be agreed to by parties bargaining at arm's length for similar services and may be higher or lower than the costs reflected in the allocations in our historical financial statements. Third-party costs are passed through to us at Pfizer's or its affiliates' cost. In addition, while these services are being provided to us by Pfizer, our operational flexibility to modify or implement changes with respect to such services or the amounts we pay for them is limited.
We may not be able to replace these services or enter into appropriate third-party agreements on terms and conditions, including cost, comparable to those that we receive from Pfizer under our transitional services agreement. Additionally, after the agreement terminates, we may be unable to sustain the services at the same levels or obtain the same benefits as when we were receiving such services and benefits from Pfizer. When we begin to operate these functions separately, if we do not have our own adequate systems and business functions in place, or are unable to obtain them from other providers, we may not be able to operate our business effectively or at comparable costs, and our profitability may decline.
If there is a later determination that the Exchange Offer or certain related transactions are taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes because the facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings underlying the IRS private letter ruling and/or any tax opinion are incorrect or for any other reason, we could incur significant liabilities.
Pfizer has received a private letter ruling from the IRS substantially to the effect that, among other things, the Exchange Offer will qualify as a transaction that is tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the Code). Completion by Pfizer of the Exchange Offer was conditioned on, among other things, the continuing application of Pfizer's private letter ruling from the IRS and the receipt of an opinion of tax counsel, to the effect that, among other things, the Exchange Offer will qualify as a transaction that is tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code. The ruling and the opinion rely on certain facts, assumptions, representations and undertakings from Pfizer and us regarding the past and future conduct of the companies' respective businesses and other matters. If any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are incorrect or not otherwise satisfied, Pfizer and its stockholders may not be able to rely on the ruling or the opinion of tax counsel and could be subject to significant tax liabilities. Notwithstanding the private letter ruling and opinion of tax counsel, the IRS could determine on audit that the Exchange Offer or certain related transactions are taxable if it determines that any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are not correct or have been violated or if it disagrees with the conclusions in the opinion that are not covered by the private letter ruling, or for other reasons, including as a result of certain significant changes in the stock ownership of Pfizer or us after the Exchange Offer. If the Exchange Offer or certain related transactions are determined to be taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we could incur significant liabilities under applicable law or under the tax matters agreement.

26 |


Risks related to our common stock
The price of our common stock may fluctuate substantially, and you could lose all or part of your investment in Zoetis common stock as a result.
Our common stock has a limited trading history and there may be wide fluctuations in the market value of our common stock as a result of many factors. From our IPO through December 31, 2014, the sales price of our common stock as reported by the NYSE has ranged from a low sales price of $28.14 on April 15, 2014 to a high sales price of $45.24 on December 1, 2014. Some factors that may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate, in addition to the other risks mentioned in this section and in our 2014 Annual Report, are:
our operating performance and the performance of our competitors;
our or our competitors' press releases, other public announcements and filings with the SEC regarding new products or services, enhancements, significant contracts, acquisitions or strategic investments;
changes in earnings estimates or recommendations by securities analysts, if any, who cover our common stock;
changes in our investor base;
failures to meet external expectations or management guidance;
fluctuations in our financial results or the financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;
changes in our capital structure or dividend policy, including as a result of the Exchange Offer, future issuances of securities, sales of large blocks of common stock by our stockholders or the incurrence of additional debt;
reputational issues;
changes in general economic and market conditions in any of the regions in which we conduct our business;
the arrival or departure of key personnel;
the actions of speculators and financial arbitrageurs (such as hedge funds) during and after the Exchange Offer;
changes in applicable laws, rules or regulations and other dynamics; and
other developments or changes affecting us, our industry or our competitors.
In addition, if the market for stocks in our industry or industries related to our industry, or the stock market in general, experiences a loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of the foregoing occurs, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to lawsuits that, even if unsuccessful, could be costly to defend and a distraction to management.
While we currently intend to pay a quarterly cash dividend to our common stockholders, we may change our dividend policy at any time.
On December 17, 2014, our Board of Directors declared the 2015 first quarter dividend of $0.083 per share to be paid on March 3, 2015 to holders of record on January 22, 2015; and on February 27, 2015, our Board of Directors declared the 2015 second quarter dividend of $0.083 per share to be paid on June 2, 2015, to holders of record on April 9, 2015. Although we currently intend to pay a quarterly cash dividend to our common stockholders, we have no obligation to do so, and our dividend policy may change at any time without notice to our stockholders. Returns on stockholders' investments will primarily depend on the appreciation, if any, in the price of our common stock. We anticipate that we will retain most of our future earnings, if any, for use in the development and expansion of our business, repayment of indebtedness and for general corporate purposes. The declaration and payment of dividends is at the discretion of our Board of Directors in accordance with applicable law after taking into account various factors, including our financial condition, operating results, current and anticipated cash needs, cash flows available in the United States, impact on our effective tax rate, indebtedness, legal requirements and other factors that our Board of Directors deems relevant.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated by-laws, shareholder rights plan and Delaware law may prevent or delay an acquisition of us, which could decrease the trading price of our common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, which we refer to as “our certificate of incorporation,” our amended and restated by-laws, which we refer to as “our by-laws,” and our shareholder rights plan contain provisions that are intended to deter coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids and to encourage prospective acquirers to negotiate with our Board of Directors rather than to attempt a hostile takeover. These provisions include:
a Board of Directors that is divided into three classes with staggered terms;
rules regarding how our stockholders may present proposals or nominate directors for election at stockholder meetings;
the right of our Board of Directors to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval; and
limitations on the right of stockholders to remove directors.
In addition, Delaware law also imposes some restrictions on mergers and other business combinations between us and any holder of 15% or more of our outstanding common stock. These provisions apply even if the offer may be considered beneficial by some stockholders and could delay or prevent an acquisition that our Board of Directors determines is not in our and our stockholders' best interests.

27 |


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
Item 2. Properties.
We have 136 owned and leased properties, amounting to approximately 10.3 million square feet, around the world for sales and marketing, customer service, regulatory compliance, R&D, manufacturing and distribution, and administrative support functions. In many locations, operations are co-located to achieve synergies and operational efficiencies. Our largest R&D facility is our owned U.S. research and development site located in Kalamazoo, Michigan, which represents approximately 1.5 million square feet. None of our other non-manufacturing sites are more than 0.2 million square feet. The largest manufacturing site in our global manufacturing network is our manufacturing site located in Kalamazoo, Michigan, which represents approximately 0.6 million square feet. No other site in our global manufacturing network is more than 0.6 million square feet. In addition, our global manufacturing network will continue to be supplemented by approximately 200 CMOs.
Our corporate headquarters are located at 100 Campus Drive, Florham Park, New Jersey 07932 and our operations extend internationally to more than 60 countries. Under the transitional services agreement we entered into with Pfizer, Pfizer granted us continued access to certain of its premises occupied by our employees prior to the IPO. We currently lease space from Pfizer in 15 different locations globally, mainly in Europe.
We believe that our existing properties, as supplemented by sites operated by CMOs, including Pfizer, and access to Pfizer facilities provided under the transitional services agreement are adequate for our current requirements and for our operations in the foreseeable future.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
We are from time to time subject to claims and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. These claims and litigation may include, among other things, allegations of violation of U.S. and foreign competition law, labor laws, consumer protection laws, and environmental laws and regulations, as well as claims or litigation relating to product liability, intellectual property, securities, breach of contract and tort. We operate in multiple jurisdictions and, as a result, a claim in one jurisdiction may lead to claims or regulatory penalties in other jurisdictions. We intend to defend vigorously against any pending or future claims and litigation.
At this time, in the opinion of management, the likelihood is remote that the impact of such proceedings, either individually or in the aggregate, would have a material adverse effect on our consolidated and combined results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. However, one or more unfavorable outcomes in any claim or litigation against us could have a material adverse effect for the period in which they are resolved. In addition, regardless of their merits or their ultimate outcomes, such matters are costly, divert management's attention and may materially adversely affect our reputation, even if resolved in our favor.
Certain legal proceedings in which we are involved are discussed in Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 17. Commitments and Contingencies.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.



PART II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
On January 31, 2013, our registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-183254) was declared effective for the IPO, pursuant to which we registered the offering and sale of 99,015,000 shares of our Class A common stock, including 12,915,000 additional shares pursuant to the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares. The IPO was completed on February 6, 2013, at a public offering price of $26.00 per share for an aggregate gross offering price of approximately $2.57 billion.
Instead of selling shares of our Class A common stock directly to the underwriters for cash in the IPO, Pfizer first exchanged the shares of our Class A common stock to be sold in the IPO with certain of the underwriters, which we refer to, in such role, as the “debt-for-equity exchange parties,” for outstanding indebtedness of Pfizer held by the debt-for-equity exchange parties. The debt-for-equity exchange parties then sold shares to the underwriters for cash. This debt-for-equity exchange occurred on the settlement date of the IPO immediately prior to the settlement of the debt-for-equity exchange parties' sale of the shares to the underwriters.
We did not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the debt-for-equity exchange parties, including any shares sold by the debt-for-equity exchange parties in connection with the exercise of the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares.
On June 24, 2013, an exchange offer was completed, whereby Pfizer shareholders exchanged a portion of Pfizer common stock for Zoetis common stock, resulting in the full separation of Zoetis and the disposal of Pfizer's entire ownership and voting interest in Zoetis and the conversion of all outstanding shares of Class B common stock to shares of our Class A common stock, which we now refer to as our common stock. There are no shares of Class B outstanding.
Shares of our common stock are traded on the NYSE (symbol ZTS).
The following table sets forth the high and low sales price of our common stock for each quarter presented below.
 
High
Low
2013
 
 
   First Quarter (beginning February 1, 2013)
$35.42
$30.47
   Second Quarter
$34.74
$29.40
   Third Quarter
$32.90
$28.81
   Fourth Quarter
$33.34
$30.76
2014
 
 
   First Quarter
$32.73
$28.77
   Second Quarter
$33.05
$28.14
   Third Quarter
$37.31
$31.67
   Fourth Quarter
$45.24
$34.16
As of February 23, 2015, there were 500,787,817 shares of our common stock outstanding, held by 2,165 shareholders of record. Information about 5% beneficial owners of our common stock is incorporated by reference from the discussion under the heading Ownership of Our Common Stock in our 2015 Proxy Statement.
Additional information relating to our common stock is included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 15. Stockholders’ Equity.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer
On November 18, 2014, we announced that our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $500 million of our outstanding common stock. This program does not have a stated expiration date. Purchases of Zoetis shares may be made at the discretion of management, depending on market conditions and business needs. We repurchase shares pursuant to Rules 10b5-1 and 10b-18 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, through repurchase agreements established with several brokers. No share repurchases were made under this program during the year ended December 31, 2014.

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Issuer purchases of equity securities for the three months ended December 31, 2014 were as follows:
 
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased(a)
Average Price Paid Per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under Plans or Programs
October 1 - October 31, 2014
296
$36.45
$500,000,000
November 1 - November 30, 2014
184
$38.60
500,000,000
December 1 - December 31, 2014
471
$38.28
500,000,000
Total
951
$37.77
$500,000,000
(a) The company repurchased 951 shares during the three-month period ended December 31, 2014, that were not part of the publicly announced share repurchase authorization. These shares were purchased from employees to satisfy tax withholding requirements on the vesting of restricted shares from equity-based awards.
Dividend Policy, Declaration and Payment
During the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, we paid the following quarterly cash dividends per share on our common stock:
 
2014
2013
   First Quarter
$0.072
$0.065
   Second Quarter
$0.072
$0.065
   Third Quarter
$0.072
$0.065
   Fourth Quarter
$0.072
$0.065
We expect to pay quarterly cash dividends to holders of our common stock, subject to the approval of our Board of Directors. On December 17, 2014, our Board of Directors declared the 2015 first quarter dividend of $0.083 per share to be paid on March 3, 2015, to holders of record on January 22, 2015. On February 27, 2015, our Board of Directors declared the 2015 second quarter dividend of $0.083 per share to be paid on June 2, 2015, to holders of record on April 9, 2015.
The declaration and payment of dividends to holders of our common stock will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors in accordance with applicable law after taking into account various factors, including our financial condition, operating results, current and anticipated cash needs, cash flows available in the United States, impact on our effective tax rate, indebtedness, legal requirements and other factors that our Board of Directors deems relevant. In addition, the instruments governing our indebtedness may limit our ability to pay dividends. Therefore, no assurance is given that we will pay any dividends to our common stockholders or as to the amount of any such dividends if our Board of Directors determines to do so.
Because we are a holding company, our ability to pay cash dividends on our common stock will depend on the receipt of dividends or other distributions from certain of our subsidiaries.
Stock Performance Graph(1)
The graph below compares the cumulative total shareholder return on an investment in our common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Pharmaceuticals Index for the period from our initial public offering through the year ended December 31, 2014. The shareholder return shown on the graph is not necessarily indicative of future performance, and we do not make or endorse any predictions as to future shareholder returns.
The graph assumes the investment of $100 on February 1, 2013, in our common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Pharmaceuticals Index and assumes dividends, if any, are reinvested.

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COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
Among Zoetis Inc., the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Pharmaceuticals Index
 
February 1, 2013
March 31, 2013
June 30, 2013
September 29, 2013
December 31, 2013
March 30, 2014
June 29, 2014
September 28, 2014
December 31, 2014
Zoetis Inc.
$100
$107.71
$99.81
$100.87
$106.07
$94.35
$105.56
$119.67
$140.84
S&P 500
$100
$104.11
$107.14
$113.44
$124.61
$125.86
$133.55
$135.72
$141.67
S&P 500 Pharmaceuticals Index
$100
$107.48
$109.67
$114.24
$125.16
$133.85
$140.83
$145.82
$152.97
(1) This section is not “soliciting material,” is not deemed “filed” with the SEC and is not to be incorporated by reference in any filing of Zoetis under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language contained in any such filing.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
The following table sets forth our selected historical consolidated and combined financial data for the periods indicated.
The selected historical consolidated and combined statements of income data for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012 and the selected historical consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2014 and 2013 presented below have been derived from our audited consolidated and combined financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. The selected historical combined balance sheet data as of December 31, 2012, December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, presented below has been derived from our audited combined financial statements not included in this 2014 Annual Report. The revenue data for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 is derived from our audited combined financial statements not included in this 2014 Annual Report.
Our consolidated and combined financial statements for the periods prior to the IPO include expense allocations for certain support functions that were provided on a centralized basis within Pfizer, such as expenses for business technology, facilities, legal, finance, human resources, and, to a lesser extent, business development, public affairs and procurement, among others, as well as certain manufacturing and supply costs incurred by manufacturing sites that were shared with other Pfizer business units, Pfizer’s global external supply group and Pfizer’s global logistics and support group. Pfizer does not routinely allocate these costs to any of its business units. These allocations were based on either a specific identification basis or, when specific identification is not practicable, proportional cost allocation methods (e.g., using third-party sales, headcount, animal health identified manufacturing costs, etc.), depending on the nature of the services and/or costs.
The financial statements included in this 2014 Annual Report may not be indicative of our future performance and do not necessarily reflect what our financial position and results of operations would have been had we operated as an independent public company during the periods presented prior to the IPO.
You should read the selected historical consolidated and combined financial data set forth below in conjunction with Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and our consolidated and combined financial statements and notes thereto included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

31 |


 
Year Ended December 31,(a)
(MILLIONS, EXCEPT PER SHARE AMOUNTS)
 
2014

 
2013

 
2012

 
2011

 
2010

Statement of income data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
 
$
4,785

 
$
4,561

 
$
4,336

 
$
4,233

 
$
3,582

Net income attributable to Zoetis
 
583

 
504

 
436

 
245

 
110

Balance sheet data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
 
$
6,607

 
$
6,558

 
$
6,262

 
$
5,711

 
$
5,284

Long-term obligations(b)
 
3,643

 
3,642

 
509

 
575

 
673

Other data (unaudited):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted net income(c)
 
$
790

 
$
709

 
$
539

 
$
503

 
$
275

Earnings per share attributable to Zoetis Inc. stockholders(d):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
$
1.16

 
$
1.01

 
$
0.87

 
$
0.49

 
$
0.22

Diluted
 
$
1.16

 
$
1.01

 
$
0.87

 
$
0.49

 
$
0.22

Weighted average shares outstanding (in thousands):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
501,055

 
500,002

 
500,000

 
500,000

 
500,000

Diluted
 
502,025

 
500,317

 
500,000

 
500,000

 
500,000

Certain amounts may reflect rounding adjustments.
(a) 
Starting in 2011, includes the King Animal Health (KAH), business acquired as part of Pfizer's acquisition of King Pharmaceuticals, Inc., commencing on the acquisition date of January 31, 2011. See Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Comparability of historical results and our relationship with Pfizer—Recent significant acquisitions and government-mandated divestitures.
(b) 
In 2010 through 2012, primarily includes an allocation of Pfizer debt that was issued to partially finance the acquisition of Wyeth (including FDAH) in 2009. The debt has been allocated on a pro-rata basis using the deemed acquisition cost of FDAH as a percentage of the total acquisition cost of Wyeth.
(c) 
Adjusted net income (a non-GAAP financial measure) is defined as reported net income attributable to Zoetis excluding purchase accounting adjustments, acquisition-related costs and certain significant items. Management uses adjusted net income, among other factors, to set performance goals and to measure the performance of the overall company, as described in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Adjusted net income. We believe that investors’ understanding of our performance is enhanced by disclosing this performance measure. Reconciliations of U.S. GAAP reported net income attributable to Zoetis to non-GAAP adjusted net income for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012 are provided in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Adjusted net income. The adjusted net income measure is not, and should not be viewed as, a substitute for U.S. GAAP reported net income attributable to Zoetis.
(d) 
The weighted average shares outstanding for both basic and diluted earnings per share for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 was calculated using 500 million shares of common stock outstanding, which was the number of Zoetis Inc. shares outstanding at the time of the IPO, which was completed on February 6, 2013.

32 |


Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Introduction
Our management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations (MD&A) is provided to assist readers in understanding our performance, as reflected in the results of our operations, our financial condition and our cash flows. This MD&A should be read in conjunction with our consolidated and combined financial statements and notes to consolidated and combined financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. The discussion in this MD&A contains a description of our historical performance for periods in which we operated as a business unit of Pfizer, as well as forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Our future results could differ materially from historical performance and from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors such as those discussed in Item 1A. Risk Factors, and in the Forward-looking statements and factors that may affect future results and Comparability of historical results and our relationship with Pfizer sections of this MD&A.
This MD&A is organized as follows:
Section
Description
Page
Overview of our business
A general description of our business and the industry in which we operate. For more information regarding our business and the animal health industry, see Item 1. Business.
Our operating environment
Information regarding the animal health industry and factors that affect our company.
Our growth strategies
An explanation of our growth strategies.
Components of revenue and costs and expenses
An explanation of the components of our consolidated and combined statements of income.
Comparability of historical results and our relationship with Pfizer
Information about the limitations of the predictive value of the consolidated and combined financial statements.
Significant accounting policies and application of critical accounting estimates
Accounting policies and estimates that we consider important to understanding our consolidated and combined financial statements.
Analysis of the consolidated and combined statements of income
Consists of the following for all periods presented:
 
Revenue: An analysis of our revenue in total, by operating segment and by species.
Costs and expenses: A discussion about the drivers of our costs and expenses.
Operating segment results: A discussion of our revenue by operating segment and species and items impacting our earnings before income tax.
Adjusted net income
A discussion of adjusted net income, an alternative view of performance used by management. Adjusted net income is a non-GAAP financial measure.
Our financial guidance for 2015
A discussion of our 2015 financial guidance.
Analysis of the consolidated and combined statements of comprehensive income
An analysis of the components of comprehensive income for all periods presented.
Analysis of the consolidated balance sheets
A discussion of changes in certain balance sheet accounts for balance sheets presented.
Analysis of the consolidated and combined statements of cash flows
An analysis of the drivers of our operating, investing and financing cash flows for all periods presented.
Analysis of financial condition, liquidity and capital resources
An analysis of our ability to meet our short-term and long-term financing needs.
New accounting standards
Accounting standards that we have recently adopted.
Forward-looking statements and factors that may affect future results
A description of the risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in forward-looking statements presented in this MD&A and elsewhere in this 2014 Annual Report. Such forward-looking statements are based on management's current expectations about future events, which are inherently susceptible to uncertainty and changes in circumstances.
Overview of our business
We are a global leader in the discovery, development, manufacture and commercialization of animal health medicines and vaccines, with a focus on both livestock and companion animals. For more than 60 years, as a business unit of Pfizer and now as an independent public company, we have been committed to enhancing the health of animals and bringing solutions to our customers who raise and care for them.
The animal health medicines and vaccines industry is characterized by meaningful differences in customer needs across different regions. As a result of these differences, among other things, we manage our operations through four geographic operating segments. Within each of these operating segments, we offer a diversified product portfolio for both livestock and companion animal customers in order to capitalize on local and regional trends and customer needs. Our four operating segments are the United States (U.S.), Europe/Africa/Middle East (EuAfME), Canada/Latin America

33 |


(CLAR) and Asia/Pacific (APAC). See Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 18. Segment, Geographic and Other Revenue Information.
We directly market our products to livestock producers and veterinarians located in approximately 70 countries across North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia and South America, and are a market leader in nearly all of the major regions in which we operate. Through our efforts to establish an early and direct presence in many emerging markets, such as Brazil, China and India, we believe we are the largest animal health medicines and vaccines business as measured by revenue across emerging markets as a whole. Emerging markets contributed 24% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014. In markets where we do not have a direct commercial presence, we generally contract with distributors that provide logistics and sales and marketing support for our products.
We believe our investments in the industry’s largest sales organization, including our extensive network of technical and veterinary operations specialists, our high-quality manufacturing and reliability of supply, and our long track record of developing products that meet customer needs, has led to enduring and valued relationships with our customers. Our R&D efforts enable us to deliver innovative products to address unmet needs and evolve our product lines so they remain relevant for our customers. Additionally, our management team’s focus on improving operational and cost efficiencies increases the likelihood of achieving our core growth strategies and enhancing long-term value for our shareholders.
A summary of our 2014 performance compared to the comparable 2013 and 2012 periods follows:
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
% Change
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
 
2014

 
2013

 
2012

 
14/13

 
13/12
Revenue
 
$
4,785

 
$
4,561

 
$
4,336

 
5

 
5
Net income attributable to Zoetis
 
583

 
504

 
436

 
16

 
16
Adjusted net income(a)
 
790

 
709

 
539

 
11

 
32
(a) 
Adjusted net income is a non-GAAP financial measure. See the Adjusted net income section of this MD&A for more information.
Our operating environment
Industry
The animal health industry, which focuses on both livestock and companion animals, is a growing industry that impacts billions of people worldwide. The primary livestock species for the production of animal protein are cattle (both beef and dairy), swine, poultry, sheep and fish. Livestock health and production are essential to meeting the growing demand for animal protein of a global population. Factors influencing growth in demand for livestock medicines and vaccines include:  
human population growth and increasing standards of living, particularly in many emerging markets;
increasing demand for improved nutrition, particularly animal protein;
natural resource constraints, such as scarcity of arable land, fresh water and increased competition for cultivated land, resulting in fewer resources that will be available to meet this increased demand for animal protein; and
increased focus on food safety.
The primary companion animal species are dogs, cats and horses. Health professionals indicate that companion animals improve the physical and emotional well-being of pet owners. Factors influencing growth in demand for companion animal medicines and vaccines include:  
economic development and related increases in disposable income, particularly in many emerging markets;
increasing pet ownership; and
companion animals living longer, increasing medical treatment of companion animals and advances in companion animal medicines and vaccines.
Product development initiatives
Our future success depends on both our existing product portfolio and our pipeline of new products, including new products that we may develop through joint ventures and products that we are able to obtain through license or acquisition. We believe we are an industry leader in animal health R&D, with a track record of generating new products and product lifecycle developments. The majority of our R&D programs focus on product lifecycle development, which is defined as R&D programs that leverage existing animal health products by adding new species or claims, achieving approvals in new markets or creating new combinations and reformulations.
Perceptions of product quality, safety and reliability
We believe that animal health medicines and vaccines customers value high-quality manufacturing and reliability of supply. The importance of quality and safety concerns to pet owners, veterinarians and livestock producers also contributes to animal health brand loyalty, which we believe often continues after the loss of patent-based and regulatory exclusivity. We depend on positive perceptions of the safety and quality of our products, and animal health products generally, by our customers, veterinarians and end-users.

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The issue of the potential transfer of increased antibacterial resistance in bacteria from food-producing animals to human pathogens, and the causality of that transfer, are the subject of global scientific and regulatory discussion. Antibacterials refer to small molecules that can be used to treat or prevent bacterial infections and are a sub-categorization of the products that make up our anti-infectives and medicated feed additives portfolios. In some countries, this issue has led to government restrictions and bans on the use of specific antibacterials in some food-producing animals, regardless of the route of administration (topical, oral, intramuscular/subcutaneous injections, or intravenous). These restrictions are more prevalent in countries where animal protein is plentiful and governments are willing to take restrictive actions even when there is scientific uncertainty. Our total revenue attributable to antibacterials for livestock was approximately $1.3 billion for the year ended December 31, 2014.
In December 2013, the FDA announced final guidance establishing procedures for the voluntary phase out in the United States over a three year period of the use of medically important antibacterials in animal feed for growth promotion in food production animals (medically important antibacterials include classes that are prescribed in animal and human health). The guidance provides for continued use of antibacterials in food producing animals for treatment, control and under certain circumstances for prevention of disease, all under the supervision of a veterinarian. We believe the impact of this FDA guidance on our financial performance will not be significant based on the overall diversity and breadth of our product portfolio of medicines, vaccines and diagnostics serving eight core species. 
In addition, in October 2014, the French Parliament passed a law that, inter-alia, prohibits rebates and discounts on antibiotics and requires the reporting of antibiotics sold to and agreements entered into with certain animal healthcare providers (including veterinarians, veterinary schools, pharmacists and students). The Parliament indicated that the law is in response to a government initiative aimed at fighting antimicrobial resistance in animals and reducing the use of certain categories of antibiotics by 25% (compared to 2013) by December 31, 2016.
We cannot predict whether antibacterials resistance concerns will result in additional restrictions or bans, expanded regulations or public pressure to discontinue or reduce use of antibacterials in food-producing animals, which could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
The overall economic environment
In addition to industry-specific factors, we, like other businesses, face challenges related to global economic conditions. Growth in both the livestock and companion animal sectors is driven by overall economic development and related growth, particularly in many emerging markets. In recent years, certain of our customers and suppliers have been affected directly by economic downturns, which decreased the demand for our products and, in some cases, hindered our ability to collect amounts due from customers.
The cost of medicines and vaccines to our livestock producer customers is small relative to other production costs, including feed, and the use of these products is intended to improve livestock producers’ economic outcomes. As a result, demand for our products has historically been more stable than demand for other production inputs. Similarly, industry sources have reported that pet owners indicated a preference for reducing spending on other aspects of their lifestyle, including entertainment, clothing and household goods, before reducing spending on pet care. While these factors have mitigated the impact of recent downturns in the global economy, further economic challenges could increase cost sensitivity among our customers, which may result in reduced demand for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
Competition
The animal health industry is competitive. Although our business is the largest by revenue in the animal health medicines and vaccines industry, we face competition in the regions in which we operate. Principal methods of competition vary depending on the particular region, species, product category or individual product. Some of these methods include new product development, quality, price, service and promotion to veterinary professionals, pet owners and livestock producers. Our competitors include the animal health businesses of large pharmaceutical companies and specialty animal health businesses. In addition to competition from established market participants, there could be new entrants to the animal health medicines and vaccines industry in the future. In certain markets, we also compete with companies that produce generic products, but the level of competition from generic products varies from market to market. For example, the level of generic competition is higher in Europe and certain emerging markets than in the United States.
Weather conditions and the availability of natural resources
The animal health industry and demand for many of our animal health products in a particular region are affected by weather conditions, as usage of our products follows varying weather patterns and weather-related pressures from pests, such as ticks. As a result, we may experience regional and seasonal fluctuations in our results of operations.
In addition, veterinary hospitals and practitioners depend on visits from and access to the animals under their care. Veterinarians’ patient volume and ability to operate could be adversely affected if they experience prolonged snow, ice or other severe weather conditions, particularly in regions not accustomed to sustained inclement weather. Furthermore, livestock producers depend on the availability of natural resources, including large supplies of fresh water. Their animals’ health and their ability to operate could be adversely affected if they experience a shortage of fresh water due to human population growth or floods, droughts or other weather conditions. In the event of adverse weather conditions or a shortage of fresh water, veterinarians and livestock producers may purchase less of our products.
For example, drought conditions could negatively impact, among other things, the supply of corn and the availability of grazing pastures. A decrease in harvested corn results in higher corn prices, which could negatively impact the profitability of livestock producers of cattle, pork and poultry. Higher corn prices and reduced availability of grazing pastures contribute to reductions in herd or flock sizes that in turn result in less spending on animal health products. As such, a prolonged drought could have a material adverse impact on our operating results and financial condition. Factors influencing the magnitude and timing of effects of a drought on our performance include, but may not be limited to, weather patterns and herd management decisions. The widespread drought which impacted parts of the United States during 2011, 2012, and 2013 was considered the worst in many years and affected our performance in the U.S. market in 2012 and in the first half of 2013.

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Disease outbreaks
Sales of our livestock products could be adversely affected by the outbreak of disease carried by animals. Outbreaks of disease may reduce regional or global sales of particular animal-derived food products or result in reduced exports of such products, either due to heightened export restrictions or import prohibitions, which may reduce demand for our products. Also, the outbreak of any highly contagious disease near our main production sites could require us to immediately halt production of our products at such sites or force us to incur substantial expenses in procuring raw materials or products elsewhere. Alternatively, sales of products that treat specific disease outbreaks may increase.
For example, since the second quarter of 2013 some producers in the United States have experienced an outbreak of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv). PEDv has existed in parts of Asia for many years. It is important to note that the virus, which affects piglets, does not create a food safety issue. We are committed to supporting pork producers in understanding and controlling PEDv and we are partnering with the key stakeholders, including various academic institutions such as the University of Minnesota and Iowa State University. In September 2014, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) granted us a conditional license for a vaccine to help fight PEDv. In order to receive the conditional license, we had to demonstrate the safety of the vaccine in a field study and provide a reasonable expectation of the vaccine’s efficacy. We began supplying the vaccine to veterinarians and pig farmers in September 2014, and we are working to complete the efficacy and potency studies necessary to obtain full licensure in the United States from the USDA. Since first reported in the United States in 2013, PEDv has spread and has now been reported in at least 33 U.S. states, as well as in Canada, Mexico and parts of South America. According to recent reports, during 2014 the outbreak impacted up to 50% of the sows in the United States, and up to one-third of the sows in Mexico. Furthermore, during the first half of 2014, active cases of PEDv were reported in several new markets in Asia, including Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, and in the second half of 2014, active cases of the disease were confirmed in Spain and Portugal. Although many of the farms that were previously infected have since returned to normal production, the virus continues to pose a threat to the swine industry. We currently believe the impact of PEDv on our 2015 revenue will not be significant. However, we are closely monitoring the evolution of this on-going outbreak and its impact on the swine industry and on our 2015 revenue.
In addition, beginning in 2013, there have been several reported cases of the H7N9 avian influenza virus in China. In late March 2013, the Chinese government reported the first case of the H7N9 avian influenza virus. Since that time, approximately 450 cases have been detected. We are closely monitoring the developments as this situation unfolds and currently believe the impact on our 2015 global revenue will not be significant. While China continues to represent a growth opportunity for us, sales in China represented approximately 2% of our total revenue in 2014 and the majority was generated by our swine business.
Foreign exchange rates
Significant portions of our revenue and costs are exposed to changes in foreign exchange rates. Our products are sold in more than 120 countries and, as a result, our revenue is influenced by changes in foreign exchange rates. In 2014, approximately 53% of our revenue was denominated in foreign currencies. We seek to manage our foreign exchange risk, in part, through operational means, including managing same-currency revenue in relation to same-currency costs and same-currency assets in relation to same-currency liabilities. As we operate in multiple foreign currencies, including the euro, the Brazilian real, the Australian dollar and other currencies, changes in those currencies relative to the U.S. dollar will impact our revenue, cost of goods and expenses, and consequently, net income. Exchange rate fluctuations may also have an impact beyond our reported financial results and directly impact operations. These fluctuations may affect the ability to buy and sell our goods and services between markets impacted by significant exchange rate variances. In 2014, approximately 47% of our total revenue was in U.S. dollars. Our year-over-year revenue growth was unfavorably impacted by 2 percentage points from changes in foreign currency values relative to the U.S. dollar.
On February 13, 2013, the Venezuelan government devalued its currency from a rate of 4.3 to 6.3 Venezuelan bolivars per U.S. dollar. We incurred a foreign currency loss of $9 million immediately on the devaluation as a result of remeasuring the local assets and liabilities, which is included in Other (income)/deductions—net for the year ended December 31, 2013.
Our Venezuelan subsidiary's functional currency is the U.S. dollar because of the hyperinflationary status of the Venezuelan economy. In the first quarter of 2014, the Venezuelan government expanded its exchange mechanisms, resulting in three official rates of exchange for the Venezuelan bolivar. As of December 31, 2014, the Venezuelan bolivar to U.S. dollar exchange rates were the CENCOEX rate of 6.3; the SICAD I rate of 12.0; and the SICAD II rate of 49.99. We continue to use the CENCOEX rate of 6.3 to report our Venezuela financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
We may experience adverse impacts to earnings as our revenue, costs and expenses may be translated into U.S. dollars at lower rates. These impacts are not expected to be significant to our financial condition or results of operations. As of November 30, 2014, we had net monetary assets denominated in local currency of $56 million in Venezuela and other consolidated entities had receivables from our Venezuela business of $37 million. For the year ended November 30, 2014, our revenue from the Venezuelan market was approximately $77 million. These amounts may grow in the future.
On February 10, 2015, the Venezuelan government announced that they would continue to operate with a three-tier exchange rate system and that the primary rate of 6.3 bolivars to the dollar would remain in place for imports that are deemed essential. A new free-floating rate (SIMADI) will replace the existing third-tier rate (SICAD II). We cannot predict whether there will be further devaluation of the Venezuelan bolivar or whether our use of the 6.3 rate will continue to be supported by evolving facts and circumstances. Further, other potential actions by the Venezuelan government in response to economic uncertainties could impact the recoverability of our investment in Venezuela, which could result in an impairment charge and, under extreme circumstances, could impact our ability to continue to operate in the country in the same manner as we have historically.
Certain Regulatory Matters
Our manufacturing facilities are subject to periodic inspections by regulatory agencies. An inspector may report conditions or practices that indicate possible violations of regulatory requirements. The FDA provides notice of these observations in a Form 483. In January 2015, the FDA conducted inspections at three of our manufacturing facilities, after which the FDA issued Form 483s to the company in connection with two of these inspections. We responded to the FDA and are in the process of addressing the observations in the Form 483s. We cannot give any assurances that the FDA will be satisfied with our responses to their Form 483 observations or as to the expected date of resolution of observations included in the Form

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483s. In October 2014, we received a letter from the USDA’s Center for Veterinary Biologicals (CVB) requesting that we meet with the CVB to discuss compliance issues at certain of our U.S. sites that manufacture biological products. We have met with the CVB to discuss the CVB’s specific concerns and to present a plan for certain corrective and preventive actions. We are implementing that plan. We cannot give any assurances that the USDA will be satisfied with the progress of our corrective and preventive actions and not take further regulatory action affecting our USDA establishment license.
Our growth strategies
We seek to enhance the health of animals and to bring solutions to our customers who raise and care for them. We have a global presence in both developed and emerging markets and we intend to grow our business by pursuing the following core strategies:  
leverage our direct local presence and strong customer relationships—Through our direct selling commercial model, we can deepen our understanding of our customers’ businesses and can encourage the adoption of more sophisticated animal health products;
further penetrate emerging markets—We seek to maximize our presence where economic development is driving increased demand for animal protein and increased demand for and spending on companion animals;
pursue new product research and development and value-added product lifecycle development to extend our product portfolio—New product R&D and product lifecycle development enable us to deliver innovative products to address unmet needs and evolve our product lines so they remain relevant for our customers. We seek to leverage our strong direct presence in many regions and cost-effectively develop new products;
remain the partner of choice for access to new products and technologies—We seek to continue to support cutting-edge research and secure the right to develop and commercialize new products and technologies;
continue to provide high-quality products and improve manufacturing production margins—We believe our manufacturing and supply chain provides us with a global platform for continued expansion, including in emerging markets, and that our quality and reliability differentiate us from our competitors; and
expand into complementary businesses to become a more complete, trusted partner in providing solutions—We believe we have the potential to generate incremental and complementary revenue, in the areas of diagnostics, genetics, devices, dairy data management, e-learning and professional consulting, which could also enhance the loyalty of our customer base and may lead to increased product sales.
Components of revenue and costs and expenses
Our revenue, costs and expenses are reported for the year ended December 31 for each year presented, except for operations outside the United States, for which the financial information is included in our consolidated and combined financial statements for the fiscal year ended November 30 for each year presented.
Revenue
Our revenue is primarily derived from our diversified product portfolio of medicines and vaccines used to treat and protect livestock and companion animals. Generally, our products are promoted to veterinarians and livestock producers by our sales organization which includes sales representatives and technical and veterinary operations specialists, and then sold directly by us or through distributors. The depth of our product portfolio enables us to address the varying needs of customers in different species and geographies. In 2014, our top selling product line, the ceftiofur line, contributed approximately 8% of our revenue. The ceftiofur line and our next two top selling products, Revolution and Draxxin, contributed approximately 21% of our revenue. Our top ten selling product lines contributed approximately 39% of our revenue. For additional information regarding our products, including descriptions of our product lines that each represented approximately 1% or more of our revenue in 2014, see Item 1. Business—Products.
Costs and expenses
Costs of sales consist primarily of cost of materials, facilities and other infrastructure used to manufacture our medicine and vaccine products and royalty expenses associated with the intellectual property of our products, when relevant.
Selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses consist of, among other things, the internal and external costs of marketing, promotion, advertising and shipping and handling as well as certain costs related to business technology, facilities, legal, finance, human resources, business development, public affairs and procurement.
Research and development (R&D) expenses consist primarily of project costs specific to new product R&D and product lifecycle development, overhead costs associated with R&D operations and investments that support local market clinical trials for approved indications and expenses related to regulatory approvals for our products. We do not disaggregate R&D expenses by research stage or by therapeutic area for purposes of managing our business.
Amortization of intangible assets consists primarily of the amortization expense for identifiable finite-life intangible assets that have been acquired through business combinations. These assets consist of, but are not limited to, developed technology, brands and trademarks.
Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs consist of all restructuring charges (those associated with acquisition activity and those associated with cost reduction/productivity initiatives), as well as costs associated with acquiring and integrating businesses. Restructuring charges are associated with employees, assets and activities that will not continue in the company. Acquisition-related costs are associated with acquiring and integrating acquired businesses, such as the King Animal Health (KAH) business in 2011 and the Fort Dodge Animal Health (FDAH) business acquired as part of Pfizer's acquisition of Wyeth in 2009, and may include transaction costs and expenditures for consulting and the integration of systems and processes.
Other (income)/deductions—net consist primarily of various items including net (gains)/losses on asset disposals, royalty-related income, foreign exchange translation (gains)/losses and certain asset impairment charges.

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Comparability of historical results and our relationship with Pfizer
During the periods prior to the IPO covered by the combined financial statements in this 2014 Annual Report, we operated solely as a business unit of Pfizer. The related combined financial statements have been derived from the consolidated financial statements and accounting records of Pfizer and include allocations for direct costs and indirect costs attributable to the operations of the animal health business of Pfizer. These combined financial statements do not purport to reflect what the results of operations, comprehensive income/(loss), financial position, equity or cash flows would have been had we operated as an independent public company during the periods presented. In addition, the historical combined financial statements may not be reflective of what our results of operations, comprehensive income/(loss), financial position, equity or cash flows might be in the future as an independent public company.
For a detailed description of the basis of presentation and an understanding of the limitations of the predictive value of the historical combined financial statements, see Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 3. Basis of Presentation.
Our historical expenses are not necessarily indicative of the expenses we may incur in the future as an independent public company. With respect to support functions, for example, for the periods prior to the IPO, our historical combined financial statements include expense allocations for certain support functions that were provided on a centralized basis within Pfizer, such as expenses for business technology, facilities, legal, finance, human resources, and, to a lesser extent, business development, public affairs and procurement, among others. As part of the Separation, pursuant to agreements with Pfizer, Pfizer provides us with some of the services related to these functions on a transitional basis in exchange for agreed-upon fees, and we are incurring other costs to replace the services and resources that will not be provided by Pfizer. As an independent public company, our total costs related to such support functions may differ from the costs that were historically allocated to us from Pfizer.
We have also incurred certain nonrecurring costs related to becoming an independent public company, including new branding (which includes changes to the manufacturing process for required new packaging), the creation of standalone systems and infrastructure, the accelerated vesting of certain Pfizer equity awards and associated cash payment related thereto, site separation and certain legal registration and patent assignment costs.
Some of our products are manufactured at sites that were retained by Pfizer or that are operated by Pfizer under a sale-leaseback arrangement. In 2013, pursuant to the master manufacturing and supply agreement with Pfizer, we began purchasing these products from Pfizer. Under the master manufacturing and supply agreement, our supply price is Pfizer's costs plus a percentage markup. Subject to limited exceptions, during the two years following the completion of the IPO (from February 6, 2013, through February 5, 2015), the markup was 0% and, for the remainder of the term of the agreement, the markup will be 15%. The cost of each Pfizer-supplied product is subject to annual review. The historical combined statements of income for the periods prior to the IPO include allocations of certain manufacturing and supply costs incurred by the manufacturing sites that would not have been charged to us under the master manufacturing and supply agreement with Pfizer had such agreement been in effect in the periods presented, such as operating variances, as well as purchase price and volume variances under a certain threshold. The costs allocated in the historical combined statements of income are higher than the amounts that would have been charged by Pfizer under the master manufacturing and supply agreement, had it been in effect during the periods presented, by approximately $10 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. In connection with the IPO, we and Pfizer have entered into certain agreements that will provide a framework for our ongoing relationship with Pfizer. See Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 19B. Transactions and Agreements with Pfizer—Agreements with Pfizer.
Following the IPO, the equity awards previously granted to our employees by Pfizer continued to vest, and service with Zoetis counted as service with Pfizer for equity award purposes. On June 24, 2013, Pfizer completed the Exchange Offer whereby Pfizer disposed of all shares of Zoetis common stock owned by Pfizer. Pfizer accelerated the vesting of, and in some cases the settlement of, on a pro-rata basis, outstanding Pfizer restricted stock units (RSUs), Total Shareholder Return Units (TSRUs) and Performance Share Awards (PSAs) previously granted to our employees, subject, in each case, to the requirements of Section 409A of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, the terms of the 2004 Pfizer Stock Plan and the applicable award agreements and any outstanding deferral elections. In addition, unvested Pfizer stock options previously granted to our employees accelerated in full, and our employees generally have the ability to exercise the stock options until the earlier of (i) June 23, 2016 (three years from Pfizer's completion of the Exchange Offer), (ii) termination of their employment from Zoetis or (iii) the expiration date of the stock option. Zoetis employees who held Pfizer stock options and were retirement eligible as of June 24, 2013, will have the full term of the stock option to exercise.
The accelerated vesting of the outstanding Pfizer stock options, and the settlement, on a pro-rata basis, of other Pfizer equity awards, resulted in the recognition of additional expense for the year ended December 31, 2013, of $9 million, which is included in stock-based compensation. The unvested portion of Pfizer RSUs, TSRUs and PSAs were forfeited as of the completion of the Exchange Offer. In the third quarter of 2013, Zoetis made a cash payment of approximately $20 million to certain non-executive Zoetis employees, based on the value of the employees' forfeited Pfizer RSUs, TSRUs and PSAs (as applicable). This amount is included in the consolidated statement of income as additional compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2013. Members of the Zoetis Executive Team did not receive a cash payment for any forfeited Pfizer RSUs, TSRUs and PSAs, but instead, in the third quarter of 2013, were granted Zoetis RSUs which were equivalent in value and vest on the same date as their forfeited Pfizer RSUs, TSRUs and PSAs.
Public company expenses
As a result of the IPO, we became subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We have established additional procedures and practices as an independent public company. As a result, we are incurring additional costs, including, but not limited to, internal audit, investor relations, stock administration and regulatory compliance costs.
Recent significant acquisitions and government-mandated divestitures
The assets, liabilities, operating results and cash flows of acquired businesses are included in our results commencing from their respective acquisition dates.
On November 17, 2014, we announced that we had entered into an agreement to purchase animal health assets of Abbott for a purchase price of $255 million. On February 10, 2015, after satisfying all customary closing conditions, including clearance under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act, we completed the purchase of certain assets of Abbott Animal Health. The purchase price includes a $230 million cash payment

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on the date of closing and a contingent payment of $25 million to be paid within one year of closing if certain product supply conditions are met. Abbott Animal Health is a companion animal health business focused on the veterinary surgical suite. The final allocation of the purchase price amongst assets, liabilities and goodwill is subject to final valuation.
Delays in establishing new operating subsidiaries
Due to local regulatory and operational requirements in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions, the transfer to us of certain assets and liabilities of Pfizer's animal health business had not yet legally occurred as of the IPO date. These assets and liabilities were not material to our consolidated financial statements, individually or in the aggregate. As of December 31, 2013, all expected subsidiaries had been established and the related assets and liabilities had transferred.
Agreements with Pfizer
On February 6, 2013, we entered into a transitional services agreement with Pfizer whereby Pfizer agreed to provide us with various corporate support services. This agreement has a service commencement date of January 1, 2013, in the United States and December 1, 2012 for our international locations. In addition, on October 1, 2012, we entered into a master manufacturing and supply agreement with Pfizer on October 1, 2012, whereby we and Pfizer agreed to manufacture and supply products to each other commencing January 1, 2013. See Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements— Note 19B. Transactions and Agreements with Pfizer—Agreements with Pfizer for more information related to these and other agreements, including the related costs.
Significant accounting policies and application of critical accounting estimates
In presenting our financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP, we are required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, costs and expenses and related disclosures. For a description of our significant accounting policies, see Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 4. Significant Accounting Policies.
We believe that the following accounting policies are critical to an understanding of our consolidated and combined financial statements as they require the application of the most difficult, subjective and complex judgments and, therefore, could have the greatest impact on our financial statements: (i) fair value; (ii) revenue; (iii) asset impairment reviews; and (iv) contingencies.
Below are some of our more critical accounting estimates. See also Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 4. Significant Accounting Policies— Estimates and Assumptions for a discussion about the risks associated with estimates and assumptions.
Fair value
For a discussion about the application of fair value to our long-term debt and financial instruments, see Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 9. Financial Instruments.
For a discussion about the application of fair value to our asset impairment reviews, see Asset impairment reviews below.
Revenue
Our gross product revenue is subject to deductions that are generally estimated and recorded in the same period that the revenue is recognized and primarily represents sales returns and revenue incentives. For example:
for sales returns, we perform calculations in each market that incorporate the following, as appropriate: local returns policies and practices; returns as a percentage of revenue; an understanding of the reasons for past returns; estimated shelf life by product; an estimate of the amount of time between shipment and return or lag time; and any other factors that could impact the estimate of future returns, product recalls, discontinuation of products or a changing competitive environment; and
for revenue incentives, we use our historical experience with similar incentives programs to estimate the impact of such programs on revenue.
If any of our ratios, factors, assessments, experiences or judgments are not indicative or accurate predictors of our future experience, our results could be materially affected. Although the amounts recorded for these revenue deductions are heavily dependent on estimates and assumptions, historically our adjustments to actual results have not been material. The sensitivity of our estimates can vary by program, type of customer and geographic location.
Amounts recorded for revenue deductions can result from a complex series of judgments about future events and uncertainties and can rely heavily on estimates and assumptions. For further information about the risks associated with estimates and assumptions, see Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 4. Significant Accounting Policies—Estimates and Assumptions.
Asset impairment reviews
We review all of our long-lived assets for impairment indicators throughout the year and we perform detailed testing whenever impairment indicators are present. In addition, we perform impairment testing for goodwill and indefinite-lived assets at least annually. When necessary, we record charges for impairments of long-lived assets for the amount by which the fair value is less than the carrying value of these assets.
Our impairment review processes are described below and in Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 4. Significant Accounting Policies—Amortization of Intangible Assets, Depreciation and Certain Long-Lived Assets and, for deferred tax assets, in Note 4. Significant Accounting Policies—Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities and Income Tax Contingencies.
Examples of events or circumstances that may be indicative of impairment include:

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a significant adverse change in the extent or manner in which an asset is used. For example, restrictions imposed by the regulatory authorities could affect our ability to manufacture or sell a product.
a projection or forecast that demonstrates losses or reduced profits associated with an asset. This could result, for example, from the introduction of a competitor’s product that results in a significant loss of market share or the inability to achieve the previously projected revenue growth, or from the lack of acceptance of a product by customers.
Our impairment reviews of most of our long-lived assets depend heavily on the determination of fair value, as defined by U.S. GAAP, and these judgments can materially impact our results of operations. A single estimate of fair value can result from a complex series of judgments about future events and uncertainties and can rely heavily on estimates and assumptions. For information about the risks associated with estimates and assumptions, see Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 4. Significant Accounting Policies—Estimates and Assumptions.
Intangible assets other than goodwill
We test indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment at least annually, or more frequently if impairment indicators exist, by first assessing qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset is less than its carrying amount. If we conclude it is more likely than not that the fair value is less than the carrying amount, a quantitative test that compares the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset with its carrying value is performed. If the fair value is less than the carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognized.
As a result of our overall intangible asset impairment review, we recognized a number of impairments of identifiable intangible assets other than goodwill.
We recorded the following identifiable intangible asset impairment charges in Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs and Other (income)/deductions—net, as applicable:
In 2014, the intangible asset impairment charges reflect (i) approximately $6 million of acquired in-process research and development (IPR&D) assets related to a pharmaceutical product for dogs acquired with the FDAH acquisition in 2009, as a result of the termination of the development program due to a re-assessment of economic viability; and (ii) approximately $1 million related to finite-lived developed technology rights and IPR&D due to negative market conditions and the re-assessment of economic viability.
In 2013, the intangible asset impairment charges reflect (i) approximately $2 million of finite-lived developed technology rights due to a re-assessment of economic viability; (ii) approximately $2 million of finite-lived developed technology rights and IPR&D as a result of exiting a combined manufacturing and R&D facility; and (iii) approximately $2 million related to acquired IPR&D as a result of the termination of certain development programs due to a re-assessment of their economic viability.
In 2012, the intangible asset impairment charges reflect: (i) approximately $2 million of finite-lived companion animal developed technology rights; (ii) approximately $1 million of finite-lived trademarks related to genetic testing services; and (iii) approximately $2 million of finite-lived patents related to poultry technology. The intangible asset impairment charges for 2012 reflect, among other things, loss of revenue as a result of negative market conditions and, with respect to the poultry technology, a re-assessment of economic viability.
When we are required to determine the fair value of intangible assets other than goodwill, we use an income approach, specifically the multi-period excess earnings method, also known as the discounted cash flow method. We start with a forecast of all the expected net cash flows associated with the asset, which includes the application of a terminal value for indefinite-lived assets, and then we apply an asset-specific discount rate to arrive at a net present value amount. Some of the more significant estimates and assumptions inherent in this approach include: the amount and timing of the projected net cash flows, which includes the expected impact of competitive, legal and/or regulatory forces on the projections, the impact of technological risk associated with IPR&D assets, as well as the selection of a long-term growth rate; the discount rate, which seeks to reflect the risks inherent in the projected cash flows; foreign currency fluctuations; and the tax rate, which seeks to incorporate the geographic diversity of the projected cash flows.
While all identifiable intangible assets can be impacted by events and thus lead to impairment, in general, identifiable intangible assets that are at the highest risk of impairment include IPR&D assets (approximately $2 million as of December 31, 2014). IPR&D assets are higher-risk assets because R&D is an inherently risky activity.
For a description of our accounting policy, see Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 4. Significant Accounting Policies—Amortization of Intangible Assets, Depreciation and Certain Long-Lived Assets.
Goodwill
Goodwill represents the excess of the consideration transferred over the fair value of net assets of businesses purchased and is assigned to reporting units. We test goodwill for impairment on at least an annual basis, or more frequently if impairment indicators exist, either by assessing qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount or by performing a quantitative assessment.
Factors considered in the qualitative assessment include general macroeconomic conditions, conditions specific to the industry and market, cost factors which could have a significant effect on earnings or cash flows, the overall financial performance of the reporting unit, and whether there have been sustained declines in our share price. Additionally, we evaluate the extent to which the fair value exceeded the carrying value of the reporting unit at the date of the last quantitative assessment performed.
When performing a quantitative assessment to test for goodwill impairment we utilize the income approach, which is forward-looking, and relies primarily on internal forecasts. Within the income approach, the method that we use is the discounted cash flow method. We start with a forecast of all the expected net cash flows associated with the reporting unit, which includes the application of a terminal value, and then apply a reporting unit-

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specific discount rate to arrive at a net present value. Some of the more significant estimates and assumptions inherent in this approach include: the amount and timing of the projected net cash flows, which includes the expected impact of technological risk and competitive, legal and/or regulatory forces on the projections, as well as the selection of a long-term growth rate; the discount rate, which seeks to reflect the various risks inherent in the projected cash flows; and the tax rate, which seeks to incorporate the geographic diversity of the projected cash flows.
In 2014, we quantitatively assessed, as of September 28, 2014, the fair value of each of our reporting units using the income approach. The fair value of each reporting unit was found to exceed its respective carrying value, therefore no impairments were recorded.
In 2013, we qualitatively assessed, as of September 29, 2013, whether it is more likely than not that the respective fair values of our reporting units are less than their carrying amounts, including goodwill. Based on that assessment, we determined that this condition did not exist for all reporting units and performing a quantitative fair value test for our reporting units was not necessary. As a result, we did not believe that the risk of goodwill impairment for any of our reporting units was significant at that time.
For all of our reporting units, there are a number of future events and factors that may impact future results and that could potentially have an impact on the outcome of subsequent goodwill impairment testing. For a list of these factors, see Forward-looking statements and information that may affect future results.
For a description of our accounting policy, see Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 4. Significant Accounting Policies—Amortization of Intangible Assets, Depreciation and Certain Long-Lived Assets.
Contingencies
For a discussion about income tax contingencies, see Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 8D. Tax Matters—Tax Contingencies.
For a discussion about legal contingencies, guarantees and indemnifications, see Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statement—Note 17. Commitments and Contingencies.
Analysis of the consolidated and combined statements of income
The following discussion and analysis of our consolidated and combined statements of income should be read along with our consolidated and combined financial statements, and the notes thereto. For more information on the carve-out basis of presentation for the periods prior to the IPO, see Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 3. Basis of Presentation.
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
 
2014

 
2013

 
2012

 
14/13

 
13/12

Revenue
 
$
4,785

 
$
4,561

 
$
4,336

 
5

 
5

Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of sales(a)
 
1,717

 
1,669

 
1,563

 
3

 
7

% of revenue
 
36
%
 
37
%
 
36
%
 
 
 
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses(a)
 
1,643

 
1,613

 
1,470

 
2

 
10

% of revenue
 
34
%
 
35
%
 
34
%
 
 
 
 
Research and development expenses(a)
 
396

 
399

 
409

 
(1
)
 
(2
)
% of revenue
 
8
%
 
9
%
 
9
%
 
 
 
 
Amortization of intangible assets
 
60

 
60

 
64

 

 
(6
)
Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs
 
25

 
26

 
135

 
(4
)
 
(81
)
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest
 
117

 
113

 
31

 
4

 
*

Other (income)/deductions—net
 
7

 
(9
)
 
(46
)
 
*

 
(80
)
Income before provision for taxes on income
 
820

 
690

 
710

 
19

 
(3
)
% of revenue
 
17
%
 
15
%
 
16
%
 
 
 
 
Provision for taxes on income
 
233

 
187

 
274

 
25

 
(32
)
Effective tax rate
 
28.4
%
 
27.1
%
 
38.6
%
 
 
 
 
Net income before allocation to noncontrolling interests
 
587

 
503

 
436

 
17

 
15

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
4

 
(1
)
 

 
*

 
*

Net income attributable to Zoetis
 
$
583

 
$
504

 
$
436

 
16

 
16

% of revenue
 
12
%
 
11
%
 
10
%
 
 
 
 
* Calculation not meaningful.
Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.
(a) 
Exclusive of amortization of intangible assets, except as disclosed in Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 4. Significant Accounting Policies—Amortization of Intangible Assets, Depreciation and Certain Long-Lived Assets.

41 |


Revenue
Total revenue by operating segment was as follows:
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
 
2014

 
2013

 
2012

 
14/13

 
13/12
U.S.
 
$
2,059

 
$
1,902

 
$
1,776

 
8

 
7
EuAfME
 
1,141

 
1,115

 
1,068

 
2

 
4
CLAR
 
815

 
778

 
769

 
5

 
1
APAC
 
720

 
713

 
695

 
1

 
3
Contract Manufacturing
 
50

 
53

 
28

 
(6
)
 
89
Total
 
$
4,785

 
$
4,561

 
$
4,336

 
5

 
5
Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.
On a global basis, the mix of revenue between livestock and companion animal products was as follows:
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
 
2014

 
2013

 
2012

 
14/13

 
13/12
Livestock
 
$
3,103

 
$
2,916

 
$
2,795

 
6

 
4
Companion animal
 
1,632

 
1,592

 
1,513

 
3

 
5
Contract Manufacturing
 
50

 
53

 
28

 
(6
)
 
89
Total
 
$
4,785

 
$
4,561

 
$
4,336

 
5

 
5
Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.
2014 vs. 2013
Total revenue increased $224 million, or 5%, in 2014 compared to 2013, with growth across all operating segments, due to higher operational revenue of $320 million, or 7%, comprised of 5% volume increases and 2% price increases. Operational revenue growth was driven by increased revenue in the U.S. and good performance in emerging markets, particularly Venezuela, Brazil, and China. Total livestock sales increased 9% operationally, driven by strong sales of our cattle, swine and poultry portfolios. Growth in sales of cattle products were driven by increased sales of our premium anti-infective products, while sales of swine products were tempered by the effect of PEDv. Total companion animal sales increased 4% operationally, driven by the introduction of Apoquel® in the United States, the UK, and Germany, as well as strong performance in Latin American countries due to price and volume increases in high inflationary markets and the continued increase in medicalization rates. Partially offsetting the increase in operational revenue was the unfavorable impact of foreign exchange, which decreased revenue by approximately $96 million, or 2%, driven by the depreciation of certain international currencies, particularly the Brazilian real and Argentine peso.
2013 vs. 2012
Total revenue increased $225 million, or 5%, in 2013 compared to 2012, with growth across all operating segments, due to higher operational revenue of $288 million, or 7%, comprised of 5% volume and 2% price. Operational revenue growth was driven by increased revenue in the United States and good performance in emerging markets, particularly Brazil, China and Russia. Total livestock sales increased 6% operationally, driven by strong sales of our swine, poultry and cattle portfolios. Growth in sales of swine products were primarily driven by new product launches, while poultry performance was driven by sales of our medicated feed additive products, which were in rotation for much of the year. Total companion animal sales increased 6% operationally, driven by the successful implementation of marketing and promotional strategies. Partially offsetting the increase in operational revenue was the unfavorable impact of foreign exchange, which decreased revenue by approximately $63 million, or 2%, driven by the depreciation of certain international currencies, particularly the Brazilian real and Japanese yen.
Costs and Expenses
Cost of sales 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
 
2014

 
2013

 
2012

 
14/13
 
13/12
Cost of sales (a)
 
$
1,717

 
$
1,669

 
$
1,563

 
3
 
7
% of revenue
 
36
%
 
37
%
 
36
%
 
 
 
 
Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.
(a) 
Allocation of corporate enabling functions were: $3 million in 2013 and $1 million in 2012.
2014 vs. 2013
Cost of sales increased $48 million, or 3%, in 2014 compared with 2013, primarily as a result of::
an increase in sales volume;
incremental global manufacturing and supply spending associated with the build-up of our operations in 2013, which is now impacting our 2014 cost of sales; and
an increase in inventory obsolescence, scrap and other charges,

42 |


partially offset by:
favorable foreign exchange.
2013 vs. 2012
Cost of sales increased $106 million, or 7%, in 2013 compared with 2012, primarily as a result of:
revenue growth and product and geographic mix;
additional costs of $21 million related to becoming an independent public company, including expense of $2 million due to the accelerated vesting of certain Pfizer equity awards and associated cash payments, as a result of the Separation;
a $19 million charge associated with the write-offs of inventory and intercompany accounts that were transferred to us as part of the Separation from Pfizer;
higher costs associated with certain manufacturing agreements related to government-mandated divestitures from prior acquisitions; and
unfavorable foreign exchange,
partially offset by:
operational efficiencies; and
lower employee benefit costs due to the termination of the defined benefit pension plan for U.S. employees.
Selling, general and administrative expenses  
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
 
2014

 
2013

 
2012

 
14/13
 
13/12
Selling, general and administrative expenses (a)
 
$
1,643

 
$
1,613

 
$
1,470

 
2
 
10
% of revenue
 
34
%
 
35
%
 
34
%
 
 
 
 
Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.
(a) 
Allocation of corporate enabling functions were: $24 million in 2013 and $254 million in 2012.
2014 vs. 2013
SG&A expenses increased by $30 million, or 2%, in 2014 compared with 2013, primarily as a result of:
increased field selling and distribution expenses in certain regions due to higher sales and increased costs associated with delivering our products to customers; and
additional costs due to the build-up of our supply chain and logistics organization and enabling functions and related costs post-separation from Pfizer,
partially offset by:
a reduction in the amount of additional costs related to becoming an independent public company, including the nonrecurrence of additional costs in 2013 due to the accelerated vesting of stock options and associated expenses related to certain Pfizer equity awards as a result of the Separation;
favorable foreign exchange; and
lower direct marketing spending.
2013 vs. 2012
SG&A expenses increased by $143 million, or 10%, in 2013 compared with 2012, primarily as a result of:
additional costs of $177 million related to becoming an independent public company, including expense of $25 million due to the accelerated vesting of certain Pfizer equity awards and associated cash payments, as a result of the Separation;
a $5 million charge associated with the write-offs of intercompany accounts that were transferred to us as part of the Separation from Pfizer; and
increased distribution expenses due to higher sales and increased temperature-controlled supply chain costs in certain regions,
partially offset by:
lower employee benefit costs due to the termination of the defined benefit pension plan for U.S. employees;
lower bad debt expense associated with improved accounts receivable collection experience; and
favorable foreign exchange.

43 |


Research and development expenses  
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
 
2014

 
2013

 
2012

 
14/13

 
13/12

Research and development expenses (a)
 
$
396

 
$
399

 
$
409

 
(1
)
 
(2
)
% of revenue
 
8
%
 
9
%
 
9
%
 
 
 
 
Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.
(a) 
Allocation of corporate enabling functions were $55 million in 2012.
2014 vs. 2013
R&D expenses decreased by $3 million, or 1%, in 2014 compared with 2013, primarily as a result of:
the nonrecurrence of additional costs in 2013 due to the accelerated vesting of stock options and associated expenses related to certain Pfizer equity awards as a result of the Separation;
savings associated with the closure of two R&D sites; and
favorable foreign exchange,
partially offset by:
higher salary-related expenses.
2013 vs. 2012
R&D expenses decreased $10 million, or 2%, in 2013 compared with 2012, primarily as a result of:
the non-recurrence of depreciation expense incurred in 2012 related to the closing of an R&D facility in the UK; and
lower employee benefit costs due to the termination of the defined benefit pension plan for U.S. employees,
partially offset by:
incremental costs of $7 million related to becoming an independent public company, including expense of $4 million due to the accelerated vesting of certain Pfizer equity awards and associated cash payments, as a result of the Separation; and
an increase in the volume of R&D activities.
Amortization of intangible assets  
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
 
2014

 
2013

 
2012

 
14/13
 
13/12

Amortization of intangible assets
 
$
60

 
$
60

 
$
64

 
 
(6
)
Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.
2014 vs. 2013
Amortization of intangible assets was flat in 2014 compared with 2013.
2013 vs. 2012
Amortization of intangible assets decreased $4 million, or 6%, in 2013 compared with 2012, which reflects the impact of certain intangible assets reaching the end of their respective useful lives.
Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs  
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
 
2014

 
2013

 
2012

 
14/13

 
13/12

Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs(a)
 
$
25

 
$
26

 
$
135

 
(4
)
 
(81
)
Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.
(a) 
Allocation of Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs were $57 million in 2012.
During the year ended December 31, 2014, we recorded restructuring charges of $12 million related to employee severance costs in EuAfME and $6 million related to employee severance costs in our global manufacturing operations, as a result of initiatives to reduce costs and better align our organizational structure. We may incur additional restructuring costs in 2015 as we finalize plans and programs aimed at improving operational and cost efficiencies.
In the fourth quarter of 2012, when we were a business unit of Pfizer, we announced a restructuring plan related to our operations in Europe. In connection with these actions, we recorded a pre-tax charge of $27 million to recognize employee termination costs. As a result of becoming a standalone public company (no longer being a majority-owned subsidiary of Pfizer) and related economic consideration, we revisited this

44 |


restructuring action and decided to no longer implement this restructuring plan. As such, we reversed the existing reserve of $27 million in the second quarter of 2013.
Our acquisition-related costs primarily related to restructuring charges for employees, assets and activities that will not continue in the future, as well as integration costs. The majority of these net restructuring charges are related to termination costs, but we also exited a number of distributor and other contracts and performed certain facility rationalization efforts. Our integration costs are generally comprised of consulting costs related to the integration of systems and processes, as well as product transfer costs.
For additional information regarding restructuring charges and acquisition-related costs, see Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements—Note 6. Restructuring Charges and Other Costs Associated with Acquisitions and Cost-Reduction/Productivity Initiatives.
2014 vs. 2013
Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs decreased by $1 million in 2014 compared with 2013, primarily as a result of:
a decrease in asset impairment charges due to the exiting of one of our manufacturing facilities in 2013; and
a decrease in integration costs related to the KAH and FDAH acquisitions,
partially offset by:
an increase in employee termination costs primarily due to a reversal in 2013 related to a previously established termination reserve that was reversed in the second quarter of 2013 related to our operations in Europe.
2013 vs. 2012
Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs decreased $109 million, or 81%, in 2013 compared with 2012, primarily as a result of:
a $27 million decrease in employee termination costs related to the reversal of a previously established termination reserve related to our operations in Europe;
a decrease in integration and restructuring costs related to the KAH and FDAH acquisitions; and
the non-recurrence of allocated charges from Pfizer,
partially offset by:
asset impairment charges of approximately $17 million related to one of our manufacturing facilities in the United States; and
employee termination costs of $2 million, exit costs of $4 million, and accelerated depreciation of $5 million as a result of exiting certain manufacturing and research facilities.
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
 
2014

 
2013

 
2012

 
14/13
 
13/12
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest
 
$
117

 
$
113

 
$
31

 
4
 
*
* Calculation not meaningful.
Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.
2014 vs. 2013
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest, increased by $4 million, or 4%, in 2014 compared with 2013, primarily related to an additional month of interest expense in 2014 associated with our senior notes which were issued on January 28, 2013. This increase was partially offset by the nonrecurrence of allocated debt and related allocated interest expense from Pfizer. Interest expense related to allocated debt was $2 million for 2013.
2013 vs. 2012
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest, increased by $82 million in 2013 compared with 2012, primarily due to the issuance of our senior notes on January 28, 2013.
Other (income)/deductions—net  
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
 
2014

 
2013

 
2012

 
14/13
 
13/12
Other (income)/deductions—net
 
$
7

 
$
(9
)
 
$
(46
)
 
*
 
*
*    Calculation not meaningful.
Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.
2014 vs. 2013
The change in Other (income)/deductions—net reflects an unfavorable impact of $16 million on income attributable to Zoetis in 2014 compared with 2013, primarily as a result of:

45 |


a charge associated with a commercial settlement and recall in Mexico of $13 million, partially offset by the related insurance recovery of $1 million;
higher foreign currency losses of $8 million, primarily driven by costs related to hedging and exposures to certain emerging market currencies, as well as losses related to the depreciation of the Argentine peso in the first quarter of 2014;
an impairment charge related to IPR&D assets acquired with the FDAH acquisition in 2009, as a result of the termination of the development program due to a re-assessment of economic viability; and
a pension plan settlement charge related to the divestiture of a manufacturing facility,
partially offset by:
an insurance recovery of litigation related charges.
2013 vs. 2012
The change in Other (income)/deductions—net reflects an unfavorable impact of $37 million on income attributable to Zoetis in 2013 compared with 2012, primarily as a result of:
the non-recurrence of income recognized in 2012 from a favorable legal settlement of $14 million and the non-recurrence of a favorable change in estimate for an environmental-related reserve of $7 million in 2012;
foreign currency loss of $9 million related to the Venezuela currency devaluation in February 2013; and
other foreign currency losses primarily related to Argentina,
partially offset by:
a net gain on the government-mandated sale of certain product rights in Brazil that were acquired with the FDAH acquisition in 2009; and
lower asset impairment charges of identifiable intangible assets of approximately $4 million.
Provision for taxes on income
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change