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EX-12 - EXHIBIT 12 - Education Realty Trust, Inc.exhibit12201463010-q.htm

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)
 
 
x
 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2014
or
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from         to         
Commission file number 001-32417
Education Realty Trust, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Maryland
 
20-1352180
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
999 South Shady Grove Road, Suite 600
Memphis, Tennessee
 
38120
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (901) 259-2500
Not Applicable
(Former Name, Former Address and Former Fiscal Year, if Changed Since Last Report)
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x   No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer x
 
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No x

As of August 4, 2014, the Registrant had 139,561,429 shares of common stock outstanding, $0.01 par value per share.



EDUCATION REALTY TRUST, INC.
FORM 10-Q
QUARTER ENDED JUNE 30, 2014
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Page
PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
 
 
 
 
 
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets of Education Realty Trust, Inc. and Subsidiaries as of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013
 
 
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income of Education Realty Trust, Inc. and Subsidiaries for the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013
 
 
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income of Education Realty Trust, Inc. and Subsidiaries for the three months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II — OTHER INFORMATION
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 





Part I - Financial Information

Item 1. Financial Statements.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)
 
June 30, 2014
 
December 31, 2013
Assets:
  

 
  

Collegiate housing properties, net
$
1,307,519

 
$
1,388,885

Collegiate housing properties - held for sale, net
21,166

 

Assets under development
233,441

 
116,787

Corporate office furniture, net
3,302

 
3,249

Cash and cash equivalents
11,162

 
22,073

Restricted cash
14,069

 
12,253

Student contracts receivable, net
782

 
807

Receivable from managed third parties
229

 
361

Notes receivable
18,375

 
18,125

Goodwill and other intangibles, net
3,227

 
3,822

Other assets
52,775

 
44,203

Total assets
$
1,666,047

 
$
1,610,565

 
 
 
 
Liabilities:
  

 
  

Mortgage and construction debt, net of unamortized premium
$
361,173

 
$
422,681

Unsecured revolving credit facility
66,000

 
356,900

Unsecured term loans
187,500

 

Accounts payable
4,512

 
2,289

Accrued expenses
74,054

 
65,357

Deferred revenue
19,963

 
23,498

Total liabilities
713,202

 
870,725

 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies (see Note 6)

 

 
 
 
 
Redeemable noncontrolling interests
9,780

 
9,871

 
 
 
 
Equity:
  

 
  

Common stock, $0.01 par value per share, 200,000,000 shares authorized, 139,437,355 and 114,740,155 shares issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, respectively
1,394

 
1,148

Preferred shares, $0.01 par value, 50,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding

 

Additional paid-in capital
1,027,816

 
813,540

Accumulated deficit
(85,706
)
 
(88,964
)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(3,757
)
 

Total Education Realty Trust, Inc. stockholders’ equity
939,747

 
725,724

Noncontrolling interests
3,318

 
4,245

Total equity
943,065

 
729,969

Total liabilities and equity
$
1,666,047

 
$
1,610,565




See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

1


CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Amounts in thousands, except per share data)
(Unaudited)
 
Six months ended June 30,
 
2014
 
2013
Revenues:
  

 
  

Collegiate housing leasing revenue
$
97,020

 
$
76,788

Third-party development consulting services
1,559

 
1,150

Third-party management services
1,804

 
1,792

Operating expense reimbursements
4,202

 
5,979

Total revenues
104,585

 
85,709

Operating expenses:
  

 
  

Collegiate housing leasing operations
43,143

 
35,531

Development and management services
4,623

 
3,398

General and administrative
4,102

 
4,044

Depreciation and amortization
28,241

 
22,161

Ground lease expense
3,833

 
3,798

Impairment loss on collegiate housing properties
11,780

 

Reimbursable operating expenses
4,202

 
5,979

Total operating expenses
99,924

 
74,911

 
 
 
 
Operating income
4,661

 
10,798

 
 
 
 
Nonoperating expenses:
  

 
  

Interest expense
10,568

 
7,909

Amortization of deferred financing costs
1,017

 
830

Interest income
(111
)
 
(243
)
Loss on extinguishment of debt
649

 

Total nonoperating expenses
12,123

 
8,496

Income (loss) before equity in losses of unconsolidated entities, income taxes, discontinued operations and gain on sale of collegiate housing communities
(7,462
)
 
2,302

Equity in losses of unconsolidated entities
(134
)
 
(41
)
Income (loss) before income taxes, discontinued operations and gain on sale of collegiate housing communities
(7,596
)
 
2,261

Income tax benefit
(312
)
 
(237
)
Income (loss) from continuing operations
(7,284
)
 
2,498

Income from discontinued operations

 
4,669

Income (loss) before gain on sale of collegiate housing communities
(7,284
)
 
7,167

Gain on sale of collegiate housing communities
10,902

 

Net income
3,618

 
7,167

Less: Net income attributable to the noncontrolling interests
360

 
26

Net income attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc.
$
3,258

 
$
7,141

 
 
 
 
Income attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc. common stockholders per share – basic and diluted:
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
0.03

 
$
0.02

Discontinued operations

 
0.04

Net income attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc. common stockholders per share
$
0.03


$
0.06

Distributions per share of common stock
$
0.22

 
$
0.20

 
 
 
 
Weighted average common shares outstanding – basic
115,833

 
114,045

Weighted average common shares outstanding – diluted
116,871

 
115,083

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
2



 
Six months ended June 30,
 
2014
 
2013
Amounts attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc. – common stockholders:
 

 
 

Income from continuing operations, net of noncontrolling interests
$
3,258

 
$
2,512

Income from discontinued operations, net of noncontrolling interests

 
4,629

Net income attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc.
$
3,258

 
$
7,141

 
 
 
 
Comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
Net income
$
3,618

 
$
7,167

Other comprehensive loss:
 
 
 
Loss on cash flow hedging derivatives
(3,757
)
 

Comprehensive income (loss)
(139
)
 
7,167

Less: comprehensive income attributable to the noncontrolling interests
360

 
26

Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc.
$
(499
)
 
$
7,141



See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
3



CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Amounts in thousands, except per share data)
(Unaudited)
 
Three months ended June 30,
 
2014
 
2013
Revenues:
  

 
  

Collegiate housing leasing revenue
$
46,309

 
$
37,335

Third-party development consulting services
757

 
759

Third-party management services
786

 
823

Operating expense reimbursements
2,188

 
2,121

Total revenues
50,040

 
41,038

Operating expenses:
  

 
  

Collegiate housing leasing operations
20,975

 
17,812

Development and management services
2,282

 
1,627

General and administrative
1,984

 
2,021

Depreciation and amortization
14,458

 
11,562

Ground lease expense
1,934

 
2,210

Impairment loss on collegiate housing properties
9,870

 

Reimbursable operating expenses
2,188

 
2,121

Total operating expenses
53,691

 
37,353

 
 
 
 
Operating income (loss)
(3,651
)
 
3,685

 
 
 
 
Nonoperating expenses:
  

 
  

Interest expense
4,967

 
3,855

Amortization of deferred financing costs
514

 
410

Interest income
(41
)
 
(124
)
Total nonoperating expenses
5,440

 
4,141

Loss before equity in losses of unconsolidated entities, income taxes and discontinued operations
(9,091
)
 
(456
)
Equity in losses of unconsolidated entities
(112
)
 
(22
)
Loss before income taxes and discontinued operations
(9,203
)
 
(478
)
Income tax benefit
(357
)
 

Loss from continuing operations
(8,846
)
 
(478
)
Income from discontinued operations

 
4,168

Net income (loss)
(8,846
)
 
3,690

Less: Net loss attributable to the noncontrolling interests
(38
)
 
(142
)
Net income (loss) attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc.
$
(8,808
)
 
$
3,832

 
 
 
 
Income (loss) attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc. common stockholders per share – basic and diluted:
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
(0.08
)
 
$

Discontinued operations

 
0.04

Net income (loss) attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc. common stockholders per share
$
(0.08
)

$
0.04

Distributions per share of common stock
$
0.11

 
$
0.10

 
 
 
 
Weighted average common shares outstanding – basic
116,657

 
114,452

Weighted average common shares outstanding – diluted
116,657

 
114,452

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
4



 
Three months ended June 30,
 
2014
 
2013
Amounts attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc. – common stockholders:
 

 
 

Loss from continuing operations, net of noncontrolling interests
$
(8,808
)
 
$
(298
)
Income from discontinued operations, net of noncontrolling interests

 
4,130

Net income (loss) attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc.
$
(8,808
)
 
$
3,832

 
 
 
 
Comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
$
(8,846
)
 
$
3,690

Other comprehensive loss:
 
 
 
Loss on cash flow hedging derivatives
(2,394
)
 

Comprehensive income (loss)
(11,240
)
 
3,690

Less: comprehensive loss attributable to the noncontrolling interests
(38
)
 
(142
)
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc.
$
(11,202
)
 
$
3,832


See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
5




CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY
(Amounts in thousands, except shares)
(Unaudited)

 
Common Stock
 
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
 
Accumulated
Deficit
 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
 
Noncontrolling
Interests
 
Total
  
Shares
 
Amount
 
Balance, December 31, 2012
113,062,452

 
$
1,131

 
$
849,878

 
$
(93,287
)
 
$

 
$
5,088

 
$
762,810

Common stock issued to officers and directors
33,180

 

 
360

 

 

 

 
360

Proceeds from issuances of common stock, net of offering costs
1,558,750

 
17

 
16,620

 

 

 

 
16,637

Amortization of restricted stock
16,830

 

 
544

 

 

 

 
544

Cash dividends

 

 
(22,751
)
 

 

 

 
(22,751
)
Return of equity to noncontrolling interests

 

 

 

 

 
(484
)
 
(484
)
Contributions from noncontrolling interests

 

 

 

 

 
779

 
779

Comprehensive income (loss)

 

 

 
7,141

 

 
(46
)
 
7,095

Balance, June 30, 2013
114,671,212

 
$
1,148

 
$
844,651

 
$
(86,146
)
 
$

 
$
5,337

 
$
764,990

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance, December 31, 2013
114,740,155

 
$
1,148

 
$
813,540

 
$
(88,964
)
 
$

 
$
4,245

 
$
729,969

Common stock issued to officers and directors
40,152

 

 
420

 

 

 

 
420

Proceeds from issuances of common stock, net of offering costs
24,501,730

 
245

 
239,223

 

 

 

 
239,468

Amortization of restricted stock
155,318

 
1

 
88

 

 

 

 
89

Cash dividends

 

 
(25,304
)
 

 

 

 
(25,304
)
Return of equity to noncontrolling interests

 

 

 

 

 
(525
)
 
(525
)
Purchase of noncontrolling interests

 

 
(151
)
 

 

 
(607
)
 
(758
)
Comprehensive income (loss)

 

 

 
3,258

 
(3,757
)
 
205

 
(294
)
Balance, June 30, 2014
139,437,355

 
$
1,394

 
$
1,027,816

 
$
(85,706
)
 
$
(3,757
)
 
$
3,318

 
$
943,065



See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
6




CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Amounts in thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
Six months ended June 30,
 
2014
 
2013
Operating activities:
  

 
  

Net income
$
3,618

 
$
7,167

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
 

 
 

Depreciation and amortization
28,241

 
22,161

Depreciation included in discontinued operations

 
1,086

Loss on disposal of assets
54

 
12

Gain on sale of collegiate housing communities
(10,902
)
 
(3,895
)
Noncash rent expense related to the straight-line adjustment for long-term ground leases
2,425

 
2,807

Impairment loss of collegiate housing properties
11,780

 

Loss on extinguishment of debt
649

 

Amortization of deferred financing costs
1,017

 
830

Amortization of unamortized debt premiums
(392
)
 
(385
)
Distributions of earnings from unconsolidated entities
23

 
48

Noncash compensation expense related to stock-based incentive awards
1,046

 
1,116

Equity in losses of unconsolidated entities
134

 
41

Change in operating assets and liabilities (net of acquisitions)
(1,033
)
 
6,433

Net cash provided by operating activities
36,660

 
37,421

 
 
 
 
Investing activities:
  

 
  

Purchase of corporate furniture and fixtures
(436
)
 
(480
)
Restricted cash
(1,816
)
 
(1,670
)
Insurance proceeds received on property losses
2,092

 
11,678

Investment in collegiate housing properties
(9,438
)
 
(7,372
)
Proceeds from sale of collegiate housing properties
40,007

 
20,213

Notes receivable
(250
)
 

Earnest money deposits
(250
)
 
(375
)
Investment in assets under development
(117,120
)
 
(120,752
)
Investments in unconsolidated entities
(6,077
)
 
(4,315
)
Net cash used in investing activities
(93,288
)
 
(103,073
)
 
 
 
 
Financing activities:
 
 
 
Payment of mortgage and construction notes
(69,930
)
 
(2,325
)
Borrowings under mortgage and construction loans
8,813

 
40,060

Debt issuance costs
(1,658
)
 
(2,344
)
Borrowings under unsecured term loan facility
187,500

 

Debt extinguishment costs
(356
)
 

Borrowings on line of credit
169,000

 
49,633

Repayments of line of credit
(459,900
)
 
(18,133
)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock
239,921

 
16,756

Payment of offering costs
(53
)
 
(128
)
Purchase and return of equity to noncontrolling interests
(1,301
)
 
(484
)
Contributions from noncontrolling interests

 
779

Dividends and distributions paid to common and restricted stockholders
(25,304
)
 
(22,751
)
Dividends and distributions paid to noncontrolling interests
(246
)
 
(200
)
Purchase of stock awards to satisfy tax withholdings
(769
)
 
(1,286
)
Net cash provided by financing activities
45,717

 
59,577

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents
(10,911
)
 
(6,075
)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period
22,073

 
17,039

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period
$
11,162

 
$
10,964

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
7



 
Six months ended June 30,
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
 
 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:
 
 
 
Interest paid
$
13,557

 
$
11,092

Income taxes paid
$
46

 
$
306

 
 
 
 
Supplemental disclosure of noncash activities:
 
 
 
Stock-based compensation
$
1,046

 
$
1,116

Capital expenditures in accounts payable and accrued expenses related to developments
$
14,959

 
$
14,645

Change in fair value of derivative instruments
$
3,757

 
$



See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
8



NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)

1. Organization and description of business

Education Realty Trust, Inc. (the “Trust”) operates primarily through a majority-owned Delaware limited partnership, Education Realty Operating Partnership, LP (the “Operating Partnership”). The Operating Partnership owns, directly or indirectly, interests in collegiate housing communities located near major universities in the United States.

The Trust also provides real estate facility management, development and other advisory services through the following subsidiaries of the Operating Partnership:

EDR Management Inc. (“Management Company”), a Delaware corporation performing collegiate housing management activities; and
EDR Development LLC (“Development Company”), a Delaware limited liability company providing development consulting services for third-party collegiate housing communities.

2. Summary of significant accounting policies

Basis of presentation and principles of consolidation

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the accrual basis of accounting in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements of the Trust represent the assets and liabilities and operating results of the Trust and subsidiaries in which the Trust owns a controlling financial interest. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.

Interim financial information

The accompanying unaudited interim financial statements include all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments that, in the opinion of management, are necessary for a fair presentation of the Trust's financial position, results of operations and cash flows for such periods. Because of the seasonal nature of the business, the operating results and cash flows are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for any other interim periods or for the full fiscal year. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Trust's consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Trust's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") on March 3, 2014, and subsequently amended on April 11, 2014.

Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Cash and cash equivalents

All highly-liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased are considered cash equivalents. Restricted cash is excluded from cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of preparing the condensed consolidated balance sheets and statements of cash flows. The Trust maintains cash balances in various banks. At times, the amounts of cash may exceed the amount the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insures. As of June 30, 2014, the Trust had $8.8 million of cash on deposit that was uninsured by the FDIC or in excess of the FDIC limits.

Restricted cash

Restricted cash includes escrow accounts held by lenders for the purpose of paying taxes, insurance, principal and interest and funding capital improvements.


9


Notes receivable

On August 26, 2013, the Trust provided a $0.5 million promissory loan to College Park Apartments, Inc. ("CPA"), the Trust's partner in the unconsolidated joint venture University Village-Greensboro LLC (see Note 3), at an interest rate of 10% per annum and a maturity date of August 1, 2020. Under the loan, CPA can make one draw per calendar quarter and has borrowed $0.4 million as of June 30, 2014. The loan is secured by CPA's interest in the joint venture.

On July 14, 2010, the Trust entered into definitive agreements for the development, financing and management of a $60.7 million, 20-story, 572-bed graduate collegiate housing complex at the Science + Technology Park at Johns Hopkins Medical Institute. The Trust developed and manages the building, which was constructed on land owned by Johns Hopkins University and leased to a subsidiary of East Baltimore Development, Inc., a nonprofit partnership of private and public entities dedicated to Baltimore’s urban revitalization. Under terms of the agreements, the Trust (a) received development and construction oversight fees and reimbursement of predevelopment expenses, (b) invested in the form of an $18.0 million second mortgage, (c) will earn a $3.0 million fee for providing a repayment guarantee of the construction first mortgage and (d) received a 10-year management contract. The construction loan has an initial maturity date of September 16, 2014. with the ability to extend the maturity date to September 16, 2015, provided certain conditions for extension are met. The second mortgage has a maturity date of July 31, 2040. As of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, the note receivable for the second mortgage had a balance of $18.0 million and is recorded in notes receivable in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. The Trust does not have an ownership interest in any form that would require consolidation. Due to its financing commitments to the project along with other factors, the Trust will not recognize the development services revenue, guarantee fee revenue and interest income earned on the second mortgage until the second mortgage is repaid, and the Trust no longer has a substantial continuing financial involvement. If the construction loan and second mortgage had been repaid prior to June 30, 2014, the Trust would have recognized development services revenue net of costs of $2.6 million (including participation in cost savings of $0.8 million), guarantee fee revenue of $3.0 million and interest income of $6.5 million since the commencement of the project. On July 1, 2014, the third-party owners of the collegiate housing property referred to as 929 at Johns Hopkins University successfully closed on permanent financing for the community. The proceeds from the refinancing were used to repay in full their construction loan, as well as the $18.0 million second mortgage the Trust made to the project. At the time of the refinancing, the Trust also earned and was paid its $3.0 million fee for guaranteeing the construction loan, and recognized all deferred development services revenue and interest income.

Collegiate housing properties

Land, land improvements, buildings and improvements, and furniture, fixtures and equipment are recorded at cost. Buildings and improvements are depreciated over 15 to 40 years, land improvements are depreciated over 15 years and furniture, fixtures, and equipment are depreciated over 3 to 7 years. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method for financial reporting purposes over the estimated useful life.

Acquired collegiate housing communities’ results of operations are included in the Trust’s results of operations from the respective dates of acquisition. Appraisals, estimates of cash flows and other valuation techniques are used to allocate the purchase price of acquired property between land, land improvements, buildings and improvements, furniture, fixtures and equipment and identifiable intangibles such as amounts related to in-place leases. Acquisition costs are expensed as incurred and are included in general and administrative expense in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income.

Management assesses impairment of long-lived assets to be held and used whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Management uses an estimate of future undiscounted cash flows of the related asset based on its intended use to determine whether the carrying value is recoverable. If the Trust determines that the carrying value of an asset is not recoverable, the fair value of the asset is estimated and an impairment loss is recorded to the extent the carrying value exceeds estimated fair value. Management estimates fair value using discounted cash flow models, market appraisals if available, and other market participant data. During the six months ended June 30, 2014, the Trust recorded an $11.8 million loss on impairment of collegiate housing properties. The impairment loss recorded during the six months ended June 30, 2014 was related to an impairment recognized in the first quarter of 2014 prior to the sale of the property during the period and for two additional properties identified in the second quarter that were determined to be impaired due to a change in circumstances that indicated the carrying value may not be recoverable.

When a collegiate housing community meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale, the fair value less cost to sell such asset is estimated. If the fair value less cost to sell the asset is less than the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment charge is recorded for the estimated loss. Depreciation expense is no longer recorded once a collegiate housing community has met the held for sale criteria. Operations of collegiate housing communities that were sold or classified as held for sale were recorded as

10


part of discontinued operations prior to January 1, 2014. During the six months ended June 30, 2013, five properties were classified as discontinued operations in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income. All five of these properties were sold by December 31, 2013 (see Note 8). Effective January 1, 2014, the Trust adopted the new guidance related to the presentation of discontinued operations. Prospectively, only dispositions that represent a strategic shift in the Trust's business will qualify for treatment as discontinued operations. The two property dispositions during the six months ended June 30, 2014 did not qualify for treatment as discontinued operations, and as a result, the operations of the properties are included in continuing operations in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income. As of June 30, 2014, two additional properties met the held for sale criteria, and they are classified as collegiate housing properties - held for sale, net in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet. These properties did not meet the criteria for treatment as discontinued operations under the new guidance. These properties were sold in July 2014 (see Note 12).

Common stock issuances and offering costs

Specific incremental costs directly attributable to the issuance of common stock are charged against the gross proceeds of the related issuance. Accordingly, underwriting commissions and other stock issuance costs are reflected as a reduction of additional paid-in capital in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of changes in equity.

On June 24, 2014, the Trust completed a follow-on equity offering of 24.5 million shares of its common stock, which included 3.2 million shares purchased by the underwriters pursuant to an option to purchase additional shares. The Trust received approximately $239.4 million in net proceeds from the offering after deducting the underwriting discount and other offering expenses. The Trust used the net proceeds to repay the unsecured revolving credit facility (see Note 4).

On May 22, 2012, the Trust entered into two equity distribution agreements pursuant to which the Trust may issue and sell shares of its common stock having an aggregate offering amount of $50 million. As of December 31, 2013, the Trust had sold 1.6 million shares of common stock under the distribution agreements for net proceeds of approximately $17.8 million. The Trust used the net proceeds to repay debt, fund its development pipeline, fund acquisitions and for general corporate purposes. The Trust did not sell any shares under the distribution agreements during the six months ended June 30, 2014.

On May 19, 2010, the Trust’s stockholders approved the Education Realty Trust, Inc. Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”), which became effective on July 1, 2010. Pursuant to the ESPP, all employees of the Trust are eligible to make periodic purchases of common stock through payroll deductions. Subject to the discretion of the compensation committee of the Board, the purchase price per share of common stock purchased by employees under the ESPP is 85% of the fair market value on the applicable purchase date. The Trust reserved 300,000 shares of common stock for sale under the ESPP. The aggregate cost of the ESPP (generally the 15% discount on the shares purchased) is recorded by the Trust as a period expense. For the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, total compensation expense relating to the ESPP was $18.8 thousand and $7.6 thousand, respectively, which is recorded in general and administrative expense in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income.

Debt premiums/discounts

Differences between the estimated fair value of debt and the principal value of debt assumed in connection with collegiate housing property acquisitions are amortized over the term of the related debt as either an offset or increase to interest expense using the effective interest method. As of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, the Trust had net unamortized debt premiums of $1.9 million and $2.3 million, respectively. These amounts are included in mortgage and construction loans in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets.

Income taxes

The Trust qualifies as a REIT under the Code. The Trust is generally not subject to federal, state and local income taxes on any of its taxable income that it distributes if it distributes at least 90% of its REIT taxable income for each tax year to its stockholders and meets certain other requirements. If the Trust fails to qualify as a REIT for any taxable year, the Trust will be subject to federal, state and local income taxes (including any applicable alternative minimum tax) on its taxable income.

The Trust has elected to treat certain of its subsidiaries, including the Management Company, as taxable REIT subsidiaries (each a “TRS”). A TRS is subject to federal, state and local income taxes. The Management Company provides management services and through the Development Company, provides development services, which if directly provided by the Trust would jeopardize the Trust’s REIT status. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized based on the difference between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis. Deferred tax assets and

11


liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to reverse.

The Trust had no unrecognized tax benefits as of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013. As of June 30, 2014, the Trust did not record any unrecognized tax benefits. The Trust, and its subsidiaries, file federal and state income tax returns. As of June 30, 2014, open tax years generally included tax years for 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. The Trust’s policy is to include interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in general and administrative expenses. As of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, the Trust had no interest or penalties recorded related to unrecognized tax benefits.

Noncontrolling interests

As of June 30, 2014, the Trust had entered into four joint venture agreements to develop, own and manage properties near Arizona State University - Downtown Phoenix (Roosevelt Point), The University of Mississippi (The Retreat at Oxford), Duke University (605 West) and The University of Louisville (The Retreat at Louisville). The Trust is deemed to be the primary beneficiary of these communities; therefore, the Trust accounts for the joint ventures using the consolidation method of accounting. Our joint venture partners' investments in 605 West met the requirements to be classified outside of permanent equity, and is therefore classified as redeemable noncontrolling interests in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets and net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income due to the partner's ability to put their ownership interests to the Trust as stipulated in the operating agreements. Our joint venture partners’ investments in the Arizona State University - Downtown Phoenix joint venture, The University of Mississippi joint venture and The University of Louisville joint venture are accounted for as noncontrolling interests in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets and statements of changes in equity, and net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income. On April 15, 2014, the Trust purchased a portion of our joint venture partner's interest in Roosevelt Point for $0.8 million (see Note 7). As a result of this purchase, the Trust now holds a 95% ownership in the Roosevelt Point collegiate housing community. On September 10, 2013, the Trust purchased our joint venture partner's 10% interest in the collegiate housing community referred to as East Edge located near the University of Alabama for $6.9 million (see Note 7).

The units of limited partnership interest of the Operating Partnership (“Operating Partnership Units”) and units of limited partnership interest of University Towers Operating Partnership, LP (“University Towers Operating Partnership Units”) are also referred to as noncontrolling interests. The Trust follows the guidance issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) regarding the classification and measurement of redeemable securities. The Operating Partnership Units and the University Towers Operating Partnership Units are redeemable at the option of the holder and essentially have the same characteristics as common stock as they participate in net income and distributions. Accordingly, the Trust has determined that the Operating Partnership Units and the University Towers Operating Partnership Units meet the requirements to be classified outside of permanent equity, and are therefore classified as redeemable noncontrolling interests in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. Income related to such units are recorded as net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
 
The following table sets forth the activity with the redeemable noncontrolling interests for the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013 (in thousands):
 
2014
 
2013
Beginning balance – redeemable noncontrolling interests
$
9,871

 
$
8,944

Net income attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interests
155

 
72

Distributions attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interests
(246
)
 
(200
)
Ending balance – redeemable noncontrolling interests
$
9,780

 
$
8,816


The value of redeemable noncontrolling interests is reported at the greater of fair value or historical cost at the end of each reporting period. As of June 30, 2014, the Trust reported the redeemable noncontrolling interests at historical cost, which was greater than fair value.

Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing net earnings available to common stock by weighted average shares of common stock outstanding. Diluted earnings per share is calculated similarly, except that it includes the dilutive effect of the assumed exercise of potentially dilutive securities. The Trust follows the authoritative guidance regarding the determination of whether certain instruments are participating securities. All unvested share-based awards that contain nonforfeitable rights to

12


dividends or dividend equivalents are included in the computation of earnings per share under the two-class method. This results in shares of unvested restricted stock being included in the computation of basic earnings per share for all periods presented.

The following table reconciles the basic and diluted weighted average shares for the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013:
 
2014
 
2013
Basic weighted average shares of common stock outstanding
115,832,938

 
114,044,969

Operating Partnership Units
830,343

 
830,342

University Towers Operating Partnership Units
207,257

 
207,257

Diluted weighted average shares of common stock outstanding
116,870,538

 
115,082,568


As of June 30, 2014 and 2013, and for the three months then ended, the following potentially dilutive securities were outstanding, but were not included in the computation of diluted earnings per share because the effects of their inclusion would be anti-dilutive:
 
2014
 
2013
Operating Partnership Units
830,343

 
830,342

University Towers Operating Partnership Units
207,257

 
207,257

Total potentially dilutive securities
1,037,600

 
1,037,599


A reconciliation of the numerators and denominators for the basic and diluted earnings per share computation is not presented, as the Trust reported a loss from continuing operations for the three months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, and therefore the effect of the inclusion of all potentially dilutive securities would be anti-dilutive when computing diluted earnings per share; thus, the computation for both basic and diluted earnings per share is the same.

Goodwill and other intangible assets

Goodwill is tested annually for impairment as of December 31, and is tested for impairment more frequently if events and circumstances indicate that the assets might be impaired. An impairment loss is recognized to the extent that the carrying amount exceeds the asset’s fair value. The accumulated impairment loss recorded by the Trust as of December 31, 2008 was $0.4 million. No additional impairment has been recorded through June 30, 2014. The carrying value of goodwill was $3.1 million as of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, of which $2.1 million was recorded related to the management services segment and $0.9 million was recorded related to the development consulting services segment. Goodwill is not subject to amortization. Other intangible assets generally include in-place leases acquired in connection with acquisitions and are amortized over the estimated life of the lease/contract term. The carrying value of other intangible assets was $0.2 million and $0.8 million as of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, respectively.

Investment in unconsolidated entities

The Trust accounts for its investments in unconsolidated joint ventures using the equity method whereby the carrying value of an investment is adjusted for the Trust’s share of earnings of the respective investment reduced by distributions received. The earnings and distributions of the unconsolidated joint ventures are allocated based on each owner’s respective ownership interests. These investments are classified as other assets or accrued expenses, depending on whether the distributions exceed the Trust’s contributions and share of earnings in the joint ventures, in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets (see Note 3).

Comprehensive income

The Trust follows the authoritative guidance issued by the FASB relating to the reporting and display of comprehensive income and its components. For all periods presented, comprehensive income includes net income and other comprehensive loss related to the change in fair value of the interest rate swaps (see Note 10).

Stock-based compensation

On May 4, 2011, the Trust’s stockholders approved the Education Realty Trust, Inc. 2011 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan (the “2011 Plan”). The 2011 Plan replaced the Education Realty Trust, Inc. 2004 Incentive Plan (“2004 Plan”) in its entirety. The

13


2011 Plan is described more fully in Note 9. The Trust recognizes compensation costs related to share-based payments in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with authoritative guidance.

Derivative instruments and hedging activities

The Trust records all derivative financial instruments on the balance sheet at fair value. Changes in fair value are recognized either in earnings or as other comprehensive income (loss), depending on whether the derivative has been designated as a fair value or cash flow hedge and whether it qualifies as part of a hedging relationship, the nature of the exposure being hedged, and how effective the derivative is at offsetting movements in underlying exposure. The Trust discontinues hedge accounting when it determines that the derivative is no longer effective in offsetting changes in the fair value or cash flows of a hedged item; the derivative expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised; it is no longer probable that the forecasted transaction will occur; or management determines that designating the derivative as a hedging instrument is no longer appropriate. In all situations in which hedge accounting is discontinued and the derivative remains outstanding, the Trust will carry the derivative at its fair value on the balance sheet, recognizing changes in the fair value in current-period earnings. The Trust uses interest rate swaps to effectively convert a portion of its variable rate debt to fixed rate, thus reducing the impact of changes in interest rates on interest payments (see Note 10). These instruments are designated as cash flow hedges and the interest differential to be paid or received is recorded as interest expense.

Recent accounting pronouncements

In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)" ("ASU 2014-09"). The guidance outlines a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including the guidance on real estate derecognition for most transactions. ASU 2014-09 provides that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods and services. ASU 2014-09 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those years and permits the use of either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. The Trust is currently evaluating the provisions of this guidance.

In April 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-08, "Presentation of Financial Statements (Topic 205) and Property, Plant and Equipment (Topic 360) - Reporting Discontinued Operations and Disclosures of Disposals of Components of an Entity" ("ASU 2014-08"). ASU 2014-08 changes the threshold for disclosing discontinued operations and the related disclosure requirements. Pursuant to ASU 2014-08, only disposals representing a strategic shift, such as a major line of business, a major geographical area or a major equity investment, should be presented as a discontinued operation. The guidance is to be applied prospectively to new disposals and new classifications of disposal groups as held for sale after the effective date. ASU 2014-08 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after December 15, 2014 with early adoption permitted. The Trust adopted ASU 2014-08 as of January 1, 2014.

In February 2013, the FASB issued ASU 2013-04, "Liabilities (Topic 405)" ("ASU 2013-04"), which updated the guidance related to Liabilities to provide guidance for the recognition, measurement and disclosure of obligations resulting from joint and several liability arrangements for which the total amount of the obligation within the scope of this guidance is fixed at the reporting date. ASU 2013-04 requires the entity to measure these obligations as the sum of the amount the reporting entity agreed to pay on the basis of its arrangement among its co-obligors and any additional amount the reporting entity expects to pay on behalf of its co-obligors. The updated guidance also requires an entity to disclose the nature and amount of the obligation as well as other information. The guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2013. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Trust's condensed consolidated financial statements.

3. Investments in unconsolidated entities

During the six months ended June 30, 2014, the Trust had investments in the following unconsolidated joint ventures that are accounted for under the equity method:

1313 5th Street MN Holdings, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, 50% owned by the Operating Partnership;
West Clayton Athens GA Owner, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, 50% owned by the Operating Partnership;
Elauwit Networks, a South Carolina limited liability company, 10% owned by the Operating Partnership; and
University Village-Greensboro LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, 25% owned by the Operating Partnership.


14


During the six months ended June 30, 2013, the Trust had investments in the following unconsolidated joint ventures that are accounted for under the equity method:

1313 5th Street MN Holdings, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, 50% owned by the Operating Partnership;
Joint investment in land, 50% owned by the Operating Partnership;
Elauwit Networks, a South Carolina limited liability company, 10% owned by the Operating Partnership; and
University Village-Greensboro LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, 25% owned by the Operating Partnership.

The Trust participates in major operating decisions of, but does not control, these entities; therefore, the equity method is used to account for these investments.

The following is a summary of financial information for the Trust’s unconsolidated joint ventures for the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013 (in thousands):
 
2014
 
2013
Revenues
$
12,081

 
$
1,868

Net loss
(1,180
)
 
(165
)
Trust's equity in losses of unconsolidated entities
(134
)
 
(41
)

As of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, the Trust had $26.9 million and $21.2 million, respectively, of investments in unconsolidated entities classified in other assets in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. As of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, the Trust had $1.6 million and $1.7 million, respectively, in liabilities related to investments in unconsolidated entities where distributions exceeded contributions and equity in earnings and the Trust has historically provided financial support; therefore, these investments are classified in accrued expenses in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets.

4. Debt

Revolving credit facility

On January 14, 2013, the Operating Partnership entered into a Fourth Amended and Restated Credit Agreement and, on October 24, 2013, entered into the First Amendment to the agreement which increased the maximum facility from $375.0 million to $500.0 million (as amended, the "Fourth Amended Revolver"). The Fourth Amended Revolver also has an accordion feature to $700.0 million, which may be exercised during the first four years subject to satisfaction of certain conditions. The initial maturity date of the Fourth Amended Revolver is January 14, 2018, and the Operating Partnership may extend the maturity date for one year subject to certain conditions.

Availability under the Fourth Amended Revolver is limited to a “borrowing base availability” equal to the lesser of (i) 60% of the property asset value (as defined in the agreement) and (ii) the loan amount, which would produce a debt service coverage ratio of no less than 1.40. As of June 30, 2014, the borrowing base availability was $354.9 million, and the Operating Partnership had $66.0 million outstanding under the Fourth Amended Revolver; thus, the remaining borrowing base availability was $288.9 million.

The Trust serves as the guarantor for any funds borrowed by the Operating Partnership under the Fourth Amended Revolver. The interest rate per annum applicable to the Fourth Amended Revolver is, at the Operating Partnership’s option, equal to a base rate or the London InterBank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) plus an applicable margin based upon our leverage. As of June 30, 2014, the interest rate applicable to the Fourth Amended Revolver was 1.56%. If amounts are outstanding, due to the fact that the Fourth Amended Revolver bears interest at variable rates, cost approximates the fair value.

The Fourth Amended Revolver contains customary affirmative and negative covenants and contains financial covenants that, among other things, require the Trust and its subsidiaries to maintain certain minimum ratios of EBITDA (earnings before payment or charges of interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization or extraordinary items) as compared to interest expense and total fixed charges. The financial covenants also include consolidated net worth and leverage ratio tests, and the Trust is prohibited from making distributions in excess of 95% of funds from operations except to comply with the legal requirements to maintain its status as a REIT. As of June 30, 2014, the Trust was in compliance with all covenants of the Fourth Amended Revolver.



15


Unsecured term loan facility

On January 13, 2014, the Operating Partnership and certain of its subsidiaries (together with the Operating Partnership, the “Borrowers”), each of which is an indirectly owned subsidiary of the Trust, entered into a credit agreement (the "Credit Agreement"), which provides for unsecured term loans in the initial aggregate principal amount of $187.5 million, consisting of a $122.5 million Tranche A term loan with a seven-year maturity (the “Tranche A Term Loan”) and a $65.0 million Tranche B term loan with a five-year maturity (the “Tranche B Term Loan” and, together with the Tranche A Term Loan, the “Term Loans”). The Tranche B Term Loan matures on January 13, 2021 and the Tranche A Term Loan matures on January 13, 2019. The Credit Agreement contains an accordion feature pursuant to which the Borrowers may request that the total aggregate amount of the Term Loans be increased to $250.0 million, which may be allocated to Tranche A or Tranche B, subject to certain conditions, including obtaining commitments from any one or more lenders to provide such additional commitments. The Trust used proceeds from the Term Loan to repay a portion of the outstanding balance under the Fourth Amended Revolver.

The interest rate per annum on the Tranche A Term Loan is, at the Borrowers’ option, equal to a base rate or LIBOR plus an applicable margin ranging from 155 to 225 basis points. The interest rate per annum on the Tranche B Term Loan is, at the Borrowers’ option, equal to a base rate or LIBOR plus an applicable margin ranging from 120 to 190 basis points. The applicable margin for the Term Loans is based on leverage.

The Credit Agreement contains customary affirmative and restrictive covenants substantially similar to those contained in the Trust’s Fourth Amended Revolver. The Trust serves as the guarantor for any funds borrowed by the Borrowers under the Credit Agreement. As of June 30, 2014, the Trust was in compliance with all covenants of the Credit Agreement.

In connection with entering into the Credit Agreement, the Trust entered into multiple interest rate swaps with notional amounts totaling $187.5 million to hedge the interest payments on the LIBOR-based Term Loans (see Note 10). As of June 30, 2014, the effective interest rate on the Tranche A Term Loan was 3.95% (weighted average swap rate of 2.30% plus the current margin of 1.65%) and the effective interest rate on the Tranche B Term Loan was 2.96% (weighted average swap rate of 1.66% plus the current margin of 1.30%).

Mortgage and construction debt

Master Secured Credit Facility

The Trust has a credit facility with Fannie Mae (the "Master Secured Credit Facility") that was entered into on December 31, 2008 and expanded on December 2, 2009. All notes under the Master Secured Credit Facility contain cross-default provisions, and all properties securing the notes are cross-collateralized. The Trust was in compliance with all financial covenants, including consolidated net worth and liquidity tests, contained in the Master Secured Credit Facility as of June 30, 2014. As of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, the Trust had $168.3 million and $169.7 million, respectively, of mortgage loans outstanding under the Master Secured Credit Facility bearing interest at a weighted average fixed interest rate of 5.87%.

Mortgage debt

As of June 30, 2014, the Trust had outstanding mortgage indebtedness of $90.8 million (excluding an unamortized debt premium of $1.9 million). Of the total mortgage debt outstanding at June 30, 2014, $56.8 million relates to mortgage debt bearing interest at fixed rates ranging from 4.2% to 5.6% and $34.0 million relates to mortgage debt bearing interest at variable rates at a weighted average interest rate of 2.29%. The mortgage debt outstanding is secured by underlying collegiate housing properties.

During the six months ended June 30, 2014, the Trust repaid in full variable rate mortgage debt of $35.7 million that was assumed in connection with the 2011 acquisition of the GrandMarc at Westberry Place collegiate housing community located at Texas Christian University. The interest rate was equal to a base rate plus a 4.85% margin, and the loan was scheduled to mature on January 1, 2020. In connection with this repayment, the Trust recognized a $0.6 million loss on extinguishment of debt.

Construction loans

As of June 30, 2014, the Trust had construction loans outstanding of $67.8 million related to the following collegiate housing developments: The Oaks on the Square (Phase III) serving the University of Connecticut, The Retreat serving the University of Mississippi, and Roosevelt Point serving Arizona State University - Downtown Phoenix Campus. Interest on these construction loans is at variable rates at a weighted average interest rate of 2.21%.

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During the six months ended June 30, 2014, the Trust repaid in full variable rate construction debt with an outstanding principal balance of $32.3 million that was assumed in connection with the development of The Oaks on the Square (Phase I and II). The effective interest rate was equal to 2.41% and was paid on a monthly basis. The loan was scheduled to mature on October 30, 2015.

In connection with the acquisition of The Varsity serving the University of Michigan during the year ended December 31, 2013, the Trust assumed a construction loan in the amount of $32.4 million. The interest rate per year applicable to the loan is equal to LIBOR plus a 2.25% margin and is interest only through August 1, 2015. As of June 30, 2014, the interest rate applicable to the loan was 2.40%. On August 1, 2015, if certain conditions for extension are met, the Trust has the the option to extend the loan until August 1, 2017. During the extension period, if applicable, principal and interest are to be repaid on a monthly basis.

The scheduled maturities of outstanding mortgage and construction indebtedness as of June 30, 2014 are as follows (in thousands):
Fiscal Year Ending December 31,
2014 (6 months ending December 31, 2014)
$
11,285

2015
104,086

2016
124,667

2017
46,344

2018
1,629

Thereafter
71,262

Total
359,273

Debt premium
1,900

Outstanding as of June 30, 2014, net of debt premium
$
361,173


As of June 30, 2014, the outstanding mortgage and construction debt had a weighted average interest rate of 4.37% and carried a weighted average term of 2.21 years.

5. Segments

The Trust defines business segments by their distinct customer base and service provided. The Trust has identified three reportable segments: collegiate housing leasing, development consulting services and management services. Management evaluates each segment’s performance based on net operating income, which is defined as income before depreciation, amortization, ground leases, impairment losses, interest expense (income), gains (losses) on extinguishment of debt, gains (losses) on sale of collegiate housing properties, income taxes, equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated entities, noncontrolling interests and discontinued operations. The accounting policies of the reportable segments are the same as those described in the summary of significant accounting policies. Intercompany fees are reflected at the contractually stipulated amounts. The following tables represent the Trust’s segment information for the three and six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013 (amounts in thousands):

17


 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
2014

2013
 
Collegiate Housing Leasing:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Collegiate housing leasing revenue
$
46,309

 
$
37,335

 
$
97,020

 
$
76,788

 
 
Collegiate housing leasing operating expenses
20,975

 
17,812

 
43,143

 
35,531

 
 
Net operating income
$
25,334

 
$
19,523

 
$
53,877

 
$
41,257

 
 
Total segment assets at end of period (1)
$
1,593,035

 
$
1,329,134

 
$
1,593,035

 
$
1,329,134

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Development Consulting Services:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third-party development consulting services revenue
$
757

 
$
759

 
$
1,559

 
$
1,150

 
 
General and administrative expenses
620

 
449

 
1,229

 
859

 
 
Net operating income
$
137

 
$
310

 
$
330

 
$
291

 
 
Total segment assets at end of period
$
4,958

 
$
6,134

 
$
4,958

 
$
6,134

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Management Services:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third-party management services revenue
$
786

 
$
823

 
$
1,804

 
$
1,792

 
 
General and administrative expenses
636

 
631

 
1,303

 
1,275

 
 
Net operating income
$
150

 
$
192

 
$
501

 
$
517

 
 
Total segment assets at end of period
$
10,862

 
$
10,928

 
$
10,862

 
$
10,928

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reconciliations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Segment revenue
$
47,852

 
$
38,917

 
$
100,383

 
$
79,730

 
 
Operating expense reimbursements
2,188

 
2,121

 
4,202

 
5,979

 
 
Total segment revenues
$
50,040

 
$
41,038

 
$
104,585

 
$
85,709

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Segment operating expenses
$
22,231

 
$
18,892

 
$
45,675

 
$
37,665

 
 
Reimbursable operating expenses
2,188

 
2,121

 
4,202

 
5,979

 
 
Total segment operating expenses
$
24,419

 
$
21,013

 
$
49,877

 
$
43,644

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Segment net operating income
$
25,621

 
$
20,025

 
$
54,708

 
$
42,065

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The following is a reconciliation of the reportable segments’ net operating income to the Trust’s consolidated income before income taxes and discontinued operations for the three and six months ended June 30:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
Segment net operating income
$
25,621

 
$
20,025

 
$
54,708

 
$
42,065

 
 
Other unallocated general and administrative expenses
(3,010
)
 
(2,568
)
 
(6,193
)
 
(5,308
)
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
(14,458
)
 
(11,562
)
 
(28,241
)
 
(22,161
)
 
 
Ground lease
(1,934
)
 
(2,210
)
 
(3,833
)
 
(3,798
)
 
 
Loss on impairment of collegiate housing property
(9,870
)
 

 
(11,780
)
 

 
 
Nonoperating expenses
(5,440
)
 
(4,141
)
 
(12,123
)
 
(8,496
)
 
 
Equity in losses of unconsolidated entities
(112
)
 
(22
)
 
(134
)
 
(41
)
 
 
Income (loss) before income taxes, discontinued operations and gain on sale of collegiate housing communities
$
(9,203
)
 
$
(478
)
 
$
(7,596
)
 
$
2,261

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1) The increase in segment assets related to collegiate housing leasing is primarily related to the opening of five new properties in 2013 and continued development of eleven communities for ownership by the Trust. Total segment assets also include goodwill of $2,149 related to management services and $921 related to development consulting services.


18


6. Commitments and contingencies

In April 2013, the Trust entered into a presale agreement with a private developer that obligates the Trust to purchase a newly developed collegiate housing community adjacent to Florida International University for $43.5 million as long as the developer completes the project in time for fall 2014 occupancy.

In July 2012, the collegiate housing community located in St. Louis, Missouri was partially destroyed by a fire. The community was rebuilt and fully reopened in August 2013. This fire caused substantial business interruption and property damage, both of which are covered under the Trust's existing insurance policies. Management anticipates that the ultimate proceeds received from insurance will exceed the book value of the property destroyed, and accordingly a gain on insurance settlement will be recorded in a future period. For the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, the Trust recognized business interruption proceeds of $0.1 million and $1.0 million, respectively. These amounts are included in collegiate housing leasing revenues in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income. Management anticipates that the remaining gain will be recognized during 2014, once all contingencies have been resolved and the amount of the gain is determinable.

The Operating Partnership serves as non-recourse, carve-out guarantor, for secured third-party debt in the amount of $23.8 million, held by one unconsolidated joint venture. The loan is scheduled to mature on July 1, 2020. The Operating Partnership is liable to the lender for any loss, damage, cost, expense, liability, claim or other obligation incurred by the lender arising out of or in connection with certain non-recourse exceptions in connection with the debt. Pursuant to the respective operating agreement, the joint venture partner agreed to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Trust with respect to such obligations, except to the extent such obligations were caused by the willful misconduct, gross negligence, fraud or bad faith of the Operating Partnership or its employees, agents or affiliates. Therefore, exposure under the guarantee for obligations not caused by the willful misconduct, gross negligence, fraud or bad faith of the Operating Partnership or its employees, agents or affiliates is not expected to exceed the Operating Partnership’s proportionate interest in the related mortgage debt of $6.0 million.

The Operating Partnership, along with a joint venture partner, have jointly and severally guaranteed partial repayment for secured third-party construction debt held by one unconsolidated joint venture under development. The maturity date of the construction loan is December 31, 2015, with an option to extend the maturity date to December 31, 2016, provided certain conditions for extension are met. On December 31, 2016, the joint venture has the ability to further extend the maturity date to December 31, 2017, provided certain conditions for extension are met. The partial repayment guaranty for the construction debt is limited to $8.8 million. In addition, the Operating Partnership serves as a non-recourse, carve-out guarantor for the secured third-party debt and is liable to the lender for any loss, damage, cost, expense, liability, claim or other obligation incurred by the lender arising out of or in connection with certain non-recourse exceptions in connection with the debt. Pursuant to the respective operating agreement, the joint venture partner agreed to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Trust with respect to such obligations, except to the extent such obligations were caused by the willful misconduct, gross negligence, fraud or bad faith of the Operating Partnership or its employees, agents or affiliates. Therefore, exposure under the guaranties for obligations not caused by the willful misconduct, gross negligence, fraud or bad faith of the Operating Partnership or its employees, agents or affiliates are not expected to exceed the Operating Partnership's proportionate interest in the related mortgage debt in the case of the non-recourse, carve-out guaranty, or in the Operating Partnership's proportionate interest in the partial repayment guaranty of $8.8 million. As of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, the joint venture had $45.5 million and $13.1 million outstanding, respectively, on the construction loans.

The Operating Partnership, along with a joint venture partner, have jointly and severally guaranteed partial repayment for secured third-party construction debt held by one unconsolidated joint venture under development. The maturity date of the construction loan is May 2, 2017, with an option to extend the maturity date to May 2, 2018, provided certain conditions for extension are met. On May 2, 2018, the joint venture has the ability to further extend the maturity date to May 2, 2019, provided certain conditions for extension are met. The partial repayment guaranty for the construction debt is limited to $7.2 million. In addition, the Operating Partnership serves as a non-recourse, carve-out guarantor for the secured third-party debt and is liable to the lender for any loss, damage, cost, expense, liability, claim or other obligation incurred by the lender arising out of or in connection with certain non-recourse exceptions in connection with the debt. Pursuant to the joint venture's operating agreement, our joint venture partner agreed to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Trust with respect to such obligations, except to the extent such obligations were caused by the willful misconduct, gross negligence, fraud or bad faith of the Operating Partnership or its employees, agents or affiliates. Therefore, exposure under the guaranties for obligations not caused by the willful misconduct, gross negligence, fraud or bad faith of the Operating Partnership or its employees, agents or affiliates are not expected to exceed the Operating Partnership's proportionate interest in the related mortgage debt in the case of the non-recourse, carve-out guaranty, or in the Operating Partnership's proportionate interest in the partial repayment guaranty of $7.2 million. As of June 30, 2014, the joint venture had not drawn on the construction loan.


19


In connection with the development agreement entered into on July 14, 2010 for a project at the Science + Technology Park at Johns Hopkins Medical Institute (see Note 2), the Trust committed to provide a guarantee of repayment of a $42.0 million third-party construction loan for a $3.0 million fee, of which the carrying value approximates fair value. The guarantee fee will not be recognized until the second mortgage loan is repaid. The construction loan has an initial maturity date of September 16, 2014, with the ability to extend the maturity date to September 16, 2015, provided certain conditions for extension are met. The project has a $2.5 million reserve to fund any operating or debt service shortfalls that are to be replenished annually by East Baltimore Development, Inc., until a 1.10 debt service coverage ratio is achieved for twelve consecutive months. The second mortgage loan and related debt service are the first at risk if such reserve is not adequate to cover operating expenses and debt service on the construction loan. On July 1, 2014, the third-party owners refinanced the construction loan and the Trust was released from the guarantee obligations. The Trust also collected and earned the $3.0 million guarantee fee that will be recognized during the three months ending September 30, 2014. Additionally, the $18.0 million second mortgage was paid in full.

In connection with the condominium agreement related to The Oaks on the Square project in Storrs, Connecticut (see Note 4) the Operating Partnership and LeylandAlliance LLC have jointly committed to provide a guarantee of repayment of a $46.4 million construction loan to develop the residential and retail portions of the first two phases of the project. As of December 31, 2013, $43.2 million had been drawn on the construction loan of which $11.8 million was attributable to LeylandAlliance LLC; this amount is not included in our accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements. On April 1, 2014, the construction loan for the first two phases of the project was repaid in full (see Note 12) and the Trust was released from the guarantee obligations.

During August 2013, the Operating Partnership and LeylandAlliance LLC entered into a $13.8 million construction loan for the third phase of the The Oaks on the Square project. Similar to the construction loan for the first and second phases, the Operating Partnership and LeylandAlliance LLC have jointly committed to provide a guarantee of repayment for the construction loan. As of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, $10.9 million and $1.3 million had been drawn on the construction loan, of which $3.6 million and $1.0 million, is attributable to LeylandAlliance LLC; these amounts are not included in our accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.

As owners and operators of real estate, environmental laws impose ongoing compliance requirements on the Trust. The Trust is not aware of any environmental matters or liabilities with respect to the collegiate housing communities that would have a material adverse effect on the Trust’s consolidated financial condition or results of operations.

In the normal course of business, the Trust is subject to claims, lawsuits and legal proceedings. While it is not possible to ascertain the ultimate outcome of such matters, in management’s opinion, the liabilities, if any, are not expected to have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations or liquidity.

Under the terms of the limited partnership agreement of University Towers Operating Partnership, LP, so long as the contributing owners of such property hold at least 25% of the University Towers Partnership Units, the Trust has agreed to maintain certain minimum amounts of debt on the property to avoid triggering gain to the contributing owners. If the Trust fails to do this, the Trust must repay the contributing owners the amount of taxes they incur.

After being awarded a development consulting contract, the Trust will enter into predevelopment consulting contracts with educational institutions to develop collegiate housing communities on their behalf. The Trust will enter into reimbursement agreements that provide for the Trust to be reimbursed for the predevelopment costs incurred prior to the institution’s governing body formally approving the final development contract. As of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, the Trust had reimbursable predevelopment costs of $1.7 million and $1.6 million, respectively, which are reflected in other assets in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets.












20


7. Acquisition and development of real estate investments

During the year ended December 31, 2013, the Trust completed the following three collegiate housing community acquisitions:
Name
 
Primary University Served
 
Acquisition
Date
 
# of Beds
 
# of Units
 
Contract Price (in thousands)
The Cottages on Lindberg
 
Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana
 
Aug 2013
 
745

 
193

 
$36,000
The Retreat at State College
 
Pennsylvania State University State College, Pennsylvania
 
Sept 2013
 
587

 
138

 
$56,189
The Varsity
 
University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan
 
Dec 2013
 
415

 
181

 
$53,950

Combined acquisition costs for these purchases were $0.4 million. The Trust funded these acquisitions with assumed debt of $32.4 million and proceeds from draws on the Company's Fourth Amended Revolver. A summary follows of the fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed as of the dates of the acquisitions (in thousands):
 
The Cottages on Lindberg
 
The Retreat at State College
 
The Varsity
 
Total
Collegiate housing properties
$
35,704

 
$
55,812

 
$
53,630

 
$
145,146

Other assets
347

 
442

 
481

 
1,270

Current liabilities
(689
)
 
(405
)
 
(449
)
 
(1,543
)
Mortgage debt

 

 
(32,420
)
 
(32,420
)
Total net assets acquired
$
35,362

 
$
55,849

 
$
21,242

 
$
112,453


The difference between the collegiate housing community acquisition contract prices of $146.1 million and the total net assets acquired of $112.5 million is $1.2 million of net assets purchased or liabilities assumed and $32.4 million of assumed debt (see Note 4) in addition to fixed assets.

The unaudited pro forma revenue and net income had the acquisition date been January 1, 2013, are as follows:
 
Revenue
 
Net
income
 
Net income attributable to common stockholders per share - basic and diluted
  
(in thousands)
 
 
2013 supplemental pro forma for 1/1/13 – 6/30/13(1)
$
89,208

 
$
7,205

 
$
0.06

(1)
As The Retreat at State College and The Varsity opened for the 2013/2014 lease year, the supplemental pro forma revenue and net income for the period January 1, 2013 - June 30, 2013 only includes The Cottages on Lindberg.

As the collegiate housing communities acquired in 2013 were acquired subsequent to June 30, 2013, there were no actual revenue or net income (loss) recognized in the accompanying condensed consolidated statement of comprehensive income for the six months ended June 30, 2013.

In April 2014, the Trust purchased a portion of its joint venture partner's noncontrolling interest in the collegiate housing community referred to as Roosevelt Point located near Arizona State University - Downtown Phoenix for $0.8 million in cash. The Trust now holds a 95% ownership in the community. The Trust funded this acquisition with a combination of borrowings under the Fourth Amended Revolver and existing cash on hand.

In September 2013, the Trust purchased our joint venture partner's 10% noncontrolling interest in the collegiate housing community referred to as East Edge located near the University of Alabama for $6.9 million in cash. The Trust now owns 100% of the community. The Trust funded this acquisition with a combination of borrowings under the Fourth Amended Revolver and existing cash on hand.

Development of collegiate housing properties

In June 2014, the Trust announced an agreement with a subsidiary of Landmark Property Holdings, LLC ("Landmark") to develop, own and manage a new 656-bed cottage-style collegiate housing community adjacent to The University of Louisville. The Trust is the majority owner and managing member of the joint venture and will manage the community once completed. As

21


of June 30, 2014, the Trust and Landmark have incurred minimal costs for the project. The community is expected to open in the summer of 2015.

In March 2013, the Trust announced an agreement with Javelin 19 Investments, LLC ("Javelin 19") to develop, own and manage a new collegiate housing community near Duke University, 605 West. The Trust is the majority owner and managing member of the joint venture and will manage the community once completed. As of June 30, 2014, the Trust and Javelin 19 had incurred $39.5 million in costs for the project. During the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, the Trust capitalized interest costs of $0.4 million and $0.1 million, respectively, and internal development project costs of approximately $0.1 million for both periods related to the development. The community opened in the summer of 2014. For a period of five years from the date on which the property receives its initial certificate of occupancy, Javelin 19 has the right to require the Trust to purchase Javelin 19’s 10% interest in the partnership at a price to be determined.

In December 2011, the Trust was selected by the University of Kentucky to develop, own and manage new collegiate housing on its campus. This project will be financed through the Trust’s On-Campus Equity Plan, or the ONE Plan SM. As of June 30, 2014, the Trust had incurred $163.8 million in costs for the 2014, 2015, and 2016 deliveries. Phase I opened in August 2013. Phase II is on track to open for the 2014-2015 lease year, Phase II-B is expected to open in the summer of 2015, and the 2016 deliveries are expected to open in the summer of 2016. During the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, the Trust capitalized interest costs of $1.8 million and $0.3 million, respectively, and internal development costs of $0.4 million and $0.2 million, respectively, related to the development.

In November 2011, the Trust purchased a collegiate housing community near the University of Colorado, Boulder (The Lotus). The Trust is developing additional housing on the existing land, which is on track to open for the 2014/2015 lease year. As of June 30, 2014, the Trust had incurred $16.9 million in project costs. During the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, the Trust capitalized interest costs of $0.2 million and $36.5 thousand, respectively, and internal development project costs of $0.1 million and $42.2 thousand, respectively, related to the development.

In September of 2010, LeylandAlliance LLC and the Trust entered into an agreement to develop the first two phases of Storrs Center, a mixed-use town center project, adjacent to the University of Connecticut. The Trust developed, owns and manages the collegiate housing communities in these first two phases and both phases include commercial and residential offerings.

The first phase opened in August 2012 and the second phase opened in August 2013. LeylandAlliance LLC and the Trust subsequently entered into an additional agreement to develop the third and fourth phases of the project. As of June 30, 2014, the Trust had incurred $12.7 million in project costs for the third and fourth phases. During the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, the Trust capitalized interest costs of $57.4 thousand and $2.8 thousand, respectively, and capitalized internal development project costs of approximately $48.7 thousand and $11.1 thousand, respectively, related to the development. The third phase is scheduled to be completed in the summer of 2014, with the fourth phase scheduled to be completed in the summer of 2015.

All costs related to the development of collegiate housing communities are classified as assets under development in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets until the community is completed and opened.

8. Disposition of real estate investments and discontinued operations

In March 2014, the Trust sold The Reserve on West 31st collegiate housing community located in Lawrence, Kansas for a sales price of $14.0 million and College Station at West Lafayette collegiate housing community located in West Lafayette, Indiana for a sales price of $27.9 million.

On December 19, 2013, the Trust sold The Pointe at Western collegiate housing community located in Kalamazoo, Michigan for a sales price of $21.0 million. The Trust received proceeds of $20.0 million after closing costs.

On June 19, 2013, the Trust sold the College Grove collegiate housing community located in Murfreesboro, Tennessee for a price of $20.7 million. The Trust received proceeds of $20.2 million after prorations and closing costs.

As discussed in Note 2, the Trust early adopted the accounting guidance related to the presentation of discontinued operations as of January 1, 2014. The two property dispositions in 2014 discussed above and any subsequent one-off dispositions are not expected to qualify for treatment as discontinued operations unless the dispositions qualify as a strategic shift in the Trust's business pursuant to ASU 2014-08. The historical operations of The Reserve on West 31st and College Station are presented in continuing operations for all periods presented as the adoption of the guidance is on a prospective basis. Accordingly, the results of operations of the two property dispositions during 2013 are included in discontinued operations in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2013. The Trust ceased depreciation on the properties when they met the held for sale criteria.

22



The following table summarizes the income from discontinued operations, net of noncontrolling interests, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2013 (in thousands):
 
Three months ended June 30, 2013
 
Six months ended June 30, 2013
Collegiate housing leasing revenue
$
1,791

 
$
3,742

Collegiate housing leasing operating expenses
(972
)
 
(1,891
)
Depreciation and amortization
(557
)
 
(1,086
)
Interest income
1

 

Noncontrolling interests

 
(5
)
Income from discontinued operations attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc.
263

 
760

Gain on sale of collegiate housing property
3,895

 
3,895

Noncontrolling interests
(28
)
 
(26
)
Gain on sale of collegiate housing property attributable to Education Realty Trust, Inc.
3,867

 
3,869

Total income from discontinued operations, net of noncontrolling interests
$
4,130

 
$
4,629


9. Incentive plans

On May 4, 2011, the stockholders approved the Education Realty Trust, Inc. 2011 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan (the “2011 Plan”). The purpose of the 2011 Plan is to promote the interests of the Trust and its stockholders by attracting, motivating and retaining talented executive officers, employees and directors of the Trust and linking their compensation to the long-term interests of the Trust and its stockholders. The 2011 Plan replaced the Education Realty Trust, Inc. 2004 Incentive Plan (“2004 Plan”) in its entirety and authorizes the grant of the 315,000 shares that remained available for grant under the 2004 plan, as well as 3,147,500 additional shares. As of June 30, 2014, the Trust had 2,241,503 shares of its common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to the 2011 Plan. Automatic increases in the number of shares available for issuance are not provided. The 2011 Plan provides for the grant of stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units (“RSUs”), stock appreciation rights, other stock-based incentive awards to employees, directors and other key persons providing services to the Trust.

A restricted stock award is an award of the Trust’s common stock that is subject to restrictions on transferability and other restrictions as the Trust’s compensation committee determines in its sole discretion on the date of grant. The restrictions may lapse over a specified period of employment or the satisfaction of pre-established criteria as the compensation committee may determine. Except to the extent restricted under the award agreement, a participant awarded restricted stock will have all of the rights of a stockholder as to those shares, including, without limitation, the right to vote and the right to receive dividends or distributions on the shares. Restricted stock is generally taxed at the time of vesting. As of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, unearned compensation related to restricted stock totaled $1.0 million and $0.8 million, respectively, and will be recorded as expense over the applicable vesting period. The value is determined based on the market value of the Trust’s common stock on the grant date. During the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, compensation expense of $0.4 million and $0.5 million, respectively, was recognized in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income, related to the vesting of restricted stock. Effective January 1, 2014 and January 1, 2013, the Trust adopted the 2014 Long-Term Incentive Plan (the "2014 LTIP") and the 2013 Long-Term Incentive Plan (the "2013 LTIP"), respectively. The purpose of the 2014 LTIP and 2013 LTIP is to attract, retain and motivate the executive officers and certain key employees of the Trust to promote the long-term growth and profitability of the Trust. On January 1, 2014 and 2013, the Trust issued 74,233 and 65,791, respectively, of time vested restricted stock to executives and key employees under the 2014 LTIP and 2013 LTIP. The restricted stock granted under the 2014 LTIP and the 2013 LTIP will vest ratably over three years as long as the participants remain employed by the Trust.

An RSU award is an award that will vest based upon the Trust’s achievement of total stockholder returns at specified levels as compared to the average total stockholder returns of a peer group of companies and/or the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts Equity Index over three years (the “Performance Period”). At the end of the Performance Period, the compensation committee of the Board will determine the level and the extent to which the performance goal was achieved. RSUs that satisfy the performance goal will be converted into fully-vested shares of the Trust’s common stock and the Trust will receive a tax deduction for the compensation expense at the time of vesting. Prior to vesting, the participants are not eligible to vote or receive dividends or distributions on the RSUs. On January 1, 2014, the Trust granted 306,914 performance vested RSUs to executives and key employees under the 2014 LTIP described above. On January 1, 2013, the Trust granted a total of 122,180 of performance vested RSUs to executives and key employees under the 2013 LTIP described above. As of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, unearned compensation related to RSUs totaled $2.1 million and $0.9 million,

23


respectively, and will be recorded as expense over the applicable vesting period. The value was determined using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. During the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, compensation expense of $0.6 million and $0.5 million, respectively, was recognized in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income, related to the vesting of RSUs. On January 1, 2014, 203,250 of fully-vested shares of common stock were issued pursuant to the vesting of RSUs granted in 2011.

Pursuant to the terms of a Separation Agreement and Release Agreement (the “Separation Agreement”), dated as of May 12, 2014, between Randall H. Brown and the Trust, Mr. Brown resigned his employment as Chief Financial Officer of the Company, effective June 30, 2014. In accordance with the Separation Agreement, all unvested shares of time-vested restricted stock granted to Mr. Brown under the Company’s long term incentive plan fully vested on June 30, 2014; the Trust settled these shares in cash. In addition, the Trust reversed all previously recorded compensation expense related to unvested RSUs granted to Mr. Brown under the 2012 LTIP, 2013 LTIP and 2014 LTIP plans in the aggregate amount of $0.2 million, the impact of which is recorded in general and administrative expenses in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income.

Total stock-based compensation recognized in general and administrative expense in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income for the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013 was $1.1 million and $1.1 million, respectively.

A summary of the stock-based incentive plan activity is as follows:
 
Restricted Stock
Awards
 
Weighted-Average Grant Date Fair Value Per Restricted Stock Award
 
RSU Awards
 
Weighted-Average Grant Date Fair Value Per RSU
Outstanding as of December 31, 2013
184,023

(2) 
$
8.96

 
390,270

 
$
6.78

Granted
74,233

 
8.82

 
306,914

 
6.40

Vested
(100,622
)
 
8.85

 
(203,250
)
 
8.82

Surrendered
(27,193
)
 
8.85

 
(59,896
)
 
8.82

Outstanding as of March 31, 2014
130,441

 
$
9.18

 
434,038

 
$
6.46

Surrendered
(14,237
)
(1) 
$
9.08

 

 
$

Outstanding as of June 30, 2014
116,204

(2) 
$
9.13

 
434,038

 
$
6.46


(1)
Represents unvested shares of restricted stock awards that immediately vested on June 30, 2014 in connection with the resignation of Mr. Brown, as described above. The Trust settled these shares in cash.
(2)
Represents unvested shares of restricted stock awards as of the date indicated.

10. Derivatives and Hedging Activities

Cash Flow Hedges of Interest Rate Risk

The Trust’s objectives in using interest rate derivatives are to add stability to interest expense and to manage its exposure to interest rate movements. To accomplish this objective, the Trust primarily uses interest rate swaps as part of its interest rate risk management strategy. During the six months ended June 30, 2014, such derivatives were used to hedge the variable cash flows associated with existing variable-rate debt. As of June 30, 2014, the Trust had six outstanding interest rate swaps with a combined notional of $187.5 million that were designated as cash flow hedges of interest rate risk. The counter-parties are major financial institutions.

The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives designated and that qualify as cash flow hedges is recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss and is subsequently reclassified into earnings in the period that the hedged forecasted transaction affects earnings. The ineffective portion of the change in fair value of the derivatives, which is immaterial for all periods presented, is recognized directly in earnings. During the next twelve months, the Trust estimates that an additional $3.6 million will be reclassified to earnings as an increase to interest expense. As of June 30, 2014, the fair value of the derivatives of $3.8 million was included in accrued expenses in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets.


24


The following table discloses the effect of the derivative instruments on the condensed consolidated statement of comprehensive income for the six months ended June 30, 2014 (in thousands):
Derivatives in Cash Flow Hedging Relationships
 
Amount of Loss Recognized in OCI on Derivative (Effective Portion)
 
 
Location of Loss Reclassified from Accumulated OCI into Income (Effective Portion)
 
Amount of Loss Reclassified from Accumulated OCI into Income (Effective Portion)
 
Interest rate contracts
 
$
(4,667
)
 
 
Interest expense
 
$
910

 

The following table discloses the effect of the derivative instruments on the condensed consolidated statement of comprehensive income for the three months ended June 30, 2014 (in thousands):
Derivatives in Cash Flow Hedging Relationships
 
Amount of Loss Recognized in OCI on Derivative (Effective Portion)
 
 
Location of Loss Reclassified from Accumulated OCI into Income (Effective Portion)
 
Amount of Loss Reclassified from Accumulated OCI into Income (Effective Portion)
 
Interest rate contracts
 
$
(3,304
)
 
 
Interest expense
 
$
910

 

The above contracts are subject to enforceable master netting arrangements that provide a right of offset with each counterparty; however, no offsetting positions exist due to certain duplicate terms across all contracts. Therefore, the derivatives are not subject to offset in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.

Credit-risk-related Contingent Features

The Trust has agreements with each of its derivative counterparties that contain a provision where if the Trust defaults on any of its indebtedness, including default where repayment of the indebtedness has not been accelerated by the lender, then the Trust could also be declared in default on its derivative obligations. In addition, the Trust has agreements with each of its derivative counterparties that contain a provision where the Trust could be declared in default on its derivative obligations if repayment of the underlying indebtedness is accelerated by the lender due to the Trust's default on the indebtedness.

As of June 30, 2014, the fair value of derivatives related to these agreements, which includes accrued interest, but excludes any adjustment for nonperformance risk, was a liability of $4.0 million. As of June 30, 2014, the Trust has not posted any collateral related to these agreements. If the Trust had breached any of these provisions at June 30, 2014, it could have been required to settle its obligations under the agreements at their termination value of $3.8 million.

11. Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Trust follows the guidance contained in FASB Accounting Standards Codification 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures ("ASC 820"). Fair value is generally defined as the exit price at which an asset or liability could be exchanged in a current transaction between willing unrelated parties, other than in a forced liquidation or sale. The guidance establishes a fair value hierarchy, giving the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets and the lowest priority to unobservable data, and requires disclosures for assets and liabilities measured at fair value based on their level in the hierarchy.

The fair value framework requires the categorization of assets and liabilities into three levels based upon the assumptions used to value the assets or liabilities. Level 1 provides the most reliable measure of fair value, whereas Level 3 generally requires significant management judgment. The three levels are defined as follows:

Level 1 - Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities at the measurement date.
Level 2 - Observable inputs other than those included in Level 1, for example, quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets or quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in inactive markets.
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs reflecting management's own assumption about the inputs used in pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date.

Non-financial assets measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis consist of real estate assets and investments in partially owned entities that have been written-down to estimated fair value when it has been determined that asset values are not recoverable. We estimate fair value relating to impairment assessments based upon an income capitalization approach (which considers prevailing market capitalization rates and operations of the community) or the negotiated sales price, if applicable. Based upon the inputs used to value properties under the income capitalization approach, we determined that valuations under

25


this method are classified within Level 3 of our fair value hierarchy. For our communities for which the estimated fair value was based on negotiated sales prices, we determined that our valuation was classified within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.

One non-financial asset impaired during the six months ended June 30, 2014 was also disposed of during the period. The table below summarizes non-financial assets that were impaired during the six months ended June 30, 2014 and remained on the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet as of June 30, 2014 (in thousands):
 
 
 
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
 
Carrying value
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Collegiate housing properties, net
 
$
22,771

 
$

 
$
15,704

 
$
7,067

 

Currently, we use interest rate swaps to manage our interest rate risk. The valuation of these instruments is determined using widely accepted valuation techniques, including discounted cash flow analysis on the expected cash flows of each derivative. This analysis reflects the contractual terms of the derivatives, including the period to maturity, and uses observable market-based inputs, including interest rate curves and implied volatilities. The fair values of interest rate swaps are determined using the market standard methodology of netting the discounted future fixed cash receipts (or payments) and the discounted expected variable cash payments (or receipts). The variable cash payments (or receipts) are based on an expectation of future interest rates (forward curves) derived from observable market interest rate curves.

To comply with the provisions of ASC 820, we incorporate credit valuation adjustments to appropriately reflect both our own nonperformance risk and the respective counterparty’s nonperformance risk in the fair value measurements. In adjusting the fair value of our derivative contracts for the effect of nonperformance risk, we have considered the impact of netting and any applicable credit enhancements, such as collateral postings, thresholds, mutual puts and guarantees.

Although we have determined that the majority of the inputs used to value our derivatives fall within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, the credit valuation adjustments associated with our derivatives utilize Level 3 inputs, such as estimates of current credit spreads to evaluate the likelihood of default by ourself and our counterparties. We have determined that the significance of the impact of the credit valuation adjustments made to our derivative contracts, which determination was based on the fair value of each individual contract, was not significant to the overall valuation. As a result, all of our derivatives held as of June 30, 2014 were classified as Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.

The table below presents our assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of June 30, 2014, aggregated by the level in the fair value hierarchy within which those measurements fall. There were no assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2013. The table below summarizes the carrying amounts and fair values of these financial instruments as of June 30, 2014 (in thousands):
 
 
 
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
 
Carrying value
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Derivative financial instruments (liability position)
 
$
3,757

 
$

 
$
3,757

 
$

 
Deferred compensation plan assets
 
433

 
433

 

 

 

Financial assets and liabilities that are not measured at fair value in our consolidated financial statements include mezzanine notes receivable and debt. Estimates of the fair values of these instruments are based on our assessments of available market information and valuation methodologies, including discounted cash flow analyses. The table below summarizes the carrying amounts and fair values of these financial instruments as of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013 (in thousands):
 
 
June 30, 2014
 
 
 
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
 
Carrying value
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Mezzanine notes receivable
 
$
18,375

 
$

 
$
18,929

 
$

 
Unsecured revolving credit facility
 
66,000

 

 
66,000

 

 
Unsecured term loan facility
 
187,500

 

 
187,500

 

 
Variable rate mortgage and construction loans
 
134,176

 

 
134,176

 

 
Fixed rate mortgage and construction loans
 
225,097

 

 
232,044

 

 


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December 31, 2013
 
 
 
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
 
Carrying value
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Mezzanine notes receivable
 
$
18,125

 
$

 
$
19,330

 
$

 
Unsecured revolving credit facility
 
356,900

 

 
356,900

 

 
Variable rate mortgage and construction loans
 
193,381

 

 
193,381

 

 
Fixed rate mortgage and construction loans
 
227,009

 

 
239,162

 

 

The Trust discloses the fair value of financial instruments for which it is practicable to estimate. The Trust considers the carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, student contracts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses to approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments. The carrying value of restricted cash approximates its fair value based on the nature of our assessment of the ability to recover these amounts.

12. Subsequent events

Our Board declared a quarterly distribution of $0.12 per share of common stock for the three months ended June 30, 2014. The distribution will be paid on August 15, 2014 to stockholders of record at the close of business on July 31, 2014.

As disclosed in Note 6, on July 1, 2014, the third-party owners of our development at Johns Hopkins University successfully closed on permanent financing for the community. The proceeds from the refinancing were used to repay in full their construction loan as well as the $18.0 million second mortgage loan advanced by the Trust. At the time of the refinancing the Trust was released from the related guarantee obligations and will recognize the $3.0 million guarantee fee during the three months ending September 30, 2014.

Also in July 2014, the Trust completed the sale of Pointe West collegiate housing community serving the University of South Carolina and The Reserve on South College serving Auburn University for a combined sales price of $29.9 million. The net proceeds from these dispositions were used to pay off existing mortgage debt in the amount of $16.7 million, with the remaining proceeds used to pay down the Fourth Amended Revolver.

On August 5, 2014, Bill Brewer was named chief financial officer of the Trust and replaced Randy Brown, who resigned from the Trust effective June 30, 2014.

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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (“Report”) and the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013. Certain statements contained in this Report are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including but not limited to statements related to plans for future acquisitions or dispositions, our business and investment strategy, market trends and projected capital expenditures. When used in this Report, the words “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “seek,” “estimate, “would,” “could,” “should,” and similar expressions are generally intended to identify forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect our opinions only as of the date of this Report. We assume no obligation to update or supplement forward-looking statements that become untrue because of subsequent events. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. For further information about these and other factors that could affect our future results, please see "Forward-Looking Statements" and “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013, as well as risks, uncertainties and other factors discussed in this Report and other documents filed by us with the SEC. Investors are cautioned that any forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, and that actual results may differ materially from those contemplated by such forward-looking statements.
 
All references to “we,” “our,” “us,” “EdR,” “Trust” and the “Company” in this Report mean Education Realty Trust, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries including Education Realty Operating Partnership, LP (the "Operating Partnership"), except where it is made clear that the term means only Education Realty Trust, Inc.

Overview

We are a self-managed and self-advised real estate investment trust, or REIT, engaged in the ownership, acquisition, development and management of high-quality collegiate housing communities. We also provide collegiate housing management and development consulting services to universities, charitable foundations and other third parties. We believe that we are one of the largest private owners, developers and managers of high-quality collegiate housing communities in the United States in terms of total beds both owned and under management.

We earn income from rental payments we receive as a result of our ownership of collegiate housing communities. We also earn income by performing property management services and development consulting services for third parties through our Management Company and our Development Company, respectively.

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes.

Our Business Segments

We define business segments by their distinct customer base and the service provided. Management has identified three reportable segments: collegiate housing leasing, development consulting services and management services. We evaluate each segment’s performance based on net operating income, which is defined as income before depreciation, amortization, ground leases, impairment losses, interest expense (income), gains (losses) on extinguishment of debt, gains (losses) on sale of collegiate housing properties, income taxes, equity in earnings of unconsolidated entities, noncontrolling interests and discontinued operations. The accounting policies of the reportable segments are described in more detail in the summary of significant accounting policies in the notes to the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.

Collegiate housing leasing

Collegiate housing leasing revenue represented approximately 96.6% of our total revenues, excluding operating expense reimbursements and other adjustments/eliminations included in our segment reporting, for the six months ended June 30, 2014. Unlike multi-family housing where apartments are leased by the unit, collegiate-housing communities are typically leased by the bed on an individual lease liability basis. Individual lease liability limits each resident’s liability to his or her own rent without liability for a roommate’s rent. The number of lease contracts that we administer is therefore equivalent to the number of beds occupied instead of the number of apartment units occupied. A parent or guardian is required to execute each lease as a guarantor unless the resident provides adequate proof of income and/or pays a deposit, which is usually equal to two months rent.

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Due to our predominantly private bedroom accommodations and individual lease liability, the high level of student-oriented amenities and the fact that most units are furnished and typically rent includes utilities, cable television and internet service, we believe our communities in most cases can command higher per-unit and per-square foot rental rates than most multi-family communities in the same geographic markets. We are also typically able to command higher rental rates than on-campus collegiate housing, which tends to offer fewer amenities.

The majority of our leases commence mid-August and terminate the last day of July. These dates generally coincide with the commencement of the universities’ fall academic term and the completion of the subsequent summer school session. As such, we are required to re-lease each community in its entirety each year, resulting in significant turnover in our tenant population from year to year. In 2013 and 2012, approximately 81.3% and 74.6%, respectively, of our leased beds were to students who were first-time residents at our communities. As a result, we are highly dependent upon the effectiveness of our marketing and leasing efforts during the annual leasing season that typically begins in November and ends in August of each year. Our communities’ occupancy rates are therefore typically stable during the August to July academic year but are susceptible to fluctuation at the commencement of each new academic year.

Prior to the commencement of each new lease period, mostly during the first two weeks of August, but also during September at some communities, we prepare the units for new incoming tenants. Other than revenue generated by in-place leases for returning tenants, we do not generally recognize lease revenue during this period referred to as “Turn,” as we have no leases in place. In addition, we incur significant expenses during Turn to make our units ready for occupancy. These expenses are recognized when incurred. This Turn period results in seasonality in our operating results during the third quarter of each year.

Development consulting services

For the six months ended June 30, 2014, revenue from our development consulting services represented approximately 1.6% of our total revenues, excluding operating expense reimbursements and other adjustments/eliminations included in our segment reporting. We provide development consulting services primarily to colleges and universities seeking to modernize their on-campus collegiate housing communities, to other third-party investors and to our collegiate housing leasing segment in order to develop communities for our ownership. Our development consulting services typically include the following:

market analysis and evaluation of collegiate housing needs and options;
cooperation with college or university in architectural design;
negotiation of ground lease, development agreement, construction contract, architectural contract and bond documents;
oversight of architectural design process;
coordination of governmental and university plan approvals;
oversight of construction process;
design, purchase and installation of furniture;
pre-opening marketing to students; and
obtaining final approvals of construction.

Fees for these services are typically 3 – 5% of the total cost of a project and are payable over the life of the construction period, which in most cases is one to two years in length. Occasionally, the development consulting contracts include a provision whereby the Trust can participate in project savings resulting from successful cost management efforts. These revenues are recognized once all contractual terms have been satisfied and no future performance requirements exist. This typically occurs after construction is complete. As part of the development agreements, there are certain costs we pay on behalf of universities or third-party investors. These costs are included in reimbursable operating expenses and are required to be reimbursed to us by the universities or third-party investors. We recognize the expense and revenue related to these reimbursements when incurred. These operating expenses are wholly reimbursable and therefore not considered by management when analyzing the operating performance of our development consulting services business.


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Management services

For the six months ended June 30, 2014, revenue from our management services segment represented approximately 1.8% of our total revenues, excluding operating expense reimbursements and other adjustments/eliminations included in our segment reporting. We provide management services for collegiate housing communities owned by educational institutions, charitable foundations, and others. Our management services typically cover all aspects of community operations, including residence life and student development, marketing, leasing administration, strategic relationships, information systems and accounting services. We provide these services pursuant to multi-year management agreements under which management fees are typically 3 – 5% of leasing revenue. These agreements usually have an initial term of two to five years with renewal options of like terms. As part of the management agreements, there are certain payroll and related expenses we pay on behalf of the property owners. These costs are included in reimbursable operating expenses and are required to be reimbursed to us by the property owners. We recognize the expense and revenue related to these reimbursements when incurred. These operating expenses are wholly reimbursable and therefore not considered by management when analyzing the operating performance of our management services business.
    
Trends and Outlook

Rents and occupancy

We manage our communities to maximize revenues, which are primarily driven by two components: rental rates and occupancy. We customarily adjust rental rates in order to maximize revenues, which in some cases results in a lower occupancy rate, but in most cases results in stable or increasing revenue from the community. As a result, a decrease in occupancy may be offset by an increase in rental rates and may not be material to our operations. Periodically, certain of our markets experience increases in new on-campus collegiate housing provided by colleges and universities and off-campus collegiate housing provided by private owners. This additional collegiate housing both on and off campus can create competitive pressure on rental rates and occupancy.

Over the last couple of years, there has been an increase in supply across the student housing industry. In the markets we serve, we are projecting a 2.2% increase in supply in 2014, which is consistent with the level of new supply added in 2013. For 2015, the increase in new supply is expected to slow 9% with new supply equal to 1.8% of enrollment. This growth in student housing beds is slightly outpacing enrollment growth in those markets where the three-year compounded annual growth rate in enrollment is 1.4%. Although these statistics in themselves are not favorable, we believe that it does not reflect the pent-up demand that exists at campuses for new, purpose-built student housing product, where students are moving out of old, outdated housing and into the newer communities with more amenities, as evidenced by the 5% growth in same-community revenue we achieved in our last leasing cycle for the 2013-2014 academic year and our strong preleasing for the 2014-2015 academic year, as well as other market data. As a result, we believe that the growth characteristics of our portfolio, which has produced a compounded annual growth rate of 4.3% over the last four years, has not changed significantly.
We define our same-community portfolio as properties that were owned and operating for the full six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, are not conducting or planning to conduct substantial development or redevelopment activities, are not classified as discontinued operations or have not been sold or are under contract pending sale. The collegiate housing community referred to as 3949 at Saint Louis University is excluded from our same-community portfolio as it was damaged by fire on July 17, 2012. The community was insured and reopened in August 2013. This property is the only community excluded from same-community as a result of redevelopment activities. The collegiate housing communities referred to as Pointe West in Cayce, South Carolina, and The Reserve on South College in Auburn, Georgia, are excluded from our same-community portfolio as the properties met the held for sale accounting treatment as of June 30, 2014. The properties were subsequently sold in July 2014 (see Note 12 to the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements).

Our communities’ occupancy rates are typically stable during the August to July academic year but are susceptible to fluctuation at the commencement of each new academic year. For the six months ended June 30, 2014, same-community revenue per occupied bed increased to $638 and same-community physical occupancy increased to 90.6%, compared to same-community revenue per occupied bed of $622 and same-community physical occupancy of 90.5% for the six months ended June 30, 2013. The results represent averages for the Trust’s same-community portfolio, which are not necessarily indicative of every community in the portfolio. Individual communities can and do perform both above and below these averages, and, at times, an individual community may experience a decline in total revenue due to university local and economic conditions. Our management focus is to assess these situations and address them quickly in an effort to minimize our exposure and reverse any negative trends.


30


The same-community portfolio opened the 2013/2014 lease term with a 5.0% increase in rental revenue. Opening occupancy was up 300 basis points to 94.1% and net rental rates were 2.0% above the prior lease term. New communities opened the 2013/2014 with an average occupancy of 95.1%, with four out of five of the 2013 development communities opening at or above 100% occupancy.

As of July 21, 2014, same-community preleasing for the 2014/2015 lease term was 360 basis points ahead of the same period in the prior year in occupancy, with 90.9% of beds preleased for the fall. Net rental rates for the 2014/2015 lease term are projected to be 190 basis points ahead of the prior lease term. Based on current leasing velocity shown above and individual market conditions, we are projecting fall revenue to be up 3% to 4%, including a 1% to 2% increase in occupancy and an approximate 2% growth in net rental rates.

Development consulting services

For the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, third-party development fee revenue was $1.6 million and $1.2 million, respectively. Beginning in the summer of 2010, our development team began seeing improvement in the credit markets and an increase in interest from colleges and universities that are considering new collegiate housing. We also continue to receive requests for proposals on new development projects. Since 2000, we have provided third-party development consulting services to clients for projects totaling over $1.5 billion in value. We are currently providing third-party development services pursuant to signed definitive contracts with projects under construction at Clarion University of Pennsylvania, West Chester University of Pennsylvania and Wichita State University. The aggregate project cost of these three projects is estimated to be approximately $171.8 million. Although volume has returned to the market, we do not expect our future run rate of third-party development fees to return to the levels achieved in 2009.

We develop collegiate housing communities for our ownership, and we plan to increase self-development activity going forward. The On-Campus Equity Plan, or The ONE PlanSM, is our private equity program for universities, which allows universities to use the Trust’s equity and financial stability to develop and revitalize campus housing while preserving their credit capacity for other campus projects. This program is designed to provide the Trust’s equity to solve a university’s housing needs through a ground lease structure where the Trust owns the land improvements and operates the community. Others in the industry have similar programs and to date the Trust has ten ONE PlanSM projects completed or underway. In December 2011, the Trust was selected by the University of Kentucky ("UK"), to negotiate the potential revitalization of UK's entire campus housing portfolio and expansion of UK's campus housing portfolio to more than 9,000 beds within five to seven years, which we refer to as the UK Campus Housing Revitalization Plan. Construction on Phase I of the UK Campus Housing Revitalization Plan, a 601-bed community called Central Hall I & II, opened in August 2013 with all beds leased. Construction of Phase II, which includes four communities with 2,381 beds and a total project cost of approximately $138.0 million, is well underway for a summer 2014 opening. In May 2013, the Capital Projects and Bond Oversight Committee of the Kentucky Legislature provided the final required approval to proceed with Phase II-B, the next phase of the UK Campus Housing Revitalization Plan. With a total project cost of $101.2 million, this phase of the project is expected to be delivered in 2015 and will include 1,610 beds in three buildings. The UK Board of Trustees subsequently approved the 2016 deliveries, comprising 1,141 beds at a total project cost of $83.9 million. We view our entry into the partnership with UK as a defining moment, not only for EdR, but also for our industry. Most state universities face many of the same challenges as UK, including reduced support from constrained state budgets, aged on-campus housing and demands on institutional funds for academic and support services. We believe this declining state support for higher education is the norm rather than the exception. These external factors provide a great opportunity for EdR. The volume of discussions we are having with other universities has increased over the last year as additional universities investigate this type of structure to replace their aging on-campus housing stock. We expect the volume of true third-party fee development contracts to be impacted as more universities avail themselves of this new program.

While considering the possible shift in the type of projects universities pursue, the amount and timing of future revenue from development consulting services will be contingent upon our ability to successfully compete in public colleges and universities’ competitive procurement processes, our ability to successfully structure financing of these projects and our ability to ensure completion of construction within committed timelines and budgets. To date, we have completed construction on all of our development consulting projects in time for their targeted occupancy dates.

Collegiate housing operating costs

Same-community operating expenses historically increased 0.1% in 2010, 2.9% in 2011, 2.3% in 2012, and 4.2% in 2013, for a compounded annual growth rate of 2.3% over the past four years. We expect full year same-community operating expenses to increase between 3.0-4.0% going forward, which we believe is a reasonable level of growth for the foreseeable future.


31


General and administrative costs

G&A costs (before development pursuit costs and acquisition costs) increased 4.1% in 2013 and 9.5% in 2012. With the 21% growth in gross assets in 2013 and anticipated 17% growth in gross assets in 2014, we expect general and administrative costs to continue to increase in 2014 and in future periods.
 
Asset repositioning and capital recycling

Since the beginning of 2010, we have made a concerted effort to reposition and improve our owned portfolio with most of the process completed prior to 2013. Since 2010, we have acquired $670 million of collegiate housing properties, completed $284 million of developments and disposed of $281 million of collegiate housing properties. These transactions have improved our median distance to campus from 0.8 miles to 0.1 miles and increased our average rental rate to $640. Currently, 68% of our beds and 74% of our community NOI are located on or pedestrian to campus.

We have thirteen active development projects that we are developing for our ownership with anticipated aggregate project costs of $551.9 million within walking distance of universities such as the University of Colorado, University of Connecticut, Duke University, University of Louisville and directly on the campus of University of Kentucky (see Note 7 to the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements). These developments, which are scheduled to open in 2014, 2015 and 2016, will increase our portfolio by 8,159 beds. In addition, these developments have an average distance to campus of 0.1 miles, are located on or near universities with average enrollment of 25,618, and will produce an average rental rate of $833 per bed.

We previously entered into a presale agreement for a collegiate housing property under development at Florida International University adjacent to Florida International University, in Miami, FL. The $43.5 million acquisition is subject to completion of the project in time for fall 2014 occupancy and will increase our portfolio by an additional 542 beds.

Our asset reposition and capital recycling efforts include the following transactions during the six months ended June 30, 2014:
In March 2014, we sold The Reserve on West 31st collegiate housing community at the University of Kansas for a net cash proceeds of $14.0 million after closing costs; and
Also in March 2014, we sold the College Station at West Lafayette collegiate housing community in Kalamazoo, Michigan for a net cash proceeds of $27.9 million after closing costs.

Subsequent to June 30, 2014, the Trust completed the sales of Pointe West, a 480-bed community built in 2003 that is approximately two miles from the University of South Carolina campus, and The Reserve on South College, a 576-bed community built in 1999 that is about a half mile from Auburn University’s campus. The net proceeds from these dispositions of approximately $29.9 million were used to pay-off approximately $16.7 million of mortgage debt, with an average interest rate of 4.9%, and to pay down the Fourth Amended Revolver.

Critical Accounting Policies

There have been no significant changes to our critical accounting policies as disclosed in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013, filed with the SEC on March 3, 2014, and subsequently amended on April 11, 2014.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements