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EX-21.1 - EX21-1 - OPLINK COMMUNICATIONS INCex21-1.htm
EX-32.2 - EX-32.2 - OPLINK COMMUNICATIONS INCex32-2.htm
EX-23.1 - EX23-1 - OPLINK COMMUNICATIONS INCex23-1.htm
EX-32.1 - EX-32.1 - OPLINK COMMUNICATIONS INCex32-1.htm
EX-31.2 - EX-31.2 - OPLINK COMMUNICATIONS INCex31-2.htm
EX-31.1 - EX-31.1 - OPLINK COMMUNICATIONS INCex31-1.htm


 
 
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

FOR ANNUAL AND TRANSITION REPORTS
PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

(Mark One)

þ
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
   
 
For the fiscal year ended July 3, 2011
   
 
or
   
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission File Number 000-31581

OPLINK COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
No. 77-0411346
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

46335 Landing Parkway, Fremont, CA 94538
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (510) 933-7200

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.001 par value
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No þ
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements§ for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes o No o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer  o
 
Accelerated filer þ
 
Non-accelerated filer o
 
Smaller reporting company o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No þ

The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, as of December 31, 2010 (the last trading day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter), was approximately $351.1 million based upon the closing price reported for such date by the NASDAQ Stock Market. For purposes of this disclosure, shares of common stock held by officers and directors and by each person known by the registrant to own 10% or more of the outstanding common stock have been excluded. Exclusion of such shares should not be construed to indicate that such persons possess the power, direct or indirect, to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of the registrant.

As of August 31, 2011, approximately 19,532,254 shares of the registrant's common stock, $0.001 par value, were outstanding.

Documents Incorporated by Reference:

The information called for by Part III is incorporated by reference to specified portions of the registrant's proxy statement for its 2011 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after July 3, 2011, the end of the registrant's fiscal year.
 


 
 

 
OPLINK COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

     
   
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EX-23.1  
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EX-32.2   
 
 
This report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, including, without limitation, statements regarding our expectations, beliefs, intentions or future strategies that are signified by the words "expect," "anticipate," "intend," "believe," "estimate" or "assume" or similar language. All forward-looking statements included in this document are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements. Actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. In evaluating our business, you should carefully consider the information set forth below and under the captions "Risk Factors" contained in Item 1A and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" contained in Item 7. We caution you that our business and financial performance are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties. We undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

Item 1.  Business

Overview
 
Oplink Communications, Inc. ("we", "Oplink", or the "Company") was incorporated in California in September 1995 and was later reincorporated in Delaware in September 2000. We are headquartered in Fremont, California and have manufacturing, design and research and development facilities in Zhuhai, Shanghai and Wuhan, China and in Hsinchu, Taiwan.

We began selling our products in 1996. We design, manufacture and sell optical networking components and subsystems. Our products expand optical bandwidth, amplify optical signals, monitor and protect wavelength performance, redirect light signals, ensure signal connectivity and provide signal transmission and reception within an optical network. Our products enable greater and higher quality bandwidth over longer distances, which reduce network congestion, transmission costs and energy consumption per bit. Our products also enable optical system manufacturers to provide flexible and scalable bandwidth to support the increase of data traffic on the Internet and other public and private networks.

We provide over 350 different products that are sold as components or are integrated into custom solutions. We provide customers with high quality optical subsystems and components that are used for bandwidth creation, bandwidth management and transmission products. Our products and solutions can be applied to all segments of the fiber optic network infrastructure including long-haul networks, metropolitan area networks ("MANs"), local area networks ("LANs"), wireless backhaul and fiber-to-the-home ("FTTH") networks.

We provide our solution and products to the exacting requirements of the world's leading optical networking equipment companies, and work closely with customers during the product design and development cycle. This provides us with the ability to respond to the volume production requirements of our customers when their systems are ready for commercial deployment. We are responsive to our customers' volume, quality and time-to-market requirements.

Our broad product portfolio includes solutions for next-generation, all-optical reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexing ("ROADM"), wavelength selective switch ("WSS"), dense and coarse wavelength division multiplexing ("DWDM" and "CWDM," respectively), optical amplification, signal switching and routing, signal conditioning and monitoring, fiber interconnect/termination/distribution and line transmission applications. Our addressable markets include long-haul networks, MANs, LANs, wireless backhaul and FTTH networks. Our customers include telecommunications, data communications and cable TV equipment manufacturers located around the globe.
 
As a photonic foundry, we provide design, integration and optical manufacturing solutions ("OMS") for advanced and cost-effective components and subsystem manufacturing at our principal in-house design, service and manufacturing facility in Zhuhai, China. We offer our customers expert OMS for the production and packaging of highly-integrated optical subsystems and turnkey solutions, based upon a customer's specific product design and
 
 
specifications, as well as solutions with lower levels of component integration for customers that place more value on flexibility than would be provided with turnkey solutions. Our OMS customers include telecommunications, data communications and cable TV equipment manufacturers located around the globe.

Our product portfolio also includes optical transmission products, including fiber optic transmitters, receivers, transceivers and transponders. Optical transmission products convert electronic signals into optical signals and back into electronic signals, thereby facilitating the transmission of information over fiber optic communication networks. Our optical transmission products are used primarily in MAN, LAN, wireless backhaul and FTTH applications. Our transmission products are engineered with varying levels of integration to suit customers. The lowest level of integration involves separate transmitter and receiver modules, which provides our customers the greatest flexibility in product design by allowing them to place the transmitters and the receivers according to their design specifications. Transceivers provide the next level of integration. Transceivers place both the transmitter and receiver in the same package with a dual fiber or connector interface. We also provide transceivers with build-in transmit and receive optical multiplexing and demultiplexing optical filters so only a single fiber or connector interface is needed for bi-directional optical transmission.

We undertake research and development activities at our facilities in Wuhan and Zhuhai, China, in Hsinchu and Taipei, Taiwan, and in Fremont, California.

Our common stock has been quoted on the NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol "OPLK" since our initial public offering in October 2000. Our Internet website address is www.oplink.com. Our website address is given solely for informational purposes; we do not intend, by this reference, that our website should be deemed to be part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or to incorporate the information available at our Internet address into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We file electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. We make these reports available free of charge through our Internet website as soon as reasonably practicable after we have electronically filed such material with the SEC. These reports can also be obtained from the SEC's Internet website at www.sec.gov or at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.

Our fiscal year ends on the Sunday closest to June 30 of each year. Interim fiscal quarters will end on the Sunday closest to each calendar quarter end. In this report, for presentation purposes, we present each fiscal year as if it ended on June 30, and each fiscal quarter as if it ended on September 30, December 31 or March 31, as the case may be. For more information, please see Note 1 of the notes to consolidated financial statements included at the end of this report.

Our Solution

Oplink is a leader in the optical industry and is uniquely positioned to provide unparalleled OMS to our customers for leading edge, integrated solutions that can be rapidly and cost effectively deployed in communications networks around the world. OMS are customized optical solutions to fit a customer's specific needs.

The customized, variety-rich and high reliability requirements of optical equipment manufacturing makes Oplink's OMS service the ideal solution for meeting the needs of system and subsystem companies for cost-effective manufacturing of optical equipment. Oplink possesses the expertise and versatility in product design and development needed to provide the high responsiveness and flexibility expected in today's markets. We are able to offer shortened design cycle times and reduced production costs with our 182,000 square feet Class-100K clean room and a 574,000 square feet manufacturing facility in Zhuhai, China.

Oplink offers a wide range of engineering and design services, which include:
 
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Optic-centric design;
 
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Electrical system design;
 
 
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Software and firmware development;
 
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Thermal management;
 
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Mechanical design;
 
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System integration; and
 
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Standards compliance.
 
Oplink offers customers turnkey solutions including the following value-added services:
 
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Optical Product Design and Optimization. Oplink provides optical design, mechanical design, printed circuit board (PCB) layout and electrical design and software and firmware design services to our customers.
 
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Testing. Oplink carries out full optical and electrical system and component testing for customers to test for reliability, compliance and subsystem integration.
 
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Customer Care. Oplink provides preorder and post-sales customer support, access to engineering support, flexible order fulfillment/shipment and customer training around the globe.
 
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System Integration. Oplink provides full system integration with performance testing, validation and guaranteed product performance. The integration and testing can be performed with any customer specified hardware or designs.
 
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Procurement. Oplink leverages its extensive expertise in the optical industry in its selection of reliable suppliers with the highest quality products for customers.
 
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Expert Assembly and Packaging. Oplink offers extensive experience in integrated assembly and packaging optimization to meet even the most challenging specifications.
 
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Comprehensive Supply Chain Management. Oplink employs a synchronized and fully integrated supply chain model that addresses integration challenges specific to the optical environment as well as key logistical concerns.
 
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Prototyping. To facilitate successful and timely new product introductions, Oplink's manufacturing team rapidly delivers small quantities of products, or prototypes, to test and ensure product functionality and viability prior to volume production.
 
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Global Distribution. Oplink provides customers with the flexible, worldwide shipment of assembled product.
 
Our Strategy
 
Oplink provides highly integrated optical sub-systems, pioneering design services and custom solutions to telecommunication equipment makers. By leveraging our well-established core competencies in optical design and manufacturing, we are able to serve not only equipment makers selling to end-customers, but also module and component makers in need of a manufacturing partner.

The core elements of our strategy are:

Strengthening and expanding our leadership in passive optical products. Oplink has successfully transformed from a pure components maker from its inception through IPO to a supplier today offering a comprehensive product portfolio encompassing passive components, modules and subsystems. We believe that our dedication to developing a diversified product line together with our manufacturing efficiency has well-positioned Oplink to provide system equipment makers with state-of-the-art tools, e.g., Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (ROADM) or its building blocks such as wavelength selective switch (WSS), optical amplifier, tunable filter and optical performance
 
 
monitor, for enhancing bandwidth provisioning and lowering network costs. It is projected that with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth fueled by peer-to-peer networking traffic, file sharing, IPTV, internet video content, online gaming, music downloading and a myriad of other applications, the network infrastructure build-out will continue over the coming years. Oplink believes that a focus on strengthening and expanding our leadership in passive optical products, which unlike the active products are agnostic to the data rate evolution to 40G/100G, is central to our business success in the future.

Innovation through integration and miniaturization based on commercially available technology platforms. Oplink understands that developing new products requires substantial investment with long and uncertain profitability cycles. As such, Oplink seeks to leverage its product development spending through incremental integration/hybridization and miniaturization based on existing technology platforms that are already widely available, including optical thin-film coating, free-space micro-optics, fused fiber optics, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC) or Arrayed-Waveguide Grating (AWG) and Liquid Crystal (LC). In addition, Oplink is proactively exploring optical technologies established outside the telecom industry to cultivate product ideas which could benefit our core business growth.

Growing market share in 10G and higher speed transceivers for metro applications. Oplink is focused on seeking to offer our customers best-in-class pluggable transceivers for 10G and higher data rate metro/aggregation DWDM and CWDM optical networking applications, capitalizing on the increasing demand for bandwidth upgrade and industry-wide transition from traditional larger footprint, higher power consumption 300-pin transponders to smaller, low power dissipating XFP and SFP+ form factors. We believe that our global product development model with integrated engineering teams both in the US and China will enable our worldwide customers to improve time-to-market with best features and performance. To address diverse customer network deployment conditions, we offer a broad portfolio of 10G DWDM and CWDM XFP and SFP+ products with a wide range of operating temperature ranges.

Enhancing engineering capabilities in China. In parallel to building solid manufacturing operations in China, Oplink has recognized the equal importance of leveraging the local talent in product design and development and significantly increased the engineering workforce in our facilities in Zhuhai and Wuhan. While R&D resources in the US participate in customer application support and focuses on developing advanced IP and prototypes, engineering teams in China have taken on an increasingly larger role in new product introduction. As a result, we are able to maintain relative lower overhead expense to better compete in the marketplace and deliver shareholder value.

One-Stop-Shop OMS solution provider. As a founder and leader of the OMS or photonic foundry model, Oplink offers a one-stop-shop approach or turnkey solutions that are customized to our customers' specific needs. One-stop-shopping is being increasingly demanded by our customers, the telecommunications network vendors. Our customers are increasingly requiring optical component suppliers to take advantage of developments in product integration to provide solutions incorporating multiple optical components on a single subsystem or module, thereby reducing the need for component assembly and additional testing. Therefore, we believe that suppliers like Oplink who are able to offer a more integrated manufacturing solution to customers will have an advantage over suppliers who can only offer discrete optical components. The vertical integration of our design and manufacturing capability enables us to consistently deliver the highest quality, lowest cost products to our customers as well as to respond rapidly to design or specification changes which would shorten our customer's time-to-market. We believe that offering a broad range of solutions increases our penetration of existing and new customers.

Continuous focus on our cost structure. Oplink maintains vertically integrated photonic manufacturing facilities in low-cost overseas locations. Our low-cost manufacturing facilities allow us to do full design work in-house which enables us to supply cutting edge products at the lowest possible cost in the industry.

In an industry characterized by intense price competition and at times price erosion, our low-cost structure is a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The source of this sustainability comes from the fact that we believe our design and manufacturing facilities are difficult and expensive to replicate by other firms. Despite our existing streamlined cost structure, we continuously identify and implement cost-saving programs across our organization.

The increase in the worldwide demand for broadband increases the demand for our products. With our vertically integrated cost structure, it further leads to greater capacity utilization and therefore greater operating leverage as fixed costs are spread over a greater number of manufactured units, resulting in improved gross margins.
 
 
Customer satisfaction. Oplink places a high value on our relationships with our customers around the world, large and small. To date, Oplink has created well over 10,000 customized product specifications to fulfill customers' exacting requirements. We believe building a long-term mutual trust with our customers is instrumental to nurture sustainable business growth and cultivate a healthy ecosystem.
 
Products and Technologies
 
We provide a broad line of fiber optic subsystems and components designed to satisfy the needs of communications equipment suppliers. We categorize our products by the functionalities provided within a network, namely, bandwidth creation, bandwidth management, optical interconnect and transmission products. Some of our products have attributes that combine multiple functions. Some of our bandwidth creation and bandwidth management products utilize telecommunication interfaces to provide local or remote reporting and control to enhance their function in an optical network.
 
Bandwidth Creation Products
 
Communications equipment suppliers use our bandwidth creation products to expand the capacity and/or extend the coverage of their customers' networks. Other bandwidth creation products enable optical signals to travel along more complex network architectures such as mesh networks and metro networks, or enable optical signals to travel greater distances over traditional long haul networks.
 
Wavelength Expansion Products. In fiber optic communications, different signals are transmitted over multiple wavelengths. With increases in the number of wavelengths and data rates, spacing between the channel wavelengths narrows and it becomes increasingly difficult to separate and combine them. We offer wavelength expansion products that are designed to enable the combination and separation of  individual wavelengths in all parts of the network including emerging access, metro networks and long haul networks. We offer the following products to handle these tasks:

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Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexers. A dense wavelength division multiplexer, or DWDM, is a solution for scalable, reliable, protocol independent bandwidth creation. A DWDM is an integrated optical module or subsystem that combines two or more wavelengths for transmission over a single fiber or separates these wavelengths at the receiving end. Our DWDM module and subsystem solutions are derived from an array of high performance technologies including thin-film filters and arrayed waveguide grating, or AWG. Our solutions are available in a variety of channel spacings.
 
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Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexers. A coarse wavelength division multiplexer, or CWDM, is a solution for cost-effective bandwidth creation in the mobile backhaul, access, cable TV and metro environments. A CWDM is an integrated Mux/Demux module or subsystem that combines/separates, respectively, two or more wavelengths at a channel spacing that is defined much wider than that for standard DWDM.
 
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Band Wavelength Division Multiplexers. Band wavelength division multiplexer, or BWDM, products help manage multiple International Telecommunication Union, or ITU, channels within Mux/Demux or optical add/drop applications. BWDM products facilitate the design of flexible (pay as you grow) low loss architectures as well as enable the design of complex mesh and ring networks. We offer a variety of BWDM products for the 50, 100 and 200 GHz channel spacing plans.
 
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DWDM Interleavers. A DWDM interleaver is an optical component that combines two sets of light signals each spaced at alternating ITU channel numbers from two separate fibers into a single fiber, which effectively doubles the capacity of the optical network system, or conversely, separates a single light source into two sets of alternately spaced signals. This unique bandwidth doubling capability, together with the AWG module, enables a cost-effective Mux/Demux solution for network operators with the pay-as-you-grow upgrade option for today's 50GHz grid network. Our interleaver has also facilitated the deployment of network that is founded on Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC).
 
Optical Amplification Products. Optical fiber amplifiers are widely deployed in optical communications networks to enhance the optical signal power. Optical signals naturally lose power and eventually are lost after traveling a long distance along an optical fiber in traditional long haul networks. In emerging access or metro 
   
 
networks, optical signals lose power also at add/drop nodes, which are those locations in a network where wavelength channels enter or exit the node. Such attenuated optical signal can be intensified with Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers, or EDFAs, or with Raman amplifiers, neither of which require optical-to-electrical conversion. The amplifiers are arranged along fiber cable lines at regular intervals in long haul networks or at selected nodes in access and metro networks to enable the optical signal to reach its destination clearly. A typical amplifier consists of a fiber, one or multiple pump lasers and a number of passive fiber optic components. We offer both the EDFA and Raman amplification products except the standalone third party pump laser. Our optical amplification products include the following:
 
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Gain Blocks. Gain blocks are integrated optical subsystem building blocks consisting of Erbium Doped Fibers ("EDFs"), one or multiple pump lasers and passive fiber optic amplifier components to boost the intensity of an incoming optical signal. The electronic control circuit is excluded from the gain block. Pump lasers are active optical components used in optical amplifiers such as EDFAs to amplify or regenerate light signals that naturally suffer loss while traveling over distance within an optical network.
 
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EDFAs. Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers are optical subsystems that employ, in addition to all the elements used in a gain block, advanced electronics, firmware and software to control the optical gain of an incoming optical signal.
 
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Wavelength Division Multiplexers ("WDM") Pump/Signal Combiners. Micro-optic WDM pump/signal combiners are components that combine power for the optical amplifier. They are used to efficiently combine signal light with pump laser sources.
 
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Integrated Hybrid Components. These components can combine the functionality of two or more optical components, including isolator, tap coupler and WDM pump/signal combiner. The main advantage of hybrid components is that they minimize the amplifier package size, increase reliability and reduce manufacturing cost.
 
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WDM Pump Combiners. WDM pump combiners are used to increase the power of an optical amplifier by combining multiple pump lasers of different wavelengths into one common pump source for amplification.
 
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Polarization Beam Combiners. Polarization beam combiners are optical components that combine two light sources of different or same wavelengths but orthogonal polarizations to increase the power output of an optical amplifier.
 
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Gain Flattening Filters. Gain flattening filters are used to ensure that signals are amplified by equal amounts. Our thin film filter technology employs multiple layers of optical materials on glass substrate to adjust optical output at different wavelengths to meet the needs of high power amplifiers.
 
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Isolators. Isolators are fiber optic devices that transmit light in only one direction, thus preventing unwanted reflected light from returning to its laser source or EDF. Reflected light can interfere with a laser's performance and create noise, which can impair system performance in optical networks.
 
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Tap Couplers. Tap couplers transfer a small amount of optical signals from the main fiber into a secondary fiber. They are widely used for system monitoring purposes or for power splitting and have a very low insertion loss.
 
Bandwidth Management Products
 
Communications equipment suppliers use our bandwidth management products to add intelligence and flexibility to their systems, which allows communications service providers to control the direction, condition the amplitude or phase, and monitor the performance of light signals throughout the optical network.

Optical Switching and Routing Products. As optical networks become more complex, there is an increasing demand to provide switching and routing capability to direct optical signals across multiple points in the network. We supply optical fiber switching and routing products that provide all-optical signal switching between fibers for up to sixty-four different end destinations. Our optical switching and routing products include the following:
 
 
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Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers. Optical add/drop multiplexers, or OADMs, are used when part of the information from an optical signal carried on the network is demultiplexed, or dropped, at an intermediate point and different information is multiplexed, or added, for subsequent transmission. The remaining traffic passes through the multiplexer without additional processing. The OADM is typically used for rerouting a number of specific optical wavelengths with different end destinations. OADMs can also include other optical components such as optical conditioning products or optical monitoring products for increased functionality.
 
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Wavelength Selective Switches. WSS provides network operators the ability to remotely and dynamically distribute (i.e., mux/demux and switch), attenuate and block an arbitrary combination of a set of signal wavelengths within a modern ring or mesh network node. Such complex, composite per-wavelength multiplexing, switching and conditioning functionality is achieved all in the optical domain without the optical-to-electrical-to-optical (OEO) conversion. We provide liquid crystal based in-house solutions that address such fast growing needs in both the high-degree core and low-degree edge networks as operators emphasize flexibility and cost performance in wavelength provisioning.
 
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Reconfigurable OADMs ("ROADMs"). ROADMs combine OADM functionality, WSS, signal monitoring product, electronic control circuitry, integrated firmware and software to add remote configuration and provisioning flexibility to the network by allowing the dynamic add/drop of selected optical wavelengths having variable amplitudes for different end destinations.
 
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Switches. Our optical switches, based on opto-mechanical designs, are devices that can direct optical signals to different end destinations. We offer a variety of switch configurations ranging from the most simplistic 1x1 (on-and-off), 1x2 and dual 1x2 (integrated two 1x2's in 1 package) through 2x2, 1x4, 1x8 and 1x16 to the most sophisticated 1x64 that is used in remote fiber test systems for performance monitoring and fault locating to reduce network down time and save operational cost in Passive Optical Network (PON), a.k.a. FTTH network.
 
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Circulators. Circulators consist of sophisticated micro-optic components that are used to re-direct optical signals. Circulators are used in dispersion compensation devices that have been widely deployed in modern non-coherent 40G networks, inside some of the WSS products, and in applications where bi-directional signal transmission is called for, e.g. WDM or DWDM PON.
 
Wavelength Conditioning Products. For reliable fiber optic communication systems, the light signal intensity needs to be controlled. For example, excess input power can overload the receivers and an optical attenuator is used to reduce the input signal to the level required by the receiver. Wavelength conditioning products are used in optical networks along with DWDM multiplexers and demultiplexers, optical amplifiers, and re-configurable optical add drop multiplexers to provide the power control functions. Our wavelength conditioning products include the following:
 
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Variable Optical Attenuators. Variable optical attenuators, or VOAs, are optical devices that reduce the power of the optical signal in DWDM networks to ensure that all optical signals within a network have desired power. The amount of power reduction of a particular optical signal can be adjusted to match the power of other optical signals in the network thereby enhancing network performance and service quality.
 
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Variable Multiplexers. Variable Multiplexers combine multiple ITU channel signals along with the function of adjusting the power level. The subsystems attenuate the power level of individual ITU signals to achieve equalization of the spectrum or blocking specific channels.
 
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Dynamic Band Equalization Products. Dynamic band equalization products monitor and adjust power levels of multiple bands of ITU channels. These subsystems separate multiple ITU channels into bands of channels, and then monitor and control the power levels of these bands through standard telecommunication interfaces such as RS232 and then combine these multiple bands onto a single fiber. They are used for power equalization in various parts of the network including metro and long haul.
 
 
Wavelength Performance Monitoring and Protection Products. The ability to monitor wavelengths within an optical network enables service providers to maintain quality of service even in the event of an interruption in the signal path, such as a cut in the fiber. It is significantly more difficult to monitor signal flow in optical systems as compared to electrical systems. Monitoring requires that optical signals be extracted from the fiber without interfering with the optical signal traveling through the same fiber.
 
We offer the following products that enable service providers to monitor network performance and make necessary decisions for traffic flow and network efficiency:
 
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Supervisory Channel WDM. Our supervisory channel WDM is an integrated component that separates the network supervisory channel from the signal channels for use in monitoring the network performance.
 
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Integrated WDM Monitor Arrays. Our integrated WDM monitor arrays convert optical signals into electrical signals for network wavelength selective power monitoring. This module combines multiple network power monitoring functions in a single module and integrates WDM filters and third-party photo detectors, a device supplied by other optical component manufacturers that receives a light signal in an optical network and converts it into an electrical signal. These integrated modules allow communications service providers to monitor whether or not signals are being transmitted properly through the network.
 
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Integrated Tap Monitor Arrays. Our integrated tap monitor arrays convert optical signals into electrical signals for network signal power monitoring. This module integrates a tap coupler, a device that splits the light power, and third-party photo detectors, a device supplied by other optical component manufacturers that receives a light signal in an optical network and converts it into an electrical signal. These integrated modules allow communications service providers to monitor whether or not optical signals are being transmitted properly through the network.
 
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Optical Channel Monitors ("OCM"). Our OCM provides real-time feedback about system performance and adds intelligence to network element management. It uses a single third-party tunable optical filter to sweep through all optical channels, measures the filtered signal with a single photo detector, analyzes the measured spectrum with proprietary algorithm and reports the signal power, optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), signal wavelength, signal modulate rate, and signal fidelity.
 
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Wavelength Protection Subsystems. Our multi-channel wavelength protection subsystems are integrated solutions that combine tap couplers, splitters, switches, electronics, firmware, software and third-party photo detectors. These subsystems integrate network switching protection functions and monitor optical signal quality such as optical power in response to unexpected disruption in the optical network. They provide redundant path protection with fast routing and switching with network fault management and diagnostic capability.
 
Optical Interconnect Products

The acquisition of Emit Technology Co., Ltd. ("Emit") in early 2010 enabled Oplink to offer communications system equipment makers a broadened suite of precision-made, cost-effective and reliable optical connectivity products to establish multiple-use, quick pluggable fiber links among network devices for bandwidth deployment, as well as in a test and measurement environment for a wide range of system design and service applications.

Connectors and Adapters. Offered in different types and form factors to meet the varying application needs, optical connectors provide a precise and reliable means to terminate the fiber end, whereas adapters provide a pluggable solution for a pair of connectors to be physically coupled repeatedly at consistently low optical power loss.

Fixed Attenuators. Designed to reduce a pre-determined amount of light through the fiber to the exact level for added tolerance in system link budget, these in-line pluggable style fixed attenuators offer a compact, high accuracy solution for facile integration into existing systems.
 
 
Patchcords. These are simplex or duplex fiber optic cables assembled at various specified lengths and jacket ratings, and terminated with connectors of the same or different types at the two ends, providing light connectivity that endures environmental factors and human handling.

Termination and Distribution Enclosures. To ensure end-to-end signal integrity amid the increasing demand for better space utilization, this line of products offer a flexible economic solution in rack-, wall- or pole-mountable enclosures for organizing and protecting fiber terminations, splices and cable distribution featuring fiber bend radius control and strain/slack management in indoor and outdoor applications.

Transmission Products
 
The acquisition of Optical Communication Products, Inc. ("OCP") in 2007 and continuing product development have enabled Oplink to offer a portfolio of transmission products that broaden the addressable markets as well as the range of solutions that Oplink can now offer its customers. Oplink's transmission products consists of a comprehensive line of high-performance fiber optic modules, including fiber optic transmitters, receivers, transceivers, and transponders, primarily for use in MAN, LAN, and FTTH applications. Fiber optic modules are integrated optoelectronic components and integrated circuits with embedded control and software that are used to enable network equipment to transmit data over long distance of optical fiber. Our transmission products convert electronic signals into optical signals and back into electronic signals often with build-in microcontroller based signal monitoring and conditioning, facilitating the transmission of information over fiber optic communication networks.
 
SFP Transceivers. Small form-factor pluggable, or SFP, transceivers are "hot-pluggable" optical transceivers that can be removed or inserted into the equipment without turning off the power of the system. This feature allows Oplink's customers to readily reconfigure their systems without interrupting their network services, thereby, eliminating system downtime during upgrades and maintenance. SFP Transceivers are for 4Gbps transmission speed or below. Oplink's cam latches are color coded to provide the end-user with an easy way to identify module types in an installed system.
 
SFP+ Transceivers. Enhanced small form-factor pluggable, or SFP+, transceivers are similar products to SFP while delivering the signal at 6-10Gbps. It is also "hot-pluggable" that can be removed or inserted into the equipment without turning off the power of the system. They are initially deployed for 10Gbps LAN, SAN (storage area network) and datacenter applications. With most efficient measurement in Gbps per watt per cubic centimeters, they are increasingly deployed for broader range of applications, including MAN and WDM optical networking applications.  
 
XFP Transceivers. 10 Gigabit small form-factor pluggable is a hot-pluggable, protocol-independent optical transceiver with build-in clock and data recovery circuits for 10 Gigabit per second SONET/SDH, Fiber Channel, gigabit Ethernet, 10 gigabit Ethernet and other applications, including CWDM and DWDM optical networks. It includes digital diagnostics and the electrical interface specification is a portion of the XFP Multi Source Agreement specification.
 
CWDM Transceivers. Coarse wavelength division multiplexing, or CWDM, transceivers allow the aggregation of multiple channels of optical signals onto a single optical fiber by utilizing different wavelengths. The CWDM transceivers use lasers with wide channel wavelength spacing, typically 20 nm, which allows the equipment to achieve a lower overall system cost. This lower cost is the result of a lower transmitter cost with relaxed temperature and wavelength control, as well as a lower optical MUX/DMUX cost due to wider tolerance on the wavelength stability and bandwidth.
 
Oplink's CWDM transceivers are available in all the common industry standard transceiver footprints of 1x9, 2x9, GBIC, SFF, SFP,  XFP and SFP+, and provide up to 16 wavelength channels at nominally 1271nm, 1291nm, 1311nm, 1331nm, 1351nm, 1371nm, 1391nm, 1411nm, 1471 nm, 1491 nm, 1511 nm, 1531 nm, 1551 nm, 1571 nm, 1591 nm, and 1611 nm. They are available in a multi-rate format that allows operation at all speeds from 125 Mb/s Fast Ethernet up to 10Gb/s 10GbE and OC-192 SONET/SDH. Oplink's CWDM transceiver products are available in industrial operating temperature option (-40 to +85 degrees Celsius).
 
  
Bi-Directional Transceivers. Bi-Directional transceivers allow full duplex transmission utilizing a single fiber. These transceivers incorporate lasers, receivers and optical filters, allowing simultaneous transmission and reception from a single port or a single fiber. The advantage of Bi-Directional transceiver modules is lower material cost, lower installation cost and lower operational cost for fiber installations, as a result of having to purchase, install, maintain, and administer fewer fibers.
 
Oplink's Bi-Directional transceivers are available in industry standard pluggable modules (SFP) and are compliant to the industry standard known as EFM (Ethernet for First Mile). The data transmission rates cover 125Mbps to 2.5Gbps for Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet and SONET/SDH applications. Our Bi-Directional product families are available in an industrial operating temperature option (−40 to +85 degree Celsius).
 
DWDM Transceivers. Dense wavelength division multiplexing, or DWDM, transceivers allow the aggregation of great channel number of optical signals onto single fiber by utilizing different wavelengths with close spacing. The DWDM transceivers use lasers with narrow channel wavelength spacing, typically 0.8nm or 0.4nm. DWDM transceivers enable an optical transport system to increase the transmission capacity significantly over a single fiber.
 
Oplink's DWDM transceivers are available in the SFP, XFP and SFP+ package, and provide up to 88 wavelength channels. DWDM SFP transceivers are available in a multi-rate format that allows operation at all speeds from 125Mb/s up to 2.5Gb/s and accommodate reaches up to 200km. DWDM XFP transceivers are available to support 10GbE and OC192 SONET data rate with or without forward error correction (FEC) at modulation speed up to 11.3Gbps. Both DWDM SFP and XFP transceivers are available for industrial temperature operation (−40 to +85 degree Celsius). DWDM SFP+ transceivers are available to support 10GbE applications with smallest size and lowest power dissipation among all 10Gbps transceivers.
 
Optical Supervisory Channel Transceivers. Optical supervisory channel transceiver is an optical transceiver operating at a pre-determined wavelength outside the EDFA band, and are used to transmit and receive optical channel monitoring messages between amplification and add/drop sites, and throughout the optical networking terminals.
 
GEPON Products. Oplink's GEPON product offering supports ONU (optical network unit) and OLT (optical line terminal) applications. The GEPON modules transmit a duplex 1.25Gb/s optical signal over a single fiber between the OLT and ONU modules for both 10 kilometer and 20 kilometer transmission ranges. The OLT module transmits via a 1490nm laser source and the ONU unit transmits via a 1310nm laser source. Oplink also offers "Turbo GEPON" transceivers that support 2x GbE data rate for increased bandwidth capacity.  

40G/100G Transceiver Products. Oplink is in development of state-of-the-art high-data rate transceiver products that enables transmission of optical signals at 40Gbps and 100Gbps over a single fiber. A typical 40G or 100G transceiver includes build-in wavelength division multiplexing of multiple channels of lower speed optical signals for the transmitter side, and demultiplexing of composite multiple channels of lower speed optical signals on the receiver side. With high-degree of integration of optical WDM components with optoelectronics devices, mixed-signal integrated circuits and embedded micro-controller, 40G/100G transceivers enable  cost efficient deployment of high bandwidth networking systems.
 
Customers

We sell our products worldwide to telecommunications, data communications and cable TV equipment manufacturers around the globe. In certain cases, we sell our products to our competitors or other component manufacturers for their resale or integration into their own products. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011, we sold our products to over 525 companies worldwide. Our top five customers, although not the same five customers for each period, together accounted for 52%, 53%, and 60% of our revenues in the fiscal years ended June 30, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Tellabs Operations, Inc. ("Tellabs") and Hua Wei Technologies Co. Ltd. ("Huawei") each accounted for greater than 10% of our revenues for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2011, 2010 and 2009. We expect that the majority of our revenues will continue to depend on sales to a relatively small number of customers, although potentially not the same customers period to period. See "Concentration of Credit Risk" under Note 2 "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
 
Backlog
 
We are substantially dependent upon orders we receive and fill on a short-term basis. We do not have contracts with our customers that provide any assurance of future sales, and sales are typically made pursuant to individual purchase orders, often with extremely short lead times, and which are frequently subject to revision or cancellation. Because of the possibility of changes in delivery or acceptance schedules, cancellations of orders, returns or price reductions, we do not believe that backlog is a reliable indicator of our future revenues.

 Marketing, Sales and Customer Support
 
We market and sell our products through both direct sales and distribution channels. As of June 30, 2011, we employed 45 people in sales, marketing, and customer service and support in the U.S. and 40 people in sales and marketing in Asia, who manage key customer accounts and support our direct sales force, sales representatives and distributors. We currently have outside sales representatives and/or distributors selling our products in India, Israel, Italy, Japan and South Korea.
 
Our marketing team promotes our products within the communications industry. We gather and analyze market research data with the intent to become a market-driven supplier that provides cost-effective, value-add solutions to our customer base. Our marketing professionals help us to identify and define next-generation products by working closely with our customers and our research and development engineers. They also coordinate our participation in trade shows and design and implement our advertising effort. Our website provides customers with a comprehensive listing of our broad product portfolio. We provide extensive technical support to our customers during their design and qualification process as well as ongoing post-sales support.
 
Research and Development
 
As of June 30, 2011, we had 567 engineers involved in research and development of our products. Our research and development activities are focused on enhancing our current optical communications products and developing new technologies and products to serve the current and next-generation communication markets. Our engineering team has extensive design, packaging, processing, electrical, mechanical, firmware and software experience in the fields of fiber optic components, integrated optic interfaces and systems.

Our primary product research and development facilities are located in Fremont, California and Wuhan, China.We also perform product research and development at our facilities in Zhuhai, China, Hsinchu, Taiwan, and Fremont, California. Our research and development expenses, including non-cash compensation expense, was $18.2 million, $11.2 million and $11.8 million for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.  
 
Manufacturing
 
We currently manufacture substantially all of our subsystems, modules and components at our manufacturing facilities in Zhuhai, China. We manufacture our optical interconnect products at our facility in Taipei, Taiwan. We maintain a pilot line at our headquarters in Fremont, California. Our facility in the Zhuhai Free Trade Zone maintains complete in-house manufacturing capabilities including component and module design, integration, production and testing. We plan to continue to invest resources in manufacturing management, engineering and quality control. We also plan to continue to develop automated manufacturing systems to provide higher throughput, improve yields and reduce manufacturing costs.
 
We own our facility in the Zhuhai Free Trade Zone totaling approximately 787,000 square feet. Our facility in the Zhuhai Free Trade Zone is used for administration, manufacturing, research and development and employee living quarters. We also own the Taipei facility totaling approximately 30,000 square feet which maintains complete in-house manufacturing capabilities for our optical interconnect products including product design, supply chain management, quality control, manufacturing and sales and marketing.
 
A number of critical raw materials used in manufacturing our products are acquired from single or limited source suppliers. The inability to obtain sufficient quantities of those materials may result in delays, increased costs and reductions in our product shipments.
 
 
We are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the storage, use, discharge and disposal of toxic or otherwise hazardous or regulated chemicals or materials used in our manufacturing processes. To date, such laws and regulations have not materially affected our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position. We do not anticipate any material capital expenditures for environmental control facilities for the foreseeable future.

Quality
 
We have established a quality management system to assure that the products we provide to our customers meet or exceed industry standards. Oplink's products undergo rigid qualification tests and studies and are conducted according to Telcordia standards. Oplink's ongoing reliability testing builds upon industry standards to establish continuous reliability improvements through intensive tests and performance measures. These systems are based on the international standard ISO 9001. Our U.S. headquarters are third-party certified to the ISO 9001-2008 standard and TL 9000 Telecommunications quality standard. Our manufacturing operations at Zhuhai, China are third-party certified to the ISO 9001-2008 standard, TL 9000 Telecommunications quality standard, and ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 environmental management standards.
 
Competition
 
The markets in which we sell our products are highly competitive. Our overall competitive position depends upon a number of factors, including:
 
-  
competitive pricing;
 
-  
the quality of our manufacturing processes and products;
 
-  
the breadth of our product line;
 
-  
offering short-lead times;
 
-  
availability, performance and reliability of our products;
 
-  
our ability to participate in the growth of emerging technologies;
 
-  
the ability to win designs through prototyping;
 
-  
established relationships with key customers;
 
-  
ability to provide technical design support;
 
-  
the compatibility of our products with existing communications networks;
 
-  
manufacturing capacity and capability; and
 
-  
our financial strength.
 
We believe that our principal competitors are the major manufacturers of optical subsystems and components, including both vendors selling to third parties and business divisions within communications equipment suppliers. The market for fiber optic modules is highly competitive and we expect competition to intensify in the future. Our primary competitors include AFOP, Avago Technologies, DiCon Fiberoptics, Sumitomo Electric, FDK Corporation, Finisar, Furukawa, NEL Hitachi Cable, NeoPhotonics, Oclaro, OpNext, Santec Corporation, JDS Uniphase Corporation, Accelink, O-Net, Source Photonics and numerous optical component manufacturers in China. We also face indirect competition from public and private companies providing non-fiber optic networking products that address the same networking needs that our products address.
 
 
Many of our current competitors and potential competitors have significantly greater financial, technical, sales and marketing resources than we do. As a result, these competitors are able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, sale and support of their products. In addition, those of our competitors that have large market capitalization or cash reserves are in a much better position to acquire other companies in order to gain new technologies or products that may displace our products. Any of these potential acquisitions could give our competitors a strategic advantage. In addition, many of our competitors have much greater brand name recognition, more extensive customer bases, more developed distribution channels and broader product offerings than we do. These companies can use their broader customer bases and product offerings and adopt aggressive pricing policies to gain market share.

Intellectual Property
 
As of June 30, 2011, we had been granted 188 issued patents and had 7 patent applications pending with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office for various technologies and products. The terms of our patents are computed in accordance with United States federal patent statutes. In general, this means that a patent will have a term expiring twenty years from its filing date. In addition, we currently have 25 issued patents and 3 pending patent applications in the People's Republic of China, 5 issued patents in Taiwan and 3 issued patents in Canada.
 
While we rely on patent, copyright, trade secret and trademark law and restrictions on disclosure to protect our technology, we believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel, new product developments, frequent product enhancements and reliable product maintenance are essential to establishing and maintaining a technology leadership position. We cannot assure you that others will not develop technologies that are similar or superior to our technology.

Protecting our intellectual property is critical to the success of our business. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, various unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our products or technology. Policing unauthorized use of our products is difficult, and there can be no assurance that the steps taken by us will prevent misappropriation of our technology. Moreover, the laws of some foreign countries, including China, do not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States.

Litigation regarding intellectual property rights is common in the optical communications industry. We cannot make any assurances that third parties will not claim infringement by us with respect to our technology. Any such claims, with or without merit, could be time-consuming to defend, result in costly litigation, divert management's attention and resources, cause product shipment delays or require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements. Such royalty or licensing agreements, if required, may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all. A successful claim of product infringement against us and our failure or inability to license the infringed or similar technology could seriously harm our financial condition.
 
Employees

As of June 30, 2011, Oplink had 127 full-time employees located in the United States and 3,443 full-time employees located in Asia. None of our employees in the United States are represented by a labor union. All of our employees in China are represented by a labor union formed on November 6, 2001, pursuant to the requirements of the China's Labor Union Law. We have not experienced any work stoppages, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good.

Financial Information About Geographic Areas
 
The geographic breakdown of revenues by customers' bill-to location is as follows (in thousands):
 
   
Years Ended June 30,
 
   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
Revenues:
                 
United States
  $ 71,799     $ 46,963     $ 48,154  
China
    44,270       34,698       34,529  
Europe
    32,821       23,644       23,606  
Japan
    19,603       16,624       17,462  
Other
    30,310       16,880       19,981  
Totals
  $ 198,803     $ 138,809     $ 143,732  
 
 
The breakdown of property, plant and equipment, net by geographical location is as follows (in thousands):
 
   
June 30,
 
   
2011
   
2010
 
             
China
  $ 26,273     $ 23,325  
United States
    5,974       5,959  
Taiwan
    4,616       4,079  
Totals
  $ 36,863     $ 33,363  
 
Executive Officers
 
The following table sets forth certain information regarding our executive officers as of August 31, 2011:
 
Name
Age
Position
Joseph Y. Liu
60
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Shirley Yin
43
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Peter Lee
37
Chief Operating Officer
River Gong
48
Senior Vice President, Worldwide Sales
Stephen M. Welles
43
Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary

Joseph Y. Liu, one of our founders, has served as our Chief Executive Officer since October 2002, and has served as a member of our Board of Directors since our inception in 1995, serving as Chairman of the Board since November 2009. Mr. Liu also served as our Chief Executive Officer from September 1999 to November 2001, and served as our Chairman of the Board from our inception in 1995 through May 2000 and again from November 2001 to August 2002. Mr. Liu currently serves on the board of directors of BCD Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd., a NASDAQ-listed analog device company, and has done so since October 2006. From 1994 to 1995, Mr. Liu was the General Partner of Techlink Technology Ventures. Prior to 1994, Mr. Liu spent ten years as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Techlink Semiconductor and Equipment Corp., a semiconductor equipment and technology company. Mr. Liu received his B.S. from Chinese Cultural University, Taiwan and his M.S. from California State University, Chico.
 
Shirley Yin has served as our Chief Financial Officer since August 2007. Ms. Yin joined Oplink in June 2000 as our Accounting Manager and was promoted to Controller in October 2003. From July 2007 to August 2007, Ms. Yin held the position of Vice President, Finance, and Acting Chief Financial Officer. Before joining Oplink, Ms. Yin spent three years at PricewaterhouseCoopers as a Business Assurance Senior Associate. She is a Certified Public Accountant. Ms. Yin received a Bachelor of Economics in Business Management from Zhongshan University in China and her M.S. in Accountancy from the University of Southern California.
 
Peter Lee has served as our Chief Operating Officer since August 2008.  Mr. Lee joined Oplink in August 2000 and held positions as Production Manager, Product Engineering Manager, Director of Product Engineering and since April 2005, Senior Director of Product Line Management ("PLM") and Operations. In May 2007, Mr. Lee was promoted to Vice President of Marketing and PLM, responsible for managing activities in PLM, manufacturing, research and development and strategic planning. Mr. Lee received his B.S. in Electrical Engineering from National Taiwan University and his M.S. in Electrical Engineering from Columbia University.

River Gong, our Senior Vice President of Worldwide Sales, has served as our head of sales since February 2003. From January 2001 to February 2003, Ms. Gong served as our Sr. Director of Sales, from May 1999 to January 2001 she was Director of Sales, and from January 1998 to May 1999 she was Sales Manager. Prior to joining Oplink, Ms. Gong was Division Manager and Sales Manager of MP Fiber Optics (now Global Opticom), a fiber optics company, from January 1995 to December 1997. Prior to that, she was an architect in China for five years. Ms. Gong received her B.S. in Architecture from Harbin Institute University.
 
 
Stephen M. Welles has served as our Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since May 2008.  Mr. Welles was an associate and of counsel with Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati in Palo Alto, California from October 1999 to April 2008, and was an associate with Ropes & Gray in Boston, Massachusetts from September 1996 to September 1999. He received his J.D. from Georgetown University and a B.A. in Economics from Boston College.

Directors

The following table sets forth certain information regarding our directors as of August 31, 2011:

Name
Age
Position
Joseph Y. Liu
 60
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Chieh Chang
 59
Director
Tim Christoffersen
 69
Director
Jesse W. Jack
 75
Director
Hua Lee
 59
Director

Joseph Y. Liu's biography is set forth above under 'Executive Officers."
 
Chieh Chang has been a member of our Board of Directors since September 1995. Mr. Chang has served as Chief Executive Officer of BCD Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd., a NASDAQ-listed analog device company, since September 2008. Mr. Chang served on the board of directors of Genesis Microchip Inc., a NASDAQ-listed semiconductor company, from November 2004 until its acquisition by STMicroelectronics in January 2008. From February 2000 to February 2003, Mr. Chang served as Chief Executive Officer of Programmable Microelectronics Company, Inc. (now Chingis Technology Corporation), a fabless semiconductor design company. From April 1992 to August 1996, Mr. Chang was the Director of Technology at Cirrus Logic, Inc., a semiconductor company. Mr. Chang received his B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the National Taiwan University and his M.S. in Electrical Engineering from University of California, Los Angeles.
 
Tim Christoffersen has been a member of our Board of Directors since November 2009. Mr. Christoffersen served on the board of directors of Genesis Microchip Inc. from August 2002 until January 2008. From June 2004 to April 2006, Mr. Christoffersen was Chief Financial Officer of Monolithic Power Systems, Inc. (MPS), a semiconductor company, and served on MPS's board of directors from March 2004 to July 2004. Mr. Christoffersen served as a financial consultant to technology companies from 1999 to 2004. Prior to that, Mr. Christoffersen served as Chief Financial Officer of NeoParadigm Labs, Inc. from 1998 to 1999 and as Chief Financial Officer of Chips and Technologies, Inc. from 1994 to 1998. Mr. Christoffersen was Executive Vice President, Director and Chief Operating Officer of Resonex, Inc. from 1991 to 1992. From 1986 to 1991, Mr. Christoffersen held several managerial positions with Ford Motor Company. Mr. Christoffersen is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Stanford University where he earned a B.A. in Economics. He also holds a Master's degree in Divinity from Union Theological Seminary in New York City.
 
Jesse W. Jack has been a member of our Board of Directors since July 2002. Since January 2003, Mr. Jack has been self-employed as an attorney with The Law Offices of Jesse Jack. He is also the Vice President and General Counsel for I-Bus Corporation, a privately held company. From 1994 until January 2003, Mr. Jack was a partner in the law firm of Jack & Keegan, a California Limited Liability Partnership. Mr. Jack served on the board of directors of The Parkinson's Institute from 1988 through 2000. Mr. Jack received his B.S. from California State University, San Jose and his J.D. from Hastings College of Law.
 
Hua Lee has been a member of our Board of Directors since February 2006. Mr. Lee has been Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara since 1990. Prior to his tenure at the University of California, Santa Barbara, he was on the faculty of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Mr. Lee received his B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from the National Taiwan University, and M.S. and PhD in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of California, Santa Barbara.
 
 
Item 1A - Risk Factors

The following risk factors and other information included in this report should be carefully considered. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we presently deem less significant may also impair our business operations. If any of the events or circumstances described in the following risk factors actually occurs, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

A description of the risks and uncertainties associated with our business is set forth below. You should carefully consider such risks and uncertainties, together with the other information contained in this report and in our other public filings. If any of such risks and uncertainties actually occurs, our business, financial condition or operating results could differ materially from the plans, projections and other forward-looking statements included in the section titled "management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and elsewhere in this report and in our other public filings. The following is a discussion that highlights some of these risks. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business, operations or financial results.

We operate in a rapidly changing environment that involves many risks, some of which are beyond our control. The following is a discussion that highlights some of these risks. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business, operations or financial results.
 
Our quarterly revenues and operating results may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter, which may cause our stock price to drop.

It is difficult to forecast our revenues accurately. Our revenues, expenses and operating results have varied significantly from quarter to quarter in the past and may continue to fluctuate significantly in the future. The factors that are likely to cause these variations include, among others:

-  
current uncertain macro-economic climate could lead to reduced demand from our customers, increased price competition for our products, and increased risk of excess and obsolete inventories;

-  
fluctuations in demand for, and sales of, our products;

-  
declines in the average selling prices of our products;

-  
fluctuations in the mix of products sold during a quarter (for example, the percentage of total sales represented by lower margin products such as our ROADM products and line transmission applications products);
 
-  
competitive factors in the fiber optic components and subsystems market, including introductions of new products, new technologies and product enhancements by competitors, consolidation of competitors, customers and service provider end users and pricing pressures;

-  
the ability of our manufacturing operations in China to timely produce and deliver products in the quantity and of the quality our customers require;

-  
our inability to cut costs quickly in the event of market or demand downturns, due to the fact that a high percentage of our expenses, including those related to manufacturing, engineering, research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative functions, are fixed in the short term;

-  
the availability of materials and components used in our products or increases in the prices of these materials;

-  
our ability to develop, introduce, manufacture and ship new and enhanced optical networking products in a timely manner and in production quantities without defects or other quality issues; and
 
-  
costs associated with, and the outcomes of, any intellectual property or other litigation to which we may be a party.
 

We expect volatility in our stock price, which could cause you to lose all or part of your investment.

We expect the market price of our common stock to fluctuate significantly. For example, the market price of our common stock has fluctuated from an intra-day low of $5.05 in November 2008 to a recent intra-day high of $29.48 on February 18, 2011. The closing sale price of our common stock on September 15, 2011 was $16.71. These fluctuations may occur in response to a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including:

-  
quarterly variations in our operating results;
 
-  
changes in financial estimates by securities analysts and/or our failure to meet estimates;

-  
changes in market values of comparable companies;

-  
announcements by our competitors or us of new products or of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships or joint ventures;

-  
any loss by us of a major customer;

-  
economic fluctuations in the market for optical communications products, or in the telecommunications industry generally;

-  
the outcome of, and costs associated with, any litigation to which we are or may become a party;

-  
departures of key management or engineering personnel; and

-  
future sales of our common stock.

We are subject to the cyclical nature of the telecommunications equipment market and any future downturn may reduce demand for our products and revenue.

The markets in which we compete are tied to the aggregate capital expenditures by carriers as they build out and upgrade their network infrastructure. These markets are highly cyclical and characterized by constant and rapid technological change, price erosion, evolving standards and wide fluctuations in product supply and demand. In the past, these markets have experienced significant downturns, often connected with, or in anticipation of, the maturation of product cycles - for both manufacturers' and their customers' products - and with declining general economic conditions. These downturns have been characterized by diminished product demand, production overcapacity, high inventory levels and accelerated erosion of average selling prices.
 
Our historical results of operations have been subject to substantial fluctuations, and we may experience substantial period-to-period fluctuations in future results of operations. Any future downturn in the markets in which we compete could significantly reduce the demand for our products and therefore may result in a significant reduction in revenue. It may also increase the volatility of the price of our common stock. Our revenue and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected in the future due to changes in demand from individual customers or cyclical changes in the markets utilizing our products.

In addition, the communications networks industry from time to time has experienced and may again experience a pronounced downturn. To respond to a downturn, many carriers may slow their capital expenditures, cancel or delay new developments, reduce their workforces and inventories and take a cautious approach to acquiring new equipment, which would have a negative impact on our business. Weakness in the global economy or a future downturn in the communications networks industry may cause our results of operations to fluctuate from year-to-year, harm our business, and may increase the volatility of the price of our common stock.
 
 
Further, as the communications industry consolidates and realigns to accommodate technological and other developments, our customers and service provider end users may consolidate or align with other entities in a manner that may delay orders and harms our business. Our customers' continued outsourcing might result in their utilizing large well-established contract manufacturers to provide final system assembly, rather than utilizing us for final system assembly. We may therefore be required to provide lower level components to these contract manufacturers rather than final system assembly to our current customers, potentially resulting in reduced revenues and lower gross margins and profits. Furthermore, these contract manufacturers may seek other source of components, which could harm our operating results.

We are under continuous pressure to reduce the prices of our products.

The communications networks industry has been characterized by declining product prices over time. We have reduced the prices of our products in the past and we expect to experience pricing pressure for our products in the future. When seeking to maintain or increase their market share, our competitors may also reduce the prices of their products. In addition, our customers may have the ability to internally develop and manufacture competing products at a lower cost than we would otherwise charge, which would add additional pressure on us to lower our selling prices. If we are unable to offset any future reductions in our average selling prices by increasing our sales volume, reducing our costs and expenses or introducing new products, our gross margin would suffer.

Shifts in our product mix may result in declines in gross margins.

Our gross profit margins vary among our product families, and our overall gross margins have fluctuated from period to period as a result of shifts in product mix, the introduction of new products, decreases in average selling prices for certain products and our ability to reduce product costs, and these fluctuations are expected to continue in the future. In addition, we must purchase the primary components going into certain of our product families, including our ROADM products, from third party suppliers, which can limit our ability to improve gross margin on sales of such products.

We depend upon a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenues, and any decrease in revenues from, or loss of, these customers without a corresponding increase in revenues from other customers would harm our operating results.

We depend upon a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenues. Our dependence on orders from a relatively small number of customers makes our relationship with each customer critical to our business.

 Our top five customers, although not the same five customers for each period, together accounted for 52%, 53%, and 60% of our revenues in the fiscal years ended June 30, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Tellabs Operations, Inc. ("Tellabs") and Hua Wei Technologies Co. Ltd. ("Huawei") each accounted for greater than 10% of our revenues for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2011, 2010 and 2009. We expect that the majority of our revenues will continue to depend on sales to a relatively small number of customers.
 
We may not be the sole source of supply to our customers, and they may choose to purchase products from other vendors. The loss of one or more of our significant customers, our inability to successfully develop relationships with additional customers or future price reductions could cause our revenue to decline significantly. Our dependence on a small number of customers may increase if the fiber optic components and subsystems industry and our other target markets continue to consolidate.

Our ROADM Optical Switching and Routing product accounts for a significant portion of our revenues.

Our ROADM products account for a substantial portion of our revenues. Quarterly revenues from our ROADM products have fluctuated significantly, and we expect the fluctuations to continue. For example, our ROADM revenues fluctuated from a high of $14.2 million in the third quarter of fiscal 2011 to a low of $4.2 million in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2010. We expect the fluctuations in ROADM revenues to continue in the near and medium term.
 
 
There is intense competition in the industry to supply ROADM products to our customers. Currently, our ROADM product is sold primarily to one customer. We are not the sole source supplier for our customer, and we must compete with other suppliers for the business of our ROADM customer.

Further, because the primary components of our ROADM product are available from third party vendors, our competitors may be able to introduce additional competing ROADM products without significant expenditures of resources and without long delays to market. The vendors that provide the primary and critical component to our ROADM product could begin to compete with us by selling completed ROADM products or could be acquired by another company, which could result in us losing all of our current ROADM business.

Our cost advantage from having our manufacturing and most of our R&D in China may diminish over time due to increasing labor costs.

The labor market in China, particularly in the manufacturing-heavy Southeast region of China where our manufacturing facilities are located, has become more challenging for employers, and many companies are facing higher costs due to increased wages.  We have recently increased our wage rates at our Zhuhai facility by more than 20% in fiscal 2011 and more than 30% in fiscal 2010 due to government-mandated increases in minimum wage levels. We expect that we may be required to increase wages even more in the future due to market conditions and/or additional government mandates.  If labor costs in China continue to increase, our gross margins and profit margins and results of operations may be adversely affected.  In addition, our competitive advantage against competitors with manufacturing in traditionally higher cost countries would be diminished.

Because we depend on third parties to supply some of our materials and components, we may not be able to obtain sufficient quantities of these materials, which could limit our ability to fill customer orders and harm our operating results.

We depend on third parties to supply the materials and components we use to manufacture our products. A number of our third-party suppliers are currently experiencing capacity issues, and we are facing shortages and/or delays in the availability and delivery of materials and components. Difficulties in obtaining materials and components may delay or limit our product shipments, which could result in lost orders and/or our increased lead-times for delivering products to our customers. We obtain most of our critical materials and components from a single or limited number of suppliers and generally do not have long-term supply contracts with them. We could also experience discontinuation of key components, price increases and late deliveries from our suppliers. In addition, some of our suppliers are competitors who may choose not to supply components to us in the future.

We may be involved in intellectual property disputes in the future, which could divert management's attention, cause us to incur significant costs and prevent us from selling or using the challenged technology.
 
Participants in the communications and fiber optic components and subsystems markets in which we sell our products have experienced frequent litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. Numerous patents in these industries are held by others, including our competitors. In addition, from time to time, we have become aware of the possibility or have been notified that we may be infringing certain patents or other intellectual property rights of others. Regardless of their merit, responding to such claims can be time consuming, divert management's attention and resources and may cause us to incur significant expenses. In addition, intellectual property claims against us could invalidate our proprietary rights and force us to do one or more of the following:

obtain from the owner of the infringed intellectual property right a license to sell or use the relevant technology, which license may not be available on reasonable terms, or at all;

stop selling, incorporating or using our products that use the challenged intellectual property;

pay substantial monetary damages; or

redesign the products that use the technology.
 
Any of these actions could result in a substantial reduction in our revenue and could result in losses over an extended period of time.
 
 
On January 5, 2010, Finisar Corporation, or Finisar, filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California against Source Photonics, Inc., MRV Communications, Inc., NeoPhotonics Corporation and us, or collectively, the co-defendants. In the complaint, Finisar alleged infringement of certain of its U.S. patents arising from the co-defendants' respective manufacture, importation, use, sale of or offer to sell certain optical transceiver products in the United States. Finisar sought to recover unspecified damages, up to treble the amount of actual damages, together with attorneys' fees, interest and costs. Finisar alleged that at least some of the patents asserted are a part of certain digital diagnostic standards for optoelectronics transceivers and, therefore, are being utilized in such digital diagnostic standards. On May 5, 2010, the court dismissed without prejudice all co-defendants (including us) except Source Photonics, Inc., on grounds that such claims should have been asserted in four separate lawsuits, one against each co-defendant. On May 20, 2010, we and Finisar entered into a standstill agreement, agreeing not to refile any claims against each other until at least 90 days after a resolution of the litigation between Source Photonics and Finisar. On September 10, 2010, Source Photonics, Inc., and its parent company MRV Communications, Inc., entered into a Settlement and Cross License Agreement with Finisar. MRV Communications filed a Form 8-K with SEC on September 13, 2010 disclosing the settlement terms and furnishing a copy of the settlement agreement.

On December 20, 2010, Finisar filed a new complaint against us and our subsidiary, Optical Communication Products, Inc. ("OCP") in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. The new complaint is substantially similar to the complaint filed by Finisar in January 2010. On January 24, 2011, we filed an answer to the complaint, denying all material allegations and asserting numerous affirmative defenses. A mediation conference with respect to the lawsuit has been scheduled for November 30, 2011.

On March 7, 2011, our subsidiary OCP filed a complaint against Finisar in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas, alleging infringement by Finisar of certain U.S. patents owned by OCP primarily relating to vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser ("VCSEL") technology. On April 29, 2011, Finisar filed an answer to the complaint, denying all material allegations, asserting numerous affirmative defenses and asserting counterclaims against OCP alleging infringement by OCP of certain U.S. patents owned by Finisar primarily relating to pluggable transceiver latch mechanisms.
 
Although we believe that we would have meritorious defenses to the infringement allegations and intend to defend any new similar lawsuit vigorously, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in our defense. Even if we are successful, we may incur substantial legal fees and other costs in defending the lawsuit. Further, a new lawsuit, if brought, would be likely to divert the efforts and attention of our management and technical personnel, which could harm our business.

 Resources devoted to research and development may not yield new products that achieve commercial success.
 
We are currently increasing our expenditures on research and development, with the goal of developing and introducing new products to serve our current market as well as products for expansion into new markets. The research and development process is expensive, prolonged and entails considerable uncertainty. As such, we can make no assurances that any of the products we plan to develop will be commercially successful, and there is a substantial risk that our research and development expenditures will fail to generate any meaningful return of the investment of such resources.

Our products may have defects that are not detected until full deployment of a customer's equipment, which could result in a loss of customers, damage to our reputation and substantial costs.

Our products are deployed in large and complex optical networks and must be compatible with other system components. Our products can only be fully tested for reliability when deployed in these networks for long periods of time. Our customers may discover errors, defects or incompatibilities in our products after they have been fully deployed and operated under peak stress conditions. Our products may also have errors, defects or incompatibilities that are not found until after a system upgrade is installed. Errors, defects, incompatibilities or other problems with our products could result in:
 
 
  
loss of customers;

  
loss of or delay in revenues;

  
loss of market share;

  
damage to our brand and reputation;

●  
inability to attract new customers or achieve market acceptance;

  
diversion of development resources;

  
increased service and warranty costs;

  
legal actions by our customers; and

  
increased insurance costs.

Our sales are mostly made pursuant to short-lead-time purchase orders, and therefore our revenue and financial results are difficult to predict.

We are substantially dependent on orders we receive and fill on a short-term basis. We do not have contracts with our customers that provide any assurance of future sales, and sales are typically made pursuant to individual purchase orders, often with extremely short lead times. Accordingly, our customers:

  
may stop purchasing our products or defer their purchases on short notice;

  
are free to purchase products from our competitors;

  
are not required to make minimum purchases; and

  
may cancel orders that they place with us on short notice.

As a result, we cannot rely on orders in backlog as a reliable and consistent source of future revenue. Moreover, our expense levels are based in part on our expectations of future revenue, and we may be unable to adjust costs in a timely manner in response to further revenue shortfalls. This can result in significant quarterly fluctuations in our operating results.
 
If we are unable to develop new products and product enhancements that achieve market acceptance, our revenues could decline, which would harm our operating results.

The market for our products is characterized by rapid technological change, new and improved product introductions, changes in customer requirements and evolving industry standards. Our future success will depend to a substantial extent on our ability to develop, introduce and support cost-effective new products and technologies on a timely basis.

Our failure to predict market needs accurately or to develop or obtain through acquisition new products or product enhancements in a timely manner may harm market acceptance and sales of our products. If the development of our products or any other future products takes longer than we anticipate, or if we are unable to develop and introduce these products to market, our revenues could suffer and we may not gain market share. Even if we are able to develop and commercially introduce new products, the new products may not achieve widespread market acceptance. Furthermore, we have implemented, and may continue to implement in the future, significant cost-cutting measures such as reductions in our workforce, including reductions in research and development and manufacturing personnel, that may weaken our research and development efforts or cause us to have difficulty responding to sudden increases in customer orders.
 
 
 The development of new, technologically advanced products is a complex and uncertain process requiring high levels of innovation and highly skilled engineering and development personnel, as well as the accurate anticipation of technological and market trends. Because the costs for research and development of new products and technology are expensed as incurred, such costs will have a negative impact on our reported net operating results until such time, if ever, that we generate revenue from products or technology resulting from such research and development. If we fail to develop and deploy new cost-effective products and technologies or enhancements of existing products on a timely basis, or if we experience delays in the development, introduction or enhancement of our products and technologies, our products may no longer be competitive, our revenue will decline and we may have inventory that may become obsolete or in excess of future customer demand. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that our new products will gain market acceptance or that we will be able to respond effectively to product announcements by competitors, technological changes or emerging industry standards. Our failure to respond to product announcements, technological changes or industry changes in standards would likely prevent our products from gaining market acceptance and harm our competitive position.

Our markets are highly competitive, some of our customers are also our competitors, and our other customers may choose to purchase our competitors' products rather than our products or develop internal capabilities to produce their own fiber optic modules.

The market for fiber optic components, modules and subsystems is highly competitive and we expect competition to intensify in the future. Our primary competitors include AFOP, Avago Technologies, Oclaro, DiCon Fiberoptics, Sumitomo Electric, FDK Corporation, Finisar, Furukawa, NEL Hitachi Cable, NeoPhotonics, OpNext, Source Photonics, Santec Corporation, JDS Uniphase Corporation, Accelink, O-Net and numerous optical component manufacturers in China. We also face indirect competition from public and private companies providing non-fiber optic networking products that address the same networking needs that our products address.

Many of our current competitors and potential competitors have significantly greater financial, technical, sales and marketing resources than we do. As a result, these competitors are able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, sale and support of their products. In addition, those of our competitors that have large market capitalization or cash reserves are in a much better position to acquire other companies in order to gain new technologies or products that may displace our products. Any of these potential acquisitions could give our competitors a strategic advantage. In addition, many of our competitors have much greater brand name recognition, more extensive customer bases, more developed distribution channels and broader product offerings than we do. These companies can use their broader customer bases and product offerings and adopt aggressive pricing policies to gain market share.

In addition, existing and potential customers, especially in Japan and other international markets may also become competitors. These customers have the internal capabilities to integrate their operations by producing their own optical modules or by acquiring our competitors or the rights to produce competitive products or technologies, which may allow them to reduce their purchases or cease purchasing from us.
 
We expect our competitors to introduce new and improved products with lower prices, and we will need to do the same to remain competitive. We may not be able to compete successfully against either current or future competitors with respect to new products. We believe that competitive pressures may result in price reductions, reduced margins, additional write down of inventory and our loss of market share.

If our customers do not approve our manufacturing processes and qualify our products, we will lose significant customer sales and opportunities.

Customers generally will not purchase any of our products before they qualify them and approve our manufacturing processes and quality control system. If particular customers do not approve of our manufacturing processes, we will lose the sales opportunities with those customers.
 
Our customers typically expend significant efforts in evaluating and qualifying our products and manufacturing process prior to placing an order. This evaluation and qualification process frequently results in a lengthy sales cycle, typically ranging from nine to twelve months and sometimes longer. Generally, customers consider a wide range of issues before purchasing our products, including interoperation with other components, product
 
 
performance and reliability. Even after this evaluation process, it is possible that a potential customer will not purchase our products. In addition, our customers' product purchases are frequently subject to unplanned processing and other delays, particularly with respect to larger customers for which our products represent a very small percentage of their overall purchase activity. If sales forecasts to specific customers are not realized, our revenue and results of operations may be negatively impacted. Long sales cycles may cause our revenues and operating results to vary significantly and unexpectedly from quarter to quarter, which could cause volatility in our stock price.

If we are unable to successfully integrate acquired businesses or technologies, our operating results may be harmed.

We have pursued and expect to continue to pursue acquisitions of businesses and technologies, or the establishment of joint venture arrangements, that could expand our business. The negotiation of potential acquisitions or joint ventures, as well as the integration of an acquired or jointly developed business or technology, could cause diversion of management's time and other resources or disrupt our operations. Future acquisitions could result in:

  
additional operating expenses without additional revenues;

  
potential dilutive issuances of equity securities;

  
the incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities;

  
intangible asset write-offs;

  
other acquisition-related expenses; and

  
cannibalization of product lines leading to revenue attrition.

Our acquisition of businesses or technologies will require significant commitment of resources. We may be required to pay for any acquisition with cash, but we cannot be certain that additional capital will be available to us on favorable terms, if at all. Potential acquisitions also involve numerous risks, including:

   
problems assimilating the purchased operations, technologies or products;

   
unanticipated costs associated with the acquisition;

   
diversion of management's attention from our core business;
 
   
adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers;

   
risks associated with entering markets in which we have no or limited prior experience; and

   
potential loss of key employees of purchased organizations.
 
If we fail to effectively manage our manufacturing capability, produce products that meet our customers' quality requirements and achieve acceptable production yields in China, we may not be able to deliver sufficient quantities of products that meet all of our customers' order requirements in a timely manner, which would harm our operating results.

We manufacture substantially all of our products in our facilities in China. The quality of our products and our ability to ship products on a timely basis may suffer if we cannot effectively maintain the necessary expertise and resources to effectively manage our manufacturing activities in China.

Because manufacturing our products involves complex and precise processes and the majority of our manufacturing costs are relatively fixed, manufacturing yields are critical to our results of operations. Factors that affect our manufacturing yields include the quality of raw materials used to make our products, the quality of workmanship, the prior experience in manufacturing the specific product and our manufacturing processes. The inadvertent use by our suppliers in using defective materials could significantly reduce our manufacturing yields.
 
 
Changes in our manufacturing processes or those of our suppliers could also impact our yields. In some cases, existing manufacturing techniques, which involve substantial manual labor, may not allow us to meet our manufacturing yield goals cost-effectively so that we maintain acceptable gross margins while meeting the cost targets of our customers. We will need to develop new manufacturing processes and techniques that will involve higher levels of automation in order to increase our gross margins and help achieve the targeted cost levels of our customers. We may not achieve manufacturing cost levels that will allow us to achieve acceptable gross margins or fully satisfy customer demands. Additionally, our competitors are automating their manufacturing processes. If we are unable to achieve higher levels of automation and our competitors are successful, it will harm our gross margins. Additional risks associated with managing our manufacturing processes and capability in China include:

●   
our ability to procure the necessary raw materials and equipment on a timely basis;

  
a potential lack of availability of qualified management and manufacturing personnel;

  
our ability to maintain quality;

  
our ability to effectively manage headcount, particularly if we undertake to expand our manufacturing operations; and

  
our ability to quickly and efficiently implement an adequate set of financial controls to effectively track and control inventory levels and inventory mix and to accurately predict inventory requirements.

Communications equipment suppliers typically require that their vendors commit in advance to provide specified quantities of products over a given period of time. We may not be able to pursue many large orders from these suppliers if we do not have sufficient manufacturing capabilities to enable us to commit to provide them with their specified quantities of products. If we are unable to commit to deliver sufficient quantities of our products to satisfy a customer's anticipated needs, we likely will lose the order and the opportunity for significant sales to that customer for a lengthy period of time. Furthermore, if we fail to fulfill orders to which we have committed, we will lose revenue opportunities and our customer relationships may be harmed.
 
If we fail to predict our manufacturing requirements accurately, we could incur additional carrying costs and have excess and obsolete inventory or we could experience manufacturing delays, which could cause us to lose orders or customers.
 
We currently use historical data, a backlog of orders and estimates of future requirements to determine our demand for components and materials. We must accurately predict both the demand for our products and the lead time required to obtain the necessary components and materials. Lead times for components and materials vary significantly depending on factors such as the specific supplier, the size of the order, contract terms and demand for each component at a given time. As a result, we generally maintain high levels of inventories that periodically cause us to have excess and obsolete inventory. However, if we were to underestimate our purchasing requirements, manufacturing could be interrupted, resulting in delays in shipments, which could have an adverse effect on our revenues and margins.

We depend on key personnel to manage our business effectively in a rapidly changing market, and if we are unable to retain our key employees and hire additional personnel, our ability to sell our products could be harmed.

Our future success depends upon the continued services of our executive officers and other key engineering, finance, sales, marketing, manufacturing and support personnel. In addition, we depend substantially upon the continued services of key management personnel at our Chinese subsidiaries. In addition, we do not have 'key person' life insurance policies covering any of our employees. Our loss of any key employee, the failure of any key employee to perform in his or her current position, or the inability of our officers and key employees to expand, train and manage our employee base may prevent us from executing our growth strategy.

Our ability to continue to attract and retain highly-skilled personnel will be a critical factor in determining whether we will be successful in the future. Competition for highly-skilled personnel is intense. We may not be successful in attracting, assimilating or retaining qualified personnel to fulfill our current or future needs. In addition, our management team has experienced significant personnel changes in the past and may continue to experience changes in the future.
 
 
We are exposed to currency rate fluctuations and exchange controls that could adversely impact our operating results.

Significant portions of our operations are conducted in currencies other than the United States dollar, particularly in Chinese Renminbi and the new Taiwan dollar. Our operating results are therefore subject to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. Any significant revaluation of the Renminbi may materially and adversely affect our cash flows, revenues, operating results and financial position. We will continue to experience foreign currency gains and losses.

Moreover, China's government imposes controls on the convertibility of Renminbi into foreign currencies and the remittance of currency out of China. Any shortages in the availability of foreign currency may restrict the ability of our Chinese subsidiaries to obtain and remit sufficient foreign currency. Our business could be negatively impacted if we are unable to convert and remit our sales received in Renminbi into U.S. dollars.

If our liability for U.S. and foreign taxes is greater than we have anticipated and reserved for, our operating results may suffer.

We are subject to taxation in the United States and in foreign jurisdictions in which we do business, including China. We believe that we have adequately estimated and reserved for our income tax liability. However, our business operations, including our transfer pricing for transactions among our various business entities operating in different tax jurisdictions, may be audited at any time by the U.S., Chinese or other foreign tax authorities. In addition, we have estimated our U.S. tax liability assuming the benefit of substantial net operating loss carryforwards. As of June 30, 2011, the Company conducted an Internal Revenue Code Section 382 ("Sec. 382") analysis with respect to its net operating loss and credit carryforwards and determined that there was no limitation. It is possible that subsequent ownership changes may limit the utilization of these tax attributes.

The tax benefits available to our subsidiaries located in China are currently being phased out, which will result in higher taxes required to be paid by our Chinese subsidiaries than were required in the past.
 
Our subsidiaries located in China formerly enjoyed tax benefits in the form of tax holidays in China that were generally available to foreign investment enterprises, or FIEs. In the past, our subsidiaries in China have qualified for the preferential tax treatment provided to FIEs and have not been subject to the full income tax rate. However, the new Enterprise Income Tax Law, or EIT Law, which took effect on January 1, 2008, imposes a unified income tax rate of 25% on all domestic-invested enterprises and FIEs, unless they qualify under certain limited exceptions. The EIT Law provided a five-year 'grandfather' or phase-in period for FIEs established before the new law was adopted. As such, we had a full exemption from tax for calendar years 2007 and 2008 and had reduced tax rates for calendar years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Beginning with calendar 2012, our China subsidiaries may be subject to the full income tax rate of 25%. We are applying for a preferential 15% rate available to high technology companies for calendar years 2012 to 2014. However, our application may not be accepted by the tax authorities. The increased taxes to be paid by our China subsidiaries may have an adverse effect on our financial results.

If we are unable to protect our proprietary technology, our ability to succeed will be harmed.

Our ability to compete successfully and achieve future growth will depend, in part, on our ability to protect our proprietary technology. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws and restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. However, the steps we have taken may not prevent the misappropriation of our intellectual property, particularly in foreign countries, such as China, where the laws may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States. If we are unable to protect our proprietary technology, our ability to succeed will be harmed. We may in the future initiate claims or litigation against third parties for infringement of our proprietary rights. These claims could result in costly litigation and the diversion of the attention of our technical and management personnel.
 
 
Our failure to comply with governmental regulations could subject us to liability. New laws could be enacted that increase the risks and costs to Oplink.

Failure to comply with a variety of federal, state and local laws and regulations in the United States, China and Taiwan could subject us to criminal, civil and administrative penalties.

Our products are subject to U.S. export control laws and regulations that regulate the export of products and disclosure of technical information to foreign countries and citizens. In some instances, these laws and regulations may require licenses for the export of products to, and disclosure of technology in, some countries, including China and Taiwan, and disclosure of technology to foreign citizens. We have generally relied on self-classification in determining whether an export license is required and have determined that export licenses are not required. As we develop and commercialize new products and technologies, the list of products and technologies subject to U.S. export controls changes, or in the event that the relevant export authorities disagree with the outcome of our self-classification, we may be required to obtain export licenses or other approvals with respect to those products and technologies and may possibly be subject to penalties under applicable laws. We cannot predict whether these licenses and approvals will be required and, if so, whether they will be granted. The failure to obtain any required license or approval could harm our business.

We ship inventory and other materials to and from our facilities in China and Taiwan and, as a result, are subject to various Chinese, Taiwanese and U.S. customs-related laws. Given the geographic distance and changing regulations and governmental standards, it can be difficult to monitor and enforce compliance with customs laws. Our customs practices in China have been reviewed by local governmental authorities in China and will be reviewed periodically in the future. The authorities may determine that additional duties must be paid or that certain of our practices must be changed. The U.S. Customs Service may also require us to revise product classifications from time to time with respect to various items imported into the United States. In such cases we may be required to pay any increase in customs duty to account for the difference in duty actually paid by Oplink and the duty owed under the amended product classification, and may also be subject to penalties under applicable laws.

In addition, from time to time we enter into transfer pricing arrangements with our subsidiaries to establish sales prices for internal distributions of goods that have the effect of allocating taxes between the parent corporation and our subsidiaries. In general, these transfer prices have not been approved by any governmental entity and, therefore, may be challenged by the applicable tax authorities. China tax authorities have recently announced that they plan to increase transfer-pricing audits, and have specifically identified telecommunications companies, among others, as priority targets.
 
We employ a number of foreign nationals in our U.S. operations and, as a result, we are subject to various laws related to the status of those employees with the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services. We also send our U.S. employees to China and Taiwan from time to time and for varying durations of time to assist with our Chinese operations. Depending on the durations of such arrangements, we may be required to withhold and pay personal income taxes in respect of the affected U.S. employees directly to the Chinese and Taiwanese tax authorities, and the affected U.S. employees may be required to register with various Chinese and Taiwanese governmental authorities. If we fail to comply with the foregoing laws and regulations or any other applicable laws and regulations, we may incur liabilities.

In addition, we are subject to laws relating to the storage, use, discharge and disposal of toxic or otherwise hazardous or regulated chemicals or materials used in our manufacturing processes. While we believe that we are currently in compliance in all material respects with these laws and regulations, if we fail to store, use, discharge or dispose of hazardous materials appropriately, we could be subject to substantial liability or could be required to suspend or adversely modify our manufacturing operations.

On January 1, 2008, a new labor contract law ("LCL") went into effect in China. The new law reduces our flexibility in hiring employees and in terminating the employment of employees, could increase the risk of hiring employees, and could increase the cost of any future restructuring that involves our Chinese facilities, which could result in a material adverse impact on our profitability and liquidity.
 
 
Changes in existing financial accounting standards or practices may adversely affect our results of operations.

Changes in existing accounting rules or practices, new accounting pronouncements or varying interpretations of current accounting pronouncements could have a significant adverse effect on our results of operations or the manner in which we conduct our business. Further, such changes could potentially affect our reporting of transactions completed before such changes are effective.

Disruption to commercial activities in the United States or in other countries, particularly in China and Taiwan, may adversely impact our results of operations, our ability to raise capital or our future growth.

We derive a substantial portion of our revenues from customers located outside the United States and substantial portions of our operations are located in China and Taiwan. Our international operations expose us to a number of additional risks associated with international operations, including, without limitation:

  
disruptions to commercial activities or damage to our facilities as a result of natural disasters, political unrest, war, terrorism, labor strikes, and work stoppages;

  
disruptions of telecommunications networks due to natural disasters;

  
difficulties and costs of staffing and managing foreign operations with personnel who have expertise in optical network technology;

  
unexpected changes in regulatory or certification requirements for optical systems or networks;

  
disruptions in the transportation of our products and other risks related to the infrastructure of foreign countries;

  
economic instability;

  
any future outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza and other epidemics or illnesses; and

  
power shortages at our manufacturing facilities in China, which may lead to production delays.
 
To the extent that such disruptions interfere with our commercial activities, our results of operations could be harmed.

Substantially all of Oplink'smanufacturing operations are located in China and are subject to the laws and regulations of China. Our operations in China may be adversely affected by changes in the laws and regulations of China, such as those relating to taxation, import and export tariffs, environmental regulations, land use rights, property and other matters. China's central or local governments may impose new, stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations, which would require additional expenditures. Our results of operations and financial condition may be harmed by changes in the political, economic or social conditions in China.
 
Provisions of our charter documents and Delaware law and other arrangements may have anti-takeover effects that could prevent any change in control, which could negatively affect your investment.

Provisions of Delaware law and of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would be beneficial to our stockholders. These provisions permit us to:

  
issue preferred stock with rights senior to those of the common stock without any further vote or action by the stockholders;

  
provide for a classified board of directors;

  
eliminate the right of the stockholders to call a special meeting of stockholders;
 
 
  
eliminate the right of stockholders to act by written consent; and

  
impose various procedural and other requirements, which could make it difficult for stockholders to effect certain corporate actions.

In addition, on March 18, 2002, our Board of Directors adopted a share purchase rights plan, which has certain additional anti-takeover effects. Specifically, the terms of the plan provide for a dividend distribution of one preferred share purchase right for each outstanding share of common stock. These rights would cause substantial dilution to a person or group that attempts to acquire us on terms not approved by our Board of Directors. Any of the foregoing provisions could limit the price that certain investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.
 
Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments

None.
 
Item 2.  Properties

We own the following facilities as of June 30, 2011:

  
We own our building in Fremont, California, totaling approximately 51,000 square feet. The building is our headquarters and is used for administration, sales and marketing, and research and development.

  
We own our facility in the Zhuhai Free Trade Zone, China, totaling approximately 787,000 square feet. Our facility in the Zhuhai Free Trade Zone is our principal manufacturing center and is also used for administration, research and development, and employee living quarters.

  
We own our facility in Taipei, Taiwan, totaling approximately 30,000 square feet which is used to maintain complete in-house manufacturing capabilities for our optical interconnect products including product design, supply chain management, quality control, manufacturing and sales and marketing.
 
  
We also own a 61,000 square feet research and development facility in Wuhan, China, of which 20,000 square feet is currently leased to third parties.

We lease the following facilities as of June 30, 2011:

  
We lease a total of approximately 46,000 square feet in Shanghai, China. Our Shanghai facilities are used for manufacturing, administration, and research and development. The lease for our Shanghai facilities expires in June 2012.

  
We lease a research and development site in Hsinchu, Taiwan. This lease is for an 8,400 square feet facility and expires on December 31, 2012.

  
We lease a small facility in Woodland Hills, California. The facility is used for sales and marketing and supply chain management. The lease expires in January 2013.
 
We believe that our facilities are currently adequate for our purposes. We believe that suitable additional or replacement spaces, if needed, will be available in the future on commercially reasonable terms.
 
Item 3.  Legal Proceedings
 
Information with respect to this item may be found in under the caption "Litigation" in Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 4.  (Removed and Reserved)
 
 
 
Item 5.  Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Market for Registrant's Common Equity
 
 Our common stock has been quoted on the NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol "OPLK" since our initial public offering in October 2000. Prior to that time, there was no public market for our common stock. The following table sets forth the range of high and low closing sale prices for our common stock for each period indicated:

   
High
   
Low
 
Fiscal 2011:
           
Quarter ended June 30, 2011
  $ 20.53     $ 15.85  
Quarter ended March 31, 2011
  $ 28.70     $ 18.93  
Quarter ended December 31, 2010
  $ 20.77     $ 15.25  
Quarter ended September 30, 2010
  $ 19.80     $ 13.25  
                 
Fiscal 2010:
               
Quarter ended June 30, 2010
  $ 19.60     $ 13.40  
Quarter ended March 31, 2010
  $ 19.16     $ 14.80  
Quarter ended December 31, 2009
  $ 18.00     $ 14.40  
Quarter ended September 30, 2009
  $ 14.37     $ 11.16  
 
As of August 31, 2011, there were approximately 68 stockholders of record of our common stock, and we believe a substantially greater number of beneficial owners. We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently expect to retain future earnings, if any, for use in the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
 
Stock Performance Graphs and Cumulative Total Return

The graph below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock with the cumulative total return on the NASDAQ Composite and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index for each of the last five fiscal years ended June 30, assuming an investment of $100 at the beginning of such period and the reinvestment of any dividends. The comparison in the graphs below are based upon historical data and are not indicative of, nor intended to forecast, future performance of our common stock.
 
 

 
Repurchases of Equity Securities

The following table shows the monthly stock repurchases for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2011:

Month
 
Total number of shares purchased
 
Average price paid per share
 
Total number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs
 
Approximate dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs
May 2 - May 29, 2011
 
 179,728
 
 $17.67
 
 179,728
 
 $26.0 million
May 30 - July 3, 2011
 
 440,814
 
 $17.07
 
 440,814
 
 $18.5 million
   
 620,542
 
 $17.24
 
 620,542
 
 $18.5 million
 
Equity Compensation Plan Information

Information regarding our equity compensation plans, including both stockholder approved plans and non-stockholder approved plans, will be contained in our definitive Proxy Statement with respect to our Annual Meeting of Stockholders under the caption "Equity Compensation Plan Information," and is incorporated by reference into this report.
 
 
Item 6.  Selected Financial Data

The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified by reference to, our consolidated financial statements and related notes and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the three fiscal years ended June 30, 2011, 2010 and 2009 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2011 and 2010 are derived from, and qualified by reference to, the audited consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2009, 2008 and 2007 are derived from audited financial statements not included in this Form 10-K.

Our fiscal year ends on the Sunday closest to June 30. For presentation purposes, we present each fiscal year as if it ended on June 30. Fiscal years 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007 consisted of 52 weeks. Fiscal 2011 is a 53-week fiscal year, one week more than a typical fiscal year. The extra week was included in the first quarter of fiscal 2011. For more information, please see Note 1 of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

In June 2007, we acquired 58% of Optical Communication Products, Inc.'s ("OCP") outstanding common stock with the remaining 42% being acquired in October 2007. As a result, fiscal years 2011, 2010, 2009 and 2008 had a full year of financial results from OCP while fiscal year 2007 had one month of financial results from OCP.

In January 2010, we acquired approximately 91.2% of the outstanding shares of Emit Technology Co., Ltd. ("Emit") and acquired additional 2.9% of Emit's outstanding shares subsequent to the acquisition date in fiscal 2010. The number of addtional Emit's outstanding shares purchased in fiscal 2011 was immaterial. As a result, fiscal year 2010 included financial results from Emit since the acquisition date while fiscal 2011 had a full year of financial results from Emit.
 
 
   
Years Ended June 30,
 
   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
   
2008
   
2007
 
   
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:
                             
Revenues
  $ 198,803     $ 138,809     $ 143,732     $ 176,253     $ 107,499  
Cost of revenues
    129,133       94,638       111,070       140,995       78,903  
Gross profit
    69,670       44,171       32,662       35,258       28,596  
                                         
Operating expenses:
                                       
Research and development
    18,235       11,158       11,799       15,415       7,414  
Sales and marketing
    11,844       9,606       9,181       11,502       6,797  
General and administrative
    10,486       10,841       12,487       19,720       10,147  
Impairment charge
    -       -       10,829       626       -  
Transitional costs for contract manufacturing, other charges and restructuring costs
       -        -        -       2,285       216  
Merger fees
    -       -       -       5,618       1,451  
Amortization of intangible assets
    1,759       1,651       1,648       1,519       222  
(Gain) loss on sale or disposal of assets
    (148 )     (942 )     1,533       (2,305 )     18  
Total operating expenses
    42,176       32,314       47,477       54,380       26,265  
                                         
Income (loss) from operations
    27,494       11,857       (14,815 )     (19,122 )     2,331  
Interest and other income, net
    544       867       3,066       7,518       9,666  
Income (loss) before benefit (provision) for income taxes
    28,038       12,724       (11,749 )     (11,604 )     11,997  
Benefit (provision) for income taxes
    20,478       (1,645 )     (2,074 )     (1,045 )     (241 )
Net income (loss)
    48,516       11,079       (13,823 )     (12,649 )     11,756  
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest
    -       -       -       (5,891 )     (1,418 )
Net income (loss) attributable to Oplink Communications, Inc.
  $  48,516     $ 11,079     $ (13,823 )   $ (6,758 )   $ 13,174  
                                         
Net income (loss) per share attributable to Oplink Communications, Inc.:
                                       
Basic
  $ 2.44     $ 0.54     $ (0.67 )   $ (0.31   $ 0.60  
Diluted
  $ 2.32     $ 0.51     $ (0.67 )   $ (0.31 )   $ 0.57  
                                         
Shares used in per share calculation:
                                       
Basic
    19,922       20,699       20,589       21,533       22,071  
Diluted
    20,945       21,631       20,589       21,533       22,942  
 
   
June 30,
 
   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
   
2008
   
2007
 
   
(In thousands)
 
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
                             
Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term and long-term investments
  $ 186,733     $ 160,343     $ 168,656     $ 142,081     $ 227,878  
Working capital
    248,619       182,606       188,750       159,696       254,076  
Total assets
    320,804       259,598       249,947       268,740       368,389  
Long-term liabilities
    6,852       4,923       3,492       989       207  
Total stockholders' equity
  $ 290,362     $ 228,649     $ 228,027     $ 238,270     $ 269,775  
 
 
Item 7.  management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

This discussion contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, including, without limitation, statements regarding our anticipated revenues, gross margins and expense levels for future periods, and other statements reflecting our expectations, beliefs, intentions or future strategies that are signified by the words "expect," "anticipate," "intend," "believe," "estimate" or "assume" or similar language. All forward-looking statements included herein are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements. We caution you that our business and financial performance are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. In evaluating our business, you should also carefully consider the information set forth under the caption "Risk Factors" contained in Item 1A above in addition to the information contained in this Item 7. We undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with "Item 6. Selected Financial Data" and our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."

Overview

We design, manufacture and sell optical networking components and subsystems. Our products expand optical bandwidth, amplify optical signals, monitor and protect wavelength performance, redirect light signals, ensure bandwidth distribution connectivity and provide signal transmission and reception within an optical network. Our products enable greater and higher quality bandwidth over longer distances, which reduces network congestion and transmission cost per bit. Our products also enable optical system manufacturers to provide flexible and scalable bandwidth to support the increase of data traffic on the Internet and other public and private networks.

We offer our customers design, integration and optical manufacturing solutions ("OMS") for the production and packaging of highly-integrated optical subsystems and turnkey solutions, based upon a customer's specific product design and specifications. We also offer solutions with lower levels of component integration for customers that place more value on flexibility than would be provided with turnkey solutions.

Our fiscal year ends on the Sunday closest to June 30. For presentation purposes, we present each fiscal year as if it ended on June 30. Fiscal years 2010 and 2009 consisted of 52 weeks. Fiscal 2011 is a 53-week fiscal year, one week more than a typical fiscal year. The extra week was included in the first quarter of fiscal 2011.

Revenues. We generate substantially all of our revenues from the sale of fiber optic components and subsystems. Our products are generally categorized into the four following major groups: (1) bandwidth creation products, which include wavelength expansion and optical amplification products; (2) bandwidth management products, which include optical switching products and wavelength performance monitoring and protection products; (3) transmission products, which include fiber optic transmitters, receivers, transceivers and transponders; and (4) optical interconnect products, which include signal connectivity and distribution products.

Cost of Revenues. Our cost of revenues consists of raw material, salaries including stock compensation expense and related personnel expenses, manufacturing overhead, provisions for excess and obsolete inventories, amortization of intangible assets, and warranty costs. We expect cost of revenues, as a percentage of revenues, to fluctuate from period to period. Our gross margins will primarily be affected by mix of products sold, salaries and related personnel expenses, manufacturing volume, pricing policies, production yield, costs incurred in improving manufacturing processes, provisions for excess and obsolete inventories and warranty costs.

Research and Development Expenses. Our research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries including stock compensation expense and related personnel costs, depreciation, non-recurring engineering charges and prototype costs, patent filing costs and fees paid to consultants and outside service providers, all of which relate to the design, development, testing, pre-manufacturing and significant improvement of our products. We expense our research and development costs as they are incurred.
 
 
Sales and Marketing Expenses. Our sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of salaries including stock compensation expense and related expenses for marketing, sales, customer service and application engineering support personnel, commissions paid to internal and external sales representatives, as well as costs associated with trade shows and other marketing expenses.

General and Administrative Expenses. Our general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries including stock compensation expense and related expenses for executive, finance, accounting, and human resources personnel, professional fees and other corporate expenses.

Stock Compensation Expense. We account for stock-based compensation in accordance with the provisions of FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 718, "Compensation-Stock Compensation" ("ASC 718"), which establishes accounting for stock-based awards exchanged for employee services. Accordingly, stock-based compensation cost is measured at grant date, based on the fair value of the award, and is recognized as expense over the employee requisite service period. Our stock compensation is generally accounted for as an equity instrument. Stock compensation expense recorded in cost of revenues, research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative is the amortization of the fair value of share-based payments made to employees and members of our board of directors, primarily in the form of stock options, restricted stock awards and units ("RSAs" and "RSUs") and purchases under the employee stock purchase plan pursuant to the provisions of ASC 718.

As of June 30, 2011, the unrecorded deferred stock compensation balance related to stock options to purchase Oplink common stock was $2.2 million which will be recognized over an estimated weighted average amortization period of 1.7 years. The unrecorded deferred stock compensation balance related to RSUs was $5.7 million which will be recognized over an estimated weighted average amortization period of 2.4 years. Approximately $8,000 of stock compensation was capitalized as inventory at June 30, 2011 and 2010. During the year ended June 30, 2011, we granted 87,000 stock options and 248,300 restricted stock awards and units, with a total grant-date fair value of $723,000 and $4.7 million, respectively.

Use of Estimates and Critical Accounting Policies

The preparation of our consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP") requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and related disclosures. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to product returns, accounts receivable, inventories, tangible and intangible assets, warranty obligations, stock compensation, income taxes, contingencies and litigation. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates due to actual outcomes being different from those on which we based our assumptions. These estimates and judgments are reviewed by management on an ongoing basis and by the Audit Committee at the end of each quarter prior to the public release of our financial results. We believe the following critical accounting policies, and our procedures relating to these policies, affect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.

We have identified the policies below as critical to our business operations and understanding of our financial condition and results of operations. A critical accounting policy is one that is both material to the presentation of our consolidated financial statements and requires us to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments that could have a material effect on our financial condition and results of operations. These policies may require us to make assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time of the estimate, and different estimates that we could have used, or changes in the estimate that are reasonably likely to occur, may have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations. Our critical accounting policies cover the following areas:

Revenue Recognition and Product Returns

We recognize revenue from product sales upon delivery of the product or customer acceptance, whichever is later, provided that persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred and no significant obligations remain, the fee is fixed or determinable and collectibility is reasonably assured. We recognize revenue associated with contract-related cancellation payments from customers when a formal agreement is signed or a
 
 
purchase order is issued by the customer covering these payments and we determine the collectibility of the cancellation payments to be reasonably assured. In addition, we estimate future product returns based upon actual historical return rates and reduce our revenue by these estimated future returns. If the historical data we use to calculate these estimates does not properly reflect future returns, future estimates could be revised accordingly.

Depreciation and Amortization Expenses

Depreciation expenses are computed using the straight-line method based upon the useful lives of the assets. Estimated useful lives of 20 to 30 years are used for buildings and 3 to 10 years are used for manufacturing and engineering equipment. Estimated useful lives of 2 to 5 years are used for computer hardware and software. In addition, we have land occupancy rights for a period of 50 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method based upon the shorter of the estimated useful lives or the lease term of the respective assets. Land and construction in progress are not depreciated. Improvements and betterments are capitalized if they extend the useful life of the asset. Repair and maintenance costs are charged to expense as incurred. (Gain) loss on sale or disposal of fixed assets is recognized in the period which the (gain) loss occurs.

Accrued Warranty

We provide reserves for the estimated cost of product warranties at the time revenue is recognized based on historical experience of known product failure rates and expected material and labor costs to provide warranty services. We generally provide a one-year warranty on our products. Additionally, from time to time, specific warranty accruals may be made if unforeseen technical problems arise. Alternatively, if estimates are determined to be greater than the actual amounts necessary, we may reverse a portion of such provisions in future periods.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

Our accounts receivable are derived from revenue earned from customers located in the United States, Canada, Europe, China, Japan and other countries. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customer's financial condition and currently require no collateral from our customers. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses in anticipation of the inability or unwillingness of customers to make required payments. When we become aware that a specific customer is unable to meet its financial obligations, such as the result of bankruptcy or deterioration in the customer's operating results or financial position, we record a specific allowance equal to the amount due to reflect the level of credit risk in the customer's outstanding receivable balance. We are not able to predict changes in the financial condition of customers, nor are we able to predict whether a customer experiencing financial difficulties will ultimately pay us the amounts owed. If the condition or circumstances of our customers deteriorates, estimates of the recoverability of trade receivables could be materially affected and we may be required to record additional allowances, which would negatively affect our operating results in that period. Alternatively, if our estimates are determined to be greater than the actual amounts necessary, we may reverse a portion of such allowance in future periods based on actual collection experience, which would positively increase our operating results in future periods.

Excess and Obsolete Inventory

We regularly assess the valuation of inventories and write down those inventories which are obsolete or in excess of forecasted usage to their estimated realizable value. Estimates of realizable value are based upon our analysis and assumptions including, but not limited to, forecasted sales levels by product, expected product lifecycle, product development plans and future demand requirements. If market conditions are less favorable than our forecast or actual demand from customers is lower than our estimates, we may be required to record additional inventory write-downs. At the point of write down, a new, lower-cost basis for that inventory is established, and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis. If there were to be a sudden and significant decrease in demand for our products, or if there were a higher incidence of inventory obsolescence because of rapidly changing technology and customer requirements, we could be required to increase inventory write-downs, and our gross margin could be adversely affected. If demand is higher than expected, we may sell inventories that had previously been written down as was the case in the years ended June 30, 2011, 2010 and 2009. In such instances, our gross margins were positively impacted by the utilization of previously reserved inventory of $5.4 million, $5.8 million and $4.0 million in fiscal 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
 
 
Impairment of Investments

We determine the appropriate classification of our investments in marketable securities at the time of purchase and reevaluate such designation as of each balance sheet date. Our marketable securities may be classified as either held-to-maturity or available-for-sale. Held-to-maturity securities represent those securities that we have both the intent and ability to hold to maturity and are carried at amortized cost. Available-for-sale securities represent those securities that do not meet the classification of held-to-maturity or trading securities and are carried at fair value. Should a decline in the fair value of an individual security or securities be judged to be other than temporary, the cost basis of the security would be written down to fair value and the amount of the write-down would be accounted for as a realized loss. Factors considered in determining whether a loss is temporary include the magnitude of the decline in market value, the length of time the fair value has been below the cost basis of the security, our ability and intent to hold the security for a reasonable period of time sufficient for a forecasted recovery of fair value up to (or beyond) the cost of the security, and whether a credit loss exists.

Impairment of Long-Lived Asset

We evaluate the recoverability of the carrying value of property, plant and equipment and identifiable intangible assets, whenever certain events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. These events or circumstances include, but are not limited to, a prolonged industry downturn, a significant decline in our market value, or significant reductions in projected future cash flows. In assessing the recoverability of long-lived assets, we generally compare the carrying value to the undiscounted future cash flows the assets are expected to generate. If the total of the undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the assets, we would write down such assets based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of the assets. Fair value is generally determined by calculating the discounted future cash flows using a discount rate based upon our weighted average cost of capital, and specific appraisal in certain instances. Significant judgments and assumptions are required in the forecast of future operating results used in the preparation of the estimated future cash flows, including long-term forecasts of the amounts and timing of overall market growth and our percentage of that market, groupings of assets, discount rate and terminal growth rates. Changes in these estimates could have a material adverse effect on the assessment of long-lived assets, thereby requiring us to write down the assets. There was no impairment charge related to long-lived assets recorded in fiscal 2011, 2010 or 2009.

Impairment of Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

Goodwill represents the excess of the consideration paid for a business acquisition over the fair value of net tangible and intangible assets acquired. Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives should not be amortized but rather be tested for impairment at least annually or sooner whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that they may be impaired. These events or circumstances could include a significant change in the business climate, legal factors, operating performance indicators, competition, or sale or disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit. The impairment test is a two-step process. In the event that we determine that the value of goodwill has become impaired, we will record an impairment loss during the fiscal quarter in which the determination is made.

Application of the goodwill impairment test requires us to make estimates and assumptions. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value and goodwill impairment. In fiscal 2009, we recorded an impairment charge of $10.8 million related to goodwill acquired as part of Oplink'sacquisition of Optical Communication Products, Inc. ("OCP") in fiscal 2008 and 2007 and F3 and Fibercom Optics Communication Corp ("Fibercom") in fiscal 2006. We did not record any goodwill impairment charge in fiscal 2011 or 2010.
 
Fair Value Accounting

Fair value is defined as the price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. When determining the fair value measurements for assets and liabilities, which are required to be recorded at fair value, we consider the principal or most advantageous market in which we would transact and the market-based risk measurements or assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, such as inherent risk, transfer restrictions and credit risk.
 
 
The fair value of our Level 1 financial assets is based on quoted prices in active markets for identical underlying securities and generally include money market funds. Determining fair value for Level 1 instruments generally does not require significant management judgment.

The fair value of our Level 2 financial assets is based on inputs observable for the underlying securities other than quoted prices included within Level 1 and generally include United States Treasury securities, United States government agency debt securities, certificates of deposit, commercial paper, and corporate bonds. These Level 2 instruments require more management judgment and subjectivity compared to Level 1 instruments which include determining which instruments are most similar to the instrument being priced, determining whether the market is active and determining which model-derived valuations are to be used when calculating fair value. We do not hold any financial assets or liabilities measured at fair value using Level 3 inputs, which requires significant management judgment.

Business Combinations

In fiscal 2010, we adopted ASC Topic 805, "Business Combination" ("ASC 805"), which revised the accounting guidance that we used to account for our acquisitions prior to fiscal 2010. In accordance with ASC 805, we recognize separately from goodwill, the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed, and any noncontrolling interests in the acquiree generally at their fair values as defined by ASC Topic 820, "Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures" ("ASC 820"). Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred, which is generally measured at fair value, and the net of the acquisition date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. Acquisition-related transaction costs and costs associated with restructuring activities initiated by us are accounted for as expenses in the periods in which the costs are incurred. We record the values of assets and liabilities based on independent valuations and internal estimate. The determination of fair value requires our management to make significant estimates and assumptions, and accordingly, our financial position or results of operations may be affected by changes in these estimates and assumptions.

Income Taxes

We account for income taxes under the liability method, which recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their financial statement reported amounts, and for net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. We record a valuation allowance against deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that such assets will not be realized.

As a multinational corporation, we are subject to taxation in the United States and in foreign jurisdictions. The taxation of our business is subject to the application of multiple and sometimes conflicting tax laws and regulations as well as multinational tax conventions. Our effective tax rate is highly dependent upon the geographic distribution of our worldwide earnings or losses, the tax regulations and tax holidays in each geographic region, and the availability of tax credits and carryforwards. The application of tax laws and regulations is subject to legal and factual interpretation, judgment and uncertainty. Tax laws themselves are subject to change as a result of changes in fiscal policy, changes in legislation, and the evolution of regulations and court rulings. Consequently, taxing authorities may impose tax assessments or judgments against us that could materially impact our tax liability and/or our effective income tax rate.
 
We are subject to income tax audits by the respective tax authorities in all of the jurisdictions in which we operate. The determination of tax liabilities in each of these jurisdictions requires the interpretation and application of complex and sometimes uncertain tax laws and regulations. We recognize liabilities for uncertain tax positions based on the provisions of ASC Topic 740, "Income Taxes" ("ASC 740"). If we ultimately determine that the payment of such a liability is not necessary, then we reverse the liability and recognize a tax benefit during the period in which the determination is made that the liability is no longer necessary. See Note 10 - "Income Taxes" in the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
 
 
Stock Compensation

We account for stock-based compensation in accordance with the provision of ASC 718. We utilize the Black-Scholes option valuation model to estimate the grant-date fair value of employee stock options, which requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including expected volatility and expected life. Historical volatility was used in estimating the fair value of our stock compensation awards, while the expected life for our options was estimated based on historical trends. Further, we estimate forfeitures for stock compensation awards that are not expected to vest. Changes in these inputs and assumptions can materially affect the measure of estimated fair value of our stock compensation. We expense the estimated fair value to earnings on a straight-line basis over the vesting period of the underlying awards, which is generally four years for our stock compensation awards and up to two years for purchase rights under our employee stock purchase plan.

The Black-Scholes option valuation model was developed for use in estimating the fair value of traded options that have no vesting restrictions and are fully transferable. As our stock options and employee stock purchase plan awards have characteristics that differ significantly from traded options, and as changes in the subjective assumptions can materially affect the estimated value, our estimate of fair value may not accurately represent the value assigned by a third party in an arms-length transaction. There currently is no market-based mechanism to verify the reliability and accuracy of the estimates derived from the Black-Scholes option valuation model or other allowable valuation models, nor is there a method to compare and adjust the estimates to actual values. While our estimate of fair value and the associated charge to earnings materially affects our results of operations, it has no impact on our cash position.

There are significant variations among allowable valuation models, and there is a possibility that we may adopt a different valuation model or refine the inputs and assumptions under our current valuation model in the future resulting in a lack of consistency in future periods. Our current or future valuation model and the inputs and assumptions we make may also lack comparability to other companies that use different models, inputs, or assumptions, and the resulting differences in comparability could be material.

Loss Contingencies
 
We are or have been subject to proceedings, lawsuits and other claims arising in the ordinary course of business. We evaluate contingent liabilities including threatened or pending litigation in accordance with GAAP. If the potential loss from any claim or legal proceedings is considered probable and the amount can be estimated, we accrue a liability for the estimated loss. Because of uncertainties related to these matters, accruals are based upon management's judgment and the best information available to management at the time. As additional information becomes available, we reassess the potential liability related to pending claims and litigation and may revise our estimates, which could materially impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
 
Results of Operations for Fiscal 2011, 2010 and 2009

Revenues
 
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
 
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
 
   
2011
   
2010
               
2010
   
2009
             
   
(In thousands, except percentages)
 
Revenues
  $ 198,803     $ 138,809     $ 59,994       43.2 %   $ 138,809     $ 143,732     $ (4,923 )     -3.4 %

We acquired Emit Technology Co., Ltd. ("Emit") in the third quarter of fiscal 2010. The acquisition of Emit contributed approximately $11.3 million and $2.6 million of revenues for fiscal 2011 and 2010, respectively. Excluding the impact of the Emit acquisition, revenues for fiscal 2011 increased $51.3 million compared to fiscal 2010. The increase was mainly driven by increased unit shipments in all our major product categories, in particular our ROADM optical switching and routing products, partially offset by a slight decline in average selling prices, which is a characteristic of the industry in which we operate. The increase in shipments was largely due to increase in demands from our customers.
 
 
Excluding the impact of the Emit acquisition which contributed approximately $2.6 million of revenues in fiscal 2010, revenues for fiscal 2010 decreased $7.5 million compared to fiscal 2009. The decrease was mainly due to decreased unit shipments of our line transmission application product, ROADM optical switching and routing product and monitoring and conditioning product, partially offset by increased revenues of our multiplexer product and optical amplification product. A decline in average selling prices also contributed to the decrease in revenues in fiscal 2010 compared to fiscal 2009.

Historically, a relatively small number of customers have accounted for a significant portion of our revenue. Our top five customers, although not the same five customers for each period, together accounted for 52%, 53% and 60% of our revenues in the fiscal years ended June 30, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. We expect that the majority of our revenues will continue to depend on sales to a relatively small number of customers.

Gross Profit
 
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
 
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
 
   
2011
   
2010
               
2010
   
2009
             
   
(In thousands, except percentages)
 
Gross profit
  $ 69,670     $ 44,171     $ 25,499       57.7 %   $ 44,171     $ 32,662     $ 11,509       35.2 %
Gross profit margin
    35.0 %     31.8 %                     31.8 %     22.7 %                
 
The increase in gross profit for fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 was mainly driven by higher revenues, partially offset by higher material costs as a result of increased revenues, higher labor costs and manufacturing overhead expenses due to higher employee compensation expenses in China, and lower utilization of previously reserved inventory. During fiscal 2011, we increased our wage rates at our manufacturing facilities in Zhuhai by more than 20% due to government-mandated increases in minimum wage levels. Our gross profit for fiscal 2011 was positively impacted by sales of inventory that had been previously reserved of $5.4 million and was positively impacted by the sales of previously reserved inventory of $5.8 million in fiscal 2010.
 
Our gross profit margin increased in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 mainly due to lower manufacturing overhead expenses and material costs as a percentage of revenues, partially offset by higher labor costs as a percentage of revenues and lower utilization of previously reserved inventory.

The increase in gross profit for fiscal 2010 compared to fiscal 2009 primarily reflected lower material costs, lower provision for excess and obsolete inventory, higher utilization of previously reserved inventory, and lower manufacturing overhead expenses, partially offset by lower revenues and higher direct labor costs. The higher labor costs were primarily due to increases in employee headcount and higher employee compensation expenses in China. We increased our wage rates at our manufacturing facilities in Zhuhai by more than 30% due to government-mandated increases in minimum wage levels in fiscal 2010. In fiscal 2009, we recorded a provision for excess and obsolete inventory of $4.1 million which was primarily related to our line transmission application product. Our gross profit for fiscal 2010 was positively impacted by sales of inventory that had been previously reserved of $5.8 million, compared to sales of previously-reserved inventory of $4.0 million in fiscal 2009.
 
Our gross profit margin increased in fiscal 2010 compared to fiscal 2009 primarily due to lower material costs as a percentage of revenues, lower provision for excess and obsolete inventory, and higher utilization of previously reserved inventory, partially offset by higher labor costs and manufacturing overhead expenses as a percentage of revenues.
 
 
Research and Development
 
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
 
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
 
   
2011
   
2010
               
2010
   
2009
             
   
(In thousands, except percentages)
 
 Research and development
  $ 16,874     $ 10,097     $ 6,777       67.1 %   $ 10,097     $ 10,819     $ (722 )     -6.7 %
Stock-based compensation
    1,361       1,061       300       28.3 %     1,061       980       81       8.3 %
Total expenses
  $ 18,235     $ 11,158     $ 7,077       63.4 %   $ 11,158     $ 11,799     $ (641 )     -5.4 %
 
Research and development expenses increased $7.1 million for fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010.  The increase mainly reflected higher salary and compensation expenses as a result of increases in headcount, salary and implementation of cash incentive plans and higher costs of materials associated with increase level of product development projects.

Research and development expenses decreased $641,000 for fiscal 2010 compared to fiscal 2009. The decrease was mainly driven by cost savings as a result of continued integration of OCP, more research and development programs being transitioned from higher cost facilities in the United States to lower cost facilities in China, and other cost reduction measures.

We believe that developing customer solutions at the prototype stage is critical to our strategic product development objectives. We further believe that, in order to meet the changing requirements of our customers, we will need to fund investments in several concurrent product development projects and to assign more employees to these projects. In addition, we intend to devote more resources to development of new products to serve our current market as well as products for expansion into new markets. As a result, we expect our research and development expenses in fiscal 2012 will increase compared to fiscal 2011. The research and development process can be expensive and prolonged and entails considerable uncertainty. As such, we can make no assurances that any of the products we plan to develop will be commercially successful, and there is a substantial risk that our research and development expenditures will fail to generate any meaningful return of the investment of such resources.

Sales and Marketing
 
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
 
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
 
   
2011
   
2010
               
2010
   
2009
             
   
(In thousands, except percentages)
 
Sales and marketing
  $ 10,024     $ 8,238     $ 1,786       21.7 %   $ 8,238     $ 8,076     $ 162       2.0 %
Stock-based compensation
    1,820       1,368       452       33.0 %     1,368       1,105       263       23.8 %
Total expenses
  $ 11,844     $ 9,606     $ 2,238       23.3 %   $ 9,606     $ 9,181     $ 425       4.6 %
 
Sales and marketing expenses increased $2.2 million for fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010. The increase was mainly due to higher salary and compensation expenses driven by an increase in headcount and higher sales commission expenses as a result of increased revenues. Our acquisition of Emit in the third quarter of fiscal 2010 further contributed to the increase in sales and marketing expenses for fiscal 2011 compared to 2010.

Sales and marketing expenses increased slightly for fiscal 2010 compared to fiscal 2009. The acquisition of Emit accounted for approximately $106,000 of the total increase in sales and marketing expenses. Excluding the impact of the Emit acquisition, the increase in sales and marketing expenses was mainly due to higher stock compensation expense.
 
 
General and Administrative
 
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
 
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
 
   
2011
   
2010
               
2010
   
2009
             
   
(In thousands, except percentages)
 
General and administrative
  $ 8,532     $ 7,623     $ 909       11.9 %   $ 7,623     $ 9,639     $ (2,016 )     -20.9 %
Stock-based compensation
    1,954       3,218       (1,264 )     -39.3 %     3,218       2,848       370       13.0 %
Total expenses
  $ 10,486     $ 10,841     $ (355 )     -3.3 %   $ 10,841     $ 12,487     $ (1,646 )     -13.2 %
 
Excluding the impact of stock compensation expense, general and administrative expenses increased $909,000 for fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010. The increase was primarily due to higher litigation costs and higher salary and compensation expenses, partially offset by lower facility expenses. The decrease in stock compensation expense recorded in general and administrative expenses was mainly due to canceled or fully vested equity awards, partially offset by additional grants to new and existing employees and our board members in fiscal 2011.

The decrease in general and administrative expenses for fiscal 2010 compared to fiscal 2009 mainly reflected reduced professional fees, the cost savings associated with the further integration of OCP and other cost reduction measures and lower provision for doubtful accounts, partially offset by higher stock compensation expense.

Stock Compensation Expense
 
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
 
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
 
   
2011
   
2010
               
2010
   
2009
             
   
(In thousands, except percentages)
 
Stock compensation expense
  $ 5,587     $ 6,020     $ (433     -7.2 %   $ 6,020     $ 5,392     $ 628       11.6 %
 
Stock compensation expense recorded in cost of revenues, research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative is the amortization of the fair value of share-based payments granted to employees and members of our board of directors, primarily in the form of stock options, RSAs, RSUs and purchases under the employee stock purchase plan (see Note 2 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements). The fair value of stock options and purchase rights granted to purchase our common stock under the employee stock purchase plan is estimated using a Black-Scholes valuation model and is recognized as expense over the employee requisite service period. The compensation expense incurred for RSAs and RSUs is based on the closing market price of Oplink'scommon stock on the date of grant and is amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period.

Stock compensation expense decreased $433,000 in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010, mainly due to canceled or fully vested equity awards, partially offset by additional grants of stock options, RSAs and RSUs to new and existing employees and our board members in fiscal 2011.
 
Stock compensation expense increased $628,000 in fiscal 2010 compared to fiscal 2009. The increase was primarily due to additional grants to new and existing employees and our board members during fiscal 2010.

Impairment Charge and Other Costs. There was no impairment charge in fiscal 2011 or 2010. Oplink had goodwill of $10.8 million at June 30, 2008, which was acquired as part of Oplink's acquisition of OCP in fiscal 2008 and 2007 and F3 and Fibercom in fiscal 2006. Due to the financial liquidity crisis, the economic recession, changes to our operating results and forecasts, and a significant reduction in our market capitalization, in the second quarter of fiscal 2009, and in connection with our annual goodwill impairment testing, we performed an impairment analysis. As a result, we concluded that the carrying value of the goodwill exceeded its implied fair value and recorded an impairment charge of $10.8 million in fiscal 2009.
 
 
Amortization of Intangible Assets. Amortization expenses related to acquired intangible assets was approximately $4.0 million for fiscal 2011 and $3.8 million for each of the years ended June 30, 2010 and 2009. $2.2 million was included in the cost of revenues for each of the years ended June 30, 2011, 2010 and 2009.

(Gain) Loss on Sale or Disposal of Assets. The gain on sales or disposal of assets recorded on our consolidated statement of operations for fiscal 2011 was $148,000. In fiscal 2010, we recognized a gain of $200,000 on sales of certain intellectual property and recorded a gain of approximately $632,000 on the dissolution of our subsidiaries. The gain on the dissolution of our subsidiaries primarily reflected the resolution of liabilities related to employee pension and compensation.

We recorded a loss of $808,000 on disposal of fixed assets in fiscal 2009.  In addition, in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009, we recognized a loss of $725,000 on a promissory note. In January 2008, OCP completed its sale to DS Ventures, LLC, of its property located at Woodland Hills, California. The transaction resulted in a gain on sale of assets of $1.6 million. The consideration for a portion of the gain was in the form of a promissory note for $1,250,000 payable in July 2010. $725,000 of the note was secured by a personal guarantee and was recognized as a gain in the third quarter of fiscal 2008, while the remaining balance of the note was deferred. In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009, we determined that the collectibility of the promissory note was unlikely. As a result, we recognized a loss of $725,000 in our consolidated statement of operations during fiscal 2009.

Interest and Other Income, Net
 
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
   
Years Ended
         
Percentage
 
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
   
June 30,
   
Change
   
Change
 
   
2011
   
2010
               
2010
   
2009
             
   
(In thousands, except percentages)
 
Interest and other income, net
  $ 544     $ 867     $ (323 )     -37.3 %   $ 867     $ 3,066     $ (2,199 )     -71.7 %
 
The decrease in interest and other income for fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 was mainly due to lower yields on our investments.

Interest and other income for fiscal 2010 included other expenses of approximately $300,000. Interest and other income for fiscal 2009 included a release of escrow account of approximately $466,000 which was primarily related to a previous acquisition by OCP. Excluding the impact of these two items, interest and other income for fiscal 2010 decreased approximately $1.4 million compared to fiscal 2009. The decrease was mainly due to lower yields on our investments.

Benefit (Provision) for Income Taxes. As a multinational corporation, we are subject to taxation in the United States and in foreign jurisdictions. The taxation of our business is subject to the application of multiple and sometimes conflicting tax laws and regulations as well as multinational tax conventions. Our effective tax rate is highly dependent upon the geographic distribution of our worldwide earnings or losses, the tax regulations and tax holidays in each geographic region, and the availability of tax credits and carryforwards. The application of tax laws and regulations is subject to legal and factual interpretation, judgment and uncertainty. Tax laws themselves are subject to change as a result of changes in fiscal policy, changes in legislation, and the evolution of regulations and court rulings. Consequently, taxing authorities may impose tax assessments or judgments against us that could materially impact our tax liability and/or our effective income tax rate.
 
We account for deferred taxes under ASC Topic 740, "Income Taxes" ("ASC 740") which involves weighing positive and negative evidence concerning the realizability of our deferred tax assets in each jurisdiction. After considering evidence such as current and cumulative financial reporting incomes, the sources of future taxable income and tax planning strategies, in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2011 management concluded that a valuation allowance is no longer required for the US Federal deferred tax assets and a portion of our state deferred tax assets. Therefore, we released the valuation allowance against the U.S. federal deferred tax assets and a portion of the state deferred tax assets at the end of the fiscal year 2011. Based on historical profits and expectations of future results, we determined that there was sufficient positive evidence to support the release of the valuation allowance against our U.S. federal deferred tax assets and a portion of the state deferred tax assets in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2011.
 
 
The release of the valuation allowance for the year ended June 30, 2011 resulted in a tax benefit of $22.6 million.  The remaining valuation allowance as of June 30, 2011 relates mainly to state deferred tax assets and certain foreign deferred tax assets.

We recorded tax benefit of $20.5 million for fiscal 2011 as a result of valuation allowance release of $22.6 million. Excluding the impact of vthe aluation allowance release, our tax provision for fiscal 2011 would have been approximately $2.1 million, compared to $1.6 million for fiscal 2010. The increase was mainly due to higher taxable income from all jurisdictions. We recorded a tax provision of $2.1 million in fiscal 2009. The decrease in provision for income taxes for fiscal 2010 compared to fiscal 2009 was primarily due to decreased income from our foreign jurisdictions, partially offset by higher income in US and a higher effective tax rate.

At June 30, 2011, we have approximately $45.0 million of federal and $63.3 million of state net operating loss carryforwards. As of June 30, 2011, the Company conducted an Internal Revenue Code Section 382 ("Sec. 382") analysis with respect to its net operating loss and credit carryforwards and determined that there was no limitation. It is possible that subsequent ownership changes may limit the utilization of these tax attributes.
 
Quarterly Results of Operations

The following table presents our operating results for the last eight quarters. The information for each of these quarters is unaudited but has been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements. In the opinion of management, all necessary adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, have been included to present fairly the unaudited quarterly results when read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes. These operating results are not necessarily indicative of the results of any future period.
 
   
Three Months Ended
 
   
June 30, 2011
   
Mar. 31, 2011
   
Dec. 31, 2010
   
Sept. 30, 2010
 
   
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
   
(Unaudited)
 
Revenues
  $ 43,667     $ 53,471     $ 52,025     $ 49,640  
Cost of revenues
    28,510       34,188       32,916       33,519  
Gross profit
    15,157       19,283       19,109       16,121  
                                 
Operating expenses:
                               
Research and development
    5,530       4,665       4,307       3,733  
Sales and marketing
    2,926       3,107       2,924       2,887  
General and administrative
    3,119       2,456       2,265       2,646  
Amortization of intangible assets
    406       451       451       451  
Gain on sale or disposal of assets
    (41 )     (24 )     (83 )     -  
Total operating expenses
    11,940       10,655       9,864       9,717  
                                 
Income from operations
    3,217       8,628       9,245       6,404  
Interest and other income, net
    253       180       54       57  
Income before benefit (provision) for income taxes
    3,470       8,808       9,299       6,461  
Benefit (provision) for income taxes
    22,790       (620 )     (811 )     (881 )
Net income
  $ 26,260     $ 8,188     $ 8,488     $ 5,580  
                                 
Net income per share:
                               
Basic
  $ 1.28     $ 0.40     $ 0.43     $ 0.29  
Diluted
  $ 1.23     $ 0.38     $ 0.41     $ 0.28  
                                 
Shares used in per share calculation:
                               
Basic
    20,535       20,308       19,556       19,335  
  Diluted
    21,346       21,595       20,602       20,252
 

   
Three Months Ended
 
   
June 30, 2010
   
Mar. 31, 2010
   
Dec. 31,  2010
   
Sept. 30, 2009
 
   
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
   
(Unaudited)
 
Revenues
  $ 38,878     $ 33,623     $ 32,743     $ 33,565  
Cost of revenues
    26,531       22,643       21,731       23,733  
Gross profit
    12,347       10,980       11,012       9,832  
                                 
Operating expenses:
                               
Research and development
    3,336       2,815       2,513       2,494  
Sales and marketing
    2,502       2,406       2,284       2,414  
General and administrative
    2,871       2,575       2,724       2,671  
Amortization of intangible assets
    434       410       403       404  
Gain on sale or disposal of assets
    (600 )     (4 )     (214 )     (124 )
Total operating expenses
    8,543       8,202       7,710       7,859  
                                 
Income from operations
    3,804       2,778       3,302       1,973  
Interest and other income, net
    108       292       193       274  
Income before provision for income taxes
    3,912       3,070       3,495       2,247  
Provision for income taxes
    (333 )     (516 )     (358 )     (438 )
Net income
  $ 3,579     $ 2,554     $ 3,137     $ 1,809  
                                 
Net income per share:
                               
  Basic
  $ 0.17     $ 0.12     $ 0.15     $ 0.09  
    Diluted
  $ 0.17     $ 0.12     $ 0.14     $ 0.09  
                                 
Shares used in per share calculation:
                               
Basic
    20,534       20,907       20,797       20,566  
Diluted
    21,387       21,792       21,694       21,173
 
Our revenues and operating results are likely to vary significantly from quarter to quarter and, as a result, we believe that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our operating results will not be meaningful. You should not rely on our results for any one quarter as an indication of our future performance. Many of the factors that are likely to cause our quarterly results to vary are discussed in this report in Item 1A - Risk Factors.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources

Since our inception, we have financed our operations primarily through cash generated from operating activities and through issuances of equity, which totaled approximately $319.4 million in aggregate net proceeds, partially offset by $64.4 million in common stock repurchases, net of proceeds from exercise of stock options, employee stock purchase plan awards and warrants through June 30, 2011. As of June 30, 2011, we had cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments of $186.7 million and working capital of $248.6 million.
       
We believe that our current cash, cash equivalent and short-term and long-term investment balances will be sufficient to meet our operating and capital requirements for at least the next 12 months. We may use cash and cash equivalents from time to time to fund our acquisition of businesses and technologies. We may be required to raise funds through public or private financings, strategic relationships or other arrangements. We cannot assure you that such funding, if needed, will be available on terms attractive to us, or at all. Furthermore, any additional equity financing may be dilutive to stockholders, and debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants. Our failure to raise capital when needed could harm our ability to pursue our business strategy and achieve and maintain profitability.
 
 
Fiscal 2011

Our operating activities provided cash of $35.7 million in fiscal 2011 as a result of a net income of $48.5 million for the period increased by $9.3 million in non-cash charges of depreciation and amortization, $5.6 million in non-cash stock-based compensation expenses, and other non-cash items of $571,000, partially offset by a change in deferred income taxes of $22.9 million as a result of valuation allowance release, and a decrease in cash of $5.4 million as a result of a net change in assets and liabilities.

The change in net assets and liabilities was primarily the result of an increase in accounts receivable of $4.4 million, an increase in inventory of $2.3 million and a decrease in accounts payable of $2.5 million, partially offset by an increase in accrued liabilities and other liabilities of $2.0 million and a decrease in prepaid expenses, other current assets and other assets of $1.8 million.

Accounts receivable used $4.4 million of cash primarily due to higher shipments in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 and improvemnet in our collection. Days sales outstanding ("DSO") at the end of fiscal years ended June 30, 2011 and 2010 were 59 days and 77 days, respectively. We typically bill customers on an open account basis with net thirty to ninety day payment terms. We would generally expect the level of accounts receivable at the end of any quarter to reflect the level of sales in that quarter and to change from one period to another in a direct relationship to the change in the level of sales. Our level of accounts receivable would increase if shipments are made closer to the end of the quarter, if customers delayed their payments, or if we offered extended payment terms to our customers.

Inventory used $2.3 million of cash in fiscal 2011 primarily due to an increased level of inventory purchases as a result of higher shipments. In order to maintain an adequate supply of product for our customers, we must carry a certain level of inventory. Our inventory level may vary based primarily upon orders received from our customers, our forecast of demand for these products and lead-time for materials. These considerations are balanced against risk of obsolescence or potentially excess inventory levels. We generally expect the level of inventory to vary from one period to another as a result of changes in the level of sales.

Prepaid expenses, other current assets and other assets provided $1.8 million mainly reflecting a decrease in the balance of bankers' acceptance notes.

Accounts payable used $2.5 million of cash in fiscal 2011, largely due to the change in the level of inventory purchase and as a result of the timing of payments to our vendors.

Accrued liabilities and other liabilities generated $2.0 million of cash in fiscal 2011 primarily due to increases in income tax payable.

Our investing activities used cash of $26.0 million in fiscal 2011 as a result of purchases of available-for-sale investments of $185.7 million and purchases of equipment of $11.9 million, partially offset by sales and maturities of available-for-sale and held-to-maturity investments of $171.3 million and equipment sales of approximately $325,000. Approximately $4.6 million of our property and equipment purchases was prepayments for our facilities in China. We currently expect capital expenditures to be in the range of $10.0 million and $12.0 million in fiscal 2012.

Our financing activities provided $1.8 million of cash in fiscal 2011 due to $19.0 million in proceeds from issuance of common stock in connection with the exercise of stock options and purchase of our common stock through our employee stock purchase plan, partially offset by cash usage of $17.2 million for the repurchases of our common stock.
 
Fiscal 2010

Our operating activities provided cash of $16.9 million in fiscal 2010 as a result of a net income of $11.1 million for the period adjusted by $10.3 million in non-cash charges of depreciation and amortization, $6.0 million in non-cash stock-based compensation expenses and a change in deferred income taxes of $743,000, partially offset by a decrease in cash of $10.8 million as a result of a net change in assets and liabilities and other non-cash items of $433,000.
 
 
The change in net assets and liabilities was primarily the result of an increase in inventory of $10.2 million, an increase in prepaid expenses and other current assets of $6.0 million and a decrease in accrued liabilities and other liabilities of $183,000, partially offset by a decrease in accounts receivables of $415,000, an increase in accounts payable and other assets of $4.8 million and $395,000, respectively.

Accounts receivable provided $415,000 of cash mainly driven by improved collections of receivables in fiscal 2010, partially offset by slightly higher shipments in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2010. DSO at the end of fiscal years ended June 30, 2010 and 2009 were 77 days and 80 days, respectively.

Inventory used $10.2 million of cash in fiscal 2010 primarily due to an increased level of inventory purchases as a result of anticipated higher shipments.

Prepaid expenses and other current assets used $5.1 million of cash in fiscal 2010 primarily reflecting increased balance of bankers' acceptance notes.

Accounts payable provided cash of $4.8 million in fiscal 2010 primarily due to an increased level of inventory purchases to support increased revenue levels and as a result of the timing of payments to our vendors.

Our investing activities used cash of $10.6 million in fiscal 2010 as a result of purchases of available-for-sale and held-to-maturity investments of $231.0 million, net cash used in the acquisitions of Emit and Oridus, Inc. ("Oridus") of $5.8 million, and purchases of equipment of $5.5 million, partially offset by sales and maturities of available-for-sale and held-to-maturity investments of $231.1 million and equipment sales of approximately $566,000. Approximately $749,000 of our property and equipment purchases was for the construction of a second dormitory in Zhuhai, China.
 
Our financing activities used $15.3 million of cash in fiscal 2010 due to cash usage of $20.8 million for the repurchases of our common stock, partially offset by $5.5 million in proceeds from issuance of common stock in connection with the exercise of stock options and purchase of our common stock through our employee stock purchase plan.

Fiscal 2009

Our operating activities provided cash of $32.1 million in fiscal 2009 as a result of a net loss of $13.8 million for the period adjusted by non-cash charges of $10.9 million in depreciation and amortization charges, $5.4 million in stock-based compensation expenses, $4.1 million in provision for excess and obsolete inventory, $10.8 million in impairment charges of goodwill primarily related to our OCP acquisition, other items of $996,000, and an increase in cash of $13.7 million as a result of a net change in assets and liabilities.

The increase in net assets and liabilities was primarily the result of a decrease in inventory, accounts receivable, and prepaid expenses and other assets of $14.5 million, $4.8 million, and $3.0 million, respectively, partially offset by a decrease of $8.5 million in accounts payables.

Accounts receivable generated $4.8 million of cash primarily driven by decreased shipments in fiscal 2009 compared to fiscal 2008. DSO at the end of fiscal years ended June 30, 2009 and 2008 were 80 days and 71 days, respectively.

Inventories provided $14.5 million of cash in fiscal 2009 primarily due to a change in the level of inventory purchases as a result of lower volume of sales.
 
Prepaid expenses and other assets generated $3.0 million of cash in fiscal 2009 largely due to a decreased balance of bankers' acceptance notes.

Accounts payable decreased $8.5 million in fiscal 2009 primarily as a result of lower levels of inventory purchases driven by decreased revenues.
 
 
Our investing activities used cash of $52.1 million in fiscal 2009 due to purchase of investments of $154.1 million and equipment purchases of $4.1 million, partially offset by sales or maturities of investments of $105.6 million and equipment sales of $608,000. $1.5 million of our property and equipment purchases was for the construction of a second dormitory in Zhuhai, China.

Our financing activities used cash of $1.8 million in fiscal 2009 due to cash usage of $3.5 million for the repurchases of our common stocks, partially offset by $1.7 million in proceeds from the issuance of our common stock in connection with the exercise of stock options and the employee stock purchase plan.
 
Off-Balance-Sheet Arrangements

As of June 30, 2011, we did not have any off-balance-sheet financing arrangements and have never established any special purpose entities.

Contractual Obligations

Our contractual obligations as of June 30, 2011 have been summarized below (in thousands):
 
         
Contractual Obligations Due by Period
 
Contractual Obligations
 
Total
   
Less than 1 year
   
1-3 years
   
4-5 years
   
After 5 years
 
Purchase obligations
  $ 17,576     $ 16,670     $ 906     $ -     $ -  
Operating leases
    221       201       20       -       -  
Capital expenditure
    1,196       1,173       23        -        -  
Total
  $ 18,993     $ 18,044     $ 949     $ -     $ -  
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In December 2010, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2010-29, "Disclosure of Supplementary Pro Forma Information for Business Combinations" ("ASU 2010-29"). The new guidance requires that pro forma financial information should be prepared as if the business combination occurred as of the beginning of the prior annual period. The new guidance also expands the required supplemental pro forma disclosures to include a description of the nature and amount of material, nonrecurring pro forma adjustments directly attributable to the business combination included in the reported pro forma revenue and earnings. The guidance is effective for us in the first quarter of fiscal 2012 and will be applied prospectively to business combinations for which the acquisition date is after the effective date. We do not believe that the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on our consolidated financial positions, results of operations or cash flows.

In January 2010, the FASB issued additional disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. The guidance requires an entity to disclose significant transfers of assets and liabilities between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value measurement hierarchy, including the reasons and the timing of the transfers. The additional requirements became effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2009. The adoption of this new guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows as this guidance relates only to additional disclosures. In addition, the guidance requires a roll forward of activities on purchases, sales, issuance, and settlements of the assets and liabilities measured using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3 fair value measurements). The changes are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2010, and for interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not believe that the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows as this guidance relates only to additional disclosures.
 
In May 2011, the FASB issued Account Standards Update No. 2011-04, "Fair Value Measurement: Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in U.S. GAAP and IFRSs" ("ASU 2011-04") which is intended to create consistency between U.S. GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS"). The amendments include clarification on the application of certain existing fair value measurement guidance and expanded disclosures for fair value measurements that are estimated using significant unobservable (Level 3) inputs. This standard will be effective for our fiscal quarter beginning January 1, 2012. We are currently evaluating the requirements of this standard, but would not expect it to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.